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  • Contamination of traditionally smoked cheeses with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biogenic amines
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Agnieszka Pluta-Kubica; Magda Filipczak-Fiutak; Jacek Domagała; Iwona Duda; Władysław Migdał

    The purpose of this research was to determine the occurrence of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 8 biogenic amines in traditionally smoked cheeses in order to control their safety. The majority of the examined cheeses met the requirements of the maximum level of benzo[a]pyrene (2 μg/kg) and the sum of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene (12 μg/kg) set for meat and meat products, except the cheeses D, H and I. However, all cheeses examined in our study were characterized by a relatively low amount of the sum of these compounds when compared to information available in literature regarding cheese. It ranged from <0.50 to 24.90 μg/kg. Most likely this was due to delicate smoking with warm smoke. In general, the sum of biogenic amines was found to be very low in all examined cheeses. It ranged from 3.51 to 19.07 mg/kg. Such quantity poses no threat to the health of consumers.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • A 2-D imaging-assisted geometrical transformation method for non-destructive evaluation of the volume and surface area of avian eggs
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Valeriy G. Narushin; Gang Lu; James Cugley; Michael N. Romanov; Darren K. Griffin

    Egg volume and surface area are reliable predictors of quality traits for both table and hatching chicken eggs. A new non-destructive technique for the fast and accurate evaluation of these two egg variables is addressed in the present study. The proposed method is based on the geometrical transformation of actual egg contour into a well-known geometrical figure which shape most of all resembles the examined egg. The volume and surface area of an examined egg were recomputed using the formulae appropriate for three figures including sphere, ellipsoid, and egg-shape ovoid. The method of the geometrical transformation includes the measurements of the egg length and the area of the examined eggs. These variables were determined using two-dimensional (2-D) digital imaging and image processing techniques. The geometrical transformation approach is proven to be reliable to turn the studied chicken eggs into the three chosen ovoid models, with the best prediction being shown for the ellipsoid and egg-shape ovoid, whilst the former was slightly more preferable. Depending on the avian species studied, we hypothesise that it would be more suitable to use the sphere model for more round shaped eggs and the egg-shaped ovoid model if the examined eggs are more conical. The choice of the proposed transformation technique would be applicable not only for the needs of poultry industry but also in ornithological, basically zoological studies when handling the varieties of eggs of different shapes. The experimental results show that the method proposed is accurate, reliable, robust and fast when coupled and assisted with the digital imaging and image processing techniques, and can serve as a basis for developing an appropriate instrumental technology and bringing it into the practice of poultry enterprises and hatcheries.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Dietary exposure and health risk characterization of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in food from different provinces in Northern Vietnam
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Tuan Huu Do; Son Cao Tran; Chi Dinh Le; Binh Thi Ha Nguyen; Thao Thi Phuong Le; Hao Thi Hong Le; Tuyen Danh Le; Thu Hung Thai-Nguyen

    A dietary exposure and health risk assessment of mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone was conducted in 3 provinces in Northern Vietnam namely Hanoi, Thanh Hoa, and Ha Giang. Results of the analysis of samples of maize, rice, peanut, and sesame revealed the presence of these mycotoxins in all samples and sampling locations. Aflatoxin B1 was the most frequently detected (19.1%) and widely distributed among different types of samples, whereas the percentage occurrence of fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone were 11.2, 5.9 and 6.3, respectively. The later three mycotoxins were detected mostly in maize. The exposure to aflatoxin B1 at detected levels could lead to 0.23, 0.65 and 21.0 cases of liver cancer per 100,000 adult people per year in Hanoi, Thanh Hoa and Ha Giang, respectively. The risk assessment also showed the unsafe exposure to ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 in the highland region where the people consume a large amount of foods derived from maize. In Ha Giang, the mean exposures to fumonisin B1 were lower than its PMTDI (Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake), however, the 95th percentile values were 1.1–1.9 times of the PMTDI. The mean exposures to ochratoxin A in Ha Giang were about 2.4–3.6 times higher than its PMTWI (Provisional Maximum Tolerable Weekly Intake). There was no risk of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A in Hanoi and Thanh Hoa. The dietary exposure to zearalenone was within its PMTDI in all locations. The results pointed out the need for further improvement of the control of these mycotoxins in Vietnam, especially in some highland provinces.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Advances in antimicrobial peptides-based biosensing methods for detection of foodborne pathogens: A review
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zhaohui Qiao; Yingchun Fu; Chunyang Lei; Yanbin Li

    Foodborne diseases caused by pathogens are great threats to human health. Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of diseases. The identification and detection of foodborne pathogens by biosensors have attracted great attention due to their high sensitivity, nearly real-time quantification without enrichment and the possibility of on-site detection with easy-to-use format. As a promising alternative recognition element of biosensors, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high stability and low cost have been widely studied in the detection of bacteria. In this review, we retrospect the advances on AMPs-based detection methods for foodborne pathogens including electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric methods as well as their integrations with nanomaterials. Considering the important roles of AMPs affinity in detection, the factors influencing AMPs affinity are introduced before the review of various AMPs-based methods. In addition, as a new promising technology, the microfluidics has been integrated with AMPs-based methods to detect foodborne pathogens. Finally, future perspectives and challenges in developing reliable and sensitive AMPs-based platforms are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Effect of partial replacement of polyphosphate with alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) on the quality of catfish fillets
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Hui-Min Lin; Yen-Con Hung; Shang-Gui Deng

    Effect of partial replacement of polyphosphate (50%) with alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) on the water retention capacity, color, textural properties and lipid oxidation of catfish fillets was investigated. Catfish fillet samples were divided into five soaking group: Group 1 (AEW: pH=11.6), Group 2 (EOA: AEW with 1.25g/L sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.3g/L sodium metapolyphosphate, 0.4g/L sodium polyphosphate , pH=11.4), Group 3 (NEO: water with 2.5 g/L sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.6g/L sodium metapolyphosphate, 0.8g/L sodium polyphosphate, pH=9.0), Group 4 (WAT: tap water) and Group 5 (NOT: no soaking treatment). The results showed that AEW and EOA can improve catfish fillets weight gain and enhance water retention capacity similar to the phosphate enhancement treatment (NEO), but had no effect on product L* value and hardness and elasticity. For the total color difference (ΔE) and oxidation resistance, EOA treatment was better than AEW and NEO. Therefore, AEW alone or AEW with phosphate used in the traditional phosphate enhancement solutions can be used to enhance the quality of catfish fillets.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • NMR-based metabolic profiling discriminates the geographical origin of raw sesame seeds
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Seok-Young Kim; EunBi Kim; Byeung Kon Shin; Jeong-Ah Seo; Young-Suk Kim; Do Yup Lee; Hyung-Kyoon Choi

    Sesame seeds are an oil crop mainly cultivated in Asian and African countries. Identification of the geographical origin of sesame seeds is an important issue for preventing adulteration and for quality assurance. This study was performed to establish a discrimination model and investigate potential biomarkers for differentiating the geographical origin of sesame seeds from Korea, China, and other countries (India, Nigeria, and Ethiopia) by nuclear magnetic resonance -spectroscopy based metabolic profiling. A total of 24 polar metabolites in sesame seeds from 10, 6, and 4 samples of Korea, China, and other countries, respectively, were identified, and an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis model was established applying a total normalization and unit variance scaling method. Leave-one-out cross validation showed an accuracy of 97.5, 90.0, and 100.0% in differentiating the sesame seed geographical origin. Acetate, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were suggested as potential biomarkers by variable influence on projection value (over 1.0) and area under the curve value (over 0.75). This study demonstrated that 1H NMR analysis with multivariate and univariate statistical analyses of the polar metabolites in sesame seeds could be successfully applied to discriminate the geographical origin of sesame seeds. These results could be applied to develop a standard analytical process to verify seed origin and halt the global distribution of falsely labeled sesame seeds.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • The effect of Lean Six Sigma practices on food industry performance: Implications of the Sector's experience and typical characteristics
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Luana Bonome Message Costa; Moacir Godinho Filho; Lawrence D. Fredendall; Gilberto Miller Devós Ganga

    Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma initiatives (L&SSi) have been adopted by different industry and service sectors to improve companies' performance and competitiveness; however, adoption in the food industry is still very low. The sector lacks familiarity with the L&SSi initiatives; it views “quality” as a safety and hygiene factor, which is one characteristic that differentiates it from other sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the food industry sector's characteristics affects its adoption of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) practices and performance improvement. A survey of 145 food industry firms was conducted and then analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the research framework. Our findings suggest that LSS is relevant and effective in this sector. Food industry performance is positively affected by the adoption of LSS practices. Moreover the adoption of LSS practices in the food industry is greatly affected by the level of experience of the individual company. The level of experience moderates two performance indicators very valued by the sector (financial gains and product quality). The food industry is to a certain extent affected by the sector's characteristics. The compulsory cleaning practices restrict adoption of LSS practices such as set-up time reduction. Six Sigma role structure and Statistical Process Control dimensions are among the sector's least adopted practices. These practices require financial resources for training, which can be a challenge in a sector with low margins that primarily focuses on cost reduction, and they require statistical techniques and knowledge that is generally considered complex and too advanced in the food industry. These findings suggest that as managerial awareness of the relevance of LSS practices to food industry performance improvement increases, that managers will encourage employees to gain experience using the tools.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Exploring the potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging for automated quantification of rind amount in grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    R. Calvini; S. Michelini; V. Pizzamiglio; G. Foca; A. Ulrici

