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  • Effect of salt on CO2 solubility in salmon (Salmo salar L) stored in modified atmosphere
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Nanna Abel; Bjørn Tore Rotabakk; Jørgen Lerfall

    Salt and CO2 in the form of modified atmosphere (MA) packaging are often used forms of preservation of seafood, as they both are known for their ability to reduce spoilage and health risks. However, little is known regarding interaction between the two when applied to seafood. Hence this experiment investigated CO2 solubility in salmon injected with various brines and packaged using MA packaging or soluble gas stabilization (SGS) followed by MA packaging. Regardless of packaging method, increasing NaCl concentration decreased the absorbed CO2 concentration, as seen from analysis of head space composition, calculations of Henry’s constant, and absorbed amount of CO2 within the product. However, the effect was only significant after long storage, as no effect of NaCl was observed in the samples before MA packaging in retail trays. Furthermore, use of SGS significantly increased amount of absorbed CO2 as compared to regular MA packaging. The effect of SGS outnumbered the negative effect of NaCl, thus making the use of both NaCl and CO2 possible without losing effect of either.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Texturization of renneted casein-based gel particles by sheet die extrusion: Mechanical properties and numerical analysis of flow characteristics
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Christian Kern; Markus Scharfe; Jörg Hinrichs

    The texturization of renneted casein-based gels by sheet die extrusion was investigated to create fibrous (anisotropic) structures being applicable in texturized, protein-rich food products. The simulation of fluid dynamics in the texturization section was set up by using experimental data (density, Bird-Carreau viscosity model; 40 ≤ ϑ ≤ 80 °C) and computed (CFD) to study the sheet die extrusion thoroughly. During texturization, the sheet die temperature (ϑsheet_die) was controlled (40–80 °C) to adjust the maximum shear stress (τmax; 44.1–1.8 kPa). Appropriate experimental extrusion parameters were: ϑsheet_die = 50–70 °C and τmax < 20 kPa. The anisotropic casein-based extrudates were investigated by tensile testing and showed that increasing τmax led to an increase of the degree of texturization (anisotropy). The anisotropy of the casein-based extrudates was between 1.9 and 4.1, exhibiting textural properties like other protein-based, texturized products (soy-gluten extrudates, muscle meat) and hence, being promising for innovative protein-rich foods.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Implementation of the Manufacturing Execution System in the Food and Beverage Industry
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Xinyu Chen; Tobias Voigt

    The Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is a production management system serving as the information center in the enterprise to improve manufacturing transparency. It is the middle layer connecting the manufacturing process on the shop floor and the business process on the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) level. On the one hand, the MES guides the execution of rough production plans into detailed operations on the shop floor. On the other hand, it provides the firm with critical key performance indicators (KPIs), enabling commercial decisions. The support from the MES, such as production fine planning, performance analysis, and product tracing, can help manufacturers to be efficient and gain more competitiveness in the global market. However, in the food and beverage industry, which faces strict regulations, growing competitiveness, customer demand changing, and suffer from low-profit margins, the implementation of the MES did not become widespread. This article intends to present the particular characteristics of the food and beverage manufacturing process, analyze the potential benefits and barriers of the MES implementation in the food and beverage industry through literature review. The solutions to solve the MES implementation issues and the research areas that need to be explored in order to meet the MES requirements from the food and beverage industry are also discussed in this article.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Mechanical Characterisation and modelling of the rolling process of potato-based dough
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Kai Jun Chen; Joseph D. Wood; Idris K. Mohammed; Shirley Echendu; David Jones; Kate Northam; Maria N. Charalambides

    Motivated by social, economic and health factors, food product manufacturers are increasingly attracted towards the incorporation of potato into snack foods. However, the lack of gluten degrades the mechanical properties of potato dough, posing a challenge in ensuring optimal manufacturing processes. An important process of industrial dough production is the sheeting or rolling process. This study developed a computational design tool to ensure smooth sheeting processes for potato doughs. A visco-hyperelastic constitutive model was calibrated using uniaxial compression data, providing the required material parameters for the rolling simulation. The model output was validated through tests on a laboratory small-scale instrumented rolling rig, where the roller speed and roll gap were varied to determine the effect on the rolling force and sheet exit thickness. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results for the roll force and sheet exit thickness was found for smaller reduction ratios. At larger reductions, the numerical rolling force and exit thickness values were higher than the experimental values, and this was attributed to the dough being damaged while being fed through small roll gaps. A critical tensile strain-based failure criterion was proven to be accurate in predicting conditions for sheet tearing. The combination of the newly developed numerical model and tensile strain failure criterion can serve as a simple and powerful design tool for predicting the roll forces, the rolled sheet height as well as the process conditions which may lead to damage in the potato dough. As a result, interruptions in the continuous sheeting process associated with sheet damage or tearing may be avoided. Since the present study focuses on rolling parameters in a laboratory scale setup, future work will provide greater insight in scaling up the results to industrial rolling processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • The influence of stirring speed and type of oil on the performance of pregelatinized waxy rice starch emulsifier in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Rini Yulianingsih; Shoichi Gohtani

    The performance of pregelatinized waxy rice starch (PWRS) as an emulsifier in coconut oil and hexadecane emulsions was examined. Emulsification was carried out at various stirring speeds (Ultra-Turrax at 8000, 11,000, and 15,000 rpm with an oil content of 10%). Two treatments were used to test the stability of the emulsions: under a static condition for two weeks and under thermal treatment using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at −30 to 50 °C for three cycles. The changes in the structure of the PWRS caused by high shear stress at the stirring speed of 15,000 rpm induced creaming in all the emulsions. The ability of the PWRS to protect the oil droplets was influenced by the type of oil and environmental conditions. PWRS was better adsorbed on coconut oil than on hexadecane as signified by the values for relative apparent viscosity and yield stress, what was observed in photomicrographs, and the changes in 1D H NMR intensity at different PWRS concentrations.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Electrical admittance and dielectric properties of whipping cream
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Tomaž Polak; Andraž Polak; Nataša Poklar Ulrih; Nataša Šegatin

    The complex admittance and dielectric spectra of whipping creams were determined in the frequency range of 200 Hz to 2 MHz, and dielectric properties also for 0.2 GHz–8.5 GHz at 298.15 K. The admittance spectra were fitted with appropriate equivalent circuits, subtracting dielectric constant and direct current conductivity. The electrical and dielectric properties are discussed in terms of the macro-component content of whipping cream (i.e., water, lipid, protein, carbohydrate).

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Effect of pulse electric field applied to carrot prior to its heating
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Jiří Blahovec; Pavel Kouřím

    The tissue of carrot (variety Jereda) was tested using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) combined with dielectric thermal analysis (DETA), in air of 90% humidity in temperature scans between 30 and 90 °C. Temperature plots of loss tangent were determined. In DETA, based on alternated current of frequency 20 kHz, both components of impedance were continually determined. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was applied prior to the DMA and DETA tests. Four sets of experiments were performed, without PEF (b), with a single 10 ms long pulse given an alternated field of 500 V/cm (c), with two similar pulses at 0.1 s interval (d) and with two similar pulse at 1 s interval (e). The impedance was recalculated giving parameters of a single model represented by parallel connection of a resistor Re and a capacitor with capacitance ωC. Three stages of the range of temperature, namely subcritical (30–70 °C), critical (70–80 °C), and supercritical (80–90 °C) were considered. For set b, in subcritical stage, the parameter, Re decreased whereas capacitance was nearly constant. Both of these parameters decreased slightly in the supercritical stage but whereas Re is in supercritical stage much lower than in the subcritical stage, the capacitance is in supercritical stage rather higher than it is in subcritical stage. In critical stage, Re sharply decreased and the capacitance showed a sharp peak, both indicating collapse of the cellular membranes. Application of PEF led to little reduction of the capacitance peak and the reduction was more effective after the repeated pulse application (that is in sets d and e). These results at carrot were compared with the previous research at potato and it was shown that PEF effects in critical and supercritical stages significantly differ in the both plant tissues.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • EVALUATION OF BREAD DOUGH AERATION DURING KNEADING BY AN AIR-JET IMPULSE SYSTEM
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Niveditha ASAITHAMBI; Joran FONTAINE; Eloïse LANCELOT; Adrien Rebillard; Dominique DELLA. VALLE; Anthony OGE; José CHÉIO; Chidanand DUGGONAHALLY. VEERESH; Alain LE-BAIL

