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  • Factors Influencing Consumer Menu-Item Selection in a Restaurant Context
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Kimberley Peters; Pr. Hervé Remaud

    Assuming that the more a restaurant’s manager know the preferences of his/her clients, the greater the chance to maximise the experience of the customers and therefore the revenue of the restaurant. However, very little is known about the attributes that influence menu-item choice of such customers in a restaurant context and consequently, on the relative importance attached to specific attributes shaping the overall appeal of a menu-item. Despite the familiarity that consumers have with making menu-item choices, there exists a significant paucity of academic research exploring the relative importance of attributes that influence menu-item selection in a restaurant context. This research aims to respond to the following question: what are the attributes that influence menu-item choice in a casual and fine-dining restaurants context? To explore further the reasons that influence menu-item choice, the authors also investigate the extent the customers’ level of food involvement and the social context have an impact on the attributes influencing menu-item choice in these two restaurants’ contexts. This study utilises the Best-Worst method to examine consumer-based preference in relation to the relative importance of attributes that influence the menu-item choice of casual and fine-dining restaurant patrons. Respondents should have patronised a casual or fine-dining restaurant within the last 4 weeks and 6 months respectively and were randomly allocated the task to respond the questions either with a casual-dining context in mind or with a fine-dining context in mind. Consumer attribute-based preferences are also examined in relation to an individual’s level of food involvement and effect of social context, giving the authors the opportunity to split the entire sample into sub groups. The overarching objective is to draw comparisons in order to determine whether the attributes that influence menu-item choice differ between segments of consumers. Quantitative data was collected from 1208 respondents in Australia representative of casual and fine-dining restaurant patrons. Results of the study indicate that “the combination of ingredients” is the most influential attribute on patrons’ menu-item selection at casual and fine-dining restaurants, with a probability of 100% for that attribute to be chosen as the most important one when selecting a dish. Conversely, the “avoidance of certain foods” and “the core ingredient of the dish is sustainably produced” are the least important attributes influencing the menu-item selection of restaurant patrons, with a probability of 30 to 38% for these attributes to be chosen as the most important one when selecting a dish. Interestingly, the ranking and relative importance of menu-item attributes significantly differed between segments of consumers with a high and low level of food involvement. The “the combination of ingredients” remains the most important reason for people highly involved in food. Whereas “a sufficient portion size that will satisfy my appetite” and “a dish that I have tried before and know that I will like the taste” have probabilities of 100 and 94.5% to be chosen as the most important attribute when selecting a dish for people with low food involvement.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption among 3–5-year-old Finnish children and their parents: is there an association?
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    K. Kähkönen; M. Hujo; M. Sandell; A. Rönkä; A. Lyytikäinen; O. Nuutinen

    This study investigated the association between the home food environment and the consumption frequency of raw and cooked vegetables, berries and fruit among 3–5-year-old children and their mothers and fathers. The target group consisted of 3–5-year-old children (N=114) attending public early childhood education and care, and their parents (N=100). Cross-sectional data were collected from the parents with questionnaires assessing the home food environment, children and parents’ vegetable, berry and fruit consumption, and food neophobia. Linear mixed-effects models and principal component analysis were used to examine the association of parental consumption and the home food environment with children’s vegetable, berry and fruit consumption. The results showed low consumption of fruit and vegetables among 3–5-year-old children and their mothers and fathers. Maternal consumption was associated with children’s raw and cooked vegetable, berry and fruit consumption, whereas paternal consumption was only associated with cooked vegetables. This study identified that home food environment factors influencing children’s consumption habits vary for raw and cooked vegetables, berries and fruit.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Using participant ratings to construct food image paradigms for use in the Australian population – a pilot study
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Janelle A. Skinner; Manohar L. Garg; Christopher V. Dayas; Tracy L. Burrows

    In human research, images of food are often used as cues in place of real foods. To elicit anticipatory responses in targeted populations (e.g. prompting changes in metabolic hormones, invoking food cravings), cultural differences and population norms with regard to food preferences need to be considered. This pilot study aimed to construct two image paradigms (healthy vs. hyperpalatable foods) for experimental use within the Australian population. A dataset of 200 images (from the licenced database Food-pics and internet sources), representative of healthy and hyperpalatable foods commonly consumed in Australia, was compiled by research dietitians. Ten male and female adults volunteered to view the images. Participants categorised each image as either healthy food or ‘junk food’ (i.e. hyperpalatable food), and to rate each image according to three criteria: 1) familiarity of the food displayed; 2) recognisability of the food; and 3) appetisingness of the food. Overall, agreement with a priori categories was high for both healthy and hyperpalatable food images, 87.3% and 87.7% respectively. The food images with the lowest overall ratings (score <7 out of possible 9) were removed from the dataset and the final paradigms each contain 75 images. The healthy food paradigm contains foods from the five core food groups (fruit, vegetables, grains and cereals, meat and meat alternatives, dairy foods), and the hyperpalatable food paradigm contains non-core foods (sweet and savoury discretionary choice foods). The paradigms represent a broad range of commonly consumed foods that will be relevant for prospective projects utilising food cues in Australian adults.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Preference segments among declared craft beer drinkers: Perceptual, attitudinal and behavioral responses underlying craft-style vs. traditional-style flavor preferences
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Sara R. Jaeger; Thierry Worch; Tracey Phelps; David Jin; Armand V. Cardello

    Craft beer is a product category that continues to expand, and craft beer drinkers are generally differentiated from traditional or mainstream beer drinkers in terms of their preference for innovative beers with novel and complex flavor profiles, and greater involvement in beer and product-focused behaviors and activities. The present research explores the existence of flavor-driven segments within the overall craft beer segment, where some declared craft beer drinkers exhibit the characteristic craft beer preference (stronger and more complex flavors), while others exhibit a preference for less complex and more traditional flavors. Research conducted with craft-style and traditional-style beers (n=6) confirmed such preference segments in a group of male New Zealanders (n=120). The preference segments perceived the sensory and holistic/conceptual characteristics of the beers similarly. However, they differed in specific attitudes and behaviors toward craft beers that were associated with the extent of their use and exposure to craft beers. The presence of the two preference segments was interpreted as being the result of a normal transition of declared craft beer drinker preferences away from the lighter flavors of the traditional style beers to which they had been accustomed and toward the more novel and robust flavors of craft beers. This shift in flavor preferences is attributed to the same exposure effects (mere and evaluative) that are responsible for flavor preference development in other foods and beverages. The implications for craft and traditional brewers are discussed and suggestions for future research presented.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Effect of virtual eating environment on consumers’ evaluations of healthy and unhealthy snacks
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Kyösti Pennanen; Johanna Närväinen; Saara Vanhatalo; Roope Raisamo; Nesli Sozer