    Parmigiano Reggiano (P-R) is one of the most important Italian food products labelled with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The PDO denomination is applied also to grated P-R cheese products meeting the requirements regulated by the Specifications of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese. Different quality parameters are monitored, including the percentage of rind, which is edible and should not exceed the limit of 18% (w/w). The present study aims at evaluating the possibility of using near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) to quantify the rind percentage in grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples in a fast and non-destructive manner. Indeed, NIR-HSI allows the simultaneous acquisition of both spatial and spectral information from a sample, which is more suitable than classical single-point spectroscopy for the analysis of heterogeneous samples like grated cheese. Hyperspectral images of grated P-R cheese samples containing increasing levels of rind were acquired in the 900-1700 nm spectral range. Each hyperspectral image was firstly converted into a one-dimensional signal, named hyperspectrogram, which codifies the relevant information contained in the image. Then, the matrix of hyperspectrograms was used to calculate a calibration model for the prediction of the rind percentage using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. The calibration model was validated considering two external test sets of samples, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Prevalence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with strong biofilm formation ability among animal-based food in Shanghai
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Chujun Ou; Daiqi Shang; Jingxian Yang; Bo Chen; Jiang Chang; Fangning Jin; Chunlei Shi

    Antimicrobial resistance has gradually become a serious problem threatening public health and food safety throughout the world. Biofilm is one of the important factors affecting the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus usually has strong biofilm formation ability, and it is widely found in animal-based food. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of S. aureus in animal-based food. Total 959 samples representing eight types of animal-based foods were collected from randomly selected locations (21 supermarkets and 18 wet markets) throughout the Shanghai city. The overall isolation rate of S. aureus was 17.2% (165/959). For each food category, the isolation rate was 21.8% for chicken (45/206), 21.5% for pork (71/331), 15.2% for beef (16/105), 13.8% for duck (9/65), 12.1% for aquatic products (17/141), 8.6% for egg (5/58), and 7.1% for lamb (2/28), respectively. No isolate was found from pasteurized milk (n = 25). Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that among all the S. aureus isolates, 90.3% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 39.4% were multi-drug resistant, and 23 isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Comparing the resistance rates to different antimicrobials, S. aureus had the highest resistance rate to penicillin, up to 82.4% (136/165); followed by erythromycin (57.6%, 95/165) and tetracycline (27.9%, 46/165). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. With the microtiter plate and crystal violet staining assay, 64.8% of all the 165 isolates had strong biofilm formation ability and 20.0% were moderate producers. Remarkably, significant difference was found in biofilm formation ability between those isolates from supermarkets and wet markets (p < 0.01). According to WGS analysis of 19 multi-drug resistant isolates with strong biofilm formation ability, ST7 was the dominant sequence type. Combined analysis showed that S. aureus isolates with drug resistance phenotypes usually had stronger ability to form biofilm.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • One-step kinetic analysis of competitive growth of Salmonella spp. and background flora in ground chicken
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Zhen Jia; Yabo Peng; Xiaotong Yan; Ziye Zhang; Ting Fang; Changcheng Li

    The present study was aimed at developing a mathematical model to predict the growth of Salmonella in ground chicken in the presence of the background microflora. Ground chicken was inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis and incubated at various isothermal temperatures (8-33 °C). Salmonella grew at all temperatures, except at 8 °C, while the background microflora could grow under all conditions. The observed growth data of both Salmonella and background microflora at temperatures between 12 and 33 °C were analyzed simultaneously to develop the predictive growth models. The Huang-Jameson effect (HJE) model and Huang-Lotka-Volterra (HLV) model were used to describe the growth and interaction between Salmonella and background microflora. The Huang square-root model was used to evaluate the effect of temperature on the growth rates and lag times of Salmonella and background microflora. A one-step analysis method was used to directly build the tertiary models and to determine the kinetic parameters from the growth curves. The minimum growth temperature (Tmin) for Salmonella estimated by both the HJE and HLV models was 7.2 °C. The Tmin for background flora determined by HJE and HLV model was 1.3 and 1.8 °C, respectively. Under competition, the growth rate of Salmonella could be lower or higher than that of the native microbiota, depending on the storage temperature. Above 16.8 °C, Salmonella grew faster than the background microflora. With relatively low value of RMSE (0.3 log CFU/g), the HJE and HLV models could both successfully describe the growth of Salmonella and native microflora and the interaction between the two. Although the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value of the HJE model (−349.1) was slightly smaller than that of the HLV model (−339.4), both models were practically equal in accuracy for predicting the competitive growth of Salmonella and background flora in ground chicken. The HJE model and kinetic parameters were validated using separate isothermal and dynamic growth data. The validation results indicated the competition model was accurate. The RMSE of the predictions was only 0.3 log CFU/g. Overall, the residual errors of predictions followed a normal distribution, with more than 86% of them were within ±0.5 log CFU/g. The results from this study may be useful for microbial risk assessments of Salmonella and shelf-life prediction of ground chicken.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • One-stop rapid detection of fumonisin B1, dexyonivalenol and zearalenone in grains
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Silu Hou; Jingjiao Ma; Yuqiang Cheng; Hengan Wang; Jianhe Sun; Yaxian Yan

    Mycotoxins are a class of secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that are harmful to humans and animals. Here, a multiplex immunochromatographic assay was reported, which is based on 25 nm colloidal gold for simultaneous qualitative detection of fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat and corn samples. After conditions optimization, the immunochromatographic strip has high sensitivity. The visual detection limits of the immunochromatographic test strips for FB1, DON and ZEN reached 60, 12.5 and 6 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the immunochromatographic strip has high specificity, no reaction to each other, or no cross-reactivity with ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Furthermore, eighteen samples (including corn and wheat) were tested using the test strips and verified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results of strips were found to be consistent with those of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In short, this work demonstrates that the spherical colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic test strip we developed can be used to quickly and simultaneously monitor the existence of multiple mycotoxins in agricultural food samples.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Authentication of roasted and ground coffee samples containing multiple adulterants using NMR and a chemometric approach
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Maria Izabel Milani; Eduardo Luiz Rossini; Tiago Augusto Catelani; Leonardo Pezza; Aline Theodoro Toci; Helena Redigolo Pezza

    Brazil is still the world's largest producer and exporter of coffee. In order to maximize profits, some producers may add lower cost materials (such as corn, barley, or even coffee husks) to commercial coffee. In view of the growing market for coffee products and the importance of coffee for the Brazilian economy, it is necessary to have a rapid, simple, and reliable methodology to identify and quantify coffee adulterants. NMR has proved to be a versatile and robust tool for the identification of adulterants in foods and beverages. Here, we explore the versatility of 1H NMR assisted with chemometric tools, avoiding laborious data analysis, for the quantification of coffee adulteration. Six different adulterants were considered: barley, corn, coffee husks, soybean, rice, and wheat. The NMR-based methodology described here provided satisfactory LOD values (0.31–0.86%) for adulterants in medium and dark roast coffees. The statistical techniques PCA and SIMCA were employed for pattern recognition and the identification of pure and adulterated samples. Use of the SIMCA model enabled 100% correct classification for both training and prediction sets, ensuring the accuracy, traceability, and reliability of the results.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A Meta-Analytic Review Of Food Safety Risk Perception
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Vinicius A.M. Nardi; Rafael Teixeira; Wagner Junior Ladeira; Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    Studies investigating food safety risk perception (FSRP) have substantially increased in recent years, particularly because of recent cases of food contamination. Most studies analysed the effects of FSRP antecedents and their consequences but reported heterogeneous effects. To consolidate these results and provide a more robust and parsimonious picture of FSRP, we conducted a meta-analysis of 128 empirical studies that investigated the key drivers and outcomes of FRSP and potential moderator variables. Our findings reveal the key drivers (trust, knowledge, subjective characteristics, and socio-demographic characteristics) of FSRP and a robust negative consequent effect on the willingness to buy (WTB). Also, we reveal the moderation role of the food origin, risk type, healthiness, shelf life and pleasure in the consequent effect. Our results contribute to the growing literature related to FSRP by consolidating previous results and help establish a foundation for further advancement in this topic. More importantly, our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the FSRP phenomenon to help in the design of guidelines and rules that shape supplier behaviour to enhance food safety along the food supply chain.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Temperature fluctuations in processing and distribution: Effect on the shelf life of fresh cod fillets (Gadus morhua L.)
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Grete Lorentzen; Tatiana N. Ageeva; Morten Heide; Margrethe Esaiassen

    Low temperature is essential in keeping quality of fresh cod products, and maintaining low temperature is challenging during processing, distribution and storage. In the first step of this study, temperature fluctuations of fresh cod fillets were logged in a commercial cold chain. Short-term temperature rise was observed in the fillets during processing, but in the following distribution, the temperature of the product was approximately 0 °C. In supermarkets, however, fillet temperatures up to 7.0 °C were registered. In the second step, a controlled storage experiment was performed copying time and temperature conditions mapped in the first step. The fillet quality was evaluated with respect to odour and TVB-N at day 7, 10 and 12 after catch. Even a minor rise in temperature by 2 °C reduced the shelf life significantly after 12 days (5 days in ice followed by 7 days at elevated temperature) (p < 0.05). Only fillets stored at 0 °C was below the threshold of 35 mg TVB-N/100 g after 12 days of storage. In this experiment, this threshold was passed at 12 degree-days (DD), and it is suggested that DD should be further explored for generating a rule of thumb for shelf life of cod fillets.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics tools for authenticity and improvement the safety control in goat milk
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    José Luan da Paixão Teixeira; Elem Tamirys dos Santos Caramês; Débora Parra Baptista; Mirna Lúcia Gigante; Juliana Azevedo Lima Pallone

