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  • Authentication of honeys from Caramulo region (Portugal): Pollen spectrum, physicochemical characteristics, mineral content, and phenolic profile
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Luís R. Silva; Ana C. Gonçalves; Ana R. Nunes; Gilberto Alves

    This study aimed to analyze the botanical origin, quality parameters, phenolic compounds, and minerals of 20 honey samples from Caramulo region (Portugal). Six samples were monofloral from Eucalyptus sp., being this one the predominant pollen in the analyzed samples, followed by Castanea sativa. The average values obtained for the physicochemical parameters were as follows: 4.7 pH; 16.8% moisture; 81.4 Brix; 0.3% ash; 512.8 µS/cm electrical conductivity; 22.6 meq/kg free acidity; 12.4 meq/kg lactonic acidity; 35.1 meq/kg total acidity; 2.1 mg/kg hydroxymethylfurfural; and 16.3 °Gothe for diastase activities. A total of 18 phenolics were determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and protocatechuic acid were the major ones. Nine minerals were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry; potassium and phosphorus were the predominant mineral elements. This is the first study about honeys from Caramulo region, which revealed to have a good quality and be a rich source of essential minerals and phenolics.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • The impact of food processing on the phenolic content in products made from juneberry (Amelanchier lamarckii) fruits
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Maja Mikulic‐Petkovsek; Darinka Koron; Denis Rusjan

    Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds were analyzed in the fruits of juneberry (Amelanchier lamarckii). Different food products were made from fresh juneberry fruits: jam, liqueur, juice, and tea. A detailed analysis of the phenolic component was performed using high‐pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and the content of phenolics in different products was compared with the control treatment (fresh fruits extracted with 70% methanol: 27% water: 3% formic acid; v/v/v). Four sugars and six organic acids were determined in the fruits. The main sugars were glucose (61 g/kg fresh weight [FW]) and fructose (64 g/kg FW) and the acids: malic (5.85 g/kg FW) and citric acid (2.6 g/kg) were abundant. Hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonol glycosides were the major phenolic groups in juneberry fruits. Fruit processing significantly affected the content of phenolic compounds in the different fruit products. Liqueur had 17% higher phenolic acid contents than the control treatment (fresh fruits extracted with a solution of 70% MeOH/27% H2O/3% formic acid) and jam had 14% higher content than the control, calculated on the dry mass of fruit. Juneberry juice had the highest content of total analyzed phenolics (298 mg/100 mL), followed by liqueur (108 mg/100 mL) and tea (8 mg/100 mL). Fruits of juneberry are rich in bioactive compounds and a useful source for the food industry for making various health snacks, jellies, marmalades, alcoholic drinks, juices, and so on.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Concentrations of heavy metals in muscle and edible offal of pork in Nanjing city of China and related health risks
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Fei Pei; Yueying Wang; Yong Fang; Peng Li; Wenjian Yang; Ning Ma; Gaoxing Ma; Qiuhui Hu

    The concentrations of heavy metals, such as chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), in different muscles and edible offal of consumed pork from the city of Nanjing and related health risks were evaluated. The results showed that the detected Hg concentrations from 6 of 80 samples exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (GB 2762‐2017). Moreover, most of the edible offal, especially the kidneys, contained more heavy metals than the other parts, although the concentrations among the samples were significantly different (P < 0.05). In addition, the health risk evaluation revealed that the estimated daily intake of all the samples was far below the recommended limit, and all the target hazard quotients and total target hazard quotients were less than 1, which is considered safe for human health. Nevertheless, the Hg concentrations over the acceptable limit should receive sufficient attention, considering the long‐term consumption of pork.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Untargeted metabolic fingerprinting reveals impact of growth stage and location on composition of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) leaves
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Raghunath Pariyani; Maaria Kortesniemi; Jaana Liimatainen; Jari Sinkkonen; Baoru Yang

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) is increasingly cultivated to produce raw materials for food and nutraceuticals. There is little knowledge on composition of sea buckthorn leaves (SBLs) and the key factors influencing the composition. This research aims to unravel the metabolic profile of SBLs and the effects of cultivar, location and stage of growth, and climatic conditions on the metabolic profile of SBLs. Leaves of two sea buckthorn cultivars grown in the south and north of Finland during two consecutive growth seasons were studied using untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics. The highest variance in the metabolic profile was linked to the growth stage, wherein leaves from the first 7 weeks of harvest were characterized with higher abundance of polyphenols, while relatively higher abundance of carbohydrates and sugars was observed in the later weeks. The growth location attributed for the second highest variation, wherein the north–south comparison identified fatty acids and sugars as discriminatory metabolites, and the potential association of metabolome to natural abiotic stressors was revealed. An inverse correlation between carbohydrate/sugar content as well as fatty acids of higher carbon chain length with the temperature variables was evident. The supervised chemometric models with high sensitivity and specificity classified and predicted the samples based on growth stage and location, and cultivar. Nontargeted NMR‐metabolomics revealed the metabolic profile of SBLs and their variation associated with various biotic and abiotic factors. Cultivar and growth stage are key factors to consider when harvesting SBLs for use in food and nutraceuticals.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Nutritional and safety evaluation of locust (Caelifera) powder as a novel food material
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Masaru Ochiai; Mako Inada; Seiya Horiguchi

    Insects are considered edible food resources with sufficient nutrients, but their nutrient composition and safety evaluation have not been fully investigated yet. In this study, we investigated the nutrient composition and the acute and sub‐chronic toxicity of locust powder in male rats. In the acute oral toxicological experiment, rats were administered locust powder at a dose of 10 or 20 g/kg/dose, followed by monitoring general signs of toxicity for 14 days. In the sub‐chronic toxicological experiments, rats were fed with a diet containing 1% and 3% locust powder for 28 and 90 days. General signs of toxicity, body weight, plasma and blood components, weight and fat accumulation in tissues, and fecal fat excretion were investigated. The locust powder was rich in proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the acute toxicological experiment, no general signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 20 g/kg. In the sub‐chronic toxicological experiments, parameters related to red blood cell were lowered by the 3% locust powder for 28 days, but not for 90 days. Liver lipid accumulation and fecal fat excretion were increased by the 3% locust powder for 90 days, but the liver lipids contents were considered to be within a nontoxic level. Cecum contents and cecum short‐chain fatty acids were lowered by the locust powder, which can be caused by its fiber and fiber‐like components. In conclusion, acute and sub‐chronic intake of locust powder had little effect on general, biochemical, and hematological signs of toxicity in rats.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • An inkjet‐printed sulfonephthalein dye indicator array for volatile amine detection
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Xiaoyu Luo; Loong‐Tak Lim

    Colorimetric indicators are versatile for applications such as intelligent food packaging, for reflecting the actual quality and/or monitoring distribution history of food products. In this study, a colorimetric indicator array composed of sulfonephthalein dyes was successfully developed by piezoelectric inkjet printing, for the detection of volatile amines—the primary spoilage gases for fish and seafood products. The printing inks were formulated in water/ethanol/1‐butanol mixture. By refilling the printer's cartridges with our formulated inks and controlling the red, green, and blue color parameters, a 7 × 9 indicator array was printed onto inkjet transparency films. The color response of the indicator array was tested with different volatile amines at various concentrations. The array indicator was capable of discriminating six different volatile amines: ammonia, trimethylamine, dimethylamine, triethylamine, piperidine, and hydrazine. The printability of the inks was investigated by characterizing their density, surface tension, and dynamic viscosity, dictating that all formulated inks were printable fluid. The microstructural morphologies of the printed dyes on transparency films were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Interactions of the dye with the volatiles were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In summary, the piezoelectric inkjet printing method presented in this study offers a convenient, efficient, and flexible means to fabricate colorimetric indicators for detecting food spoilage volatiles. These indicators are promising as sensing components in intelligent packaging systems, to reveal the freshness of fish products by correlating with quality parameters such as total volatile basic nitrogen, microbial growth, and sensory attributes. Further studies on the feasibility of using the array indicators in real food packaging systems, development of strategy to mitigate the potential migration of the indicator dyes, and designing array patterns optimal for machine/human interpretation, are important to commercialize the technology.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Biotransformation of green tea (Camellia sinensis) by wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Rui Wang; Jingcan Sun; Benjamin Lassabliere; Bin Yu; Shao Quan Liu

    Wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 71B was used in fermentation of green tea to modulate the volatiles and nonvolatiles. After fermentation, higher alcohols, esters, and acids, such as isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, octanoic, and decanoic acids were generated. Some key aroma compounds of tea including linalool, hotrienol, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2‐phenylethanol increased significantly. Among these compounds, linalool and 2‐phenylethanol increased by 1.3‐ and 10‐fold, respectively, which impart floral and fruity notes to fermented green tea. Alkaloids including caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were reduced significantly after fermentation, while the most important free amino acid in tea, theanine, was not metabolized by S. cerevisiae. Tea catechins decreased whereas gallic and caffeic acids increased significantly, resulting in the unchanged antioxidant capacity of the fermented green tea. Hence, this work highlighted the potential of using S. cerevisiae to modulate green tea aroma and nonvolatiles.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Optimal conditions for the encapsulation of Weissella cibaria JW15 using alginate and chicory root and evaluation of capsule stability in a simulated gastrointestinal system
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Mina Kim; Dong‐Geon Nam; Pureum Im; Jeong‐Sook Choe; Ae‐Jin Choi