    Immersive technologies such as virtual reality and augmented reality have been recently explored in the field of food consumption studies from different perspectives. The present study utilized virtual reality technology in a within-subject experiment with three conditions to examine whether a varying virtual eating environment can alter consumers’ emotional responses (positive, negative, neutral) to the eating situation and whether the resulting emotional responses correlate with consumers’ wanting, liking, and hedonic evaluations of healthy and unhealthy snacks. In addition, the study analyzed whether a virtual eating environment that generates a positive emotional response can raise consumers’ rating of a healthy snack to the same level as an unhealthy snack consumed in a plain, unimmersed environment. The results showed a correlation between positive emotional responses and the pre-tasting evaluations of both snacks. In terms of hedonic evaluations, positive emotional responses correlated mainly with consumers’ evaluation of the unhealthy snack. When pre-tasting wanting and liking evaluations are compared between experimental conditions, the results indicate that a healthy snack is rated higher in a virtual reality environment that induces a more positive emotional response. The healthy snack was also rated at the same level as the unhealthy snack consumed in a plain environment. No differences between conditions were observed in consumers’ hedonic evaluations of the products. EEG and heart rate measurement results indicate that this might be because tasting a healthy snack generates more cognitive processing than an unhealthy snack. This might reduce the influence of the virtual eating environment on consumers’ evaluations. To conclude, virtual reality technologies might have the potential to support consumers’ eating experiences and healthy food choices by improving their evaluations of the products.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Consumer perceptions, preferences, and behavior regarding pasture-raised livestock products: A review
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ekaterina Stampa; Christin Schipmann-Schwarze; Ulrich Hamm

    Intensive cattle production is one of the primary causes of biodiversity loss. Pasture-based animal husbandry has the potential to reverse this negative trend. Pasture-raised livestock products represent a premium niche with an extra value through a cleaner environmental footprint and care for animal welfare, including wildlife. This review focuses on recent scientific findings in consumer behavior regarding pasture-raised products. A systematic literature search was conducted in online databases using a fixed search term. Thirty-nine relevant consumer studies published between 2000 and 2019 in the English language were selected for the review. The Alphabet Theory was applied as a theoretical framework to analyze the findings. Consumer behavior regarding pasture-raised products is largely defined through health and environmental attitudes and depends substantially on the context of a purchase decision. There are a variety of consumer groups willing to pay a premium for a pasture-raised attribute even on top of an organic price premium. Consumer knowledge of the subject is rather low and confusion exists regarding the terminology: consumers often mistake the production system behind pasture-raised products for organic or conventional. This calls for communication of the environmental and social benefits of pasture-based production and the importance of individual food choices. This article is the first to review scientific consumer studies on perceptions, preferences, behavior regarding and willingness to pay for pasture-raised products. Further research, especially research based on real market data, is recommended to explore the effect of specific environmental attributes, social and personal norms, informational content, and product types on consumer preferences and willingness to pay for pasture-raised products.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Sorting Backbone Analysis: A network-based method of extracting key actionable information from free-sorting task results
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jacob Lahne

    The free-sorting task is increasingly popular as a rapid sensory method to give a global picture of the similarities among samples. Sorting does not require training analysts, allows for the easy, simultaneous presentation of up to 20 samples, and provides stable results with 25-30 subjects. However, wide use of free-sorting is hindered by the current analyses for free sorting—for example DISTATIS and Correspondence Analysis—which require statistical expertise to conduct and interpret. In this paper a novel, alternative analysis is proposed, called “Sorting Backbone Analysis” (SBA), which is based on tools from network analysis. The similarity data produced from free sorting can represent a weighted network, and so a set of network-analysis tools can be used to identify groups of products which are significantly similar, and to visualize these results clearly and powerfully. SBA is simple and can be implemented with open-source software, provides interpretations that agree with current methods, and produces clear, powerful visualizations called “graphs,” which may offer new, interpretable insights to sensory scientists. This paper describes the mathematical and statistical background for SBA and applies SBA to four, previously published sorting datasets, with comparisons to DISTATIS. In each case SBA produces visual results that highlight all of the same features as the standard approach while being easier to interpret, and in many cases produces new insights. Therefore, SBA specifically and network analysis in general are suggested as new approaches for use in the analysis of sensory similarity data as produced through free sorting and related methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A new form of the psychometric function for the unspecified tetrad
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Jian Bi

    The tetrad is a popular sensory discrimination method used widely in the sensory and consumer fields. This short communication provides a novel, concise, and elegant form of the psychometric function based on a noncentral F distribution for the unspecified tetrad. The new form of the psychometric function for the unspecified tetrad has practical and theoretical values.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • The perceived sweetness and price of bottled drinks’ silhouettes
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Ana M. Arboleda; Carlos Arce-Lopera
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Co-acting strangers but not friends influence subjective liking and facial affective responses to food stimuli
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Elizabeth C. Nath; Peter R. Cannon; Michael C. Philipp

    In recent years, consumers' emotional responses have been found to be an important complement to sensory and hedonic evaluations for the prediction of food choice and consumption behaviour. Given this trend, it is essential that the influence of contextual variables on emotion are investigated. The present study contributes to the discussion with an investigation of the effect of social context on implicit emotional responses to food images. 87 participants (56 female, 31 male) viewed food images of varying acceptability either alone, with a stranger, or with a friend. Subjective liking ratings were measured using a labelled affective magnitude scale, and facial muscle activity from zygomaticus major (contracted during smiling), corrugator supercilii (contracted during frowning) and levator labii superioris (contracted during nose wrinkling) were measured with an EMG recording system. Controlling for individual differences in facial expressivity and food image acceptability using linear mixed models, it was found that the presence of a co-acting stranger facilitated muscle activity indicative of a disgust response, increased the strength of relationship between muscle activity and subjective liking ratings, and led to lower subjective liking overall. No differences in muscle activity or subjective liking were found between subjects who participated alone and with a co-acting friend. This suggests that the influence of social context is complex, where the relationship between the subject and the social environment can impact both hedonic and emotional evaluations of food stimuli. These findings indicate that facial EMG can be a useful dynamic and implicit measure of emotion in consumer research, but it is critical to consider the social context of the testing environment.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Consumer preference for nutrition and health claims: A multi-methodological approach
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Marija Klopčič; Polona Slokan; Karmen Erjavec

    To understand consumers’ acceptance and preference in relation to Nutrition and Health Claims (NHCs) on food products and the reasons for their (non)acceptance in an Eastern European country with a weak tradition in NHC, and an enormous increase in the number of foods with NHCs in recent years, this study aimed to fill a research gap by applying a multi-methodological approach combining a survey and conjoint analysis (n = 204) and a focus group (n = 45). The survey demonstrated that Slovenian consumers in general are moderately doubtful of NHCs. Conjoint analysis showed that when Slovenians choose their breakfast cereals, NHCs are more important than whether visual images are present. Visual images convince only the youngest consumers. The study revealed the importance of social perception and trust in the social system for accepting foods with NHCs/images. Consumers who did not trust the political and economic system also did not accept foods with NHCs/images.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • To see is to hold: Using food surface textures to communicate product healthiness
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Cathrine V. Jansson-Boyd; Mateja Kobescak

    In this paper, we test whether the evaluation of food healthiness is affected by tactile surface qualities that are seen but not touched. Furthermore, we explored if visually based tactile surface cues influence perception more or less depending on whether they are explicitly or implicitly presented. Participants were shown 3 implicitly and 3 explicitly textured biscuits that were identical apart from the surface texture. The surfaces were either smooth, medium or rough and were rated on perceived healthiness. Additionally, the biscuits were rated on tastiness, likelihood of purchase, crunchiness and chewiness, aspects that can affect consumer choice outcomes. A pattern emerged whereby implicit surface textures affected perception more than explicit textured surfaces. Specifically, perceived product healthiness was greater for medium textured implicit surfaces. Thus, it seems that food healthiness is influenced by cross-sensory cues. Implicitly rough textures were found to be perceived as crunchier. Determining food properties usually relies on exposing receptors within the mouth to the components of ingested food. However, we demonstrate here that properties such as crunchiness also can be dependent on surface texture. The findings can be used to encourage consumers to purchase healthier food products.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Principal component analysis of d-prime values from sensory discrimination tests using binary paired comparisons
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Christine Borgen Linander; Rune Haubo Bojesen Christensen; Graham Cleaver; Per Bruun Brockhoff