    Goat milk has a potential target of fraud. In this sense, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) have been successfully used to detect food fraud. This study aimed to develop multivariate classification models using NIRS to detect adulterants in goat milk. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), control chart, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Part Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) were used to detect the adulterants: water, urea, bovine whey and cow's milk in goat's milk samples with concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, resulting in 300 control samples and 300 adulterated samples. The control chart discriminated authentic and adulterated samples with 95% confidence. The PLS-DA results were better compared to those obtained by k-NN and SIMCA; presenting 100% sensitivity and specificity in calibration, cross validation, and prediction. Therefore, NIRS combined with PLS-DA was adequate to detect goat milk safety control associated with adulteration.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • A cohort study investigating a point source outbreak of Clostridium perfringens associated with consumption of roasted meat and gravy at a buffet on Mothering Sunday 2018, South West, England
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Simon Packer; Jane Day; Peter Hardman; Julia Cameron; Michael Kennedy; Jonathan Turner; Caroline Willis; Corinne Amar; Bayad Nozad; Maya Gobin

    In March 2018, Public Health England was alerted to an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in persons who had eaten at a restaurant in the South West of England on Mothering Sunday. We aimed to determine the source of infection and control the outbreak. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken among all individuals who ate at the restaurant on March 11, 2018. Cases were defined as any person who consumed food from the restaurant and had diarrhoea or vomiting between 12:00 March 11, 2018 and 23:59 March 15, 2018. Data were collected using a secure electronic questionnaire. Descriptive, univariable and multivariable analyses were undertaken with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated for exposures. Clinical and food samples were collected for microbiological testing and molecular typing. The restaurant reported 293 people attending, 176 (60%) completed the survey and 146 (50%) provided sufficient information for inclusion in the analysis. Eighty-one persons met the case definition (attack rate 55.5%); eating from the roast meat buffet was associated with illness (OR: 7.80, 95% CI: 2.03–43.56). No single food item explained all the cases. Independent associations between consumption of gravy (adjusted OR (aOR): 5.35, 95% CI:2.21–12.93), lamb (aOR: 2.51, 95% CI:1.06–5.96), and eating during the later 16:00 sitting (aOR: 5.23, 95% CI:1.76–15.54) were identified. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was detected in clinical samples and the same strain of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens that was isolated from clinical samples was also detected in roasted lamb, beef and turkey. We found strong evidence for an outbreak of C. perfringens food poisoning associated with gravy and/or meat consumption. The data suggests cross-contamination between items, which increased over time. We recommend that health agencies ensure that restaurants serving roasted meat buffets adhere to minimum oven temperatures and take special measures to prevent food poisoning and cross contamination at the preparation and serving stage.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Effect of pecan variety and the method of extraction on the antimicrobial activity of pecan shell extracts against different foodborne pathogens and their efficacy on food matrices
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Veerachandra K. Yemmireddy; Cameron Cason; Juan Moreira; Achyut Adhikari

    The shells of pecans are a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential inhibitory activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of pecan shell extracts as effected by the type of cultivar and the method of extraction against various foodborne bacterial pathogens. Defatted shell powders of 19 different pecan cultivars were subjected to aqueous and ethanolic extraction (1:20 w/v) procedures, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of lyophilized pecan shell extracts dissolved in deionized water containing 5% DMSO (v/v) were determined against multiple strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antimicrobial activity of pecan shell extracts was found to be pathogen specific and strain dependent. Overall, L. monocytogenes was found to be least resistant to treatment with pecan shell extracts with an MIC and/or MBC values ranging from 1.25 to 5 mg/mL followed by Salmonella enterica (2.5 to ≥5 mg/mL) and E. coli O157:H7 (≥5 mg/mL). Type of cultivar and the method of extraction found to have a variable effect on the antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the challenge studies on fresh-cut cantaloupes and thawed catfish fillets treated with 5 mg/mL pecan shell extracts and stored at 4ºC for up to 5 days showed a <0.5 to 4 log less growth in L. monocytogenes when compared to the controls with no treatment. No significant change in the color quality of treated food samples was observed with pecan shell extract treatment. The results of this study showed promise to use pecan shell extracts as a natural antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of tested foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Assessment of foodborne illness awareness and preferred information sources among students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Mohammed AL-Mohaithef; Bijaya K. Padhi; Mohammed Shameel; Ahmed M.E. Elkhalifa; Mohammed Tahash; Sriram Chandramohan; Ahmed Hazazi

    Background Foodborne diseases (FBD) is becoming a significant public health concern in both developed and developing countries. Young adults are the most vulnerable demographic of food poisoning. While research has indicated that young adults are undereducated in food poisoning knowledge, studies examining the knowledge of young Arabian, as well as approaches to improve their education, have not been conducted. The study objective was to assess foodborne illness and preferred information sources among students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods We designed a cross-sectional study among Saudi Electronic University students (N = 429) located across major geographic locations in KSA. A questionnaire pertaining to knowledge on food poisoning was administered to registered students. A score of 1 was given to the right answer, and 0 to the wrong answer. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to predict the relationship between the dependent variable (overall knowledge score) and the independent variables (demographic, the field of study, education level, and geography). Results Respondents were, on average, 24.2 ± 4.5 years old. The majority of the students belongs to Riyadh (30.2%), Abha (27.5%), Dammam (22.6%), and Jeddah (15.9%) campus. About half of the students were female. Most of the students (78.6%) were from the bachelor level of education. Students field of study varies across domains; the majority of them belongs to the health sciences field. Of the 429 respondents, 85.5% of students know the causes of food poisoning. However, half of them don't know the difference between food infection and food intoxication. 27.3% of students don't recognize the source of food that is more likely associated with foodborne disease. Multivariate analyses indicates that the field of study category was associated with the poor knowledge of the causes of foodborne illnesses among the study participants. Compared with health sciences, students belonging to the computer science field were relatively low knowledge on the cause of food poisoning (Odds Ratio: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.15–7.51), and they are also less likely to differentiate between food infection and food intoxication (Odds Ratio: 3.95; 95% CI: 1.81–8.60). 42.9% of students visit a doctor to seek information about food poisoning, and 39.9% visit government website followed by social media (39.6%) for information on food poisoning. Conclusion Students in this survey were fairly knowledgeable about foodborne diseases, and most of them used an authentic source of information for their knowledge. Our study is consistent with other similar studies, and educational institutions can play an essential role in food safety education while targeting health education and promotion. These results warrant the need for a health education program in creating greater awareness of foodborne diseases among students.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Rapid and Sensitive Screening and Identification of CRISPR/Cas9 Edited Rice Plants Using Quantitative Real-time PCR Coupled with High Resolution Melting Analysis
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Rong Li; Yan Ba; Yu Song; Jinjie Cui; Xiujie Zhang; Dabing Zhang; Zheng Yuan; Litao Yang
    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Evaluation of chemical treatment combined with vacuum and ultrasonication with a water resonance system for reducing Campylobacter on naturally contaminated chicken carcasses
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Torrung Vetchapitak; Taisuke Shinki; Satomi Sasaki; Takako Taniguchi; Taradon Luangtongkum; Naoaki Misawa

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new technique for removal of campylobacters from naturally contaminated free-range and broiler chicken carcasses. The carcasses, obtained from commercial processing plants after evisceration, were immersed in 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or 0.01% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and exposed to a vacuum of −0.02 MPa to remove air from feather. The carcasses were then immersed in a disinfectant solution in a steel container and subjected to ultrasonication with a water resonance system (WRS) at 130 kHz. Tap water was also used instead of the disinfectant, and other carcasses were immersed in each chemical alone. The Campylobacter count on breast and back skin was determined by the most-probable-number (MPN) method. This new treatment using CPC and NaOCl significantly reduced the Campylobacter count on back and breast skin. Treatment with 0.1% CPC combined with vacuum and ultrasonication with the WRS was the most effective, achieving a Campylobacter reduction of 1.36–1.64 log10 MPN/10 g and 0.94–1.16 log10 MPN/10 g on free-range and broiler chicken carcasses, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that this treatment successfully removed debris from breast skin in comparison to untreated skin. These results suggest that the use of sanitizers employing a combination of vacuum and ultrasonication with a WRS is highly effective for reducing the count of campylobacters on chicken carcasses.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Antimicrobial bio-nanocomposites and their potential applications in food packaging
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Ruchi Sharma; Seid Mahdi Jafari; Somesh Sharma

    Bio-nanocomposites are bio-based polymers made up of two major components in which one acts as a matrix called biopolymer (continuous phase) and second called as reinforcement agent (dispersed phase) with dimensions in the range of 1-100 nm. These exhibit typical characteristics such as flexibility, biocompatibility, biodegradability, eco-friendliness, and cost-effectiveness which can be further enhanced by the reinforcement components. Bio-nanocomposites can be modified by fusion of nanofillers such as MMT (montmorillonite), AgO, TiO2, SiO2, ZnO and biodegradable polymers including polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), polybutylene succinate (PBS), polylactic acid (PLA) and poly-caprolactone (PCL), along with natural biopolymers such as starch and chitosan. Incorporation of antimicrobial agents into the food packaging materials inhibits the growth of microorganisms on food surfaces and thus increases their shelf life. The various experimentally designed antimicrobial nanocomposites are PLA/halloysite, PLA/Ag nanoparticles, hydroxyapatite/titania, layered silicate, and cellulose nanofibers which could inhibit the growth of different pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and B. subtilis. These advantageous properties of antimicrobial bio-nanocomposites suggest their practical use in the food packaging industry.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Aflatoxin detoxification in tortillas using an infrared radiation thermo-alkaline process: cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Zavala-Franco Anai; Arámbula-Villa Gerónimo; Ramírez-Noguera Patricia; Salazar Ana María; Sordo Monserrat; Marroquín-Cardona Alicia; Figueroa-Cárdenas Juan de Dios; Méndez-Albores Abraham