    This paper presents a novel system able to determine in touchless conditions some rheological properties of bread dough, by application of a force driven by a short air-jet impulse, and the concomitant surface displacement measurement by a laser interferometer. In this work, it is shown that in the FPD (Food Puff Device) is based on the displacement measurement due to an air jet by a laser interferometer test , a “softening” of the bread dough along the kneading process is observed, although it is well known that the bread dough gets strengthened by the kneading. This paradox is explained by the fact that, during the kneading, not only the dough become smooth and elastic, but a certain air amount is incorporated in the form of small air bubbles. FPD provides an empirical short time rheology test exciting the time scales linked to the air bubbles entrapped in the dough, so that the surface displacement is mainly due to the dough aeration. Demonstrating a good sensitivity to the air content, the FPD test seems a relevant method to follow the kneading process, in the aim of developing a tractable and efficient supervision tool. The bulk properties of the dough are also measured by a conventional creep recovery test in a rotational rheometer. An attempt of modelling the viscoelastic behavior in FPD treated like a creep-recovery test is proposed here, to provide some insights in the baking monitoring.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Modeling ice recrystallization in frozen carrot tissue during storage under dynamic temperature conditions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Victor Vicent; Fatou-Toutie Ndoye; Pieter Verboven; Bart Nicolaï; Graciela Alvarez

    Ice recrystallization occurring in vegetables during frozen storage causes changes in crystal morphology, and, thus, may affect product microstructure and quality. A mathematical model to describe the evolution of the crystal number density in frozen carrot tissue during dynamically changing temperatures was introduced to get a more comprehensive insight into microstructural changes. The model was based on a population balance equation that incorporated the ice crystal size distribution and a lumped heat transfer model, which assumed ice recrystallization via Ostwald ripening. Ice recrystallization was governed first by the dissolution of small crystals and then by redeposition at the surface of large crystals. This was observed mainly at the beginning of storage and gradually decreased as storage time proceeded. Sensitivity analysis showed that the activation energy is the most important model parameter, followed by the growth and dissolution coefficients. The model was validated based on measurements of the ice crystal size distribution and mean ice crystal size of carrot tissue to describe ice recrystallization during a two-month storage period under dynamically changing temperature condition. The PEB model was then applied to simulate ice recrystallization in carrots under industrial relevant conditions. The simulation results indicate that PBE model may be used to improve storage of frozen vegetables with respect to microstructure and quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Is dehulling of peas and faba beans necessary prior to dry fractionation for the production of protein- and starch-rich fractions? Impact on physical properties, chemical composition and techno-functional properties
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Cátia Saldanha do Carmo; Pia Silventoinen; Catherine Taylor Nordgård; Claire Poudroux; Tzevetelin Dessev; Hanne Zobel; Ann-Katrin Holtekjølen; Kurt Draget; Ulla Holopainen-Mantila; Svein Halvor Knutsen; Stefan Sahlstrøm
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Design of in vitro model to study oral aroma release: Experimental study and numeric simulation of heat transfer in a foamed dairy matrix
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Christine F. Thomas; Katharina J.F. Thien del; Thorsten Stefan; Christian M. Schmidt; Jörg Hinrichs

    Since aeration can increase aroma perception, it may be used to compensate the perceived aroma loss of low-fat dairy products. To be able to study the effect of aeration on aroma release systematically in the future, a temperature study was conducted on an in vitro model built to study aroma release at temperatures relevant for oral processing. The studied dairy foam contained 4% (w/w) milk protein and 0.75% (w/w) alginate and had a gas volume fraction of 71% after whipping. The temperature development during incubation of the foam at 40 °C was calculated using a numeric simulation. Thermal equilibrium was reached after 50 min. Sampling for dynamic aroma release was found to be ideal at 2, 7 and 15 min, because mean foam temperatures were 25, 30 and 35 °C. Experimental temperature analysis of the foam core was in good agreement with the simulation (R2 = 0.95).

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Experimental characterization and modeling of the mechanical behavior of brittle 3D printed food
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    N. Jonkers; J.A.W. van Dommelen; M.G.D. Geers

    3D printing is a unique manufacturing method that enables food customization. The development of a modeling framework to predict mechanical properties of food products is an invaluable tool in such a customization process. To set up this framework, 3D printed samples are mechanically characterized by means of compression testing. The observed phenomena are captured in a constitutive model that describes the large deformation behavior and the brittle failure of the material. Due to the rough contact surface of 3D printed samples, spatial homogeneity is lost and parameter identification is rendered not straightforward. To incorporate this non-uniformity, the model is implemented in a finite element package. Simulations reveal the influence of this geometrical effect, allowing to identify the model parameters by which the mechanical behavior of the material is adequately described.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Supramolecular solvent extraction of bioactives from coffee cherry pulp
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Laura Sofía Torres-Valenzuela; Ana Ballesteros-Gómez; Soledad Rubio

    The potential of supramolecular solvents (SUPRAS) is investigated for the extraction of bioactive compounds from coffee cherry pulp, one of the major by-products generated in the coffee industry. SUPRAS made up of hexagonal inverted aggregates of octanoic acid in ethanol:water mixtures provided good extraction yields for bioactives (3.6 ± 0.3 mg caffeine g−1 and 0.9 ± 0.1 mg protocatechuic acid g−1) at a low solvent:sample ratio of 4:1 v/w and under mild operations conditions (5 min extraction at room temperature). SUPRAS-based extraction was optimized and extracts were analyzed to identify the main phenolic and alkaloid compounds. A variety of bioactives were present and extracts showed high antioxidant capacity by different assays (45% for DPPH and 91% for ABTS). Extraction efficiencies with SUPRAS were clearly superior than those obtained with organic solvents commonly used for valorization of coffee residues.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Smart Deep Learning-Based Approach for Non-Destructive Freshness Diagnosis of Common Carp Fish
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Amin Taheri-Garavand; Amin Nasiri; Ashkan Banan; Yu-Dong Zhang

    Assessment and intelligent monitoring of fish freshness are of the utmost importance in yield and trade of fishery products. Rapid and precise assessment of fish freshness using conventional methods considering the great volume of industrial production is challenging. In this study, instead of feature-engineering-based methods, a novel and accurate fish freshness detection is proposed based on the images obtained from common carp and by applying a deep convolutional neural network (CNN). To classify fish images based on freshness by the proposed approach, first, VGG-16 architecture was applied to extract features from fish images automatically. Then, a developed classifier block constructed by dropout and dense layers was utilized to classify fish images. The obtained results showed the classification accuracy of 98.21%, and in conclusion, the proposed CNN-based method has lower complexity with higher accuracy compared to traditional classification methods. This method is well-capable of monitoring and classifying fish freshness as a fast, low-cost, precise, non-destructive, real-time and automated technique.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Effect of high-pressure homogenization on gelling and rheological properties of soybean protein isolate emulsion gel
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Chong-hao Bi; Peng-lin Wang; Dong-yu Sun; Zi-ming Yan; Yi Liu; Zhi-gang Huang; Fei Gao