    When considering sensory discrimination studies, multiple d-prime values are often obtained from several sensory attributes. In this paper, we introduce principal component analysis as a way of gaining information about d-prime values across sensory attributes. Specifically, we propose estimating d-prime values using a Thurstonian mixed model for binary paired comparison data and then using these estimates in a principal component analysis. Binary paired comparisons are a sensitive way to test products with only subtle differences. When analyzing data with a Thurstonian mixed model, product-specific as well as assessor-specific d-prime values are obtained. Principal component analysis of these values results in information about products and assessors across multiple sensory attributes illustrated by product and attribute maps. Furthermore, the analysis captures individual differences. Thus, by using d-prime values from a multi-attribute 2-AFC study in principal component analysis insights that are typically obtained considering quantitative descriptive analysis are obtained.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Cross-national differences in child food neophobia: a comparison of five European countries
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    C. Proserpio, V.L. Almli, P. Sandvik, M. Sandell, L. Methven, M. Wallner, H. Jilani, G.G. Zeinstra, B. Alfaro, M. Laureati

    Food neophobia (FN) has been extensively explored, especially in children. However, very few studies have compared this food behavior in children from different countries. Considering the clear diversity between European countries in feeding practices and food consumption, it is important to deepen the understanding of cross-national differences in child FN. The aim of this study was to explore and compare FN in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and UK) using a food neophobia scale specifically designed for children. Five hundred and twenty-nine children (54% girls) aged 9-12 years were recruited from schools in each country and were asked to complete the Italian Child Food Neophobia Scale (ICFNS, Laureati et al., 2015a), which was translated into each respective language. Parents (n≈300) completed a food consumption frequency questionnaire for their child, and provided background information. Reliability of the tool was assessed through internal consistency and temporal stability. Total internal consistency was 0.76. When calculated by country, internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.70) for all countries. FN was negatively associated to fruit and vegetable consumption, liking of wholegrain biscuits, and timing of introduction of semi-solid food. There were small but significant cross-national differences in FN with British and Swedish children being the most neophobic and significantly higher in FN than Finnish children, who were the most neophilic. Results indicate that the tool can be successfully used in all the tested countries with children in the age range of 9-12 years. The tool can be useful to measure the effects of interventions aiming at changing food behaviors, such as reducing FN, among children.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Colour as a Cue to Eat: Effects of Plate Colour on Snack Intake in Pre-School Children
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Sharon A. Carstairs, Samantha J. Caton, Marion M. Hetherington, Barbara J. Rolls, Joanne E. Cecil

    Environmental cues, such as the colour of food and dishware, have been shown to influence food and drink consumption in adult populations. This proof of concept study investigated whether plate colour could be utilised as a strategy to reduce intake of high energy density (HED) snacks and increase intake of low energy density (LED) snacks in pre-school children. In a between and within-subjects design, children were randomly assigned to either a control group (no colour message) or intervention group (received a colour message: red = stop, green = go) and were provided a snack at nursery on three occasions on differently coloured plates (red, green and white), for each snack type (HED, LED). Snack intake, colour preference, colour association, and anthropometrics were recorded for each child. The results showed that there was no effect of group (control vs intervention) on HED (p=0.540) and LED intake (p=0.575). No effect of plate colour on HED (p=0.147) or LED snack intake (p=0.505) was evident. Combining red and green plates for a chromatic versus achromatic comparison showed that there was no significant effect of chromatic plate on HED (p=0.0503) and LED (p=0.347) intakes. Despite receiving a brief learning intervention, the use of plate colour was found in the present study to be an ineffective strategy to control snack food intake in pre-school aged children. Rather, we suggest that food intake in young children may best be predicted by portion size, energy density and eating behaviour traits.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Effect of Multiple Extrinsic Cues on Consumers’ Willingness to Buy Apples: A Scenario-Based Study
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Yovan Hurgobin, Valérie Le Floch, Céline Lemercier

    Price, origin, and type of production are all known to influence consumer choices when it comes to fresh food. However, the interactions between these factors have received limited attention in the food choice literature. With the growth of online grocery shopping services, another under-investigated issue is the willingness to buy (WTB) fresh food products sold online. Our aim was to partially fill these gaps, by applying a scenario-based methodology. We exposed 324 individuals to 54 scenarios describing a situation in which a character goes to buy apples. The scenarios featured all possible combinations of four within-participants factors: purchase site (traditional market or online grocery shopping service), origin (within 50 km of the character’s home, elsewhere in France, or foreign country), price (low, average, or high), and type of production (organic, sustainable or conventional farming). For each scenario, participants rated their WTB for the apples on sale. Analyses conducted on the whole sample showed that consumers’ WTB was higher for locally grown, organic, and low-priced apples. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed three consumer segments with different behavioral profiles. Price-sensitive consumers’ WTB was higher for imported apples at a low price than for local apples at a high price. Non-online consumers unconditionally rejected the online grocery shopping service regardless of the apples’ price, origin, and type of production. Organic consumers were more willing to buy imported organic apples than domestic conventional ones. Hence, consumers’ preferences for domestic products should be interpreted in the light of factors such as price and type of production.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • An investigation of the Pivot© Profile sensory analysis method using wine experts: comparison with descriptive analysis and results from two expert panels
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Wes Pearson, Leigh Schmidtke, I. Leigh. Francis, John W. Blackman

    The performance of the recently developed rapid sensory descriptive method Pivot© Profile (PP) was assessed with a set of 17 Shiraz/Syrah red wines using a group of 49 sommeliers and 11 winemakers. The PP results were compared to results from descriptive analysis (DA) performed by a trained panel. The PP from the two groups of experts gave similar sample configurations, although the terms used differed, with one notable difference being less detailed information on wine colour provided by the sommeliers. The data showed that the PP results from the two panels were also closely equivalent to that obtained from descriptive analysis, with similar sample space configurations, relatively high RV coefficient values and comparable attributes discriminating the samples. PP allowed interpretation of complex terms used by the two groups of experts, and gave insight into the major sensory differences discriminating the wines. DA provided better information regarding attributes that differed more subtly among the sample set, including bitterness. This study demonstrated for the first time that PP and DA provide similar insights into the sensory properties of products, confirmed that PP with expert panellists allows a rapid understanding of the main sensory differences among samples, with some advantages over DA in obtaining a more holistic overview of each sample.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Gender Differences in Vegetarian Identity: How Men and Women Construe Meatless Dieting
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Daniel L. Rosenfeld