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites with mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive capacity in humans, the occurrence of which in maize grain is widespread. Nixtamalization, a process based on alkaline cooking, including infrared radiation, may be a suitable method for detoxification of this toxin. In this work, we carried out a cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation of the extracts from maize (ME), tortilla from an infrared nixtamalization process (TEIR) and tortilla from a traditional nixtamalization process (TET) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde production), oxidative damage (glutathione modulation), Ames test (mutagenic response), and Comet assay (DNA damage). The formation capacity of the AFB1-Lysine (AFB1-Lys) adduct using maize and tortilla extracts was also tested. The infrared nixtamalization process showed a reduction of up to 93% of aflatoxins in tortillas, with a decrease in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in all the tests performed. However, with TEIR and TET, AFB1-Lys adduct was not formed. We concluded that the process of nixtamalization with infrared radiation can be used for the detoxification of aflatoxins in tortillas.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Procedure for Microbiological Baseline Surveys Conducted by US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Hans D. Allender; Stephanie Buchanan; Naser Abdelmajid; Ilene Arnold; Jeanetta Tankson; John Mark Carter

    This article describes the procedures and statistical techniques that the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) utilizes when performing a microbiological baseline survey. A baseline is a statistical survey of a specific product regulated by FSIS. It is used to learn about the microbiological profile associated with the commodity. The survey generates data that are used for calculation of national prevalence, performing risk assessments, providing support for guidance to industry, and answers for other data-specific projects. The knowledge gained through baseline surveys is used to accomplish the FSIS mission, which is “Protecting the public’s health by ensuring the safety of meat, poultry, and processed egg products.”

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • An intercontinental analysis of food safety culture in view of food safety governance and national values
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Shingai P. Nyarugwe; Anita R. Linnemann; Yingxue Ren; Evert-Jan Bakker; Jamal B. Kussaga; Derek Watson; Vincenzo Fogliano; Pieternel A. Luning

    Taking food safety culture into account is a promising way to improve food safety performance in the food industry. Food safety culture (FS-culture) research is expanding from an organisational perspective to include characteristics of the internal and external company environment. In this study, the prevailing food safety culture in 17 food companies from four countries on three continents (Africa, Asia and Europe) was assessed in view of food safety governance and national values. The internal environment characteristics, i.e. food safety vision, food safety program and food production system vulnerability, were also assessed. Statistical analysis revealed little variation in FS-culture scores between the companies within the same country. Overall the FS-culture for Greek and Zambian companies was scored proactive, while for Chinese and Tanzanian companies an active score was achieved. Both the internal and external company environment seemed to influence the prevailing FS-culture. Cluster analysis showed that Tanzanian and Zambian companies exhibited similarities in the implementation of food safety programs, and in their national values and food safety governance as compared to Greece and China. Food safety governance was reflected in the food safety programs and supportiveness of the organisation to food safety and hygiene. All cultural dimensions were correlated with risk perceptions, with masculinity and long-term orientation also significantly correlated with the enabling conditions and attitude. Understanding how national values and food safety governance approaches differently influence food safety culture is expected to enable formulation of best approaches tailored for companies operating in countries with different company environments, to improve food safety performance.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Effect of UVC light-emitting diodes on apple juice: Inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and determination of quality
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Qisen Xiang; Liumin Fan; Rong Zhang; Yunfang Ma; Shengnan Liu; Yanhong Bai

    The effects of ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) irradiation on Zygosaccharomyces rouxii levels and physicochemical properties of apple juice were determined. The populations of Z. rouxii in apple juice were reduced by 4.86- and 5.46-log values after UVC-LEDs irradiation at 800 and 1200 mJ/cm2 (p < 0.05), respectively. The pH, electrical conductivity, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, and lightness (L*) value of apple juice remained almost constant after UVC-LEDs irradiation up to 1200 mJ/cm2 (p > 0.05). Nonetheless, the UVC-LEDs irradiation caused reduction in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Additionally, UVC-LEDs treatment caused significant changes in the color attributes (a*, b*, chroma, hue angle, and total color difference) and browning index of apple juice. These results suggest that UVC-LEDs irradiation may be an effective alternative to conventional thermal treatments in fruit and vegetable juices processing.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Food fraud: Assessing fraud vulnerability in the extra virgin olive oil supply chain
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jing Yan; Sara W. Erasmus; Miguel Aguilera Toro; Haixin Huang; Saskia M. van Ruth

    As a high value commodity on the market, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a suitable target for fraudsters. To understand differences in perceived fraud vulnerability between tier groups across the EVOO supply chain and to disclose underlying factors, the perceived fraud vulnerability of 28 companies was examined using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Amongst these companies were seven olive oil producers, seven business-to-business (B2B) companies, seven food manufacturers and seven retailers. The similarities and differences in perceived fraud vulnerabilities according to group characteristics (the role, the scale and the location of the company) were evaluated. Non-parametric tests and multiple correspondence analysis were applied for data exploration. An in-depth fraud vulnerability assessment of the EVOO supply chain was provided. Eight fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high in the supply chain indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Four factors related to control measures are perceived as greatest vulnerability in the EVOO supply chain. Then, the vulnerability to fraud in the EVOO supply chain across all actors is perceived as high level on average. In decreasing contribution to the overall perceived fraud vulnerability, the fraud factor categories were ranked as follow: technical opportunities, a lack of managerial controls, a lack of technical controls, economic drivers, cultural and behavioural drivers, and opportunities in time and place. Among the tier groups, the retailers and B2B companies experienced higher levels of perceived vulnerability than olive oil producers and food manufacturers due to the additional vulnerability related to the opportunities in time and place, and greatest lack of control measures. Furthermore, the perceived fraud vulnerability of the company was not only determined by the tier group, but also impacted by the scale and location of the company.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Characterization of yateí (Tetragonisca fiebrigi) honey and preservation treatments: dehumidification, pasteurization and refrigeration
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Natasha Schvezov; Amada B. Pucciarelli; Belen Valdes; Andrea M. Dallagnol

    A complete study on the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of yateí honey (Tetragonisca fiebrigi) was carried out, focusing on the quality standards that are necessary for its commercialization. The results showed that physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of T. fiebrigi honey differed from standard values of Apis mellifera, but not from other stingless bees honey from South America. Yateí honey showed the presence of fecal contamination (Escherichia coli), and a seasonal influence in microbiological parameters, acidity, pH, sucrose and diastase activity. On the other hand, three preservation treatments were carried out and evaluated for 90 days in T. fiebrigi honey: refrigeration, pasteurization and dehumidification. Pasteurization and dehumidification of yateí honey eliminated fecal contamination while in refrigerated honey E. coli survived in time (8-90 days), unlike the samples kept at room temperature (<3 days). Physico-chemical parameters of yateí honey changed in time after the treatments, specifically, HMF was present after 90 days in honey treated with heat or dehumidified, making it a key parameter of yateí honey quality.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Lactolisterin BU-producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGBU1-4: Bio-control of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylocococcus aureus in fresh soft cheese and effect on immunological response of rats
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Nemanja Mirkovic; Jelena Kulas; Zorana Miloradovic; Marija Miljkovic; Dina Tucovic; Jelena Miocionovic; Branko Jovcic; Ivana Mirkov; Milan Kojic

    In last two decades, there has been a strong trend in the application of lactic acid bacteria as adjunctive cultures to control growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in food. One of the most important properties that contribute to the application of these bacteria is the production of antimicrobial molecules. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGBU1-4, isolated from traditional brined cheese, produces novel thermostable bacteriocin named lactolisterin BU, with broad spectrum of activity against spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. In this study, effect of strain BGBU1-4, as adjunct culture, on the numbers of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19111 and Staphylococcus aureus LMM322 in artificially contaminated Quark-type, soft acid coagulated cheese, was examined. In addition, we analyzed influence of BGBU1-4 on chemical and sensory properties of the cheese, as well as immunological response of Albino oxford rats fed with Quark-type of cheese made using BGBU1-4 as adjunct culture. Results of this study revealed antibacterial potential of strain BGBU1-4 against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus LMM322 in Quark-type cheese during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Also, it was noticed the ability of BGU1-4 to control the spontaneously grown yeasts and molds. Chemical composition and pH values of cheese containing BGBU1-4 were unchanged in comparison to control. The sensory quality scores showed that there was difference between cheese with and without adjunct culture in terms of flavor and oral texture, while for the odor and appearance no differences between two cheese variants were scored. Results of the immunological response of Albino rats fed with Quark-type cheese containing BGBU1-4 indicate absence of systematic inflammation. However, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines content (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17) in intestine of rats fed with cheese containing BGBU1-4, concomitantly with unchanged anti-inflammatory cytokines suggests disruption of gut homeostasis and inflammation in this tissue. The changes caused by BGBU1-4 are reversible, system returns into homeostasis seven days after cessation of feeding with cheese containing BGBU1-4.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Generic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (O157:H7) contamination of lettuce and radish microgreens grown in peat moss and perlite
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Hasan Işık; Zeynal Topalcengiz; Senem Güner; Aziz Aksoy