    The delivery of active probiotic cells in capsules can reduce probiotic cell loss induced by detrimental external factors during digestion. In this study, we determined the optimal conditions for the encapsulation of Weissella cibaria JW15 (JW15) within calcium and polyethylene glycol (PEG)‐alginate with chicory root extract powder (CREP). JW15 was encapsulated as the core material (109 cells/mL, 2 mL/min), and a solution containing a mixture of 1.5% sodium alginate and 1% CREP was extruded into a receiving bath with 0.1 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.05% PEG. Capsule morphology and size were measured using optical microscopy. The optimal air pressure and frequency vibration for capsules containing alginate only (Al) were 200 mbar and 200 Hz, respectively and 100 mbar and 350 Hz for capsules containing alginate with CREP (Ch), respectively. The voltage for both capsules types was fixed at 1.35 kV. Then, the capsules were incubated in a simulated gastrointestinal (GI) system for 6 hr at 37 °C. The addition of PEG in a CaCl2 hardening solution led to degradation of the Ch capsule (Ch–PEG) and the release of cells into the small intestine vessel in the simulated GI system. By contrast, the cells were trapped within the Al capsules. Based on these data, effective encapsulation using alginate with CREP and PEG can enable JW15 to be released at a targeted anatomical site of activity within the GI system, thereby, enhancing the efficacy of probiotic cells. These protective effects can be leveraged during the development of probiotic products.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) effects and their molecular mechanisms on unbalanced diet experimental studies: A systematic review
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Bárbara N. Enes; Luiza P. D. Moreira; Bárbara P. Silva; Mariana Grancieri; Haira G. Lúcio; Vinícius P. Venâncio; Susanne U. Mertens‐Talcott; Carla O. B. Rosa; Hércia S. D. Martino

    The aim of this review was to compile evidence and understand chia seed effects on unbalanced diet animal studies and the molecular mechanisms on metabolic biomarker modulation. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases, following PRISMA recommendations. Risk of bias and quality was assessed using SYRCLE toll and ARRIVE guidelines. Seventeen articles were included. Throughout the studies, chia's main effects are associated with AMPK modulation: improvement of glucose and insulin tolerance, lipogenesis, antioxidant activity, and inflammation. Details about randomization and allocation concealment were insufficient, as well as information about blind protocols. Sample size, chia dose, and number of animals evaluated for each parameter were found to be lacking information among the studies. Based on experimental study data, chia has bioactive potential, and its daily consumption may reduce the risk of chronic disease development, mainly due to the antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects of the seed.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Quantifying the human milk oligosaccharides 2’‐fucosyllactose and 3‐fucosyllactose in different food applications by high‐performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Anne Støvlbæk Christensen; Sabina Holm Skov; Sara Eun Lendal; Bettina Høj Hornshøj

    In recent years, production of biosynthesized human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) has become scalable to industrial standards. As a result, infant formula fortified with 2’‐fucosyllactose (2’‐FL), the most abundant HMO in human breast milk, is now commercially available. 2’‐FL and 3‐fucosyllactose (3‐FL), another abundant HMO, are thought to be beneficial for infant health and development. Products containing HMOs are projected to expand in the future, showing the need for robust, easily applicable analytical methods for the quantitative assessment of HMOs in different food applications. We present here a validated high‐performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of 2’‐FL and 3‐FL in whole milk, infant formula, and cereal bars. The sample preparation was simple dispersion and extraction of the sample. The samples were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with refractive index detection and a runtime of 19 min. The method had a high degree of linearity (R2 > 0.9995) in the range 0.2 to 12 mg/mL. The recovery for 2’‐FL was 88% to 105% and for 3‐FL 94% to 112%. The limit of detection (LOD) for whole milk was 0.1 mg/mL for 2’‐FL and 0.2 mg/mL for 3‐FL. In infant formula and cereal bars, the LOD was 0.6 mg/g for both 2’‐FL and 3‐FL. To show the practical application of this method, it was successfully utilized in stability studies of 2’‐FL and 3‐FL in whole milk, UHT milk, and yoghurt. The method provides a means of simultaneous and robust quantification of 2’‐FL and 3‐FL in various food matrices with high accuracy and high reproducibility.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Rate‐All‐That‐Apply (RATA) comparison of taste profiles for different sweeteners in black tea, chocolate milk, and natural yogurt
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Vicki Wei Kee Tan; May Sui Mei Wee; Oliver Tomic; Ciarán G. Forde

    Growing health concerns have increased interest in reducing the consumption of added sugars, which can be achieved by substituting or replacing sugar with sweeteners to maintain sensory intensity and quality. The growing availability of sweeteners has increased the complexity of the perceptual landscape as sweeteners differ in the qualitative, intensity, and temporal properties. A sweetener that can match the perceptual properties of sucrose in different food matrices is likely to have broad applications. In complex foods, sweetness is influenced by the taste interactions with the existing tastants and possible matrix effects that influence release and perception of sweetness. The current study compared the taste properties of three food matrices (black tea, chocolate milk, and natural yogurt) sweetened by sucrose to those sweetened using eight different sweeteners (acesulfame‐K, aspartame, erythritol, luo han guo (Mogroside), palatinose (iso‐maltulose), stevia (Reb‐A), sucralose, and sucrose–allulose mixture) using Rate‐All‐That‐Apply. The sensory properties of each sweetener differed across matrices, with sucrose–allulose mixture, aspartame, erythritol, palatinose, and sucralose having the most similar taste to sucrose across all foods. By contrast, acesulfame‐K, stevia, and luo han guo had taste profiles that most varied from sucrose, characterized by side tastes such as bitterness, chemical taste, and a low sweetness. Sweeteners differed most from sucrose when presented in natural yogurt compared to tea and chocolate milk. A food's taste properties can suppress sweetness intensity and promote undesirable side tastes. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of testing sweeteners in complex foods and help identify sweeteners and sweetener combinations that can replicate the sweetness of sucrose and support sugar reduction.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Influence of homopolysaccharide‐producing lactic acid bacteria on the spreadability of raw fermented sausages (onion mettwurst)
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jonas Hilbig; Lisa Hildebrandt; Kurt Herrmann; Jochen Weiss; Myriam Loeffler

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a reduced pH value (5.1 instead of 5.5 to 5.6) on the properties of highly perishable, spreadable raw fermented sausages (onion mettwurst) with or without the addition of homopolysaccharide (HoPS)‐producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Hence, sausages with HoPS‐producing LAB and a pH value of 5.1 were produced and compared to sausages (pH 5.1) produced with a non‐exopolysaccharide (EPS)‐forming strain (Lactobacillus sakei TMW 1.2037). Microbial growth and pH values were monitored during processing (24 °C for 48 hr, 10 °C for 24 hr) and storage (14 days at 0 to 2 °C). Furthermore, fat (Weibull–Stoldt) and EPS contents were determined in the final products. Sausages were characterized using texture profile and sensory analysis. The fat contents ranged from 16% to 19% and the determined EPS concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 0.59 g/kg for L. sakei TMW 1.411 and Lactobacillus curvatus TMW 1.1928 and from 0.67 to 1.58 g/kg for L. curvatus TMW 1.51. The strains L. sakei TMW 1.411 and L. curvatus TMW 1.51 reduced the hardness of the samples significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control samples. Regarding spreadability and mouthfeel, sausages containing an EPS‐forming culture were rated slightly better than the control samples and the taste was not negatively influenced.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Phenolic compounds extraction in enzymatic macerations of grape skins identified as low‐level extractable total anthocyanin content
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Julio Nogales‐Bueno; Berta Baca‐Bocanegra; Francisco José Heredia; José Miguel Hernández‐Hierro

    Anthocyanins in wine principally depend on grape skin extractable anthocyanin content, that is, the amount of anthocyanins present in grape skin that are released to wine during the maceration stage. This amount of extractable anthocyanins is closely linked to the cell wall degradation of skin cells. Indeed, among other methodologies, the maceration in presence of different enzymes can be used to increase cell wall degradation, and therefore, the amount of anthocyanins extracted from grape skins to wine. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Syrah red grapes have been identified as samples with low anthocyanin extraction potential by near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Grape skins have been macerated in the presence of cellulase, glucosidase, and pectinase. Then, color of the supernatants and phenolic compounds extracted from grape skins (total phenols, total flavanols, and total and individual anthocyanins) has been determined. Cellulase and glucosidase have shown a positive effect in the extraction of phenolic compounds from these grapes. Macerations carried out in the presence of cellulase have produced supernatants with a more intense color (lower lightness and higher chroma values), and a higher extraction of flavanols and anthocyanins than the respective control essays. However, pectinase treatments have produced the opposite effect, which could be partially explained by an eventual interaction between the cell wall polysaccharides liberated by pectinase and the phenolic compounds extracted. Synergy effects do not appear between cellulase and glucosidase. Moreover, the negative effect of the addition of pectinase might be due to the interactions between the cell wall material liberated by pectinase and the phenolic compounds extracted.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Intensification of polyphenols extraction from orange peels using infrared as a novel and energy saving pretreatment
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Sally El Kantar; Hiba N. Rajha; Richard G. Maroun; Nicolas Louka

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of a nonconventional pretreatment technique “infrareds free solvent” on the intensification of polyphenols extraction from orange peels. Orange peels were pretreated with infrared heating using a ceramic infrared transmitter from 5 to 25 min at 50 °C. After the addition of the solvent on the pretreated peels, ultrasound treatment was applied on the mixture using an ultrasound generator connected to a titanium ultrasound probe, from 5 to 30 min, at 50 °C. Results showed that the application of ultrasounds on untreated peels enhanced the extraction of polyphenols by 62.5% compared to the conventional solid–liquid extraction. Twenty minutes of infrared pretreatment improved the extraction of polyphenols by 47% with solid–liquid extraction, and 112% with ultrasounds after 30 min compared to solid–liquid extraction from untreated peels. Different combinations of infrared pretreatment and ultrasound assisted extraction were then applied on orange peels. The most advantageous combination in terms of energy consumption and polyphenols extraction has been found for a 20 min infrared pretreatment time and 5 min ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Clarification of apple juices with vegetable proteins monitored by multiple light scattering
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Mohsen Ramezani; Giovanna Ferrentino; Ksenia Morozova; S. M. Hasan Kamrul; Matteo Scampicchio

    This work proposes a novel approach based on the real‐time monitoring of the fining process of apple juices by static multiple light scattering. The change in transmission was used to determine the fining effectiveness of three vegetable proteins, respectively, red lentil, green lentil, and green pea proteins. Further treatment with gelatin‐bentonite was used as a control. The modified Gompertz function was applied to fit the transmission signals. According to (1) the rate of flocculation and (2) the rate of sedimentation, the best fining efficiency was achieved by red lentil, which was similar to that of gelatin‐bentonite and higher than green lentil and green pea proteins. This ranking was obtained at any dose from 60 to 900 mg per liter of juice. The results suggest the use of red lentil as a potential fining agent for apple juices and highlight the advantages of using static multiple light scattering technique as a quality control tool for studying the kinetics of the fining process.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Effluent free infrared radiation assisted dry‐peeling of ginger rhizome: A feasibility and quality attributes
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Adinath Eknath Kate; Parag Prakash Sutar