    Meat is deeply associated with masculine identity. As such, it is unsurprising that women are more likely than men are to become vegetarian. Given the gendered nature of vegetarianism, might men and women who become vegetarian express distinct identities around their diets? Through two highly powered preregistered studies (Ns = 890 and 1,775) of self-identified vegetarians, combining both frequentist and Bayesian approaches, I found that men and women differ along two dimensions of vegetarian identity: (1) dietary motivation and (2) dietary adherence. Compared to vegetarian men, vegetarian women reported that they are more prosocially motivated to follow their diet and adhere to their diet more strictly (i.e., are less likely to cheat and eat meat). By considering differences in how men and women construe vegetarian dieting, investigators can generate deeper insights into the gendered nature of eating behavior.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Exploration of a new consumer test method based on metacognitive certainty
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    In-Ah Kim, Ha-Yeon Cho, Michael J. Hautus, Hye-Seong Lee

    Successful product development and marketing necessitate a study of the consumer concept of culture-specific or deep-positioned branded food. In this study, a new consumer test method was designed based on an authenticity test and used as a reference frame for the target concept without an upsetting story. The response format of this method included the metacognitive certainty response following the sensory authenticity response using the A-Not A test procedure. The method was applied to study the concept of goso flavor, as perceived by 91 female consumers with three commercial soymilk products, having each consumer evaluate each product 45 times over three days. The repeated responses of sensory authenticity were analyzed as mean scores and signal detection theory (SDT) d-prime (d') values of the product difference. From the metacognitive certainty responses after the sensory authenticity response, a new quantitative group measure of d-prime metacognition (d'MC) was calculated in the SDT context and compared with the other outputs. The measure ranged from negative to positive values, indicating a mismatch to a match for the concept of each product. Data analyses were conducted on both pooled data and segmented data, which was driven from the results of cluster analyses using the mean sensory authenticity scores and SDT C values (estimates of response bias about the concept tested). The results showed that d'MC of each product corresponded to the mean scores and d' with the advantage of easy interpretation. Overall, d'MC can be a useful group measure for studying the consumer concept towards food and beverages.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Consumer perception of salt-reduced potato chips: Sensory strategies, effect of labeling and individual health orientation
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Sara Kongstad Sørensen, Davide Giacalone

    Lowering dietary intake of sodium is currently an important public health goal, and a major driver of food product development. Reducing the salt content of food while maintaining the same structure and sensory quality is, however, no easy feat. While several strategies for reformulation exist, the available literature indicates that their effectiveness is highly product-dependent. The present research focused on different salt reduction strategies for potato chips (crisps), drawing on two studies focusing on young (18-30) consumers. In Study 1 (N=200) the effect of simple salt reduction and two salt replacers (KCl and MSG) on consumer perception is investigated, using a reference product as basis for systematic reformulation. Study 1 also addressed the issue of how information labeling affects consumer perception by comparing results in blind and informed conditions (N=100 each). The results indicated that sodium can be reduced up to 30% while maintaining the same palatability, and that replacement (up to 30%) by either KCl and MSG even increased liking in the blind condition. A strong labelling effect was found, however, whereby consumers significantly preferred the reference product than any of the reformulation when informed of its content, whereas the opposite was observed (reference was least liked) when tested in blind. Study 2 (N=100) extended the range of experimental conditions by focusing on how salt reduction is affected by texture and seasoning type. The main result of Study 1 – that sodium can be reduced up to 30% while maintaining the same palatability (in blind) – was confirmed across different seasoning types, thus enabling a more robust basis for generalization. Contrary to expectations, the presence of a wavy (vs. smooth) texture increased liking only for one out three seasoning types, and the effect was not dependent on salt content.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • From desktop to supermarket shelf: Eye-tracking exploration on consumer attention and choice
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-17
    Svetlana Bialkova, Klaus G. Grunert, Hans van Trijp

    Determining the key parameters driving attention and choice at the point of sale is a challenging task. To address this challenge, we performed two studies employing eye-tracking (ET) as a methodological tool when varying the visual marketing stimuli in a lab-experimental setting and in real supermarket shelf, and thus, facing an important gap in the current body of literature - the need to reconcile ET results from lab and field studies. The first study was conducted in lab settings and explored in a controlled manner the top-down (goal-directed) vs. bottom-up (stimulus-driven) mechanisms of attention and choice. The second study took a step further in investigating these mechanisms in real life settings, namely a supermarket shelf. In both studies the same assortment context was presented (i.e. eight products, four flavours of two brands each). The products varied on their level of healthfulness (i.e. nutrient profile) which was explicitly communicated with nutrition labelling formats displayed front of pack. Participants were asked to select either the healthiest product or a product on their preference (lab settings), and a product of their preference (in-store settings). Fixation duration, number of fixations, and the consumer's choice was recorded. The results show that Brand and Product flavour are leading criteria in driving attention and choice, i.e. the stronger brand and best selected product received higher number of fixations. The shopping goal and label formats also contributed to variation in observed patterns. Brand placement in combination with brand strength had a significant impact in the retail environment. Current outcomes demonstrate the potential of eye-tracking in consumer research, from lab to supermarket shelf. The advanced understanding we offer in attention patterns and consequent decision opens promising avenues in successfully applying marketing strategies to navigate consumers’ attention and choice.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The effect of implicit and explicit extrinsic cues on hedonic and sensory expectations in the context of beer
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Helena Blackmore, Claire Hidrio, Philippe Godineau, Martin R. Yeomans

    While the demand for non-alcoholic beer has increased, consumers often complain about its inferior sensory characteristics. As expectations mediate the effect of extrinsic product cues on sensory perception, we could utilise these cues to improve consumers’ experience of such products. The current study, comprising four repeated measures experiments, investigated the role of extrinsic cues in generating sensory and hedonic expectations of beer. A hundred and sixty-six beer drinkers viewed realistic beer labels, which varied in their colour, design, labelled alcohol content and sensory descriptor, in response to which they rated their expectations of bitterness, smoothness, sweetness, refreshment, beer colour, body and liking. In summary, across these four experiments, label colour, labelled alcohol content and sensory descriptor all had significant and replicable effects on consumer expectations. However, the size of these effects depended on how explicit or implicit the information of a cue was relative to the presence and specificity of other cues on the label. For example, red and brown labels increased expected bitterness (F(3,108)=16.58, p<0.001, ηg2 =0.102), but this effect decreased (F(1,38)=7.92, p=0.008, ηg2 =0.026) when labelled alcohol content was also manipulated and disappeared (F(1, 37)=2.1, p=0.156) when an explicit cue, a sensory descriptor, was added. Overall, the study provides new insights into how labelling shapes expectations, and illustrates the disproportionate influence of different extrinsic cues. Finally, the findings highlight the need to use realistic stimuli: the information different extrinsic cues carry and the way we combine them influences expectations.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • The effects of carrier, benefit, and perceived trust in information channel on functional food purchase intention among Chinese consumers
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Lian Huang, Li Bai, Shunlong Gong