    Pathogens can be transferred to microgreens from seeds, irrigation water and growth media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157:H7) and generic E. coli to lettuce and radish microgreens grown in spray and bottom irrigated peat moss and perlite. Lettuce and radish seeds were grown in nalidixic acid resistant E. coli strains inoculated peat moss and perlite. Populations of cells were enumerated on edible and inedible part of plants. Survival of E. coli strains were also examined in growth media for 28 days. Type of irrigation did not affect the population of cells transferred to edible part of plants (P > 0.05). Populations of E. coli contaminating the inedible part of plant were higher in perlite than those in peat moss (P < 0.05). No E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in edible part of lettuce grown in peat moss. Radish microgreens had high generic E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 populations (4.15–6.49 log CFU/g) regardless of growing media. E. coli O157:H7 showed similar survival trends to generic E. coli in peat moss, perlite and plant growth solution over 28 days of storage. Cultivation of microgreens in perlite requires umbrella strategies to mitigate risk including irrigation water quality, seed decontamination and postharvest treatments to prevent contamination.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • A customized assessment tool to differentiate safety and hygiene control practices in emerging dairy chains
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    James Ledo; Kasper A. Hettinga; Pieternel A. Luning

    In emerging dairy chains, inconsistent product quality and safety are recurring issues. The need for improvement in hygiene and safety control practices to meet rapidly growing demands for dairy products quality and safety is imperative. However, existing assessment tools do not consider specific situations in emerging dairy chains, where practices are often performed below standard requirements, which presents an inaccurate picture when these tools would be used. This study presents the development of a customized tool to assess and differentiate levels of safety and hygiene control practices in emerging dairy chains. The tool consists of indicators to analyse control practices and four corresponding grids to assess and differentiate the levels of the safety and hygiene control practices at the farm, during transportation, milk collection, and at local retail points crucial for microbial and chemical (i.e. aflatoxin) safety. The customized tool was piloted in Tanzania to assess on-farm practices, as an example of an emerging dairy chain, using interviews, farm visits and audio-visual assisted observations. Thirty-eight small and three large-scale farmers were interviewed, and their control practices observed. The responses were scored based on the grids and the scores were used for data analysis to identify patterns among the farmers. Overall, the customized assessment tool was able to accurately differentiate safety and hygiene practices of the farmers into three distinct clusters. The majority of the small-scale dairy farmers were performing practices at poor to basic level with very few practices at an intermediate level. The large-scale farmers were operating mainly at intermediate to standard level but with basic level performance on milk safety monitoring method, udder and teat care, and personal hygiene practices. Overall, incremental changes are required for on-farm practices to adequately mitigate microbial and aflatoxin contamination of fresh milk. Furthermore, the obtained profiles on farmers safety and hygiene control practices provide input for the development of training programs tailored to the knowledge and skills needs of groups of farmers with similar performance levels. Further research is needed to provide insight into the relationship between the level of control practices and milk safety outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Time-temperature profiles and Listeria monocytogenes presence in refrigerators from households with vulnerable consumers
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Loredana Dumitrașcu; Anca Ioana Nicolau; Corina Neagu; Pierrine Didier; Isabelle Maitre; Christophe Nguyen-The; Silje Elisabeth Skuland; Trond Møretrø; Solveig Langsrud; Monica Truninger; Paula Teixeira; Vânia Ferreira; Lydia Martens; Daniela Borda

    A transdisciplinary observational study, coupled with a web-based survey, was conducted to investigate refrigerated storage of food, in five European countries. The investigated consumer groups in this study were: young families with small children and/or pregnant women, elderly people, persons with an immunodeficient system, and young single men. The refrigerator temperature was monitored for approximately two weeks using a temperature data logger. Variables such as country, income, age of refrigerators, education, living area, refrigerator loading practices had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the overall average fridge temperature, whereas consumers’ practices showed a significant influence (p < 0.05) on registered temperature values. Compared to temperatures inside the fridges belonging to young families and young single men group, the temperatures inside refrigerators belonging to elderly was in the temperature danger zone (5 – 63 °C). The lowest temperatures were recorded in UK consumers’ refrigerators, whereas the highest were in French households. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in three refrigerators out of 53 sampled (two in Romania and one in Portugal). The most vulnerable category to food safety risks is represented by elderly persons with low education, unaware of safe refrigeration practices and the actual temperature their fridges are running.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Is visual motivation for cleaning surfaces in the kitchen consistent with a hygienically clean environment?
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Trond Møretrø; Lydia Martens; Paula Teixeira; Vânia B. Ferreira; Rui Maia; Tove Maugesten; Solveig Langsrud

    Cleaning is a method at the disposal of domestic cooks for curtailing the dispersal of foodborne pathogens in the process of preparing food. The observation of visible dirt/soil ‘in the wrong place’ operates as one of the stimuli for action. This paper makes a transdisciplinary contribution to understandings of cleaning as a practice for ensuring safety in the kitchen, and it is mainly focused on the (in)visibility of soil or dirt. The social science research included analysis of a consumer survey in 10 European countries where 9966 respondents were asked about motivations for cleaning in the kitchen. This paper draws also on three microbiological tests. First, Portuguese (n = 7) and Norwegian (6) consumers evaluated the visible cleanliness of 10 surface areas in their kitchens, directly and through the visible residue and total bacterial numbers accumulated on a white cotton swab after swabbing the surface areas. Secondly, 15 Norwegian consumers tested if they could visually detect different types of food soils, as these dried on kitchen surfaces. Finally, the survival of Campylobacter and Salmonella in the same soil types was tested under lab conditions as the soil dried out. Cleaning food preparation surfaces “after food preparation” (73%), “before preparing food” (53.2%) and “when they are dirty” (43%) were the three most common self-reported behaviours. Routine was the most common motivation to clean, but this was age dependent. There was low correlation between visual detection of dirt/soil and bacterial enumeration. Visual detection of soils was dependent on type and concentration of food soils and material of the surface; the soils were more easily detected on laminate surfaces than plastic and wood. Campylobacter died rapidly, while Salmonella survived for at least one week in food soils drying on a countertop laminate surface. Presence of food soils in concentrations that can be detected visually, protected Salmonella against drying. In conclusion, selecting materials where soil/dirt can easily be detected visually in the kitchen surfaces, may motivate consumers to clean and will reduce risk, but establishing a habit to clean surfaces soon after food preparation is also important from a food safety perspective.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Standardisation of near infrared hyperspectral imaging for quantification and classification of DON contaminated wheat samples
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Antoni Femenias; Ferran Gatius; Antonio J. Ramos; Vicente Sanchis; Sonia Marín

    Near infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI-NIR) is considered a promising technique able to replace time-consuming, costly and destructive classic methods to predict and classify deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated wheat kernels or samples by its concentration and level of contamination, respectively. The main objective of the present study was to standardise the HSI-NIR image acquisition method in naturally contaminated whole wheat kernels to obtain a high accuracy method to quantify and classify samples according to DON levels. To confirm the results, wheat samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography as the reference method to determine their DON levels. Hyperspectral images for single kernels and whole samples were obtained and spectral data were processed by multivariate analysis software. The initial work revealed that HSI-NIR was able to overcome kernel orientation, position and pixel selection. The subsequent developed Partial Least Squares (PLS) prediction achieved a RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of Prediction) of 405 μg/kg and 1174 μg/kg for a cross-validated model and an independent set validated model, respectively. Moreover, the classification accuracy obtained by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was 62.7% for two categories depending on the UE maximum level (1250 μg/kg). Despite of the results are not accurate enough for DON quantification and sample classification, they can be considered a starting point for further improved protocols for DON management.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Influence of storage conditions on quality and safety of eggs collected from Lebanese farms
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Ghenwa Saleh; Nada El Darra; Samer Kharroubi; Mohammad T. Farran

    Egg is considered a nutritionally complete food and an excellent source of protein. However, storing eggs for a prolonged period of time under uncontrolled temperature results in egg quality deterioration. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of storage conditions (time & temperature) on the egg’s internal and external quality parameters as well as the microbiological load of eggs. For that purpose, a total of 2,160 (white, brown vaccinated and brown non-vaccinated for salmonella) eggs were collected from Lebanese egg farmers in Bekaa valley and stored at 7°C, 18°C, 24 °C and 33°C /20 °C (cyclic) for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. At each time point and temperature setting, 30 eggs were analysed for external and internal quality traits as well microbiological testing. Results showed that brown eggs had significantly higher weight (P< 0.001), shell thickness (P< 0.01), and darker yolk colour than white eggs. As the storage temperature and time increased, a decrease in Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour was observed (p<0.05). In addition, a decrease (p<0.001) in the egg weight, specific gravity and shell thickness . For the eggs microbial analysis, a total absence was observed for eggs stored at 7°C at all-time points. The results suggest that the interaction between temperature, time, and group significantly affect the eggs internal and external quality, by causing significant deterioration in HU, yolk colour, weigh, specific gravity, and shell thickness. This work has concluded that eggs should be stored at a refrigerated temperature (7°C) for a period not exceeding 4 weeks.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Inactivation of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli suspended in ground chicken meat by high pressure processing and identification of virulence factors which may affect resistance to high pressure
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Aixia Xu; O.J. Scullen; Shiowshuh Sheen; Yanhong Liu; James R. Johnson; Christopher H. Sommers

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are responsible for urinary tract infections, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis and meningitis. Retail poultry meat has been identified as the main reservoir for ExPEC in food. Information regarding ExPEC virulence factor (VF) or antibiotic resistance (AR) involvement with resistance to high-pressure inactivation in food is lacking. In this study we inoculated ground chicken meat with 22 individual isolates of clinical uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and newborn meningitis causing E. coli (NMEC), and isolates from retail chicken meat. We then determined their high-pressure inactivation kinetics (D10-value). The mean D10-value for all isolates (n = 22) was 3.26 min at 400 MPa. The mean D10-value for the UPEC, NMEC, chicken isolates were 5.0, 1.3, 2.23 and 4.98 min at 400 MPa, respectively. The D10 varied widely between the 22 isolates. The mean D10-value for the clinical isolates was 3.33 vs. 3.15 for the non-clinical isolates. The NMEC strains were more sensitive to HPP. ExPEC lacking chuA, cnf1, sinH, papG, hlyA, vat, yncD were more resistant to HPP, indicating ExPEC VF could play a role in high pressure resistance. HPP at 600 MPa for 3 min resulted in >6 log10 reductions for UPEC, NMEC, and retail chicken product isolates.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Quantifying the effects of reducing sample size on 2-class attributes sampling plans: Implications for United States poultry performance standards
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Eric D. Ebel; Michael S. Williams; Denise M. Amann