    Infrared radiation (IR)‐assisted peeling is one of the effulent free, environtment friendly emerging technique for tender fruit and vegetables. In this study standerdization and optimization of the infrared assisted dry‐peeling method was carried out for ginger rhizome. During the investigation, the effects of selected independent parameters like infrared temperature (300–400 °C), heater to product surface spacing (10–30 mm), and treatment time (120–300 s) were studied on the peeling feasibility and quality as dependent variables. The experimental conditions were designed through CCRD statistical method. Multiple response optimization was done through RSM. The optimum conditions of selected independent variables were 300 °C IR temperature, 21 mm heater to product spacing, and 120 seconds treatment time resulted in the 90.40% of peeling efficiency, 35 °C of rhizome surface temperature, 8.67% of color change, 0.56% volatile oil loss, and 11.53 kg of firmness. The comparison of optimized infrared assisted peeling was carried out with conventional abrasion and lye peeling methods based on their quality attributes. IR assisted dry‐peeling results in minimum quality losses, higher peeling efficiency and feasible over conventional peeling methods of ginger rhizome. There was zero effluent generated during infrared assisted peeling of ginger rhizome.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Volatile composition of prickly pear fruit pulp from six Spanish cultivars
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lucía Andreu‐Coll; Luis Noguera‐Artiaga; Ángel A. Carbonell‐Barrachina; Pilar Legua; Francisca Hernández

    This research analyzed the volatile composition of the fruits pulp of six prickly pear cultivars (NT, NE, NO, NA, FR, and ORI) growing in Spain, by headspace solid‐phase microextraction and gas chromatography (GC‐MS and GC‐FID). A total of 35 compounds were isolated, identified, and quantified, with aldehydes, alcohols, and terpenes being the predominant chemical families, and esters, ketones, linear hydrocarbons, and terpenoids being also found. Nonanol, 2,6‐nonadienal, 1‐hexanol, 2‐hexenal, and D‐limonene were the predominant compounds. NT and FR cultivars showed the highest concentration of total volatile compounds. On the other hand, NE and NO cultivars presented the lowest concentration. Future studies on sensory evaluation are required to determine the sensory quality of the fruits of these Spanish cultivars.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Influence of storage time and elevated ripening temperature on the chemical and sensory properties of white Cheddar cheese
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Emily A. Walsh; Charles Diako; Denise M. Smith; Carolyn F. Ross

    Aged cheese is an increasingly popular dairy product. One approach to reduce Cheddar cheese maturation time is by utilizing elevated temperature, despite potential problems including development of imbalanced or off‐flavors and negative changes in texture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of elevated ripening temperature on chemical and sensory properties of aged white Cheddar cheese. White Cheddar cheese was aged at 7.2, 10, or 12.8 °C for 12 months, with samples evaluated at 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 months by a trained sensory panel (n = 10). Two consumer sensory panels (n = 120) assessed 8‐ and 12‐month aged cheese for comparison to a commercially available reference sample of the same cheese, aged for 12 months. An electronic tongue methodology was developed for analysis of nonvolatile compounds. Trained panel results showed that 2‐month cheeses were described by milkfat flavor and sweet taste, 5‐month cheeses were described by nutty aroma and white color, and 8‐, 10‐, 11‐, and 12‐month cheeses developed aged characteristics, such as umami and bitter tastes, brothy aroma, and aged flavor. Consumer panel results showed similar overall liking scores for the reference cheese and cheeses aged at 10 or 12.8 °C for both evaluations. The electronic tongue could classify samples according to aging month with a validity value of 92.59%. In conclusion, the electronic tongue served as a valid method of instrumental analysis for Cheddar cheese samples throughout maturation. This study demonstrated that aging white Cheddar cheese for 8 months at an elevated storage temperature of 10 °C produced cheese similar in consumer acceptance to that aged at 7 °C for 12 months.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Microbial composition of Kombucha determined using amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Muzaffer Arıkan; Alex L. Mitchell; Robert D. Finn; Filiz Gürel

    Kombucha, a fermented tea generated from the co‐culture of yeasts and bacteria, has gained worldwide popularity in recent years due to its potential benefits to human health. As a result, many studies have attempted to characterize both its biochemical properties and microbial composition. Here, we have applied a combination of whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) and amplicon (16S rRNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 [ITS1]) sequencing to investigate the microbial communities of homemade Kombucha fermentations from day 3 to day 15. We identified the dominant bacterial genus as Komagataeibacter and dominant fungal genus as Zygosaccharomyces in all samples at all time points. Furthermore, we recovered three near complete Komagataeibacter genomes and one Zygosaccharomyces bailii genome and then predicted their functional properties. Also, we determined the broad taxonomic and functional profile of plasmids found within the Kombucha microbial communities. Overall, this study provides a detailed description of the taxonomic and functional systems of the Kombucha microbial community. Based on this, we conject that the functional complementarity enables metabolic cross talks between Komagataeibacter species and Z. bailii, which helps establish the sustained a relatively low diversity ecosystem in Kombucha.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Cadmium: Mitigation strategies to reduce dietary exposure
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Heather R. Schaefer; Sherri Dennis; Suzanne Fitzpatrick

    Cadmium has long been recognized as an environmental contaminant that poses risks to human health. Cadmium is of concern since nearly everyone in the general population is exposed to the metal through the food supply and the ability of the element to accumulate in the body over a lifetime. In support of the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Toxic Element Working Group's efforts to reduce the risks associated with elements in food, this review sought to identify current or new mitigation efforts that have the potential to reduce exposures of cadmium throughout the food supply chain. Cadmium contamination of foods can occur at various stages, including agronomic production, processing, and consumer preparation for consumption. The presence of cadmium in food is variable and dependent on the geographical location, the bioavailability of cadmium from the soil, crop genetics, agronomic practices used, and postharvest operations. Although there are multiple points in the food supply system for foods to be contaminated and mitigations to be applied, a key step to reducing cadmium in the diet is to reduce or prevent initial uptake by plants consumed as food or feed crops. Due to complex interactions of soil chemistry, plant genetics, and agronomic practices, additional research is needed. Support for field‐based experimentation and testing is needed to inform risk modeling and to develop practical farm‐specific management strategies. This study can also assist the FDA in determining where to focus resources so that research and regulatory efforts can have the greatest impact on reducing cadmium exposures from the food supply.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Development of a green fluorescence protein (GFP)‐based bioassay for detection of antibiotics and its application in milk
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Nazife Nur Yazgan Karacaglar; Ali Topcu; Fahriye Ceyda Dudak; Ismail Hakki Boyaci

    Antibiotics are one of the most widely used types of drugs in pharmaceutics. However, efficiency of these drugs has decreased recently owing to the threat of antibiotic resistance. One of the important factors causing antibiotic resistance is the excessive use of antibacterials in animals. Therefore, detection of antibiotics in foods of animal origin is crucial. The aim of this study was to develop a novel whole‐cell based bioassay to be used for detection of some antibiotics. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)‐expressing Escherichia coli cells were used as a recognition agent, and antibiotic detection was carried out by pursuing the inhibition rate of fluorescence intensity as a result of the inhibition of viable cells by the time of progress. The performance of bioassay was tested for different antibiotics, and the obtained results showed that the developed method can be used successfully for detection of ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, gentamicin, neomycin, and tetracycline with the limit of detection (LOD) values of 3.33, 0.29, 28.00, 618.36, and 33.17 µg/L, respectively. The assay was also tested with antibiotic spiked milk samples (skimmed UHT, full‐fat UHT, and whole raw milk). According to obtained recovery values, developed method was successful for all samples. The precision and bias values of the method were found between the range of 1.30% to 7.54% and −8.00% to 0.64%, respectively. The developed method, which is inexpensive and simple with detection limits in line with the regulatory limits, is promising for use in milk quality monitoring. Method has potential to be used as a screening method after comprehensive validation.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Two‐step biological approach for treatment of rapeseed meal
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yu Tie; Li Li; Jun Liu; Chaolan Liu; Junjie Fu; Xiongjun Xiao; Guoqiang Wang; Jingfeng Wang

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) is an important source of protein, but its value is limited due to the poor digestibility and the presence of many antinutritional factors. In this study, a two‐step biological method was developed for detoxifying RSM and increasing its protein value. In the first stage, various detoxifying enzymes and proteases were produced by Aspergillus niger during solid‐state fermentation (SSF). In the second stage, coordinated enzymatic hydrolysis was employed to further degrade the antinutritional factors and macromolecular proteins in the fermented RSM. Following fermentation at 30 °C for 48 hr and enzymatic hydrolysis at 45 °C for 24 hr, the content of trichloroacetic acid soluble protein (TCA‐SP) and glucosinolates (GLS) in RSM was increased by 81.70% and reduced by 30.06%, respectively, compared with that obtained using the SSF process alone. Moreover, to improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, the yield of acid protease was increased by optimizing the composition of the medium so that the TCA‐SP content was increased to 208.39 mg/g and accounted for 51.62% of the total RSM protein, which was 99.36% and 629.66% higher than that in the fermented RSM and control, respectively. Overall, these results demonstrate that the two‐step process could be more effective for the degradation of the antinutritional factors and improvement of the protein quality of RSM compared to use of the SSF method alone, which may improve the utilization of RSM in food and animal feed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Effects of germination conditions on enzyme activities and starch hydrolysis of long‐grain brown rice in relation to flour properties and bread qualities
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Wipada Wunthunyarat; Han‐Seok Seo; Ya‐Jane Wang