    The effect of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) on the functional properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) emulsion gel was studied in this paper. The results show that, with the increase of HPH pressure, the strength of SPI emulsion gel raised from G’ = 291 Pa (5 MPa) to G’ = 528 Pa (80 MPa). The higher HPH pressure also reduced the frequency dependence of the SPI emulsion gel (n’ descended from 0.105 to 0.065). However, there is no monotonous relationship between the recovery rate and the HPH pressure. Water holding capacity of the emulsion gel increased from 87.7% to 91.4% (when the pressure rose from 5 to 20 MPa), and then remain stable (when the pressure rose from 20 to 80 MPa). The microscopic fractal dimension of SPI emulsion gel ranges from 2.96 to 2.99. Generally speaking, at a higher HPH pressure, the emulsion tends to form a more stable isotropic network gel structure.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Groove fabrication on surface of soft gelatin gel utilizing micro-electrical discharge machining (Micro-EDM)
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Takayuki Tamura; Ryotaro Akiyama; Ryu-ichiro Tanaka; Hiroyuki Kawamoto; Shinjiro Umezu

    This paper reports the utilization of micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) to process gelatin gel, which is a soft food material. The influence of the applied voltage and selected electrodes on the processed shape was investigated. In addition, using safflower oil in the process can produce narrow grooves. The results showed that micro-EDM with safflower oil can produce micro-grooves (width equal to 2 μm), and alphabet characters can be engraved into gummy candy and jelly, which are foods containing gelatin. These findings are indicating a potentially powerful tool to produce impressive appearance by fabricating micro texture on gelatin foods.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • In-line and non-destructive monitoring of core temperature in sausages during industrial heat treatment by NIR interaction spectroscopy
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Jens Petter Wold; Marion O'Farrell; Jon Tschudi; Carl Emil Eskildsen; Petter Vejle Andersen; Silje Ottestad

    During industrial heat treatment of food products, the core temperature is a critical control parameter with respect to food quality and in particular food safety. This paper presents a novel prototype system based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) that enables continuous in-line and non-contact monitoring of core temperature in sausages during heat treatment in an industrial oven. NIRS interaction measurements in the 761–1081 nm region were used to probe the interior of the sausages. NIRS calibrations for the estimation of core temperature were developed for three different sausage types in the temperature range 60–90 °C. The best accuracy obtained for core temperature with NIRS was about ±1.0 °C. Results indicate that calibrations for core temperature can be transferred between different sausage types, which will ease implementation of such a method. The method was successfully tested in a modern sausage production plant.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Physical properties and storage stability of reverse osmosis skim milk concentrates: effects of skim milk pasteurisation, solid content and thermal treatment
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Morten Vormsborg Christiansen; Troels Bjerregaard Pedersen; Jesper Nagstrup Brønd; Leif H. Skibsted; Lilia Ahrné

    Concentrated dairy products are of increasing interest within the dairy industry. Skim milk concentrates can be produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration, which can be considered a non-thermal process. Therefore, the physical properties of concentrates differ from the properties of concentrates produced by evaporation. In this study, reverse osmosis filtration of raw and pasteurised skim milk was carried out in batch up to 28% total solids content and the effect of thermal treatment (65-110 °C, 15 seconds) and storage at 5 °C up to ten days on rheological and physical properties of concentrates, were evaluated. Concentrates produced from pasteurised skim milk required longer concentration times and showed larger average casein micelle sizes, but limited structure build-up capability during storage compared to concentrates produced from raw milk which more readily created structural networks between the milk constituents and consequently had higher viscosity. Thermal treatment of concentrates increased their average particle size and viscosity, an effect enhanced by increasing the total solids content. Concentrates produced from non-pasteurised milk showed the strongest shear-thinning behaviour during storage. Thus, the thermal treatment of milk before or after the concentration process, controls the structure formation of skim milk concentrates during storage.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of polyamide and ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer multilayer flexible packaging after high-pressure processing
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Luís Marangoni Júnior; Léa Mariza de Oliveira; Paula Fernanda Janetti Bócoli; Marcelo Cristianini; Marisa Padula; Carlos Alberto Rodrigues Anjos

    The effect of high-pressure processing on the morphological surface, thermal and mechanical properties of three PA and EVOH based multilayer flexible packaging materials were evaluated. LDPE/PA/LDPE, LDPE/EVOH/LDPE and PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/PA/LDPE packaging samples were processed under three different conditions (600 MPa/25 °C/10 min, 600 MPa/90 °C/10 min and 0.1 MPa/90 °C/10 min) and an unprocessed sample was used as control. The LDPE/PA/LDPE and LDPE/EVOH/LDPE samples showed good thermal stability and no surface defects after processing, because of the greater thickness of the external material, the film withstood the compression and decompression of the processing, consequently resulting in the protection of the other layers. The PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/PA/LDPE sample showed a significant increase in the Tm of PET, LDPE and PA after processing at 600 MPa/90 °C/10 min. Regarding the mechanical properties, reductions in the tensile strength of the PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/PA/LDPE sample were observed after processing at 600 MPa/90 °C/10 min. In addition, a significant reduction in heat seal strength was observed in the three materials after processing at 600 MPa, but these values are accepted in practice. Therefore, in terms of morphological, thermal and mechanical properties, LDPE/PA/LDPE and LDPE/EVOH/LDPE materials are recommended for the processing conditions of this study, whereas PET/LDPE/PA/EVOH/LDPE materials require further evaluation of other functional properties.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Radio-frequency dielectric relaxation behavior of selected vegetable tissues: spectra analysis with logarithmic derivative method and simulation with double-shell model
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ying Li; Mingjuan Han; Wei Zhou; Zhen Chen

    The dielectric relaxation behaviors in the radio-frequency range, where - relaxation is predominant, of flesh tissues of several vegetables are studied in this work. By taking advantage of the logarithmic derivative method, three sub - - relaxations were revealed for all vegetable tissues under study, and their relaxation characteristics were accurately determined. The relaxation behaviors were further simulated by means of the double-shell model. With reasonable values of involved morphological and physiological parameters, fairly satisfying simulations were achieved, where the simulated relaxations have consistent relaxation times to those of the measured relaxations. The simulation suggests that the low-frequency sub - - relaxation arises from polarization of plasma membrane, while the middle- and high-frequency sub - - relaxations are due to interfacial polarization at interfaces of tonoplast/protoplasm and cell sap/tonoplast, respectively.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of single- and dual-frequency ultrasound on the functionality of egg white protein
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Sun Jun; Mu Yaoyao; Jing Hui; Mohammed Obadi; Chen Zhongwei; Xu Bin

    The effects of high-power ultrasound (HP-US) treatment with different frequencies, temperatures, and durations on the physicochemical and structural properties of untreated and HP-US-treated egg white protein (EWP) were evaluated. Results indicated that the solubility of EWP was significantly improved after HP-US treatment, especially under the continuous dual frequency of 20/40 kHz. The foaming capacity of the EWP also depended on the treatment frequency, temperature, and duration, and foaming stability increased considerably in the HP-US-treated EWP compared with the untreated one. The particle size of the HP-US-treated EWP greatly decreased compared with that of untreated EWP. Results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that more water molecules were trapped in the EWP gel structure as free water after HP-US treatment. Therefore, the green technology of HP-US treatment can improve the physicochemical properties of EWP because of its sonochemical effect on the molecular conformation of EWP.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Assessment of a solid-state bulk acoustic wave sensor to measure viscosity of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids under static and flow conditions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Yuanyuan Pu; Norah O'Shea; Sean A. Hogan; John T. Tobin

    Monitoring and control of inline viscosity is crucial for process optimisation and for ensuring a high quality final product but currently this parameter is still under-utilised in the dairy industry. This study investigated a solid-state bulk acoustic wave sensor to measure the viscosity of Newtonian (oil standards) and Non-Newtonian fluids (reconstituted skim milk (RSM) at different concentrations) under static (off-line measurements) and flow conditions (in-line measurements). Results illustrated that an increase in total solids (TS) of RSM gave an increase in acoustic viscosity. Non-linear regression was applied to the experimental data to successfully transform the acoustic viscosity outputs into commonly-used reference viscosity values. RSM at higher TS presented a non-Newtonian behaviour and demonstrated shear-thinning properties. Under flow conditions the viscosity of the RSM decreased as a result of shearing experienced in the pipe. This study demonstrated the potential of an acoustic wave sensor to measure in-line viscosity in dairy applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • In-vitro digestion of whey protein- and soy lecithin-stabilized High Oleic Palm Oil emulsions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Camilo E. Sandoval-Cuellar; María de Jesus Perea-Flores; Maria Ximena Quintanilla-Carvajal