    When interpreting the status of poultry processing establishments subject to performance standards testing, USDA-FSIS employs a round-up rule when fewer than the standard 52 samples per establishment per year are collected. This rule is to ensure that an establishment with fewer than 52 samples is held to a performance standard with a threshold that is not less than that based on the full 52 samples. By estimating population-based sensitivities and specificities for six pathogen reduction performance standards implemented in 2016 (i.e., comminuted chicken, comminuted turkey, and chicken parts standards for both Salmonella and Campylobacter), this study assesses the effect of the round-up rule on correctly classifying commercial poultry establishments as not meeting or meeting the performance standards. Population specificity is greater than 80% for all the performance standards and only modestly affected by reduced sample sizes. Therefore, the round-up rule mitigates against increased misclassification of establishments with low prevalence when sample size is reduced. Population sensitivity is greater than 80% for four of the performance standards but is lower for both comminuted poultry-Campylobacter standards. This sensitivity decreases with reduced sample size and changes sharply as the round up rule is applied. These sensitivity and specificity estimates can serve as benchmarks for future pathogen reduction performance standards, as well as explaining differences with past performance standards.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Study on the risks of metal detection in food solid seasoning powder and liquid sauce to meet the core concepts of ISO 22000:2018 based on the Taiwanese experience
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Hsinjung Chen; Bo-Kang Liou; Fan-Jhen Dai; Pei-Ting Chuang; Chin-Shuh Chen

    Foreign objects in food threaten food safety. For the food industry, incidents involving these objects can tarnish a company’s reputation, reduce sales, and may even lead to customer distrust towards the company. There have been no studies to correctly establish an operational prerequisite program (OPRP) and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) plan in the premixed powder and liquid sauces of the small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMFEs) industry according to the ISO 22000: 2018 standard. Our research aims to propose an ISO 22000: 2018 method for risk assessment and control of hazard assessments, and to establish and implement HACCP and traceability systems. In this study, the solid premixed powder (Italian panna cotta powder) and liquid sauce (white sauce) products were taken as an example. The food safety standard management system (FSMS) ISO 22000: 2018 was introduced to investigate the influence of the metal detector on the process. The proposed methodology combines risk analysis to identify physical significant hazards and then combines decision trees to determine hazard analysis control points (CCPs). It can be found from the research that the metal detector is extremely important and effective for the control damage of the solid premix powder, and the metal detector has a supplementary effect on the liquid sauce because of its complicated composition. These significant hazards can be managed through the HACCP program and OPRP. After the implementation of the ISO 22000: 2018 standard, the number of abnormal processes has been significantly reduced, and the number of complaints has been significantly reduced.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Bactericidal activity of copper-ascorbic acid mixture against Staphylococcus aureus spp
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Rabin Gyawali; Tahl Zimmerman; Sulaiman O. Aljaloud; Salam A. Ibrahim
    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Effect of processing on microbial safety of wild pepper (Piper borbonense) from Reunion Island
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Mathieu Weil; Fabienne Remize; Noel Durand; Pascaline Alter; Mathilde Hoarau; Jean Christophe Meile

    The management of microbial contamination is an important issue in spice trade. For common domesticated black pepper (Piper spp.), the control relies mainly on post-process decontamination. The aim of the present study was to examine microbial contamination of wild pepper (Piper borbonense) from Reunion Island and investigate the effects of different processing paths on microbiological quality and fungal ecology. The fresh pepper microbial counts ranged from 4.6 to 6.8 log CFUg−1. Blanching had a positive significant impact on the microbiological quality of pepper whereas sweating led to microbial growth up to 5 log CFUg−1 and, therefore, should be avoided. Microbial counts for dried pepper were 1.33 log CFUg−1; 3.37 log CFUg−1; 1.67 log CFUg−1 and 1.3 log CFUg−1 for coliforms, TAMB, Staphylococcus, yeast and moulds, respectively. Potential mycotoxin producers were identified from pepper samples but aflatoxins and ochratoxin A levels detected were far below the regulation limits. The initial diversity of fungal contamination is prominent for the final quality of pepper in contrast to the impact of processes. The revisited wet process (blanching then drying), which positively affected all microbial loads, could be a good option for pepper transformation.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Using tactile cold perceptions as an indicator of food safety- a hazardous choice
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Daniela Borda; Octavian Augustin Mihalache; Anca Ioana Nicolau; Paula Teixeira; Solveig Langsrud; Loredana Dumitrascu

    The safety of many foods is dependent on ensuring the cold chain until the time of consumption. A weak link is the consumer part of the chain as the temperatures of domestic refrigerators are often too high and the users have limited possibilities to monitor and adjust the temperatures. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether common consumer practices for monitoring that food is kept cold are valid. Consumers demonstrated limited ability to assess food and surface temperature by tactile sense with lower precision at 8°C compared to 4 °C. Almost 20% of the consumers were able to detect the exact food and surface temperature kept at 4 °C, while at 8 °C only 13% detected the exact temperature. A web-based survey mapping consumer practices showed that more than 40% of consumers never checked the temperature in their refrigerators, 38% rely on food coldness to evaluate if the refrigerator is running at adequate temperature and 65% lack knowledge on how to correctly asses temperature in the fridge. Most of the comments emphasized the situations where consumers could be at risk due to misevaluation of refrigerated food and surfaces real temperature indicating the necessity for better monitorization of cold food chain at domestic level.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Milk substrates influence proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Antonio Colantuono; Paolo D'Incecco; M. Grazia Fortina; Veronica Rosi; Giovanni Ricci; Luisa Pellegrino

    Pseudomonas fluorescens spoiling raw milk produces a heat-stable protease, namely AprX, that may degrade k-casein with a chymosin-like activity thus causing gelation of commercial milk during storage. Four strains of P. fluorescens were selected for both the presence of aprX gene and proteolytic activity in milk agar plate (a negative control was included) and were incubated in various milk substrates, i.e. pasteurized milk, UHT milk and reconstituted milk powder, differing for heat-treatment and presence of fat, in order to evaluate whether the type of milk substrates could affect their growth and proteolytic activity. While bacterial growth was mainly influenced by temperature (4 or 25 °C) for all strains, HPLC and CZE patterns of incubated milk samples showed that the extent and trend of proteolysis were highly heterogeneous and not exclusively strain-dependent. Indeed, pasteurized milk was the only substrate where aprX-positive strains led to gelation onset whereas other milk types underwent different destabilization. Ultrastructural features observed by transmission electron microscopy for casein micelles, whey proteins and fat globules, where present, explained how the processing conditions, sometimes including repeated heat-treatments, may have influenced the extent of proteolysis operated by P. fluorescens strains in the tested milk substrates. This study has highlighted that different milk substrates may bring to different conclusions when used in experiments aiming to elucidate the mechanisms of bacterial proteolysis since both ultrastructural and compositional properties may impact on accessibility of cleavage sites to proteases.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Residues and dietary exposure to ethoxyquin and ethoxyquin dimer in farmed aquatic animals in South Korea
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Soo Yeon Choi; Nam ji Kwon; Hui-Seung Kang; Joohye Kim; Byung-Hoon Cho; Jae-Ho Oh

    We aimed to estimate the dietary exposure level of ethoxyquin (EQ) and its main metabolite ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) in 6 kinds of farmed aquatic animals based on the residues and aquatic animal consumption data from Korea. The residues were measured in 143 aquatic animal samples by LC-MS/MS. The dietary exposure level was estimated under four scenarios based on the WHO guidelines. The residue concentrations of EQ and EQDM were in the ranges of 0.14–24.2 and 0.1–315 μg/kg, respectively. The sum of aquatic animal consumption for six aquatic animals was 6.38 g/day (whole group) and 372 g/day (consumer only) in the national food consumption survey. Based on our results, there is no significant risk resulting from EQ and EQDM exposure of humans under all scenarios. This is the first study to present the residue concentrations and exposure levels of EQ and EQDM in farmed aquatic animals in Korea.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Protein-based halochromic electrospun nanosensor for monitoring trout fish freshness
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Zahra Aghaei; Behrouz Ghorani; Bahareh Emadzadeh; Rassoul Kadkhodaee; Nick Tucker
    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Combined use of natural antimicrobial based nanoemulsions and ultra high pressure homogenization to increase safety and shelf-life of apple juice
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Francesca Patrignani; Lorenzo Siroli; Giacomo Braschi; Rosalba Lanciotti
    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Real-time assessing the lipid oxidation of prawn (Litopenaeus vannamei) during air-frying by iKnife coupling rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Gongshuai Song; Linqiu Li; Haixing Wang; Mengna Zhang; Xina Yu; Jie Wang; Jing Xue; Qing Shen