    Gluten‐free products from rice are gaining popularity because of its hypoallergenic characteristic. The absence of gluten results in inferior bread qualities such as hard texture, reduced volume, and shorter shelf‐life. Hydrolytic enzymes are activated during germination to stimulate plant growth, and germinated brown rice (GBR) has been shown to improve gluten‐free bread properties. However, the changes in hydrolytic enzyme activities under different germination conditions and their relationship with the properties of germinated rice flour and bread have not been reported. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to investigate the activities of amylases and protease in GBR under aerobic and anaerobic germination for 2 and 4 days and their impacts on starch hydrolysis, flour properties, and bread qualities. Greater enzyme activities were observed in GBR germinated under aerobic condition and a longer time, and correlated with increased sugar content and foaming capacity. Breads were prepared from GBR along with brown rice (control). GBR breads showed a greater specific volume (4% to 10%), a reduced hardness (34% to 90%), and a lower starch retrogradation (66% to 90%) compared with the control. Bread prepared from 4‐day aerobic GBR had the largest reduction in starch molecular size and displayed the lowest hardness and starch retrogradation. After stored for 5 days, GBR breads exhibited no change in specific volume and less hardness and retrogradation than the control bread. In conclusion, greater activities of protease and amylases in GBR significantly increased foaming capacity and reduced starch molecule size, respectively, which were responsible for the improved GBR bread qualities.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Structure‐Antioxidant Activity Relationships of Luteolin and Catechin
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi; Reza Farhoosh; Ali Sharif; Mitra Rezaie

    Antioxidant activity of the natural flavonoids luteolin and catechin, which shows inconsistent comparative results in literature, was extensively evaluated as affected by the 1,4‐pyrone moiety and 3–OH group. Catechin and luteolin were compared to the synthetic antioxidant‐butylated hydroxytoluene for their 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH●) scavenging activity in polar protic and aprotic solvents and ferric reducing‐antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, their effect on lipid oxidation kinetics of canola and olive oil triacylglycerols as well as their oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsions, in addition to oil stability indices (OSIs), was evaluated. In the DPPH● assay, catechin's 3–OH group led to lower IC50 values than luteolin's 1,4‐pyrone moiety in acetone (3.4 µM compared with 9.4 µM), while there was no significant difference in methanol (IC50 = approximately 18.3 µM) or tetrahydrofuran (IC50 = approximately 27.2 µM). The FRAP test indicated a higher reducing power for catechin than for luteolin (689.4 µM compared with 573.1 µM). The antioxidants showed various performances in the oil triacylglycerols and their O/W emulsions due predominantly to the interfacial phenomena. A better OSI was found for catechin than for luteolin (20.0 to 52.7 hr compared with 3.5 to 4.2 hr) in Rancimat test.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Microbiological and physicochemical parameters for predicting quality of fat and low‐fat raw ground beef during refrigerated aerobic storage
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Francesca Valerio; Panagiotis N. Skandamis; Sebastiana Failla; Michela Contò; Mariaelena Di Biase; Anna Rita Bavaro; Maria Paola Pirovano; Paola Lavermicocca

    The aim of the current study was to identify quality indicators of fat (14.50 ± 0.75%) and low‐fat (4.79 ± 0.63%) raw ground beef by monitoring changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters during aerobic refrigerated storage, such as water‐holding capacity, pH, thiols, carbonyl compounds, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), metmyoglobin, deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin color indices, pseudomonads, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and total viable counts. Meat packaged in air‐permeable polyethylene plastic film was stored under controlled isothermal conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C). A population level of pseudomonads equal to 7.0 ± 0.5 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/g was considered as the potential spoilage level. Using principal component analysis, samples were distinguished on the basis of their microbial load. A significant positive correlation between microbial population and carbonyls, metmyoglobin, TBARS, water‐holding capacity, and a negative correlation with thiols and color parameters (L*, chroma) were observed. Two different approaches were followed to estimate the quality status of samples: (i) the partial least square (PLS) regression with R2 of 0.93 and root mean square error prediction of 0.44 for pseudomonads, using the above physicochemical characteristics as the dominant input variables, which allowed prediction of the microbiological status of ground beef regardless of time–temperature storage profile and fat content, and (ii) a square‐root‐type model (adjusted R2 of 0.952) that satisfactorily predicted the growth of spoilage pseudomonads under isothermal and dynamic conditions, regardless of the above physicochemical changes. The above results suggest that depending on the available input data, the two modeling approaches can accurately (and complementarily) assess quality of aerobically stored ground beef.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Formation and characterization of plant‐based emulsified and crosslinked fat crystal networks to mimic animal fat tissue
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Johannes Dreher; Carolin Blach; Nino Terjung; Monika Gibis; Jochen Weiss

    Animal fat tissue (that is, pork or beef fat) is composed of liquid and solid fat incorporated in a network of connective tissue. Hence, their rheological and thermal properties may differ significantly from plant‐derived fats. Specifically, animal fats have elastic and melting properties that give rise to not only a certain comminution behavior during processing, but also provide meat products such as sausages with certain organoleptic properties. To mimic key properties of animal fat tissue with plant‐derived materials, a new structuring approach was used. Canola oil was mixed with <30% (w/w) of fully hydrogenated canola oil at 65 °C, hot‐emulsified with a soy protein suspension (8%, w/w) at a lipid content of 70% (w/w) using a high‐shear disperser, and cooled to 37 °C. The concentrated, emulsified fat crystal networks were then incubated with transglutaminase for 1 hr to induce protein crosslinking. Microscopy images showed that samples were composed of tightly packed lipid particles with regions of coalesced or unemulsified lipids appearing at higher solid fat concentrations. Texture analysis and rheological measurements showed that crosslinked samples possessed elasticities that decreased with increasing solid fat concentration. Above 30% solid fat, matrices reverted back to exhibiting a mainly plastic behavior. Results were attributed to the formation of either a droplet‐filled protein network, a particulate fat crystal network, or a mixture thereof. Taken together, results show that plant‐based crosslinked emulsified fat crystal networks are able to mimic mechanical properties of animal fat provided that not too much solid fat (<30% in this study) is used. This makes them useful for the manufacture of meat products or analogues.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Investigating the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of cinnamaldehyde against Campylobacter spp. using cell surface characteristics
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Hwan Hee Yu; Ye Ji Song; Hyung‐Seok Yu; Na‐Kyoung Lee; Hyun‐Dong Paik

    Campylobacter species are known as biofilm‐forming bacteria in food systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of cinnamaldehyde against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chicken meat. The biofilm‐forming C. jejuni and C. coli strains from chicken meat were investigated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Campylobacter spp. characteristics. The MIC value was 31.25 µg/mL for the Campylobacter strains tested. Cinnamaldehyde had an inhibition and degradation effect on Campylobacter biofilms at concentrations > 15.63 µg/mL. Campylobacter strains treated with 15.63 µg/mL CA exhibited significantly decreased autoaggregation, motility, exopolysaccharide production, and soluble protein. In addition, Campylobacter biofilms formed on stainless steel were degraded following cinnamaldehyde treatment, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that cinnamaldehyde constitutes a potential natural preservative against Campylobacter and a nontoxic biofilm remover that could be applied to control food poisoning in the poultry manufacturing‐related food industry.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • LC–MS/MS‐based metabolomic analysis of caffeine‐degrading fungus Aspergillus sydowii during tea fermentation
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Binxing Zhou; Cunqiang Ma; Xiaoying Ren; Tao Xia; Xiaohong Li

    Natural microorganisms involved in solid‐state fermentation (SSF) of Pu‐erh tea have a significant impact on its chemical components. Aspergillus sydowii is a fungus with a high caffeine‐degrading capacity. In this work, A. sydowii was inoculated into sun‐dried green tea leaves for SSF. Metabolomic analysis was carried out by using UPLC–QTOF‐MS method, and caffeine and related demethylated products were determined by HPLC. The results showed that A. sydowii had a significant (P < 0.05) impact on amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and caffeine metabolism. Moreover, A. sydowii could promote the production of ketoprofen, baclofen, and tolbutamide. Along with caffeine degradation, theophylline, 3‐methylxanthine, 1,7‐dimethylxanthine, 1‐methylxanthine, and 7‐methylxanthine were increased significantly (P < 0.05) during inoculated fermentation, which showed that demethylation was the main pathway of caffeine degradation in A. sydowii secondary metabolism. The absolute quantification analysis showed that caffeine could be demethylated and converted to theophylline and 3‐methylxanthine. Particularly, about 93.24% of degraded caffeine was converted to theophylline, 27.92 mg/g of theophylline was produced after fermentation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Effects of different miracle fruit products on the sensory characteristics of different types of sour foods by descriptive analysis
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sung Eun Choi; Jeff Garza

    Miracle fruit's potential benefit is encouraging as a powerful antioxidant and sweetness enhancer due to its novel ability to modify sour taste to sweet. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the practicality of different miracle fruit products. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the taste modification effects of different miracle fruit products on different sour foods. For this, 10 trained subjects (80% female, 50% white, Mean ± SE = 27.3 ± 3.9 years old) performed a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis using a Latin Square design with three replications. One session was composed of pre‐ and posttest for miracle fruit administration. Five food samples (green apple, goat cheese, lemonade, plain fat‐free yogurt, and cucumber pickle) and four miracle fruit products (three different brands of miracle fruit pill‐Y, G, M and one powder product‐P) were used and data were analyzed using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The typical effects of miracle fruit, sweetness increase and sourness suppression were observed for all food samples albeit to different degrees. Y and M pills were most impactful while powder product was least, and goat cheese and yogurt had the most pronounced impact at increasing sweetness. Prior Miracle Fruit administration significantly decreased bitterness and increased creaminess in yogurt. However, it increased off‐flavor in lemonade and pickle. Results suggest that miracle fruit usage for increasing sweetness is effective but the degree of taste‐modifying effect differs according to the types of miracle fruit product and food samples applied.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Influence of Lactobacillus brevis on metabolite changes in bacteria‐fermented sufu
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Wenjing Bao; Xiaoning Huang; Jingjing Liu; Beizhong Han; Jingyu Chen