    Sweet whey- and soy lecithin-stabilized emulsions have been studied as potential delivery systems of High Oleic Palm Oil bioactive compounds. However, the gastrointestinal behavior of these systems has not been investigated. In this work, two High Oleic Palm Oil emulsions were submitted to in vitro digestion using a standardized static method. Stability of the emulsions was followed in each digestive phase and the final extent and kinetics release as well as the bioaccessibility of free fatty acids were measured and compared against non-encapsulated control. No changes were found in the droplet size of the emulsion after oral digestion, however, during gastric digestion, destabilization was observed due to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium. During the intestinal phase, nanoemulsions showed the highest rate constant followed and the least free fatty acids release final extent (78.48 ± 3.08 wt%) in comparison with macroemulsions (86.06 ± 2.04 wt%) and control (107.77 ± 1.45 wt%). Saturated fatty acids showed lower bioaccessibility in both emulsions than for control, meanwhile it increased for unsaturated ones. The results obtained allow addressing future research in formulation and design of delivery systems to improve the High Oleic Palm Oil digestibility and bioactive compounds bioaccessibility.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • An application to analyzing and correcting for the effects of irregular topographies on NIR hyperspectral images to improve identification of moldy peanuts
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Deshuai Yuan; Jinbao Jiang; Xiaojun Qiao; Xiaotong Qi; Wenjia Wang

    Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) can be used for nondestructive, rapid, real-time detection in food safety; however, irregular sample topographies introduce variations in the spectral intensity that impair subsequent classification and inversion processes. In this study, the spectral variations in HSI images of peanut samples with irregular topographies were assessed via the classification gradient and singular spectrum analysis (SSA). An SSA based correction model (CMSSA) is proposed that assumes the spectral intensity of all pixels of peanuts should be equal. The method was validated via classification and the coefficient of variation (CV) and was found to eliminate the spectral variation caused by the irregular kernel topography while retaining chemical differences of interest. We anticipate this method will prove useful in food safety detection applications involving the quantitative inversion of parameters.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Rapid determination of spore germinability of Clostridium perfringens based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology and chemometrics
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yaodi Zhu; Jiaye Zhang; Miaoyun Li; Lijun Zhao; Hongrong Ren; Longgnag Yan; Gaiming Zhao; Chaozhi Zhu

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) causes a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Spore germination is thought to be the first stage of infection by C. perfringens. AGFK, a mixture of l-asparagine, d-glucose, d-fructose, and potassium ions, is an effective nutrient germinant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different AGFK concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 mM/mL) on C. perfringens spore germination. This paper proposes a novel rapid method for the measurement of spore germinability based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology (HSIT). The spore germination rate (Srate), the OD600% and Ca2+-DPA% of C. perfringens were determined by chemical methods under different concentrations of AGFK. The results showed that spores have a maximum germination rate of 94.59% after 80 min with 100 mM/mL AGFK. Microscopic HSIT revealed that the spectral and spatial characteristics of spores varied during the spore germination process. Multivariate analyses (GA-siPLS and GA-PLS) and the gray symbiotic matrix (GLCM) were used to extract highly correlated spectral and spatial descriptors from the time-series data from microscopic HSIT, respectively. Single spectral, spatial signals and data fusion of spectral and spatial information were then used to predict the Srate, the OD600% and Ca2+-DPA % by GA-PLS, respectively. The result show that the Srate calibration was built by GA-PLS using data fusion variables and yielded acceptable results (Rc = 0.96, RMSEC = 0.64, Rcv = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.87, Rp = 0.94). The OD600% optimal model was built by GA-PLS using image variables and yielded acceptable results (Rc = 0.93, RMSEC = 19.36, Rcv = 0.91, RMSEP = 24.36, Rp = 0.89). For Ca2+-DPA %, the model based on the fusion of spectral and imaging data was optimal. The Ca2+-DPA % calibration yielded acceptable results (Rc = 0.95, RMSEC = 49.83, Rcv = 0.93, RMSEP = 58.98, Rp = 0.92). This work demonstrates the potential of microscopic HSIT for the non-destructive detection of spore germinability. The data fusion models also significantly improved the prediction of spore germinability. In conclusion, microscopic HSIT exhibits considerable promise for nondestructive diagnostics of spore germination.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • SHORT CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS APPLIED TO THE RECOGNITION OF THE BROWNING STAGES OF BREAD CRUST
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Weskley da Silva Cotrim; Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim; Leonardo Bonato Felix; Luis Antonio Minim

    A Computational Vision System (CVS) based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), operating with the module Inception v3 and reduced number of convolutional layers (Short-CNN), was proposed for the classification of browning degree of bread crust during baking. The training (70%), validation (15%), and testing (15%) of the CNN was performed using a dataset composed of 374 bread crust image fragments (600 x 600 pixels) over seven baking periods. The resulting CVS does not depend on process variables, overcoming a limitation present in ordinary models. In addition, the CVS was able to correctly classify the images from the test dataset uniformly, being able to extract the main colors present in the images from the dataset already in the first convolutional layer. The results showed a potential use of CNN in the food industry process control system involving color changes.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Estimating permeability and porosity of plant tissues: Evolution from raw to the processed states of potato
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Younas Dadmohammadi; Apostolos Kantzas; Xiaoli Yu; Ashim K. Datta

    During the processing of water containing food materials, water transport can be driven by pressure from gas, capillarity, swelling, or gravity. To describe these various modes of pressure-driven transport using Darcy's law, permeability is a critical parameter for which few data are available, primarily as a result of measurement difficulties. Permeability in the flow of liquid water through potato tissue was estimated by approximating the plant cellular structure, measured directly using flow-through and indirectly using nuclear magnetic resonance. The data from the three approaches show the same order of magnitude 10−18 m2, and thus are in agreement with each other and results reported in the literature. The dynamics of porosity and permeability changes in fresh, water-saturated, and cooked samples were described using cellular structure changes as observed in microscopy images. Simple mechanistic equations for predicting permeability and porosity, which can include swelling and shrinkage, are proposed based on approximating the geometry of the cellular tissue. Data corroborated in three ways will provide permeability values with confidence, while the simple prediction equation will make a reasonable estimation of permeability possible for a large class of food products.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Spatial-frequency domain imaging coupled with frequency optimization for estimating optical properties of two-layered food and agricultural products
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Dong Hu; Renfu Lu; Yibin Ying

    Understanding optical properties of food and agricultural products is essential to apply optical techniques for quality and safety assessment. This research was aimed at optimizing the frequency region through an inverse algorithm for better quantification of the optical absorption (μa) and reduced scattering (μs´) coefficients of two-layered food and agricultural products from spatial-frequency domain reflectance. The frequency region, defined by start and end frequencies, was first optimized for parameter estimations of the first and second layers, respectively. Estimation accuracies were then validated by comparing with the conventional all-at-once method through Monte Carlo simulations. On average, accuracies for estimating μa1, μa2 and μs2´ by using the optimized frequency region were improved by 52.9%, 63.0% and 62.1%, respectively, compared to the results by using fixed frequency region before optimization. No improvement for the estimated μs1´ was found because its mean absolute error was already very low (2.4%) and well within the acceptable level. Experimental results for two-layered solid phantoms and liquid milk samples in the wavelengths of 650-830 nm further validated the effectiveness of stepwise method with the optimized frequency region. Finally, the stepwise method, coupled with the optimized frequency region was used to estimate the optical properties of skin and flesh of apples for four cultivars (i.e., Delicious, Golden Delicious, Jonagold and Red Rome). The results were compared with those obtained using the single integrating sphere technique, followed with a discussion on the optical property discrepancies obtained by these two methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • The removal of phospholipid from crude rapeseed oil by enzyme-membrane binding
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    ZhiGang Hou; XinMin Cao; Lili Cao; GuoQing Ling; ZhenYu Yu; Ming Pang; PeiZhou Yang; ShaoTong Jiang