    The importance of consumers’ perceptions and adoption behavior has been recognized in the development of functional food innovation, but the issues have not been widely explored in China. This study aimed to examine the effects of carrier, benefit, and trust in information channel about functional foods on purchase intention as well as the demographic differences of these effects. A survey with 1,144 respondents from Mainland China revealed that carriers were more important factors than benefits for perceived attractiveness and purchase intention. Benefits were more positively evaluated when attached to a more attractive carrier. Benefits of improving the body’s natural defense system were most favored by all groups; benefits about specific diseases were suitable to tailor for certain groups. Consumers with low educational level were reluctant to functional foods. The improvement of consumer education level does not necessarily increase the consumers’ purchase intention. Given the Chinese acquaintance society and the jeopardized public trust in food safety, the interpersonal channel was the most trusted information channel. However, perceived trust in mass media had more remarkable effects in predicting purchase intention toward functional foods, the typical products with credence attributes. Trust in mass media negatively interacted with friends’ recommendation in affecting purchase intention. These findings extend our understanding of how to tailor products for different groups and the effects of information channels on purchase intention.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Strategies to compensate for undesired gritty sensations in foods
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Marco Santagiuliana, Layla Broers, Inés Sampedro Marigómez, Markus Stieger, Betina Piqueras-Fiszman, Elke Scholten

    This study investigated whether the addition of macroparticles or fat can be used to compensate for negative texture sensations in quark. Cellulose beads were added as model microparticles (1.5% w/w; average size: 263 µm) to quark (0% fat) to induce unpleasant gritty sensations. The addition of microparticles to quark significantly increased grittiness and dryness, while creaminess and liking decreased. Three strategies were explored to reduce the impact of unpleasant gritty sensations on consumer perception: two strategies involved the addition of macroparticles (granola or peach gel pieces); the third one consisted of increasing the fat content of the quark (4.4 and 8.8% w/w). For all three strategies, grittiness caused by microparticles did not significantly decrease when macroparticles or fat were present. Addition of peach gel pieces to quark with microparticles did not increase liking. When granola pieces were added to quark containing microparticles, liking increased significantly despite that grittiness was still perceived. Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) revealed that addition of granola pieces caused prolonged dominance of positive, crunchy sensations and minimized dominance of negative, gritty sensations. The addition of fat did not lead to a significant increase in liking of quark, although when a medium amount of fat was added (4.4%), it also did not decrease liking significantly. This was probably due to an effective hedonic compensation triggered by more positive sensations (i.e. sweetness). We conclude that addition of crunchy granola pieces or fat can be used as strategies to shift and increase dominance of positive and liked attributes, leading to an increase of overall liking, although negative sensations (grittiness) caused by microparticles are still perceived. This approach could be used to compensate for undesired texture sensations in different types of foods, such as high protein foods.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Cup texture influences taste and tactile judgments in the evaluation of specialty coffee
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Fabiana M. Carvalho, Valentina Moksunova, Charles Spence

    It has been demonstrated previously that the surface textures of product packaging and servingware can impact the perceived taste and mouthfeel of various different foods and beverages. The present study was designed to investigate whether coffee cups with different surface textures would influence the judgment of taste and mouthfeel attributes in specialty coffee by experts (Q-graders) and amateur consumers alike. A total of 231 participants were tested in one of the three studies. A preliminary test conducted at a specialty coffee event in Russia indicated that rubbing a swatch of sandpaper whilst drinking coffee influenced perceived body and aftertaste qualities. In the two main studies (Experiment 1 for Q-graders, and Experiment 2 for amateurs), the participants evaluated a sample of specialty coffee (a different coffee in each study) served in either a smooth or a rough ceramic cup. The coffee was rated by the Q-graders as tasting significantly more acidic when sampled from the rough cup, as opposed to the smooth, whereas the amateurs perceived the coffee as being significantly sweeter when tasted from the smooth cup rather than from the rough cup instead. Both Q-graders and amateurs judged the aftertaste as significantly dryer when tasted from the rough rather than from the smooth cup. The perception of body was not significantly affected in any of the experiments. These results demonstrate that haptic cues influence the judgment of basic tastes as well as mouthfeel attributes in specialty coffee, for both experts and amateur consumers. Such results should be considered by the industry when designing innovative coatings for coffee cups. In addition to innovation, though, it is important to create cups that convey some functional and/or perceptual benefit for the coffee drinking experience.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Intention–Behaviour Gap and Perceived Behavioural Control–Behaviour Gap in Theory of Planned Behaviour: Moderating Roles of Communication, Satisfaction and Trust in Organic Food Consumption
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Parves Sultan, Tasmiha Tarafder, David Pearson, Joanna Henryks

    This study examines the moderating effects of perceived communication, satisfaction and trust on the intention–behaviour gap and the perceived behavioural control (PBC)–behaviour gap in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model, using a quantitative research method. A nationwide panel-only online survey was conducted, resulting in 1,011 usable responses from organic food consumers in Australia. Data were analysed statistically using SPSS v.25 and SmartPLS 3 software, and the hypotheses were tested using the partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. The findings confirm that perceived communication, satisfaction and trust positively and significantly enhance purchase behaviour and lessen gaps in the intention–behaviour and PBC–behaviour relationships in the TPB model. This study also validates the TPB model and finds statistically significant results in support of all of its 14 hypotheses. It is the first such study to examine the intervention efficacy or moderating effects of perceived communication, satisfaction and trust on the intention–behaviour and PBC–behaviour gaps in the TPB model. Examining the mediational effect of behavioural intention in the TPB model and including the Australian context are among its other contributions. Organic food producers and marketers aiming for sustained, positive changes in consumer behaviour are encouraged to consider the findings and implications of this study.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Korean Mothers’ Food Choice Behavioral Intent for Children: An Examination of the Interaction Effects of Food Type, Household Income, and Healthism
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Jae-Yeob Jeong, Hyeon-Cheol Kim

    This study identifies how economic factors, like household income, and psychological factors, like healthism, affect the food choice behavioral intent of mothers in Korea. We designed a 2 (type of food: sweet snack as hedonic food vs. milk as utilitarian food) × 2 (household income: low vs. high) × 2 (healthism: low vs. high) stimulus. The participants were Korean mothers raising children in Seoul, Korea. Participants were exposed to an advertisement for milk as the utilitarian food and a sweet snack as the hedonic food and then asked for favorability and purchase intention toward each type of food and about participants’ household income and concerns regarding health. Our study found high-income mothers were not influenced by food type, but low-income mothers were. Lower-income mothers were more willing to purchase utilitarian foods than hedonic foods. High-healthism mothers did not favor hedonic foods, regardless of household income, while low-healthism, high-income mothers favored hedonic foods more than low-healthism, low-income mothers. In contrast, low-healthism mothers did not favor utilitarian foods, regardless of their household income, while high-healthism, low-income mothers favored utilitarian foods more than high-healthism, high-income mothers. The results of our study may assist the government and marketers to understand how healthism and household income affect food choice behavioral intent.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Development of the engagement questionnaire (EQ): A tool to measure panelist engagement during sensory and consumer evaluations
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Mackenzie E. Hannum, Christopher T. Simons