    Sufu is a form of food derived from traditional Chinese fermented soybean. It has a unique flavor and contains abundant nutrients. With demands for healthy food on the rise, a higher level of sufu functionality is required. In fermentation of soybean‐derived products, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as an adjunct culture, which provides health benefits and enhances flavor of food. Among LAB, Lactobacillus brevis has the potential to generate γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is well‐known for its physiological functions. In this study, L. brevis was added to bacteria‐fermented sufu to evaluate its impacts on sufu quality. Sufu was produced via co‐inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and L. brevis (group A sufu) or a single inoculation with B. subtilis (group B sufu). Metabolite changes in the two groups during fermentation were investigated and physicochemical changes were observed. The results indicated that the addition of L. brevis increased the concentration of GABA and decreased the concentrations of histamine and serotonin. The concentrations of volatile compounds, such as esters and acids, especially 2‐methyl‐butanoic acid ethyl ester, as well as the concentrations of phenylethyl alcohol and 3‐methyl‐butanol were significantly higher in group A. Inoculation of L. brevis changed the metabolite profile of sufu and improved its functionality and safety of edibility. The current study explored the potential of applying L. brevis to the manufacture of bacteria‐fermented sufu.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Whole faba bean flour exhibits unique expansion characteristics relative to the whole flours of lima, pinto, and red kidney beans during extrusion
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Bon‐Jae Gu; Maria Dian Pratiwi Masli; Girish M. Ganjyal

    Determining the impacts of extrusion conditions on extrudate characteristics of whole beans flours is critical to find the suitable types of beans to use for making direct expanded products. Whole bean flours of four different bean types, faba, lima, pinto, and red kidney, were extruded. The influence of barrel temperature (120, 140, and 160 °C), moisture content (17%, 21%, and 25%), and screw speed (150, 200, and 250 rpm) on process and product responses was studied with a corotating twin screw extruder. The barrel temperature, moisture content, screw speed, and variety of bean had significant influence on process and product responses, back pressure (MPa), torque (N·m), specific mechanical energy (kJ/kg), expansion ratio, water absorption index (g/g), and water solubility index (%) (P < 0.05). Faba bean extrudates had a significantly higher expansion ratio compared to other beans (lima, pinto, and red kidney beans) even though faba bean contained significantly higher protein and higher crude fiber contents (P < 0.05).

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Effect of ultra‐fine friction grinding on the physical and chemical properties of curcuma (Curcuma longa L.) suspensions
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    A. M. Serpa Guerra; C. Gómez Hoyos; J. A. Velásquez‐Cock; L. Vélez Penagos; P. Gañán Rojo; L. Vélez Acosta; M. A. Pereira; R. Zuluaga

    Curcuma longa is a rhizome used for the extraction of curcumin, a yellow colorant that only represents 3 wt% of the dried rhizome. To increase the possibility of using the entire rhizome as a food colorant, in the present investigation, the effect of ultra‐fine friction grinding (supermasscolloider) to obtain turmeric suspensions was evaluated. To achieve this goal, two distances between the grinding stones or Gap were evaluated (G of –1 and –1.5), and the obtained suspensions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and through the determination of curcumin content, color, particle size, sedimentation index, serum cloudiness, and microstructure. The results establish that a lower G contributes to an increase in the release of curcumin in the suspension up to 21%, which is related to a greater tendency for yellow coloration, observed in the increase of the *b coordinate of color (from 61.588 to 66.497). Additionally, it was found that a lower G generates smaller particle sizes, which is related to a lower turbidity.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Visible and eco‐friendly immunoassays for the detection of cyclopiazonic acid in maize and rice
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Yue Li; Liqiang Liu; Hua Kuang; Chuanlai Xu

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole‐tetramine mycotoxin commonly produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus and is widely found in agricultural products, fermented food, and feed. Food contaminated with CPA poses a substantial health risk to consumers. Therefore, eco‐friendly immunoassays, including an indirect competitive enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ic‐ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS), were developed to monitor CPA in maize and rice samples. For this purpose, a monoclonal antibody (3H12) posed highly resistant to pH (5.6 to 9.6) and ethanol (≤50%) was generated by mouse immunization. Negative maize and rice samples or samples spiked with CPA were extracted with ethanol/0.01 M sodium borate buffer (4/1, v/v, pH 8.4). For ic–ELISA analysis, the limits of detection (LODs) were 0.48 and 0.28 ng/g for maize and rice samples, respectively. The recovery for spiked maize was 76.9% to 83.5% with the highest variable coefficient (CVmax) being 9.32%. For spiked rice, the recovery was 85.3% to 105.1% with a CVmax of 8.56%. For LFICS analysis, the visible LODs were 2.5 and 1 ng/g and cutoff values were 5 and 2.5 ng/g for maize and rice samples, respectively. The LFICS method gave results within 5 to 10 min, providing an auxiliary analytical tool for the rapid, sensitive, and portable screening of the massive samples onsite.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The impact of ι‐ and κ‐carrageenan addition on freezing process and ice crystals structure of strawberry sorbet frozen by various methods
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Anna Kamińska‐Dwórznicka; Agnieszka Janczewska‐Dupczyk; Anna Kot; Sylwia Łaba; Katarzyna Samborska

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of ι‐ and κ‐carrageenan addition to strawberry sorbet prepared by various freezing methods (cryostat and conventional freezer) on freezing kinetics and ice crystals structure. Four variants of strawberry‐based sorbet were prepared: with no additive, with 0.1% addition of ι‐ and κ‐carrageenan, and 1:1 blend of both. Freezing curves and freezing time, as well as the size and morphology of ice crystals, were analyzed. The addition of carrageenan stabilizers resulted in freezing process elongation. Reference samples were characterized by different dynamics of the freezing process. The addition of carrageenan increased the final temperature of the samples, compared to the reference sample (even 2.6 °C of difference). Additives reduced ice crystals growth. The most efficient was mixture of both fractions of carrageenan––the samples in this variant frozen in conventional freezer were characterized by the smallest ice crystals diameter––average 5.44 µm, while for the reference sample it was 17.79 µm.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Genotoxicological safety assessment of puree‐only edible films from onion bulb (Allium cepa L.) for use in food packaging‐related applications
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Mariana Rodrigues Barreto; Nadia Andrade Aleixo; Rafaela Baldassari Silvestre; Nathália Ferreira Fregonezi; Hernane da Silva Barud; Diógenes dos Santos Dias; Clovis Augusto Ribeiro; Flávia Aparecida Resende

    The production of films and coatings from onion (Allium cepa L.) to be applied as packaging is attractive, due to its high nutritional and therapeutic value. Also, it can collaborate to minimize environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of products made from plastics. However, despite it being an innovative and novel proposal, onion films for the development of edible packaging should be evaluated before being considered nontoxic and safe for human consumption. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elucidate the cytotoxic and mutagenic profile of eluates of polymer films of Allium cepa L. obtained by the casting process and to verify their safety for commercial purposes. The analysis of cellular viability demonstrated greater cytotoxicity for unwashed hydrothermally treated pulp (HTP) than for films of washed hydrothermally treated pulp (W‐HTP). Regarding the mutagenic activity, the HTP and W‐HTP films were not able to statistically increase the frequencies of the biomarkers for chromosome damage (micronucleus test) at the tested concentrations. However, the HTP films showed signs of mutagenicity in the Ames test (gene mutations), suggesting caution in their use. The detection of genotoxicity is highly recommended in order to avoid the risk of genotoxic exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. In conclusion, the absence of mutagenicity and cytotoxicity observed in this study is extremely relevant, because it provides support for toxicogenic properties of the Allium cepa films with promising applicability in the food industry.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Enhanced extraction of hydroxyapatite from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) scales using deep eutectic solvent
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Yanhong Liu; Jia Li; Dezhen Wang; Fei Yang; Lingling Zhang; Shuhuan Ji; Shuo Wang

    Fish‐scale waste is rich in biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp). In the present study, an environmentally friendly method of extracting HAp from fish‐scale waste was developed in an effort to promote environmental sustainability. Deep eutectic solvents (choline chloride/glycerol, 1/2) were used to extract HAp from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) scales. A relatively high extraction rate of 47.67% ± 1.81% was obtained under optimum conditions (70 °C, a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15 g/g and a 2.5 hr extraction time). The obtained HAp was characterized and its purity was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X‐ray diffraction, respectively. The chemical composition was performed by energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy. Its morphology and particle size were observed using scanning electron microscopy and particle size distribution analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine its thermal stability. Blood compatibility was determined using a hemolytic test. The results showed that this extraction yielded HAp with the irregular morphology, the higher Ca/P ratio, good thermal stability, and blood compatibility, indicating that the proposed method is an excellent alternative for the improved utilization of fish scale waste.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of adlay seed (Coixlachryma‐jobi L.) oil extracted from four main producing areas in China
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Chaojun He; Ziyong Li; Hongxia Liu; Haining Zhang; Liye Wang; Hong Chen

    Adlay oil (AO) is an important component of adlay seeds that has many beneficial functions to human health. In this study, the variations in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of AOs extracted from adlay samples obtained from four main producing areas of China were first investigated. Results revealed that the AO of the adlay samples varied from 7.398 ± 0.486% to 8.464 ± 0.725%. The highest contents of total fatty acid, triolein, total phenolic, and total flavonoid were observed in Xingren AO, whereas coixol content was found to be highest in Pucheng AO. The AO samples were grouped successfully in accordance with the origins by partial least squares–discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis based on the contents of the chemical components. Furthermore, AOs exhibited considerable levels of 2,2′‐azino‐bis (3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (IC50, 0.924 ± 0.113 to 1.116 ± 0.109 mg/mL) radical scavenging activity, ferric‐reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity (EC50, 0.019 ± 0.002 to 0.028 ± 0.002 mg/mL) activity, and β‐carotene‐linoleic acid bleaching activity (IC50, 0.233 ± 0.008 to 0.414 ± 0.012 mg/mL) activity. Total phenolic and total flavonoid both demonstrated highest correlation with ABTS values (r = −0.952 and r = −0.960, respectively). The results derived from above studies suggest that geographic origin has a certain influence on the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of the AOs.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Valorization of Euterpe edulis Mart. agroindustrial residues (pomace and seeds) as sources of unconventional starch and bioactive compounds
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Danielle Carpiné; João Luiz Andreotti Dagostin; Elisa Mazon; Rafaela Cristina Turola Barbi; Fillemon Edillyn da Silva Bambirra Alves; Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn; Rosemary Hoffmann Ribani