    Membrane technology has unique advantages over centrifugal equipment and has been widely applied. In this work, the hydrophobic ceramic membranes were used to remove phospholipid micelles from crude rapeseed oil, and their fouling mechanism, control, cleaning and influence on oil quality were investigated. The results of four different treatments showed that enzyme-membrane binding was the most effective degumming method. The flux performance can meet the needs of small-scale oil production. Concentration experimental results showed that the fouling mechanism was a combination of intermediate blockage and cake. Although increasing pressure, temperature, concentration, flow rate, and pore size could all reduce available area and increase resistance, the effects of TMP and pore size are the most significant in these factors. Non-cleaning resistance was very small under all conditions, and increasing transmembrane pressure and pore size promoted non-cleaning resistance. Increasing temperature and cross-flow velocity significantly reduced the resistance of cleanable pollution. In terms of membrane fouling control, the critical and threshold transmembrane pressures of the large-pore membrane were lower than those of the small-pore membrane and decreased with increasing concentration. Fouled membranes can be cleaned and restored by oil without phospholipid micelles, and the flux recovery rate of the membranes can exceed 85% after 10 reuses. The membranes removed phospholipids and water and were beneficial for decreasing free fatty acids and peroxide values. Therefore, the enzyme-membrane binding can be considered for gradual use in the production of small-scale oil.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Design of active electrospun mats with single and core-shell structures to achieve different curcumin release kinetics
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Adrián Rojas; Eliezer Velásquez; Luan Garrido; María José Galotto; Carol López de Dicastillo
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Encapsulation of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate by electrospraying for food applications
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Petra Ložnjak Švarc; Pedro J. García-Moreno; Ana C. Mendes; Elnaz Z. Fallahasghari; Jette Jakobsen
    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Effect of high-pressure homogenization on the rheology, microstructure and fractal dimension of citrus fiber-oil dispersions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Dian-bin Su; Xin-di Zhu; Benu Adhikari; Dong Li; Li-jun Wang

    This study investigated the rheological properties, microstructure and fractal dimensions of the citrus fiber-oil dispersion. Different concentrations of citrus fiber (1.5% w/w, 2.0% w/w, and 2.5% w/w) were keeping the oil concentration at 0% (control) and 0.75% w/w. The dispersions were produced through high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at two pressures (80 MPa and 160 MPa). The HPH process significantly increased the apparent viscosity, storage and loss moduli, but reduced the activation energy associated with temperature dependence of apparent viscosity of dispersions. The microstructure of citrus fiber was significantly altered by the HPH process. The fractal dimension of dispersions produced through the HPH was close to 3.00 indicating that these dispersions were homogeneous and stable. These citrus fiber-oil dispersions produced using HPH will be preferentially used in food and pharmaceutical industry in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Asymmetric Al2O3 and PES/Al2O3 hollow fiber membranes for green tea extract clarification
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Marlon Menezes Maciel Bindes; Natália Mazzarioli Terra; Gregory Scott Patience; Daria Camilla Boffitoorcid; Vicelma Luiz Cardoso; Miria Hespanhol Miranda Reis
    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Effect of storage at high temperature on chemical (composition) and techno-functional characteristics of E471 food emulsifiers applied to aerosol whipping cream
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Max Blankart; Claudia Oellig; Sonja Averweg; Wolfgang Schwack; Jörg Hinrichs

    Various foods are processed with addition of mono- and diacylglycerol (MAG and DAG) emulsifiers to adjust techno-functional properties. Exposure to and application of high temperatures during production, processing and transport of these emulsifiers can induce compositional changes and thereby affect techno-functional properties. Emulsifiers were stored above their respective melting point and their chemical composition was determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography–fluorescence detection. Storage for 8 weeks decreased the MAG content of a saturated MAG by about 36% by transesterification into 1,3-DAG, while a rearrangement of 1,2- into 1,3-DAG was observed for a saturated MAG/DAG emulsifier. Emulsifiers were applied to aerosol whipping cream, and viscosity, particle size, overrun, foam firmness and drainage were determined. The increasing 1,3-DAG content of the saturated MAG emulsifier was found to increase the drainage of aerosol whipping cream from 15% to 50%.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Fabrication and characterization of water-soluble phytosterol ester nanodispersion by emulsification-evaporation combined ultrasonic method
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Simin Feng; Zhangtie Wang; Jinjin Zhao; Zisheng Luo; Ping Shao; Ning Xiang; Peilong Sun

    The purpose of this study was to fabricate a water-soluble phytosterol ester (PE) nanodispersion using emulsification-evaporation combined high-energy approaches (ultrasonic and microfluidization treatment). The effects of different surfactants, fabricating condition on the characterization of PE nanodispersions were investigated. Our results indicated that soybean protein isolate (SPI) was more suitable for the fabrication of PE nanodispersion than konjac gum, rice protein and sodium caseinate (NaCas). The average particle size, ζ-potential, encapsulation efficiency and loading amount of PE nanodispersion were 97.2 ± 5.0 nm, -38.9 ± 3.2 mV, 95.4 ± 0.4% and 19.1 ± 0.8%, respectively. Hydrophobic interaction played a significant role in the formation of nanodispersion. Microfluidization and high-speed shearing affected the secondary structure of SPI by breaking hydrogen bonds. Ultrasonic treatment could facilitate hydrogen bond formation, and increase hydrophobic interaction between SPI and PE. Emulsification-evaporation combined with ultrasonic method was gentler than microfluidization in the preparation of PE nanodispersion. The present method can be used to increase the water-solubility of PE and may be extended for other hydrophobic compounds.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Impacts of preliminary vacuum drying and pulsed electric field treatment on characteristics of fried potatoes
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Caiyun Liu; Nabil Grimi; Nikolai Lebovka; Eugene Vorobiev

    The effects of preliminary vacuum drying (VD) and pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on characteristics of fried potatoes were studied. The samples were preliminary dehydrated to a different levels (with moisture ratio of MR ≥ 0.2) using VD at sub-atmospheric pressure of p = 30 kPa, and two different drying temperatures, Tv = 40 °C and 70 °C. After dehydration the samples were fried for different frying time at 130 °C. The effects of PEF included significant shortening the VD time and absence of starch gelatinizing during the VD. Both application of PEF treatment and increase of temperature allowed shortening the drying time. For example, the drying time for the untreated sample dried at 40 °C was by ≈ 2.45 times higher than for the PEF treated sample dried at 70 °C. Increase in level of preliminary VD dehydration resulted in decrease of moisture content and oil uptake in fried samples. For PEF treated samples the moisture contents were significantly smaller than for untreated ones and the PEF treatment also resulted in significant decrease in oil contents. For example, at Tv = 40 °C and MRv < 0.2 the oil uptakes were Of = 0.26 ± 0.02 and Of = 0.17 ± 0.01 for untreated and PEF treated samples, respectively. Preliminary VD dehydration allowed preservation the starch granules in fried potato.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • efficient single-step rapeseed oleosome extraction using twin-screw press
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    M.J. Romero-Guzmán; L. Jung; K. Kyriakopoulou; R.M. Boom; C.V. Nikiforidis