    Sensory and consumer testing are primary strategies companies use to collect insights about consumer products. However, frequently, unreliable results from these tests can lead to failed product launches which can have enormous financial and/or brand equity consequences. One potential reason is sensory tasks are often deliberately devoid of additional stimulation which reasonably has the possibility to reduce a panelist’s engagement with the task. Engagement may drive involvement and focus during testing and help generate reliable data. The overall objective of this study was to develop (Study 1), refine (Study 2), and validate (Studies 3-5) an engagement questionnaire (EQ), a tool to empirically assess varying engagement levels with a task. Prior literature and an exploratory qualitative assessment through an online platform (Study 1, N=87) were used to operationalize the dimensionality of engagement and develop a preliminary questionnaire consisting of 54 items covering 7 themes (ability, attention, passivity, involvement, interest, motivation, and relevance). To assess the effectiveness of the initial item set, participants recalled being engaged with a task and answered the preliminary EQ (Study 2, N=186). Results collected underwent an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in order to explore the dimensionality and refine the scale by strategically eliminating items. To validate the tool, the EQ was distributed following numerous consumer sensory tests that spanned a variety of food and beverage products, test lengths, number, and types of questions (Studies 3-5). EFA was conducted in Study 3 (N=774), which resulted in a three-factor, 10-item model with good reliability (α=0.856). The new model was subsequently validated in two additional consumer sensory studies (Study 4A, N=416 and Study 4B, N=446). Both validation studies produced acceptable to good model fit indices with an RMSEA below 0.07, SRMR below 0.04, both CFI and TLI above 0.95 and good reliability (α>0.850). When tested in a different sensory testing facility, the EQ produced acceptable model fit indices (Study 5, N=247) and tracked as expected with participants’ perceived workload collected using the NASA Task Load Index; confirming the content and convergent and divergent validity of the instrument. Such an instrument allows for deeper understanding of panelist engagement and its impact on data quality, enabling the design of sensory tests capable of generating more reliable data both within the field of food science and beyond.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Visual perceptions of portion size normality and intended food consumption: A norm range model.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-03-05
    Ashleigh Haynes,Charlotte A Hardman,Alexis D J Makin,Jason C G Halford,Susan A Jebb,Eric Robinson

    •Smaller portion sizes are associated with lower energy intake.•We test a norm range model of the portion size effect on intended intake.•A wide range of portion sizes were perceived as normal.•Portions perceived as normal did not prompt intended compensatory eating.•Portions perceived as smaller than normal prompted intended compensation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mixed Messages: Ambiguous Penalty Information in Modified Restaurant Menu Items.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2016-11-12
    Harry T Lawless,Anjali A Patel,Nanette V Lopez

    Restaurant menu items from six national or regional brands were modified to reduce fat, saturated fat, sodium and total calories. Twenty-four items were tested with a current recipe, and two modifications (small and moderate reductions) for 72 total products. Approximately 100 consumers tested each product for acceptability as well as for desired levels of tastes/flavor, amounts of key ingredients and texture/consistency using just-about-right (JAR) scales. Penalty analysis was conducted to assess the effects of non-JAR ratings on acceptability scores. Situations arose where JAR ratings and penalty analyses could yield different recommendations, including large groups with low penalties and small groups with high penalties. Opposing groups with moderate to high penalties on opposite sides of the same JAR scale were also seen. Strategies for dealing with these observances are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2015-06-27
    Erin E Fleming,Gregory R Ziegler,John E Hayes

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques - check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) - using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references ('poles') before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward's minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered 'rapid,' our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best performed 1:1 with the experimenter, which makes sorting relatively less efficient than CATA or PSP. Based on the evaluation criteria used here, the choice of method depends on the time constraints of the experimenter and the need for descriptive terms to understand the sensory space of the samples. Accordingly, we recommend a mixed approach that combines CATA with a subsequent PSP task so that the product space can be well characterized before choosing poles for PSP.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2012-06-20
    Laura D Lukasewycz,Julie A Mennella

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7-10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5-8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children's preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children's food texture preferences.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Individual differences in the conceptualization of food across eating contexts.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2009-01-06
    Christine E Blake

    Individual differences in food-related knowledge structures were explored by applying schema theory to examine the categories 42 adults used to classify foods across four eating contexts. Food card-sort labels were organized into 12 categories, category salience for each person was evaluated, and cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of participants according to the salience of their categories. Clusters were further evaluated for complexity and consistency of category use across contexts. Seven food schema clusters were identified. Meal/time and Routine categories were the most salient overall and were used by most clusters. Well-being, Person, Source, Convenience, Meal component, and Food group categories varied in salience across clusters. The complexity and consistency of the food categories participants used across the contexts varied among the clusters. This study provided insight about cognitions that may underlie food-choice behaviors. Understanding individuals' food schemas could help nutrition professionals tailor messages to maximize health impact.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2013-07-24
    John E Hayes,Emma L Feeney,Alissa L Allen

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic differences restricted to bitterness. Perceptual variation has also been associated with polymorphisms in genes involved in odors associated with meat defects (boar taint), green/grassy notes, and cilantro, as well as umami and sweet tastes (TAS1R1/2/3). Here, a short primer on receptor genetics is provided, followed by a summary of current knowledge, and implications for human ingestive behavior are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Personality factors predict spicy food liking and intake.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2013-03-30
    Nadia K Byrnes,John E Hayes

    A number of factors likely affect the liking of capsaicin-containing foods such as social influences, repeated exposure to capsaicin, physiological differences in chemosensation, and personality. For example, it is well known that repeated exposure to capsaicin and chilies can result in chronic desensitization. Here, we explore the relationship between multiple personality variables - body awareness/consciousness, sensation seeking, and sensitivity to punishment, and sensitivity to reward - and the liking and consumption of capsaicin-containing foods. As expected, a strong relationship was found between liking of spicy foods and frequency of chili consumption. However, no association was observed between frequency of chili consumption and the perceived burn/sting of sampled capsaicin. Nor was there any association between perceived burn/sting of capsaicin and any of the personality measures. Private Body Consciousness did not relate to any of the measures used in the current study. Sensation Seeking showed positive correlations with the liking of spicy foods, but not non-spicy control foods. Sensitivity to Punishment showed no relation with frequency of chili consumption, and nonsignificant negative trends with liking of spicy foods. Conversely, Sensitivity to Reward was weakly though significantly correlated with the liking of a spicy meal, and similar nonsignificant trends were seen for other spicy foods. Frequency of chili consumption was positively associated with Sensation Seeking and Sensitivity to Reward. Present data indicate individuals who enjoy spicy foods exhibit higher Sensation Seeking and Sensitivity to Reward traits. Rather than merely showing reduced response to the irritating qualities of capsaicin as might be expected under the chronic desensitization hypothesis, these findings support the hypothesis that personality differences may drive differences in spicy food liking and intake.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Direct comparison of the generalized Visual Analog Scale (gVAS) and general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS).
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2012-11-24
    John E Hayes,Alissa L Allen,Samantha M Bennett

    Hundreds of studies have used the generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) to collect intensity data. Recent work on generalized affective scales like the Labeled Affective Magnitude (LAM) scale and Labeled Hedonic Scale (LHS) suggest a substantial proportion of participants fail to use the entire range of generalized scales, marking only at the adjective labels. This categorical behavior (i.e., clustering) is not limited to affective ratings, as it is well known anecdotally among users of the gLMS. One way to stop this behavior would be to retain a generalized top anchor and cross modal orientation procedure while stripping away the internal adjectives. Several published studies have already used this variant, the generalized Visual Analog Scale (gVAS). Because there are no reports directly comparing the gVAS and gLMS head to head, we did so in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants (n=87) were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions to test effects of scaling instructions and scale structure. In Experiment 2, participants (n=58) assessed perceived ease of use and resolving power for each scale in a two-session crossover design. gLMS data showed evidence of categorical behavior, while gVAS data did not. Explicitly instructing participants to rate between adjectives did not reduce this behavior. The gLMS was easier to use according to participants, but resulted in non-normal data due to clustering near the adjective labels. gVAS data did not show categorical behavior, as there are no adjectives to cluster around, but the gVAS sacrifices semantic information about the magnitude of response. Regardless of scale type, participants felt the cross-modal orientation procedure helped them understand how to use the scale. Both scales were able to discriminate between sucrose samples in a concentration series. Relative tradeoffs between the two methods suggest the choice of one scale over the other depends on the specific goals and context of the project.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2012-07-04
    Meriel L Harwood,Gregory R Ziegler,John E Hayes