    Juçara fruit pomace is one of the most abundant byproducts of the pulp‐making process, generally discarded despite their attractive nutritional content. In this sense, this study aimed to investigate the potential of juçara fruit pomace as an alternative source of starch and natural dyes. Starch extracted from juçara seed (JS) was characterized in approximate composition, crystallinity, thermal profile, morphology, and equilibrium moisture data. Total phenolic content, anthocyanins content, and in vitro antioxidant capacity were assessed for the juçara seedless pomace (JSP). JSP is rich in monomeric anthocyanins (7.19 to 7.23 mg cyanidin 3‐O‐glycoside/g dry matter [dm]), presents high antioxidant potential, elevated dietary fibers (72.7% dm), considerable amount of lipids (12.8% dm), low protein content, and ash traces. JS is a rich carbon source (76.91% fibers [dm]; 12.21% amylaceous reserve). Being high in carbohydrates, mainly starch, it can be classified as high starch content flour (juçara seed starch‐flour [JSS‐F]). JSS‐F presented B‐type crystallinity and conventional starch‐like thermal stability. JSS‐F exhibited type III sorption isotherm behavior and the Gugghenheim–Anderson–DeBoer model adequately represented the moisture equilibrium data. As a nutritive source of bioactive compounds and starch, juçara pomace should be regarded as a coproduct to be explored as an alternative natural ingredient to food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Investigating patterns of millennials' interest in gluten‐free beer in Poland: A question of beer price and alcohol content
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Gianluca Donadini; Terenzio Bertuzzi; Edyta Kordialik‐Bogacka; Dominika Cywińska; Filippo Rossi; Giorgia Spigno; Sebastiano Porretta

    The quality perception of gluten‐free beer was explored using conjoint analysis with a panel of Polish millennials (n = 200; aged 20 to 35), who were given 64 gluten‐free beer concepts to evaluate and score on a 9‐point scale of interest (1 = not interested at all; 9 = extremely interested). The constituent factors of the beer concepts were alcohol content, color, type of malt, price, drinking location and occasion, bottle size, label claims, type of farming, type of brewer, and bottle closure. Consumers judged price (38.4%) and alcohol (28.8%) five times more important than the other factors. Bottle size (5.3%), claims (4.8%), type of brewer (4.8%), malt type (4.6%), bottle closure (4.0%), beer color (3.6%), drinking location (2.3%), drinking occasion (2.0%), and type of farming (1.3%) were considered of little importance. The interest of Polish Millennials in gluten‐free beer resulted moderate and not linked to medical needs. Males were more interested in gluten‐free beers and gave more importance to alcohol content and less importance to price, compared to females. However, for both genders, interest and price were inversely correlated, while interest and alcohol content were directly correlated.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Salt stress induces physiochemical alterations in rice grain composition and quality
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Abdul Razzaq; Arfan Ali; Luqman Bin Safdar; Muhammad Mubashar Zafar; Yang Rui; Amir Shakeel; Abbad Shaukat; Muhammad Ashraf; Wankui Gong; Youlu Yuan

    Salinity has drastic effects on plant growth and productivity and is one of the major factors responsible for crop yield losses throughout the agricultural soils of the world. The mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plants are regulated by a set of inherent multigenes and prevalent environmental factors, which bring about a myriad of metabolic changes in each plant part. The stress‐induced metabolic changes in the rice plant have been intensively studied, but extensively in plant parts such as stem, leaf, and root. However, little information exists in the literature about such stress‐induced architectural and physiological changes in rice grain, a premier staple food of a large proportion of human population. Thus, the current review comprehensively describes the effects of salinity stress on rice grain composition including changes in carbohydrate, protein, fat, and mineral contents. Elucidation of salinity induced changes in rice grain composition would help to understand whether or not a nutritious and healthy staple food is available to human population from rice grown under saline environments.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Identification and characterization of the peptides with calcium‐binding capacity from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin enzymatic hydrolysates
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Liu Bingtong; Zhuang Yongliang; Sun Liping

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the peptides with calcium‐binding capacity from the different tilapia skin gelatin enzymatic hydrolysates. The complex protease was selected and its hydrolysates were further separated using gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G‐25) and reverse phase high‐performance liquid chromatography. Two purified peptides with strong calcium‐binding capacity were identified as Tyr‐Gly‐Thr‐Gly‐Leu (YGTGL, 509.25 Da) and Leu‐Val‐Phe‐Leu (LVFL, 490.32 Da). The calcium‐binding capacities of YGTGL and LVFL reached 76.03 and 79.50 µg/mg, respectively. The structures of the complex of purified peptides and calcium (YGTGL‐Ca and LVFL‐Ca) were characterized by ultraviolet‐visible spectroscopy (UV‐VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS). The results of UV‐VIS, SEM, and XRD indicated that YGTGL‐Ca and LVFL‐Ca were formed as new compounds. The results of FTIR and LC‐MS/MS indicated the nitrogen atom of the amino group and the oxygen atom of the carboxyl group in terminates of the peptides provided primary binding sites. Moreover, the hydrophobic amino acids in purified peptides could provide more chelating spaces. This study was of great significance for the development of calcium supplement foods.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Comparative analysis of native and defatted flour from hard, extraordinarily soft, and medium‐hard wheat varieties for protein solvation, pasting, mixing, and dough rheological behavior
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Mehak Katyal; Narpinder Singh; Amardeep Singh Virdi; Amritpal Kaur; Arvind Kumar Ahlawat; Anju Mahendru Singh; Ritika Bajaj

    The effect of lipids extraction on protein salvation, pasting, and dough rheological behavior of flours dough from hard wheat (HW), extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex‐SW), and medium‐hard wheat (MHW) flour was analyzed. The varieties selected had wide variation in grain hardness index (17 to 95). Ex‐SW revealed lower tryptophan fluorescent emission and water absorption (WA) than MHW and HW varieties. The change in pasting parameters on defatting was the highest for Ex‐SW varieties. Native flour (NF) of HW varieties showed high protein content, pasting and dough strength, and fluorescence intensity in comparison to Ex‐SW varieties, while on defatting this was reversed. Protein pattern of defatted flour and NF did not differ significantly. Defatting of flours increased WA and decreased dough stability (DS). The decrease in DS on defatting was more for Ex‐SW varieties than others. DS for HW and MHW varieties reduced upon defatting. Defatting significantly increased all mixographic and rheological properties except peak time. Overall, results showed that defatting of flour improved paste and dough strength.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Influence of Dietary Sources of Melatonin on Sleep Quality: A Review
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Nádia Pereira; Maria Fernanda Naufel; Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro; Sergio Tufik; Helena Hachul

    Sleep is an essential biological phenomenon, being a physiological and behavioral process necessary for quality of life. Melatonin is a circadian hormone produced at night by the pineal gland, regulated by the light/dark cycle, under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Melatonin is an indoleamine, synthesized from the essential amino acid tryptophan via serotonin. Melatonin is also found in plants, where it helps fight oxidative stress. To present a systematic review on the ability of food sources of melatonin to promote healthy sleep. A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases, including only randomized, placebo‐controlled trials published in English between 2005 and 2019. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed by the Jadad scale. Of the 25 eligible articles, eight met the inclusion criteria. They addressed the intake of milk or cherry juice in children, adults, and elderly subjects and evaluated sleep quality by questionnaires, sleep diary, actigraphy, or polysomnography. The analysis of the studies presented limitations, including lack of homogeneity of treatment dosage and duration. Nonetheless, the results indicated that the consumption of milk and sour cherries, sources of melatonin, may improve sleep quality in humans. These results pointed out to the potential suitability of food sources of melatonin as adjuvants in the prevention and treatment of sleep disorders. Further studies are necessary to better ascertain the aspects relevant to their use.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Effects of fish protein hydrolysate ingestion on postexercise aminoacidemia compared with whey protein hydrolysate in young individuals
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Elisaldo Mendes Cordeiro; Gustavo Vieira de Oliveira; Mônica Volino‐Souza; Otávio do Couto Velozo; Thiago Silveira Alvares

    The aminoacidemia resulting from food protein digestion in response to exercise plays an underlying role in the rate of muscle protein synthesis. Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) has been demonstrated to cause more pronounced postexercise aminoacidemia compared with casein and soy. Although fish protein has been demonstrated to be a great source of amino acids, there is no data available providing information about the postexercise aminoacidemia after fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) intake. The present study investigated the characteristic patterns of postexercise aminoacidemia after WPH and FPH intake in nine physically active subjects (six males and three females). In a crossover, double‐blind, and randomized design, all participants received oral doses of either 0.25 g/kg of FPH or WPH or placebo (PLA) immediately after a resistance exercise bout. Blood samples were taken before and at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after supplementation. There was a significant increase in plasma total amino acids (TAA), essential amino acids (EAA), branched‐chain amino acids (BCAA), and leucine concentrations at 30 and 60 min after FPH supplementation, and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after WPH as compared to PLA. No significant differences were observed in plasma TAA, EAA, BCAA, and leucine concentrations between FPH and WPH at any time point, and there were no significant difference observed in the area under the curve for TAA, EAA, BCAA, and leucine between FPH and WPH. In conclusion, both FPH and WPH showed a rapid and pronounced postexercise aminoacidemia. FPH presented itself to be an alternative food source of rapidly digested proteins to be used after resistance exercise.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Influence of Ethanol on Emulsions Stabilized by Low Molecular Weight Surfactants
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Ana C. Ferreira; Antonio Sullo; Scott Winston; Ian T. Norton; Abigail B. Norton‐Welch

    The effect of ethanol on oil‐in‐water emulsions stabilized with low molecular weight surfactants was investigated. Oil‐in‐water emulsions were prepared containing varying percentages of ethanol and sunflower oil, and stabilized with different emulsifiers (Tween 20, Tween 80, and Lecithin). Droplet size, viscosity, density, and interfacial tension measurements were carried out. The droplet size of emulsions stabilized by each of the surfactants studied decreased with the addition of ethanol to the aqueous phase showing a minimum at a concentration of ethanol around 40%. The trend in droplet size is accompanied by a decrease in the interfacial tension between water and oil as the ethanol concentration increases. Viscosity measurements show that the change in viscosity of the final emulsion is the result of the change in viscosity of the continuous phase, as well as the change in solubility of the surfactants due to the addition of ethanol. The density of the continuous phase decreases with the addition of ethanol and it is possible to match the densities of the two phases in order to reduce the effect of creaming/sedimentation and improve stability. This study provides scientific evidence for the formulation of stable emulsions containing a range of ethanol form 0 to 40%.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Novel paper‐based colorimetric immunoassay (PCI) for sensitive and specific detection of salbutamol residues in flesh of swine and urine using Ag3PO4/Ag nanocomposite as label
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Nutthaporn Malahom; Purim Jarujamrus; Wipark Anutrasakda; Runglawan Chawengkirttikul; Atitaya Siripinyanond; Rattapol Meelapsom; Maliwan Amatatongchai