    Oil in seeds is encapsulated in oleosomes, which are small lipid droplets surrounded by a phospholipid-protein monolayer. The currently proposed method to extract intact oleosomes includes mixing seeds with alkaline media in a ratio 1:7, batch blending and filtering. In this work, we propose the use of a twin-screw press to perform the oleosome extraction at pH 7. The results show that similarly as during blender extraction, twin-screw press recovers ⁓60% of the oleosomes; however twin-screw press is able to achieve this yield even when just pure water is used. While in the blender extraction, the yield depends on ionic strength and pH of the extraction media, when using twin-screw press, the oleosome extraction yield predominantly depends on the mechanical forces. These shear forces are able to break the cell walls and release the cellular material while maintaining the integrity of oleosomes. The oleosomes extracted with twin-screw press have similar characteristics than those obtained by the blending process. Overall, twin-screw press seems a promising alternative to scale-up the oleosome aqueous extraction, especially as neutral pH can be used and the water usage is significantly reduced. Additionally, preliminary results showed that the yield can increase up to 90 wt%.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Alkalinization of acid whey by means of electrodialysis with bipolar membranes and analysis of induced membrane fouling
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Vitalii Kravtsov; Irina Kulikova; Sergey Mikhaylin; Laurent Bazinet

    An issue of acid whey processing, well known in the dairy industry, is its high amount of lactic acid, a key feature that hampers acid whey industrial utilization. As a result, dried products of acid whey treatment possess a number of undesirable properties such as elevated acidity, hygroscopicity and caking. In the present study, electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) was used to alkalinize acid whey at laboratory scale. Two alternative configurations of electrodialysis cells were designed, where the whey stream was directly connected to the bipolar membrane generating hydroxide ions. pH of acid whey was raised up to 6.5. The above said pH adjustment corresponded to 25% lactic acid removal rate and 24–34% demineralization rate. The operation of EDBM, although efficient, induced fouling on the anion-exchange side of bipolar membranes after acid whey alkalinization. A complex analysis of membranes after whey processing was conducted. The analysis of whey precipitate and membrane fouling revealed 13 and 7% protein content in respective dried samples. Membrane fouling displayed minor protein content; thus, mineral fraction was likely to be dominant in the fouling matter.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Apparent density of compressible food powders under storage conditions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    C. Lanzerstorfer

    The stress-dependence of the apparent density and the wall friction angle of various food powders like salt, sugar, flour, starch and protein powders were studied using a ring shear tester. The approximation of the stress-dependence of the apparent density using a power function showed a very good correlation (r2>0.97). The two parameters of the approximation function are the apparent density at 1.0 kPa and the exponent, which characterizes the compressibility of the powder. The first correlates very well with the apparent density measured according to ISO 697 or EN ISO 60 (r2=0.98), while the second shows some correlation (r2=0.76) with the particle size. Combining the powder properties apparent density, the mass median diameter and the spread of the particle size distribution in a power function allows a reasonably good estimate of the exponent (r2=0.93). The wall friction angle usually decreases at higher values of the wall normal stress. This dependence can often be approximated using a simple function. However, for powders with a low stress-dependence of the wall friction angle it is better to use a constant average value. Thus, the apparent density of compressible food powders under storage conditions can be described well.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Improved recovery of protein from soy grit by enzyme-assisted alkaline extraction
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Milica N. Perović; Zorica D. Knežević Jugović; Mirjana G. Antov

    Recovery of protein from soy grit, its functional properties and possibility for the reduction of time of conventional alkaline extraction by the assistance of enzymes were studied. Enzymatic treatment was performed by commercial preparations of cellulase (NS22086), xylanase (NS22083) and pectinase (Vinozym) (applied separately or in combination) as well as by commercial carbohydrases cocktail (Enzyme complex, NS22119). Three different extractions were investigated - alkaline (at pH 8 for 1 h, 2 h or 3 h), enzyme-assisted aqueous (at pH 5.5 for 3 hours) and enzyme-assisted alkaline extractions (enzymatic extraction for 1 h followed by alkaline extraction for 1 h or 2 h) at 50 ˚C and solid:liquid ratio 1:10 (w/v). The highest enhancement of recovery of protein was achieved by pretreatment of soy grit with enzyme cocktails. Treatment with Enzyme complex followed by 1 h alkaline extraction increased protein yield for 21% compared to 2 h alkaline extraction. Treatment by combination of individual cellulase, xylanase and pectinase followed by 2 h alkaline extraction enhanced protein yield for 13% in comparison to 3 h alkaline extraction. So, reduced time of alkaline extraction was attained by the assistance of carbohydrases cocktails with even positive effect on protein yield. In addition, protein from enzyme-assisted alkaline extraction exhibited ameliorated solubility, emulsifying and whipping properties compared to alkaline extracted protein.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Influence of electrostatic interactions on the formation and stability of multilayer fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by whey protein-xanthan-locust bean complexes
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Kristen Griffin; Hanna Khouryieh

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of electrostatic interactions on the stability of multilayered fish oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI)-xanthan (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG) complexes. Emulsions were prepared using the layer-by-layer deposition technique with salt concentrations (0, 5, and 50 mM NaCl) at pH below (pH 3) and above (pH 7) the isoelectric point of WPI. Results indicated that zeta potential at pH 3 resulted in positive values, whereas at pH 7 resulted in negative values, with the magnitude of the ζ-potentials increasing as the NaCl concentration increased. NaCl did not have any major impact on the particle size of the emulsions. XG emulsions had the highest viscosity at pH 3 regardless of time, though XG-LBG emulsions showed a significant increase at 0 and 5 mM NaCl over time. XG emulsions at pH 3 showed the highest viscosity at every salt concentration. At pH 7, XG-LBG emulsions had the highest viscosity results, yet decreased over time, indicating the negative salt effect the synergistic interaction between XG and LBG. With 0 mM and 5 mM NaCl at pH 7, XG-LBG emulsions had the highest creaming stability; while with 50 mM NaCl, XG emulsions had the highest creaming stability. For both the primary and secondary lipid oxidation tests, XG-LBG emulsions had the highest oxidative stability at every salt concentration at pH 7. These results have important implications in the design of biopolymer-based delivery systems for microencapsulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for use in functional foods.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Development of a microfluidic route for the formation of gellan-based microgels incorporating jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) extract
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Tatiana Porto Santos; Ana Letícia Rodrigues Costa; Mariano Michelon; Letícia Pontes Costa; Rosiane Lopes Cunha

    Gellan microgels incorporated with jabuticaba extract were produced by external gelation of monodisperse water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. This extract, rich in anthocyanins, has shown antioxidant effect and benefits associated to intestinal issues. The W/O emulsions were produced using a three-dimensional microfluidic device operated in an intermittent dripping regime flow. Microgels were obtained from external gelation of emulsions by calcium ions present in the continuous phase. Our results showed how to produce and control the microgel diameter and polydispersity by varying the flow rate of continuous and dispersed phases. Diameter of microgels ranged from 185 μm to 342 μm, and coefficient of variation values varied between 1.6 and 8.6%. The low stability of microgels loaded with jabuticaba extract was mainly associated with both the low gellan concentration and the osmotic pressure difference during storage. In spite of this, the microfluidic route proposed can potentially be used to incorporate and protect anthocyanins extracts and might be extended for other hydrophilic molecules.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Modeling of compression pressure of heated raw fish during pressing liquid
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Marek Jakubowski

    The aim of the present study was to develop models describing the pressure and the dewatering rate of preheated fish raw material in terms of expression parameters (i.e., compression ratio, compression speed, and preheating temperature of the material). The effects of independent and dependent variables were studied using the Box-Behnken experimental design. The obtained results showed that the proposed power law models fit well with the experimental data with correlation coefficient (Rˆ2) of 90.3% for dewatering efficiency and 97.8% for pressure and that dewatering efficiency and pressure were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the expression parameters. The proposed models allow to estimate both efficiency of pressing liquid from heated raw fish materials and its energy and compression pressure.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Optimization of physicochemical properties of novel multiple nanoemulsion for complex food matrices through iterative mathematical modelling
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    J. Cortés-Ríos; R.V. Valdivia-Olivares; M.J. Álvarez-Figueroa; M. Rodriguez-Fernandez; J.V. González-Aramundiz
    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Shelf life extension of sugarcane juice by cross flow hollow fibre ultrafiltration
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Chirasmita Panigrahi; Mrinmoy Mondal; Sankha Karmakar; Hari Niwas Mishra; Sirshendu De