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthful phytonutrients, it is important to identify the point at which the concentration of bitter compounds becomes objectionable, even to those who enjoy some bitterness. Classical threshold methods focus on the presence or absence of a sensation rather than acceptability or hedonics. A new alternative, the rejection threshold, was recently described in the literature. Here, we sought to quantify and compare differences in Rejection Thresholds (RjT) and Detection Thresholds (DT) in chocolate milk spiked with a food safe bitterant (sucrose octaacetate). In experiment 1, a series of paired preference tests was used to estimate the RjT for bitterness in chocolate milk. In a new group of participants (experiment 2), we determined the RjT and DT using the forced choice ascending method of limits. In both studies, participants were segmented on the basis of self-declared preference for milk or dark solid chocolate. Based on sigmoid fits of the indifference-preference function, the RjT was ~2.3 times higher for those preferring dark chocolate than the RjT for those preferring milk chocolate in both experiments. In contrast, the DT for both groups was functionally identical, suggesting that differential effects of bitterness on liking of chocolate products are not based on the ability to detect bitterness in these products.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perceptual and Affective Responses to Sampled Capsaicin Differ by Reported Intake.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-04-11
    Alissa A Nolden,John E Hayes

    The present study was conducted to a) generate suprathresold dose-response functions for multiple qualities evoked by capsaicin across a wide range of concentrations, and b) revisit how intensity ratings and liking may differ as a function of self reported intake. Individuals rated eight samples of capsaicin for perceived burn and bitterness, as well as disliking/liking. Measures of reported preference for chili peppers, chili intake frequency, prior experience and personality measures were also assessed. Here, we confirm prior findings showing that burn in the laboratory differs with reported chili intake, with infrequent consumers reporting more burn. We extend these findings by exploring how capsaicin perception varies by reported liking, and measures of variety seeking. We also address the question of whether differences in burn ratings may potentially be an artifact of differential scale usage across groups due to prior experience, and not chronic desensitization, as is typically assumed. By using generalized scaling methods and recalled sensations, we conclude the differences observed here and elsewhere are not likely due to differences in how participants use rating scales.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Whey protein mouth drying influenced by thermal denaturation.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2017-03-07
    Stephanie P Bull,Yuchun Hong,Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy,Jane K Parker,Marianthi Faka,Lisa Methven

    Whey proteins are becoming an increasingly popular functional food ingredient. There are, however, sensory properties associated with whey protein beverages that may hinder the consumption of quantities sufficient to gain the desired nutritional benefits. One such property is mouth drying. The influence of protein structure on the mouthfeel properties of milk proteins has been previously reported. This paper investigates the effect of thermal denaturation of whey proteins on physicochemical properties (viscosity, particle size, zeta-potential, pH), and relates this to the observed sensory properties measured by qualitative descriptive analysis and sequential profiling. Mouthcoating, drying and chalky attributes built up over repeated consumption, with higher intensities for samples subjected to longer heating times (p < 0.05). Viscosity, pH, and zeta-potential were found to be similar for all samples, however particle size increased with longer heating times. As the pH of all samples was close to neutral, this implies that neither the precipitation of whey proteins at low pH, nor their acidity, as reported in previous literature, can be the drying mechanisms in this case. The increase in mouth drying with increased heating time suggests that protein denaturation is a contributing factor and a possible mucoadhesive mechanism is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gender differences in the influence of personality traits on spicy food liking and intake.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2015-02-11
    Nadia K Byrnes,John E Hayes

    It has been proposed, and only minimally explored, that personality factors may play a role in determining an individual's sensitivity to and preference for capsaicin containing foods. We explored these relationships further here. Participants rated a number of foods and sensations on a generalized liking scale in a laboratory setting; after leaving the laboratory, they filled out an online personality survey, which included Arnett's Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS) and the Sensitivity to Punishment-Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Recently, we reported strong and moderate correlations between the liking of a spicy meal and the personality constructs of Sensation Seeking (AISS) and Sensitivity to Reward (SPSRQ), respectively. Here, we use moderation models to explore the relationships between personality traits, perceived intensity of the burn of capsaicin, and the liking and consumption of spicy foods. Limited evidence of moderation was observed; however differential effects of the personality traits were seen in men versus women. In men, Sensitivity to Reward associated more strongly with liking and consumption of spicy foods, while in women, Sensation Seeking associated more strongly with liking and intake of spicy foods. These differences suggest that in men and women, there may be divergent mechanisms leading to the intake of spicy foods; specifically, men may respond more to extrinsic factors, while women may respond more to intrinsic factors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of Nasal Occlusion and Oral Contact on Perception of Metallic Taste from Metal Salts.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2009-03-01
    Effie M Epke,Scott T McClure,Harry T Lawless

    Iron and copper salts have complex olfactory and gustatory properties including a metallic flavor component that is decreased by nasal occlusion. To examine the sensory properties of ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate, a trained descriptive panel evaluated these compounds at equal molarity and perceived equal intensity with and without nasal occlusion. Ferrous sulfate exhibited a metallic taste and metallic aftertaste and copper sulfate exhibited a more pronounced metallic aftertaste. Metallic sensations were decreased by nasal occlusion, which in the absence of any orthonasal metallic smell, implies that the sensations were retronasally perceived volatiles in the nose open condition. Ferrous sulfate showed a larger effect of nasal occlusion. A second experiment isolated ferrous sulfate solutions from oral contact via a plastic barrier. In comparison to a condition in which oral contact was allowed, intensity ratings were decreased. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that rinses with solutions of metal salts, particularly ferrous sulfate, generate volatile lipid oxidation products in the mouth that are perceived retronasally as metallic flavors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Predictors of children's food selection: The role of children's perceptions of the health and taste of foods.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2014-12-23
    Simone P Nguyen,Helana Girgis,Julia Robinson

    Food selection, decisions about which foods to eat, is a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of taste versus health perceptions in 4- and 6-year-old children's food selection. In this study, children and young adults were asked to rate the health and presumed taste of foods. Participants were also asked to indicate whether they would eat these foods in a food selection task. Overall, the results showed that taste was a strong predictor of individuals' food selection above and beyond the variance associated with age, health ratings, and interactions between age and presumed taste ratings as well as age and health ratings. These results contribute to our understanding of children's food selection, and the relative importance of a food's taste versus health in the development of these decisions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2016-01-12
    Alyssa J Bakke,Catherine V Shehan,John E Hayes

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perception of chemesthetic stimuli in groups who differ by food involvement and culinary experience.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2015-10-31
    Nadia Byrnes,Christopher R Loss,John E Hayes