    Air-frying is a novel way of preparing fried food but easily induces lipid oxidation because of the direct contact between the raw product and circulated hot air in the fryer chamber. In this study, a lipidomics approach for real-time monitoring and assessing the dynamic oxidation characteristics of lipids in prawn was explored by an iKnife coupled to rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) method. The effect of air-frying on the lipid oxidation in prawn at different temperatures was investigated. The obtained profiling data were statistically analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis, including principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-square analysis (OPLS-DA), which showed that the difference in fatty acid (FA) and phospholipid molecular species (PMS) was statistically significant (p < 0.05) with R2(cum) and Q2 (cum) values > 0.8. Based on the shared and unique structures plot, the ions of m/z 255.23, 764.52, 766.53, and 816.55 were regarded as the major contributors for the discrimination of various processed prawn samples, and their effectiveness was further verified by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results indicated that the proposed iKnife-REIMS could serve as an in-situ and real-time method for monitoring and assessing the lipids, and be employed as a front-line fast detection mean to ensure the fried product quality.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Geographical origin identification of garlic cultivated in Korea using isotopic and multi-elemental analyses
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Seung-Hyun Choi; Yeon-Sik Bong; Jin Hee Park; Kwang-Sik Lee

    Authentication of geographical origin is important in protecting agricultural products with registered trademarks. This study determined the geographical origin of garlic cultivated in the Republic of Korea using stable isotope ratios and multi-element concentrations. The isotope ratio reflected cultivation practice and environmental conditions. The major (Ca, Mg, P, S, Al, and Sr) and trace (As and Se) element concentrations were influenced by the bedrock in the garlic cultivation regions. Discriminant analysis (DA) using selected variables for garlic from different cultivation regions showed that 89% of the garlic was correctly classified according to the region of geographical cultivation with different lithological and climatic conditions. Stable isotopic compositions coupled to element concentrations showed better discriminating power than DA only with stable isotopic compositions or element concentrations. Therefore, the combination of a stable isotope ratio and multi-elemental concentrations is a useful tool for identifying garlic from different geographical origins.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Quality of lipid fraction during Spanish-style table olives processing of Sigoise and Azzeradj cultivars.
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Fadila Ait Chabane; Pierangella Rovellini; Saliha Boucheffa; Eduardo Medina; Abderezak Tamendjari

    This work aimed to study the effect of different steps of Spanish-style processing (raw olives, lye treatment, washing, and fermentation) on the oil quality index (Acidity, peroxide value (PV) and extinction coefficient UV at 232 nm and 270), fatty acids, phenols, tocopherols, hexanal and nonanal compounds, and antioxidant activity of the lipid fraction of green Sigoise and Azzeradj cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to discriminate the samples according to cultivars and elaboration phases. Most of the variance of the quality parameters and fatty acids was due to cultivars and less for processing. After processing, a substantial loss in the total and individual phenolic compounds was recorded (79.25 % and 67.58% for Azzeradj and Sigoise, respectively), but the most significant reduction occurred at lye treatment and washing step rather than the fermentation. Tocopherols were less affected than the phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of the total lipid fraction of olives was less affected than that of its methanolic extract alone.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Probiotic potential and amylolytic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese fermented cereal foods
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Yihan Xu; Tao Zhou; Huiqin Tang; Xiqiang Li; Yujing Chen; Limin Zhang; Jianhua Zhang

    This study investigated the probiotic potential and amylase properties of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) isolated from fermented cereal-based foods in China. Of 132 LAB isolates screened for amylase production, three (430, 445, and 472) were found to have high amylase activities (8.15, 9.23, and 8.06 U/mL in MRS-1% starch broth, respectively). These three strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by 16S rRNA sequencing. Optimization of the starch content in the culture broth, pH, and temperature during fermentation revealed that the highest amylase activity (15.89 ± 0.51 U/mL) was found in L. plantarum 445. Moreover, the three ALAB isolates were assessed for their probiotic properties, tolerance to low pH, bile salt resistance, and antimicrobial and aggregation activities. All three ALAB isolates showed good survival at pH 2.0 and 3.0 and were resistant to 0.3% and 0.6% bile salts after 48 h of incubation. They also had different antimicrobial activities against five food-borne pathogens and similar intrinsic and non-transmissible antibiotic susceptibilities. The isolates had higher auto-aggregation ability but weaker co-aggregation ability than the reference strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103. These data demonstrate that the three ALAB isolates possess potential probiotic characteristics, suggesting that they are suitable candidates for cereal-based probiotic products and starter cultures for improving the cereal fermentation process.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Traceability: Perceptions and attitudes of Brazilian non-bovine dairy processors
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Leo O. Lopes; Ramon Silva; Jonas T. Guimarães; Nathalia M. Coutinho; Tatiana C. Pimentel; Maria Carmela K.H. Duarte; Mônica Q. Freitas; Marcia C. Silva; Erick A. Esmerino; Denise P.R. Azeredo; Adriano G. Cruz

    The perception of Brazilian non-bovine dairy processors (goat, sheep and buffalo, n = 32) located in eight states of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Goiás, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, and Ceará), regarding the implementation of traceability was investigated. A questionnaire consisting of 16 statements using a 5-point Likert Scale was applied and the data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and factor analysis. It was agreed that the implementation of a traceability system allows a quick recall of products, and reduces the negative impact, the number of consumer complaints and the loss of products. In addition, it can result in increased supplier control and process safety, protecting consumer’s health and increasing their confidence. However, the relationship between the traceability system and the cost savings in the process and/or price of the final product was not a consensus. Although dairy companies agreed that traceability is highly relevant to the company, many are unwilling to invest in implementation of the system. Therefore, non-bovine milk-producing units in Brazil are aware of the impact of implementing traceability, but still have doubts about the costs involved, which restrict investments in the system.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Camel milk whey hydrolysate inhibits growth and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Mahmoud Abdel-Hamid; Ehab Romeih; Paola Saporito; Ali Osman; Ramona Valentina Mateiu; Biljana Mojsoska; Håvard Jenssen

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are amongst the most virulent pathogens, causing chronic and life-threatening human infections. Thus, novel natural compounds able to inhibit these pathogens, reduce and/or eradicate their biofilms are in high demand. Camel milk has been demonstrated to contain many functional and bioactive molecules and has consequently been considered in various therapeutic applications. This study aimed to assess the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the camel milk whey proteins after hydrolysis by papain, and the obtained fractions from size exclusion chromatography (SEC) against PAO1 and MRSA. Antibacterial activity of camel milk whey against PAO1 and MRSA was enhanced by hydrolysis with papain. Size-exclusion fraction 2 (SEC-F2) had significantly (P ˂ 0.01) the highest antibacterial activity against PAO1 and MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.156 and 0.3125 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, SEC-F2 significantly (P ˂ 0.01) decreased the biofilm biomass by 60.45% and 85.48% for PAO1 and MRSA, respectively. Moreover, SEC-F2 potentially reduced the PAO1 and MRSA biofilms depending on its concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 fraction caused potential morphological changes in both PAO1 and MRSA, mostly represented in cell elongation and leakage of cytoplasmic content. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of camel milk whey with papain generates robust antibacterial and antibiofilm small-peptides against PAO1 and MRSA.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Online monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis of marine by-products using benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Kathryn E. Anderssen; Evan R. McCarney

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is becoming a more commonly used method to create high value products from traditionally low value marine by-products. However, improvement to processing is hampered by a lack of ways to characterize the reaction in real time. Current methods of analysis rely on taking offline samples, deactivating the enzymes, and performing analysis on the products afterwards. Nuclear magnetic resonance benchtop spectroscopy was investigated as a method for online process monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis. Online and offline NMR measurements were performed for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions on red cod, salmon and shrimp. Both the online and offline measurements were able to follow the reaction process and showed good agreement in their calculated reaction rate. Application of the methodology to several types of raw materials indicates the technique is robust with regards to sample type. Advantages and disadvantages of low-field versus high-field NMR spectroscopy are discussed as well as practical considerations needed in order to apply the method industrially.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, pasteurized, UHT cows’ milk, and dairy products in Lebanon
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Rouaa Daou; Charbel Afif; Karine Joubrane; Lydia rabbaa Khabbaz; Richard Maroun; Ali Ismail; André el Khoury

    In this study, a total amount of 868 samples of raw cows' milk, pasteurized and UHT cows’ milk, and dairy products were analyzed for their AFM1 content. Milk and dairy consumption in Lebanon was evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire, and accordingly the exposure to AFM1 and its association with liver cancer risk in Lebanese population were evaluated. Results showed contamination in raw milk, pasteurized and UHT milk, and dairy products at a range of 0.011–0.440 μg/L, 0.013–0.219 μg/L, and 0.015–7.350 μg/L respectively; with 28%, 54.5%, and 45.5% respectively of samples with AFM1 above maximum tolerable limit (MTL) set by the European Commission. AFM1 consumption was shown to be associated with 0.0041 additional cancer cases per 100,000 persons per year. Based on these results, milk and dairy consumption in Lebanon can be considered hazardous and may present a significant risk on the health of the Lebanese population especially children.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • High-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) efficiently inactivates enzymes, enhances extraction of phytochemicals and mitigates brown actions of Chili pepper
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Hui Wang; Qian Zhang; A.S. Mujumdar; Xiao-Ming Fang; Jun Wang; Yu-Peng Pei; Wei Wu; Magdalena Zielinska; Hong-Wei Xiao

    In current work, high-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) was employed to inactivate peroxidase enzymes (POD) of chili pepper under three independent variables, namely blanching temperature (105, 110, and 115 °C), relative humidity (20%, 30%, and 40%), and blanching time (30, 60, and 90 s). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the blanching conditions based on product POD residual activity and browning index. Results indicated that blanching temperature of 110 °C, relative humidity of 40% and blanching time of 38 s were the optimum blanching conditions, which resulted in the minimum POD residual activity (0.52%) and browning index difference (7.09). Validation test showed that the predicted data had good agreement with the experimental data. Results also indicated that compared with the non-blanched samples, the extraction content of ascorbic acid and red pigment from blanched pepper under optimal blanching conditions increased by 42.85% and 8.20%, respectively. Ultrastructural observations explained why moderate blanching can promote the extraction of phytochemicals. The findings in current work indicate that HHAIB can efficiently inactivate enzymes, enhance extraction of phytochemicals and at the meantime mitigate brown actions under optimal conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Norovirus contamination of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus): potential food risk for consumers
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Nânci Santos-Ferreira, João Rodrigo Mesquita, Enrique Rivadulla, Ângela S. Inácio, Maria São José Nascimento, Jesus Romalde, Paulo Martins da Costa