    Pre-treated sugarcane juice was ultrafiltered using polysulphone based hollow fiber to enhance its shelf life. The membrane of molecular weight cut off 30 kDa was selected based on productivity, quality and microbial safety of the product. Optimum condition was found as 104 kPa transmembrane pressure and 30 l/h cross flow rate (Reynolds number 249) based on flux yield and desirable juice quality. Membranes were characterized in terms of surface morphology and surface chemistry to interpret the nature of deposited layer on the membrane. The flux decline and sucrose concentration in the permeate were simulated using a first principle based transport model. Ultrafiltration yielded a clarified sugarcane juice with 98% recovery of sucrose, 80% recovery of polyphenol, 3 fold reduction in oxidative enzyme and 6 log reduction in bacterial count ensuring extended juice storability. The clarified juice was found to be stable up to 9 weeks at 4 °C.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Microfiltration of raw milk for production of high-purity milk fat globule membrane material
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Steffen F. Hansen; Sean A. Hogan; John Tobin; Jan T. Rasmussen; Lotte B. Larsen; Lars Wiking

    Commercial ingredients containing milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) material are currently isolated from heavily processed dairy streams. The aim of this study was to achieve a more gentle isolation of MFGM material by means of ceramic dia-microfiltration of raw whole milk to separate fat globules from casein micelles and whey proteins prior to MFGM extraction. A pilot-scale experiment with 1.4 μm pore size (membrane surface area 1.05 m2) resulted in an optimal outcome of low permeation of fat (2.5% permeation) and high permeation of proteins (97% permeation). This yielded an MFGM isolate with 7% w/w polar lipids and 30% w/w proteins, where contamination of non-MFGM proteins was only 25% of total protein content. Furthermore, mild pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s) introduced either before or after microfiltration had no impact on filtration efficiency or MFGM yield and composition. The work describes an industrially relevant production method for a less-processed MFGM material of high purity with potential for further separation and valorisation of protein-rich permeate streams.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Exploring the effects of microencapsulation on odour retention of fermented noni juice
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Chuang Zhang; Xiao Chen; Jingying Zhang; Paul A. Kilmartin; Siew Young Quek

    The key volatiles of fermented noni juice (FNJ) were identified, and the effect of microencapsulation (via spray drying and freeze drying) on the volatile profile of FNJ powders was investigated. Results showed that hexanoic acid was the major contributor to the unpleasant odour of FNJ. Both drying methods significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the retention of volatiles, and changed the volatile profile of the resulting powders. Comparing the two methods, volatile retention in the spray-dried powder was lower, and was negatively affected by the increase of drying air temperature (p < 0.05). The odour activity values (OAVs) of key volatiles decreased after microencapsulation, however, most of them were still present, and contributed to the overall odour of the powders. This research has provided qualitative and quantitative data on the volatiles of FNJ, and explored for the first time, the influence of microencapsulation on the volatile characteristics and retention in powders.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • BIOREFINERY CONCEPT FOR DISCARDED POTATOES: RECOVERY OF STARCH AND BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    M.D. Torres; P. Fradinho; P. Rodríguez; E. Falqué; V. Santos; H. Domínguez

    The integral valorisation of discarding potatoes from three local varieties using processes of low environmental impact to recover the starch contained in the flesh as well as the bioactive compounds present in the skin or in the processing wastewaters was studied. The remaining flesh after starch extraction was also recovered to further processing. The extraction of starch and active extracts using environmentally friendly technologies, the physicochemical and phytochemical characterisation of the extracts, the formulation and mechanical characterisation of the corresponding functional hydrogels, have allowed proposing potential food and non-food applications. Results indicated that subcritical water extraction (220 ºC) was an efficient technology to recover antioxidants from the potato skin. Processing wastewaters exhibited high protein content. The extracted starch featured comparable physicochemical properties to that available commercially and the corresponding hydrogels exhibited enhanced mechanical properties with absence of syneresis. It should be remarked that Agria and Neiker varieties provided the highest total starch and bioactive content in terms of phenolics, TEAC value and DPPH inhibition percentage, respectively.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Inline control of yoghurt fermentation process using a near infrared light backscatter sensor
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Oscar Arango; Antonio José Trujillo; Manuel Castillo

    In industrial yoghurt production, continuous process monitoring using pH meters is a cumbersome and non-appropriate technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of an optical sensor as a new method for the inline control of yoghurt fermentation. Tests were conducted with three fat and three inulin concentrations and fermentation was monitored simultaneously using an inline light backscatter sensor, pH-meters and a rheometer. A mathematical model that correlates the near infrared light backscatter ratio with the pH, at real time during milk fermentation, was developed. The model was calibrated and successfully validated at the different experimental conditions, predicting the evolution of pH from 5.2 to 4.6 with determination coefficient values higher than 0.993 and standard error of prediction values between 0.02 and 0.11 pH units. The results demonstrated that this is a promising method for the inline control of pH in industrial yoghurt production.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Sub-zero temperature preservation of fruits and vegetables: A review
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    De-Kun Liu; Cong-Cong Xu; Chun-Xiao Guo; Xin-Xin Zhang

    Fruits and vegetables are delicious, nutritional, and healthy, thus constituting important parts of human diet. However, the postharvest preservation of fruits and vegetables is a challenge owing to their highly perishable nature. Recently, a narrow sub-zero temperature zone has received increasing research attention in the low-temperature preservation field because of its superior ability to inhibit respiratory rate, deterioration reactions, and pathogenic microorganism growth without causing chilling injury and deterioration of food quality. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the worldwide application status of three temperature ranges, i.e., ice temperature, super-cooling (without phase change), and super-chilling (slight or partial freezing), to the preservation of fruits and vegetables, their mechanisms of protection/damage, and promising strategies for quality improvement. Thus, our review provides a theoretical basis for the informed development of technologies based on these temperature ranges as a means to achieve better preservation effectiveness for fresh fruits and vegetables in practical applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Investigation of nanoemulsion interfacial properties: A mesoscopic simulation
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Zehan Hong; Nan Xiao; Lu Li; Xinan Xie
    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Development, structure characterization and stability of food grade selenium nanoparticles stabilized by tilapia polypeptides
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Hong-Yan Tang; Qing Huang; Yu-Lin Wang; Xin-Quan Yang; Dong-Xiao Su; Shan He; Jin-Chao Tan; Qing-Zhu Zeng; Yang Yuan

    A novel method was used to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in this paper. SeNPs were prepared by direct reducing the sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) using tilapia polypeptides (TP1). Meanwhile, TP acted as a stabilizing agent for the SeNPs. It was found that TP-SeNPs was reduced from Na2SeO3 to element selenium then aggregated to a certain size to form a red SeNPs core, which was encapsulated by the polypeptides. We found that the formation of TP-SeNPs may induce selenium binding at the expense of the anti-parallel structure in the β-sheet structure of protein. The main bonding forces of TP-SeNPs were electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction forces. It was found that the TP-SeNPs solution was relatively stable in neutral and alkaline environment. Under the condition of pH=8, the TP-SeNPs solution showed better storage stability.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Interference in beer bitterness measurements caused by polymer tubes
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Ivi Nascimento; Lucas Calado; Maria Eduarda Duncan; Bruna Trindade; Leandro Sphaier; Vinicius Silva; Fernando Peixoto