    Salbutamol (SAL) can cause potential hazards to human health and its use as a growth promoter in meat‐producing animals is illegal. This work reports a novel approach for competitive paper‐based colorimetric immunoassay (PCI) using the Ag3PO4/Ag nanocomposite as label for sensitive and specific determination of SAL in flesh of swine and urine. The Ag3PO4/Ag nanocomposite was synthesized by a one‐step chemical bath method, which could instantly oxidize a chromogenic substrate for the color development under acidic conditions without the participation of H2O2. This approach provides high affinity between the Ag3PO4/Ag nanocomposite and the substrate (with the Michaelis–Menten constant of 0.44 mM). In addition, the fabrication process of the PCI was simple and cost‐effective. Particularly, the novel PCI also exhibits simplicity and cost‐effectiveness of the fabrication process through a simple wax screen‐printing, which requires inexpensive equipment and material including a screen, wax, a squeegee, and a hair dryer. Under optimal conditions, the competitive PCI exhibited a linearity range of 0.025 to 1.00 µg/L. The developed approach offers advantages over the conventional ELISA for the purpose of routine use because it requires a shorter incubation time (<1 hr), significantly small volumes of reagents and samples (<100 µL each), and an inexpensive consumer‐grade digital camera coupled with a simple gray‐scale transformation of the RGB (Red Green Blue) color image for the purpose of quantification of the detection.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Effect of oxidative stress on AIF‐mediated apoptosis and bovine muscle tenderness during postmortem aging
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Cheng Chen, Jiaying Zhang, Zhaobin Guo, Xixiong Shi, Yubin Zhang, Li Zhang, Qunli Yu, Ling Han

    This study aimed to explore the effect exerted by oxidative stress on apoptosis‐inducing factors (AIF)‐mediated apoptosis and bovine muscle tenderness during postmortem aging. We investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, mitochondrial membrane permeability, AIF expression level, nucleus apoptosis, shear force, myofibril fragmentation index, pH, and energy level. According to the results, a rise in ROS content was accompanied by the rise in mitochondrial membrane permeability from 6 to 72 hr. In the meantime, the AIF expression in mitochondria was downregulated significantly within 72 hr. However, samples treated with N‐acetylcysteine had significantly lower ROS content (6 to 72 hr) and mitochondrial membrane permeability (12 to 72 hr) than the control group. Moreover, during postmortem aging, the variations in AIF levels in mitochondria were closely associated with meat tenderization and nucleus apoptosis. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by ROS significantly promoted AIF release from mitochondria by enhancing the mitochondrial membrane permeability, and the released AIF mediated nucleus apoptosis that further enhanced bovine muscle tenderness. Besides, results suggest that in the early stage, the environmental factors (ATP content and pH) significantly decreased (0 to 72 hr), whereas ROS‐induced oxidative stress had no significant effect on environmental factors. These observations further suggested that during postmortem aging, the decrease of pH and ATP consumption are required by AIF release. We conclude that ROS‐induced oxidative stress and internal environment are vital for meat tenderization through the regulation of AIF‐mediated apoptosis pathway.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Drivers of liking for reduced sodium potato chips and puffed rice
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Aimee E. Buechler, Soo‐Yeun Lee

    Reducing the amount of sodium in food products is necessary in decreasing the prevalence of hypertension, heart attack, and stroke. There is a lack of information on sodium reduction in potato chips and puffed rice, which comprise a large percentage of salty snack sales, and the use of flavor enhancers to maintain consumer acceptability of these products. The objective of this study was to identify drivers of liking for potato chip and puffed rice samples seasoned with differing sodium and flavor enhancer concentrations using sensory descriptive analysis and acceptance data. Eleven trained panelists evaluated the snacks and found eight significantly different attributes for potato chips and seven significantly different attributes for puffed rice. To better understand how these differences in samples play a role in sample liking, the descriptive analysis data were correlated with the data from a consumer test through preference mapping. For potato chips, consumers liked samples characterized by meaty aftertaste, aroma, aroma‐by‐mouth, and umami aftertaste. Consumers disliked samples with a strong raw potato aroma. For puffed rice, consumers liked samples with attributes of crunchy texture, garlic aftertaste, and savory aftertaste and disliked bitter aftertaste and chili powder aroma‐by‐mouth. These findings imply acceptance of sodium‐reduced potato chips and puffed rice is possible by focusing on these identified drivers of liking.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Argentinean Puna Plants with In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti‐Inflammatory Activities as a Potential Nutraceutical
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Romina Torres‐Carro, Yamile Ana, Jorge David Rojas‐Márquez, Cinthia Carolina Stempin, Iris Catiana Zampini, María Inés Isla, María Rosa Alberto

    Parastrephia lucida (Compositae), Tessaria absinthioides (Compositae), and Ephedra multiflora (Ephedraceae), three plant species from the Argentinean Puna (3600 m.a.s.l.) were selected for their anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant properties to prepare mixtures to evaluate their use as nutraceuticals. Seven binary and ternary herbal mixtures made of ethanol 20% extracts of the selected plant species were prepared (Mixtures A to G), and they were analyzed for their effect on proinflammatory enzymes and their antioxidant activity in two cellular systems and in cell free systems. Toxicity tests were also carried out, and they were analyzed by high‐performance liquid chromatography with a diode‐array detector (HPLC‐DAD) to quantify chemical markers. Mix A (equal parts of the three selected plant species) showed an important inhibitory capacity of different proinflammatory enzymes. Its potency on COX‐2 was also higher than that of ibuprofen. Mix A and Mix G (P. lucida and T. absinthioides 1:1) showed a high antioxidant capacity in cellular and in cell‐free systems. Toxicity assays further demonstrated their safety. This work shows the potential use of herbal mixtures made of medicinal plant species from the Argentinean Puna as nutraceutical or dietary supplements with antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Ultrasonic Cutting as a New Method to Produce Fresh‐Cut Red Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Gulcin Yildiz, Sindy Palma, Hao Feng

    The fresh‐cut or sliced apple market has grown rapidly in recent years due to consumers’ demand for fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Fresh‐cut apples also contributed to increased consumption of fruits among school children. However, not many studies have investigated means to improve the quality of fresh‐cut apples. In this study, we explored the use of ultrasound as a new method to cut apples and examined the quality of two apple varieties (Red Delicious and Golden Delicious) cut with ultrasound. Both apple types were cut without (control) and with ultrasound at four amplitudes (0%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) with an ultrasonic knife. Quality attributes, for example, color, pH, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, surface morphology, and sensory characteristics (color, odor, overall acceptability, and off‐odor) of the apples right after cutting and during a 2‐week storage at refrigeration temperature were compared. With the set up used in this study, both apples cut with ultrasound exhibited a relatively dense and smooth surface morphology with less cell damage compared with the relatively rough surface and more cells damage in the control. An improvement in quality attributes was observed when the ultrasound amplitude was increased from 30% to 50%. The apples cut with ultrasound had a lower PPO activity compared to the control, indicating less browning. In visual quality evaluation, panelists showed higher liking of the apples cut with ultrasound. The ultrasound‐assisted cutting has showed promise for producing fresh‐cut apples with improved quality, and may be used as an alternative to traditional cutting method.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Identification of Beta‐Carotene Degradation Compounds and Their Structural Elucidation by High‐Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Minren Xu, Tom Chen, Craig M. Butt

    Beta‐carotene (BC) degradation was studied by liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. Throughout/After 21 days of dark storage, 56 nonvolatile degradants were chromatographically separated from pure BC crystal and their molecular formulas were identified. Their structure information was gained by comparing the fragments to a different, but structure‐related compound. For example, a newly formed double bond position in dehydrogenated BC was determined by comparing the fragments between BC and dehydrogenated BC. One of their chemical structures was confirmed by comparing its precursor ion mass, retention time, isotopic ratio, and fragmentation to a pure trans‐beta‐apo‐8′‐apocarotenal. BC cleavage was observed on double bonds as well as single bonds in BC conjugation chain.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Catechins and Caffeine Promote Lipid Metabolism and Heat Production Through the Transformation of Differentiated 3T3‐L1 Adipocytes from White to Beige Adipocytes
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Chikako Sugiura, Guodong Zheng, Litong Liu, Kazutoshi Sayama

    To elucidate effects of catechins and caffeine on lipid metabolism in adipocytes and identify the mechanism of action, differentiated 3T3‐L1 adipocytes were incubated in culture media containing catechins at 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 µg/mL and caffeine at 50 and 100 µg/mL, singly or in combination, for 8 days. Intracellular lipid accumulation and glycerol‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase activity were strongly suppressed by catechins and caffeine combination treatment. The mRNA expression of PPARɤ, GLUT4, HSL, UCP‐1, and TMEM26 were significantly increased in the combined groups. These findings suggest that the combined treatment inhibited lipid synthesis and improved lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Moreover, it was indicated that the differentiated 3T3‐L1 adipocytes could be transformed from white adipocytes to beige‐like adipocytes by catechins and caffeine, and accordingly that this transformation could promote calorigenic action.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Synergistic Gelation Effects in Surimi Mixtures Composed of Nemipterus virgatus and Hypophthalmichtys molitrix
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Shumin Yi, Yan Huo, Cuiping Qiao, Wei Wang, Xuepeng Li