    Sea urchin gonads are today considered a gourmet food but despite eaten raw, not much attention has been given to microbiological quality. This study evaluated the microbial (bacterial and viral) contamination and adequacy to current European regulations of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchins produced in Portugal. Four batches of 10 sea urchins were collected (September 2016 to May 2017) from the sea floor of a natural urchin growing area located in the north of Portugal. Sea urchin gonad batches were analysed for E. coli and Salmonella spp. as governed by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005, modified by regulation (EC) No 2015/2285, on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Hepatitis A virus, norovirus GI and norovirus GII were also searched for following ISO 15216-1:2017. The four batches were all within the sanitary limits imposed by legislation for E. coli and Salmonella spp. Two batches were found positive for norovirus (one positive for norovirus GI, the other for both norovirus GI and GII), presenting viral concentrations that ranged from 8.7 x 103 and 3.2 x 104 genome copies/g. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the obtained sequence clustered with norovirus GI.2. This study is the first evaluating the presence of human pathogenic viruses in live echinoderms and the first reporting NoV contamination of bacteriologically safe sea urchin gonads. NoV infection risk related to consumption of raw sea urchin gonads is in urgent need for evaluation.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Stability of milk and gliadin on swabs during 7 days under different storage conditions
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Virginie Barrere, Jérémie Theolier, Sebastien Lacroix, Steven Zbylut, Alexcia Valdez, Nick Collopy, Brandon Lahey, Samuel Godefroy

    Food industries rely on swabbing to control allergen and gluten occurrences in their manufacturing plant. However, collecting allergens from a surface with a swab and further analysis can be affected by numerous aspects, like the operator, the allergen, the swab fabric, the ELISA kit, and the procedure. In addition, food companies often send swabs to external laboratories, but there are no available data to describe the effect of time and temperature on the allergen or gluten stability on the swabs. This study presents the stability of milk and gliadin collected from a stainless-steel surface using different swab types (cotton, Dacron, rayon, polyester, and polyurethane). The protein concentrations were tested on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 by an ELISA technique to follow the protein concentration over time. The swabs with gliadin were stored at 37 °C for 7 days to mimic poor storage conditions. The swabs used to collect milk were stored at 4 and 37 °C. The experiments indicated that, except for two cases, there was no difference in gliadin concentrations between day 1 and the other days; the same observation was made for milk. However, the swab types were not equivalent and some led to false-negative results. Validation of those observations was undertaken at a commercial laboratory. To reduce the risk of false-negatives and the effect of factors influencing the result (operator, swab, procedure, and allergen), it is recommended to swab an area in triplicate.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Microbial challenge study and quality evaluation of cumin seeds pasteurized by continuous radio frequency processing
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Long Chen, Sibel Irmak, Byron D. Chaves, Jeyamkondan Subbiah

    The objective of this study was to validate the continuous radio frequency pasteurization of cumin seeds and evaluate cumin quality after treatment. In the present study, microbial validation of continuous radiofrequency (RF) pasteurization of cumin seeds was investigated. The specific heat capacity was measured for three batches of cumin samples with two replicates. Specific heat capacity of batch 2 and 3 were similar, while the values showed significant variation when compared to that of batch 1. Overall, no significant differences were found in color, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and relative compositions of volatile compounds in cumin seeds before and after continuous RF pasteurization. However, when individual peak areas of volatiles were compared, the treated samples of all three batches were significantly different from their corresponding control samples. This continuous RF microbial validation study can be used for scaling-up RF pasteurization technology to an industrial scale. This study shows that RF holds a great potential for the industrial pasteurization of cumin seeds.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Colour analysis in sausages stuffed in modified casings with different storage days using hyperspectral imaging – A feasibility study
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Chao-Hui Feng, Yoshio Makino

    Colour evolution for sausage stuffed in casings modified by different concentrations of surfactant solution and slush salt with lactic acid was for the first time investigated during 68 days with 4 oC storage using a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1000 nm. Pre-treatments (normalisation, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative) were conducted and performance after the pre-treatments was improved. No interactive effects between casing treatments and storage days were observed in accordance with two-way ANOVA. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed from spectra with reflectance and absorbance modes and important wavelengths were selected with regard to each colour parameters. When predicted redness (a*), PLSR model derived from absorbance pre-treated by MSC for modified casing with treatment 1 showed the prediction coefficient of determination (Rp2) up to 0.78 while 0.61 for control casing using reflectance. This study innovatively showed a great potential in a cylinder shape sausage for real-time inspection and is competent to quantify and visualise the colour dynamic change of the sausages stuffed in modified casings.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in youtiao and exposure assessment from Shandong Province, China
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Xiaolin Wang, Shufan Wang, Fenghua Li, Renpeng Li, Jing Zhu, Jindong Chen, Wei Li, Dafeng Jiang

    This study analyzed 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 170 youtiao (Chinese dough sticks) samples collected from Shandong Province of China, which were determined using high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results indicated that the incidence rate of PAHs compounds was 89.4% and the mean concentration of 15 PAHs was 65.8 μg/kg. Naphthalene (Nap) was detected with the highest concentration and the largest incidence rate. One sample exceeded the maximum level of 1 μg/kg for the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in cereals and cereal-based products set by European Union (EU), while 47 samples exceeded the maximum level of 1 μg/kg for PAH4 set by EU. The dietary exposure of PAHs and the potential human health risk assessment were assessed using estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for each class of contaminant. The THQ values were below the safe standard of 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due to individual PAH was low. The ILCR results for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all lower than the priority level (1 × 10−4), implying no significant cancer risk related to youtiao consumption for local population. Further data are still needed for proper management of the risks associated with PAHs in youtiao samples.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Effect of d-tryptophan on the psychrotrophic growth of Listeria monocytogenes and its application in milk
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Jian Chen, Shuso Kawamura, Shigenobu Koseki

    Current refrigeration temperatures are inadequate to restrain psychrophilic bacteria capable of survival and growth at low temperatures. Specifically, Listeria monocytogenes is strongly resistant to chilling stress and osmotic stress and tends to be more pathogenic during long-term refrigeration. Here, we demonstrated that d-tryptophan (d-Trp) reduced and delayed the psychrotrophic growth of L. monocytogenes at 4 °C in PYG medium during a 30-day period, and that >30 mM d-Trp further decreased the L. monocytogenes growth rate and extended the lag phase to a maximum of 400 h, which was 4-fold longer than that in the absence of d-Trp. In particular, 40 mM d-Trp alone significantly (P < 0.05) reduced L. monocytogenes growth by 3 log CFU/mL in concentration-dependent manner during a 30-day incubation at 4 °C, and 40 mM d-Trp combined with >3.0% NaCl resulted in an overall greater bacteriostatic effect accompanied by a partial bactericidal effect. Furthermore, 40 mM d-Trp significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in artificially contaminated milk samples during extended refrigerated storage and maintained a low bacterial load (∼103–104 CFU/mL) of L. monocytogenes throughout the 30-day refrigeration period. These results indicated that d-Trp significantly attenuated the psychrotrophic growth of L. monocytogenes at refrigerated temperatures, suggesting its potential efficacy as a food preservative.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Chlorous acid is a more potent antibacterial agent than sodium hypochlorite against Campylobacter
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Noritoshi Hatanaka, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Hisataka Goda, Hiroyuki Kawata, Yuzuru Uchino, Takahiro Kubo, Shigeru Aoki, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki

    Foodborne disease caused by campylobacters is one of the major global problems for food safety. Infection source of Campylobacter to human is mainly through contaminated meat particularly chicken. Contamination of meat with Campylobacter usually occurs during processing at slaughterhouse and to prevent such contaminations, sodium hypochlorite is commonly used. However, it is well known that bactericidal activity of sodium hypochlorite becomes weak under organic matter rich conditions. In this study, we compared the strength of bactericidal activity of chlorous acid and sodium hypochlorite against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains under organic matter rich conditions. Bactericidal activity against 5 representative C. jejuni and C. coli strains in chicken juice (an organic matter rich condition) showed that minimum concentration of chlorous acid required for complete killing of C. jejuni and C. coli cells is 200–400 ppm while that of sodium hypochlorite is 2000 to 4000 ppm. Similar results were obtained by using Bolton broth. Furthermore, it was observed that 400 ppm of chlorous acid but not 400 ppm of sodium hypochlorite is highly effective in killing of 25 different Campylobacter strains (12 C. jejuni and 13 C. coli strains) under the same conditions. To determine whether 400 ppm of chlorous acid treatment had killed bacterial cells or induced them into viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, live and dead cell assay using DAPI and propidium iodide florescent dyes was done. Such assay clearly indicated that Campylobacter cells were indeed killed and not induced to VBNC state. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell lysates of campylobacters indicated distinct effects in protein profiles of chlorous acid but not sodium hypochlorite treated cells. The results strongly suggest that chlorous acid could efficiently kill C. jejuni and C. coli cells with much lower concentration than sodium hypochlorite and the bactericidal mechanisms of chlorous acid may be due to damages of bacterial proteins. Thus, chlorous acid could be a better disinfectant in chicken slaughtering and processing to kill campylobacters and prevent contamination.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
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