    Although there is no indication regarding what type of centrifuge tubes should be used for hop bitterness measurement, this study has demonstrated that the most commonly used tubes (made of polypropylene) can cause a significant deviation in the measured bitterness. The traditional procedure for measuring hop bitterness involves extracting a sample of beer with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (iso-octane) and measuring the absorbance of the organic phase at 275 nm. This procedure was employed to measure the evolution of bitterness during wort boiling and the mentioned interference was first detected, yielding differences as high as 20% between samples processed in plastic and glass tubes. Then, to elucidate that, an experimental comparison using fourteen samples prepared in glass and twenty in polypropylene tubes, was carried out, employing a classical statistical hypothesis test. The results provided a clear indication (with a 99% level of confidence) that the material of the tube can indeed interfere with the bitterness measurement, which is most likely due to the solubilization of the polymer into the organic phase, once plastic polymers absorb in the ultraviolet range.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Subcritical fluid extraction treatment on egg yolk: Product characterization
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Yujie Su; Mengyao Ji; Junhua Li; Cuihua Chang; Shijian Dong; Yongdong Deng; Yanjun Yang; Luping Gu
    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Application of Pulsed Electric Field in production of ice cream enriched with probiotic bacteria (L. rhamnosus B 442) containing intracellular calcium ions
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Urszula Pankiewicz; Małgorzata Góral; Katarzyna Kozłowicz; Dariusz Góral

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) with appropriately selected parameters was used to enrich the probiotic L. rhamnosus B 442 strain with calcium ions. Next, six types of ice-cream mixes were prepared and supplemented with 200 μg of calcium ions. Enrichment of 3 variants of mixes: unfermented, lyophilized and fermented, consisted in the addition of bacteria exposed to PEF to increase calcium bioaccumulation. Calcium levels were measured in bacterial cells and ice cream. After 24 hours from the production of ice cream their chemical composition, pH, melting rates, and texture were determined. The colour parameters and the total number of microorganisms were analysed as well. The highest accumulation of Ca2+ ions in cells was achieved when the pulsed electric field was applied at the field strength of 3.0 kV/cm and at calcium concentration of 200 μg/mL of medium. The significant differences in all physicochemical parameters that were dependent on the ice cream production process were observed. The use of the PEF-modified L. rhamnosus B 442 bacteria for milk fermentation caused that obtained ice cream had the highest content of dry matter, fat, protein, and carbohydrates, as well as the lowest melting rates. There were no differences in the colour parameters a* and ΔH. Ice cream enriched with calcium ions with the use of PEF did not differ significantly in terms of bacterial survival rates.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Effect of salt on the inter-relationship between the morphological, emulsifying and interfacial rheological properties of O/W emulsions at oil/water interface
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Mahmut DOĞAN; Meryem GÖKSEL SARAÇ; Duygu ASLAN. TÜRKER

    The role of salt in oil-in-water emulsion is not widely studied, but relevant to food processing, formulation and sensory properties. The interaction between the emulsifier and salt could impart an important effect on the emulsion stability and rheology. This present study aimed to determine the interfacial rheology of oil-in-water emulsions that were stabilized by different salts and affected by the different emulsifiers that promote the interfacial layer. In addition, this study intended to investigate whether the droplet size and zeta potential functioned as contributing parameters. Two salts (sodium chloride-NaCl and calcium chloride-CaCl2) and three emulsifiers (lecithin, mono-diglycerides, sodium steoryl-2-lactylate) were chosen to select appropriate combinations for oil-in-water emulsions. The relationship between the interfacial properties and the O/W emulsion stability in the presence of salt was assessed by both optical microscopy and visual observation of phase separation throughout the storage. As a result, it was found that the interfacial storage (Gi’) and loss modulus (Gi’’) values were dependent on the frequency. This result suggested that the oil/water interfaces support the conformational reconstruction of emulsifier changes to take advantage of improved hydrophobicity which results from the frequency dependence of the surface modules. The stability of emulsions prepared with the presence of CaCl2 was found to be higher than the emulsions prepared with NaCl which can be attributed to the counter ions effects of the CaCl2. The steady, dynamic and interfacial rheological measurements were consistent with ζ-potential, creaming and morphological observations. The results of this study also demonstrated that the interfacial rheology data might be predictive of emulsion stability and CaCl2 salt will increase the stability of the product with the different emulsifiers in the food formulations.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Functional properties of mildly fractionated soy protein as influenced by the processing pH
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Yu Peng; Natalie Kersten; Konstantina Kyriakopoulou; Atze Jan van der Goot

    In this study an alternative mild fractionation process for the extraction of soy protein is investigated; aqueous fractionation, in which oil extraction and intensive washing steps are omitted. Moreover, a pH adjustment is proposed instead of the conventional neutralization step. The mildly fractionated soy protein fractions (SPFs) showed higher protein and oil content compared to commercial soy protein isolate. The process retained the proteins’ native state. SPFs adjusted at pH 4.5 and 5.5 (close to pI) formed a powdery texture, resulting in larger size particles after dispersion in water. Despite their low nitrogen solubility index, water holding capacity and viscosity, when mixed with flour these SPFs presented the highest G* values. A flaky texture and reversed properties were observed with SPF adjusted at pH away from the pI. The range of properties achieved exhibits new routes in creating soy protein ingredients with desired functionality, avoiding over-processing due to post-treatment modifications.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Understanding appearance quality improvement of jujube slices during heat pump drying via water state and glass transition
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Haonan Hou; Qinqin Chen; Jinfeng Bi; Xinye Wu; Xinwen Jin; Xiao Li; Yening Qiao; Ying Lyu

    Heat pump drying (HPD) has been used as one of the promising drying methods in food industry. To understand the color improvement and shrinkage inhibition of jujube slices during HPD, water state and glass transition temperature (Tg) were determined, macroscopic state diagram was further established. Jujube slices dried by HPD presented significantly lower color difference (ΔE) and shrinkage ratio than hot air drying. The temperature difference (ΔT = T-Tg) between the material temperature (T) and Tg showed significant effect on color and shrinkage of jujube slices. As the value of ΔT reduced, the ΔE change of jujube slices decreased. Tg increased significantly with the decrease of immobilized water. With the increase of Tg, solid matrix mobility of jujube slices decreased and the shrinkage tended to be stable. Macroscopic state diagram showed that critical moisture content of jujube slices dried by HPD which glass transition would happen at 25 °C was 0.061 g/g.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • CO2 laser drilling coupled with moderate electric fields for enhancement of the mass transfer phenomenon in a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) peeling process
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Wladimir Silva-Vera; Natalia Avendaño-Muñoz; Helena Nuñez; Cristian Ramírez; Sergio Almonacid; Ricardo Simpson

    Tomatoes are listed as the most consumed vegetables around the world, with a profitable market into the peeled-canned tomato industry. In this sense, the lye method is commonly performed as peeling method, but with severe impact on the environment. Therefore, this study focuses on modifying the surface of tomato skin by using laser CO2 drilling under different pore size (127.92–194.39 μm), pore density (2–9 pore·cm−2) and coupled with moderate electric field (MEF) at 1333 V m−1 to facilitate its removal. The variables NaOH concentration, pore density and pore size were tested. As a result, the effective diffusion coefficient for the drilled skin ranged between 4.45 × 10−11 and 24.95 × 10−11 m2 s−1 at 60 °C (p-value < 0.05). Likewise, a decrease in total work, peak load and Young's modulus was noticeable compared to conventional treatment (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, the laser CO2 drilling might improve the skin removal with less energy and lower NaOH concentration compared to conventional treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Extending the 3D food printing tests at high speed. Material deposition and effect of non-printing movements on the final quality of printed structures
    J. Food Eng. (IF 3.625) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    A. Derossi; M. Paolillo; R. Caporizzi; C. Severini

    3D Food Printing has unprecedented ambitions but for its practical use the increase of the speed of material deposition is a challenge to tackle. We have extended the information on this aspect by using a workflow that analyzes the screw-based deposition, at medium-high speed and the effect of some undervalued variables on the quality of 3D printed cereal-based structure. The most familiar approach utilized to compute the right extrusion rate for a good replica of the 3D virtual model completely fails at high print speed. Improvements would be possible only by using a flow of 300% or by changing, as input data, the diameter of filament at 1.0 mm. However, additional irregularities are caused by undervalued variables such as retraction distance being the most important for the printing quality while the travel speed and retraction speed are crucial to reduce printing time. Finally, desirability approach was able to define the conditions capable to get a maximum desirability of 0.85 at speed of 200 mm/s.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
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