    Mixtures of marine fish surimi and freshwater fish surimi might have synergistic gelation effects under certain conditions. Here, various mixtures of Nemipterus virgatus surimi and Hypophthalmichtys molitrix surimi were analyzed, with respect to gelation characteristics, rheological properties, protein conformations, and microstructure. When the ratio of N. virgatus surimi to H. molitrix surimi was 3:1, gel strength was increased by 3.08% and 92.13%, while cooking loss was reduced by 7.64% and 33.94%, as compared to pure N. virgatus surimi and pure H. molitrix surimi, respectively. In the mixed surimi as compared to the pure surimi, brightness and whiteness were improved, while water holding capacity, the elasticity modulus (G′), and the β‐sheet content were increased. Three‐dimensional (3D) network structure of the mixed surimi gel was more compact and uniform than that of either pure surimi gel. In a word, the elasticity modulus and β‐sheet content of mixtures surimi were significantly increased, and the 3D structure was more compact and uniform; all these led to synergistic gelation effects in surimi mixtures composed of N. virgatus and H. molitrix.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Impact of Buckwheat Fermented Milk Combined with High‐Fat Diet on Rats’ Gut Microbiota and Short‐Chain Fatty Acids
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Yiming Zhou, Qingyi Jiang, Shen Zhao, Beibei Yan, Xiaoli Zhou

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of buckwheat fermented milk on intestinal flora and short‐chain fatty acids (SCFAs) of rats fed a high‐fat diet (HFD). Buckwheat fermented milk was made with Lactobacillus plantarum ST‐Ⅲ, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Thirty‐six males C57BL/6 rats (aged 3 weeks and with 9 to 12 g weight) were subjected to a 2‐week adaptive period on a normal diet. After a week of acclimatization, the rats were randomly divided into three groups with 12 rats in each group. The high‐fat diet with fermented milk (HFDFM) group received HFD supplemented with fermented milk, and the high‐fat diet supplemented with buckwheat fermented milk (HFDBFM) group received HFD plus buckwheat fermented milk. Besides, the gavage dose was 0.4 mL/day. After the feedings, colon levels of cytokines and antioxidant indices of the liver, colon, and duodenum tissues were measured. The composition of intestinal flora of rats and the content of SCFAs were determined by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry and Illumina high‐throughput sequencing technology. Supplementation with buckwheat fermented milk significantly inhibited the increases in lipopolysaccharide levels in colon and antioxidant indexes in the HFD‐fed rats. In addition, buckwheat fermented milk could significantly enhance Firmicutes and decrease Bacteroidetes compared to HFDFM. In addition, SCFA concentrations in HFDBFM were higher than other groups. In conclusion, buckwheat fermented milk can alleviate the damage of HFD to intestinal flora of rats. It modulates microbiota composition and SCFA concentrations to balance the intestinal environment, which will benefit to rats’ intestinal health.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Emulsifier Composition of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) Affects Mechanical and Barrier Properties of SLN‐Protein Composite Films
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Verena Wiedenmann, Kathleen Oehlke, Ulrike van der Schaaf, Hanna M. Koivula, Kirsi S. Mikkonen, Heike P. Karbstein

    Protein films can be applied to improve food quality and to reduce packaging waste. To overcome their poor water barrier properties, lipids are often incorporated. The function of incorporated lipid depends on the interface between filler and matrix. This study aimed to tailor the properties of a protein–lipid film by designing the oil/water interface to see if the concept of inactive/active filler is valid. Therefore, we varied the emulsifier stabilizing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to promote (via β‐lactoglobulin) or to minimize (via Tween 20) interactions between particle surface and protein. SLN were incorporated into protein films and film properties were determined. Addition of SLN led to significantly decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) of protein films. However, WVP was mainly affected by the emulsifiers and not by the lipid. Protein‐stabilized SLN (BS) replaced a lacking protein in the protein network and therefore did not influence the mechanical properties of the films at ambient temperature. BS‐composite films were temperature sensitive, as lipid and sucrose palmitate melted at temperatures above 40 °C. Tween 20‐stabilized SLN (TS) led to reduced tensile strengths, probably due to perturbative effects of TS and plasticizing effects of Tween 20. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that TS and Tween 20 increased film mobility. Melting of lipid and emulsifiers, and temperature‐dependent behavior of Tween 20 led to a strong temperature dependence of the film stiffness. By designing the interface, particles can be used to tailor mechanical properties of protein films. Tuned edible films could be used to control mass transfers between foods.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Methicillin‐Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Seafood: Prevalence, Laboratory Detection, Clonal Nature, and Control in Seafood Chain
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Murugadas Vaiyapuri, Toms Cheriyath Joseph, Badireddy Madhusudana Rao, Kuttanapilly Velayudhan Lalitha, Mothadaka Mukteswar Prasad

    Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a versatile pathogen bearing multiple virulence determinants, is increasingly being detected in various food‐producing animals, including fish. In addition, it is a potential food poisoning agent. MRSA is not an inherent microbiota of fish; its presence is attributed to pre‐ or postharvest contamination through fish handlers, water, ice, and processing equipment. Several reviews have been written on MRSA in clinical as well as the food animal‐producing sector, but information specific to MRSA in seafood is scant. This review puts forth insights on MRSA detection in seafood, antibiotic resistance, diversity of clones in seafood, and possible control measures in seafood production chain. Emphasis has been given on assessing the variations in the protocols employed for isolation and identification in different food matrices and lay the foundation for researchers to develop optimized procedure.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Study on Antioxidant Activity of Amino Acids at Frying Temperatures and Their Interaction with Rosemary Extract, Green Tea Extract, and Ascorbic Acid
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Hong‐Sik Hwang, Jill K. Winkler‐Moser, Sean X. Liu

    Some amino acids have strong antioxidant activity in frying oil. This study aimed to obtain further information including antioxidant activity at different concentrations and interactions with rosemary extract, green tea extract, and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity of arginine, cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan was examined by increasing the concentration in soybean oil (SBO) at 180 °C within the concentration range of 0 to 15 mM. These amino acids showed increased activity with increasing concentration without showing prooxidant activity at the given concentration range. Addition of 15 mM methionine did not inhibit the prooxidant activity of α‐tocopherol at high concentrations in SBO while it significantly increased the activity at each concentration of α‐tocopherol. Methionine showed an additive effect with a commercial rosemary extract while lysine had an antagonistic interaction in SBO at the total concentration of 5.5 mM. Mixtures of green tea extract and methionine did not show better activity than methionine alone in SBO and stripped SBO. (‐)‐Epigallocatechin gallate, the major active component in green tea, showed a synergistic effect with methionine in stripped SBO but there was no significant interaction effect in SBO. Although ascorbic acid had a synergistic effect with methionine in stripped SBO, it showed a significant antagonistic effect in SBO. Methionine had strong antioxidant activity in six other vegetable oils showing a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.45 to 0.52) with the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids indicating the effectiveness may be related to the fatty acid composition of oil.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Effects of Fermentation on Compositions, Color, and Functional Properties of Gelatinized Potato Flours
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Shengxiang Gong, Fan Xie, Xiaohong Lan, Wei Zhang, Xinzhe Gu, Zhengwu Wang

    This study investigated effects of fermentation on compositions, color, and functional properties of gelatinized potato flours from Atlantic and Kexin No.1 cultivars. Atlantic flour (AF) and Kexin No.1 flour (KF) were fermented using 1% yeast concentration, respectively. Fermentation further improved the nutritional and physicochemical features of gelatinized potato flours by means of increased protein and ash contents, and decreased the levels of moisture, lipid, soluble amylose, amylopectin, and total starch. The lightness and whiteness of potato flours were enhanced with the increase in fermentation time. There are gradual increases in water absorption index, emulsifying capacity and emulsifying stability of potato flours during fermentation. However, bulk density of them slightly reduced with the increase in fermentation time. In addition, fermentation has no significant effect on freeze–thaw stability of gelatinized potato flours. These results indicate that yeast fermentation could enhance certain processing characteristics of potato flours and improve the applicability of them in food formulations.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Use and Understanding of the Role of Spontaneously Formed Nanocellulosic Fiber from Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) Residues to Improve Stability of Sterilized Coconut Milk
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Apimook Kunchitwaranont, Naphaporn Chiewchan, Sakamon Devahastin

    Feasibility of using nanocellulosic fiber (NF) from lime residues as a stabilizer for oil‐in‐water emulsion was investigated. One‐step process to simultaneously prepare an emulsion and NF is proposed. NF could spontaneously form by adding appropriately prepared fiber powder into the test emulsion viz. coconut milk, which was subsequently subject to homogenization and sterilization. Properties of the samples, that is, microstructure, rheological properties, emulsion stability, and color, after sterilization and after 8‐week storage at 30 °C were determined. Sterilized samples exhibited pseudoplastic behavior. Samples containing higher NF concentrations exhibited higher viscosity; viscosity remained constant throughout the whole storage period. High emulsion stabilities (>97%) were observed for samples containing 0.4 to 0.8% (w/v) of NF. L*, C*, and h* of the samples were 79 to 80, 8 to 10, and 90, respectively. Three‐dimensional network of NF (diameters < 50 nm) attached to fat globule surfaces formed during homogenization is postulated to help stabilize the emulsions.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Low‐Acrylamide French Fry Acceptance: A Pilot Study
    J. Food Sci. (IF 2.081) Pub Date : 2019-11-24
    Aaron M. Johnson, Gregory Porter, Mary Ellen Camire

    Concern about the safety of acrylamide in french fries led to the identification of potato varieties low in the acrylamide precursors asparagine and reducing sugars that vary with variety, nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications, and other factors, but produce light‐colored fries, which may not appeal to consumers. New potato varieties shown to produce low‐acrylamide fries, AF4296‐3 and Easton, and an industry‐standard variety, Russet Burbank, were fertilized at four N application rates (0, 112, 224, and 336 kg N/ha) in a 3 × 4 factorial design. Potato tubers from each of the 12 variety X fertilizer factorial combinations were processed into fries. French fries made from Easton and AF4296‐3 potatoes fertilized with the lower N levels were less red (lower CIE a*) and yellow (higher b*) than Russet Burbank fries after frying. Forty‐seven consumers rated the 12 samples (potato variety X N fertilizer rate) on a 9‐point hedonic scale. Aroma, taste, and texture hedonic scores did not differ among samples. The mean hedonic color score for the Russet Burbank fries fertilized with 224 kg/ha (7.4) was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those for the AF4296‐3 with 224 kg/ha N and Easton and 336 kg/ha N fries. After consumers were informed of the acrylamide content of fries relative to commercial products, the overall liking and purchase intent for Russet Burbank fries decreased. Education may be needed to inform consumers about the merits of whiter french fry color as a trade‐off for reduced exposure to acrylamide, which is a probable dietary carcinogen.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
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