    In the English language, there is generally a limited lexicon when referring to the sensations elicited by chemesthetic stimuli like capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate, and eugenol, the orally irritating compounds found in chiles, wasabi, and cloves, respectively. Elsewhere, experts and novices have been shown to use language differently, with experts using more precise language. Here, we compare perceptual maps and word usage across three cohorts: experts with formal culinary education, naïve individuals with high Food Involvement Scale (FIS) scores, and naïve individuals with low FIS scores. We hypothesized that increased experience with foods, whether through informal experiential learning or formal culinary education, would have a significant influence on the perceptual maps generated from a sorting task conducted with chemesthetic stimuli, as well as on language use in a descriptive follow-up task to this sorting task. The low- and highFIS non-expert cohorts generated significantly similar maps, though in other respects the highFIS cohort was an intermediate between the lowFIS and expert cohorts. The highFIS and expert cohorts generated more attributes but used language more idiosyncratically than the lowFIS group. Overall, the results from the expert group with formal culinary education differed from the two naïve cohorts both in the perceptual map generated using MDS as well as the mean number of attributes generated. Present data suggest that both formal education and informal experiential learning result in lexical development, but the level and type of learning can have a significant influence on language use and the approach to a sorting task.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Just-About-Right and ideal scaling provide similar insights into the influence of sensory attributes on liking.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2014-07-26
    Bangde Li,John E Hayes,Gregory R Ziegler

    Just-about-right (JAR) scaling is criticized for measuring attribute intensity and acceptability simultaneously. Using JAR scaling, an attribute is evaluated for its appropriateness relative to one's hypothetical ideal level that is pre-defined at the middle of a continuum. Alternatively, ideal scaling measures these two constructs separately. Ideal scaling allows participants to rate their ideal freely on the scale (i.e., without assuming the "Too Little" and "Too Much" regions are equal in size). We hypothesized that constraining participants' ideal to the center point, as is done in the JAR scale, may cause a scaling bias and, thereby, influence the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much". Furthermore, we hypothesized that the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" would influence liking to different extents. Coffee-flavored dairy beverages (n=20) were formulated using a fractional, constrained-mixture design that varied the ratio of water, milk, coffee extract, and sucrose. Participants tasted 4 of 20 prototypes that were served in a monadic sequential order using a balanced incomplete block design. Data reported here are for participants randomly assigned to one of two research conditions: ideal scaling (n=129) or JAR scaling (n=132). For both conditions, participants rated overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Four attributes (sweetness, milk flavor, coffee flavor and thickness) were evaluated. The reliability of an individual participant's ideal rating for an attribute was evaluated using the standard deviation of their ideal ratings (n=4). All data from a participant were eliminated from further analyses when his/her standard deviation of the ideal ratings for any of the four rated attributes was identified as a statistical outlier. This resulted in the elimination of 15 of 129 (12 %) of participants in the ideal scaling group. Multiple linear regression was employed to model liking as a function of "Too Little" or "Too Much" attribute intensities. Mean ideal ratings (averaged across participants) for all four attributes were significantly different from the central point of the scale (i.e., 50). However, Coffee flavor was the only attribute for which the mean ideal rating (57.2) fell outside the central 10% (45.0-55.0). Even so, the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" was not affected by the scaling method. The influence of the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" on liking was asymmetrical. Both scaling methods agreed that sweetness and coffee flavor were the main sensory attributes affecting liking. Overall, JAR scaling and ideal scaling were comparable for measuring "Too Little" and "Too Much", and identifying the main factors affecting liking.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interpreting consumer preferences: physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2014-07-16
    Bangde Li,John E Hayes,Gregory R Ziegler

    Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking (liking) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee), milk flavor (milk), sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness). Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.02) while coffee extract (β = -0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maximizing overall liking results in a superior product to minimizing deviations from ideal ratings: an optimization case study with coffee-flavored milk.
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2015-05-26
    Bangde Li,John E Hayes,Gregory R Ziegler

    In just-about-right (JAR) scaling and ideal scaling, attribute delta (i.e., "Too Little" or "Too Much") reflects a subject's dissatisfaction level for an attribute relative to their hypothetical ideal. Dissatisfaction (attribute delta) is a different construct from consumer acceptability, operationalized as liking. Therefore, we hypothesized minimizing dissatisfaction and maximizing liking would yield different optimal formulations. The objective of this research was to compare product optimization strategies, i.e. maximizing liking vis-à-vis minimizing dissatisfaction. Coffee-flavored dairy beverages (n = 20) were formulated using a fractional mixture design that constrained the proportions of coffee extract, milk, sucrose, and water. Participants (n = 388) were randomly assigned to one of three research conditions, where they evaluated 4 of the 20 samples using an incomplete block design. Samples were rated for overall liking and for intensity of the attributes sweetness, milk flavor, thickness and coffee flavor. Where appropriate, measures of overall product quality (Ideal_Delta and JAR_Delta) were calculated as the sum of the absolute values of the four attribute deltas. Optimal formulations were estimated by: a) maximizing liking; b) minimizing Ideal_Delta; or c) minimizing JAR_Delta. A validation study was conducted to evaluate product optimization models. Participants indicated a preference for a coffee-flavored dairy beverage with more coffee extract and less milk and sucrose in the dissatisfaction model compared to the formula obtained by maximizing liking. That is, when liking was optimized, participants generally liked a weaker, milkier and sweeter coffee-flavored dairy beverage. Predicted liking scores were validated in a subsequent experiment, and the optimal product formulated to maximize liking was significantly preferred to that formulated to minimize dissatisfaction by a paired preference test. These findings are consistent with the view that JAR and ideal scaling methods both suffer from attitudinal biases that are not present when liking is assessed. That is, consumers sincerely believe they want 'dark, rich, hearty' coffee when they do not. This paper also demonstrates the utility and efficiency of a lean experimental approach.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Approach and Avoidance Strategies in Health Goal Pursuits: The Moderating Role of Weight Status
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Denise Buhrau

    Healthy eating strategies can be based on approach (foods one should eat) or avoidance (foods one should not eat). The current research examines whether weight status moderates the effectiveness of approach and avoidance strategies in goal pursuit. Across three studies, using an ideal weight goal context, I show that approach strategies motivate goal-consistent behaviors among people with poor weight status by increasing the perceived attainability of the goal. Avoidance strategies are more motivating among people with good weight status because they decrease the perceived progress toward the goal, which increases the perceived need for additional effort in the form of goal-consistent behaviors to ensure timely attainment.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Neural Correlates of Attitudes and Risk Perception for Food Technology Topics
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    Tyler Davis, Mark LaCour, Erin Beyer, Jessica L. Finck, Markus F. Miller

    Food technologies provide numerous benefits to society and are extensively vetted for safety. However, many technological innovations still face high levels of skepticism from consumers. To promote development and use of food technologies, it is critical to understand the psychological and neurobiological processes associated with consumer acceptability concerns. The current study uses a neuroscience-based approach to understand consumer attitudes and perceptions of risk associated with food technologies and investigate how such attitudes impact consumer’s processing of information related to food technologies. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activation while participants processed infographics related to food technology topics. For technology topics perceived as riskier (antibiotics and hormones), activation was higher in areas of the lateral prefrontal cortex that are associated with decisional uncertainty. In contrast, technology topics that were viewed more favorably (sustainability and animal welfare) tended to activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region that processes positive affect and subjective value. Moreover, for information about hormones, the lateral PFC activation was associated with individual differences in resistance to change in risk perception. These results reveal how attitudes and risk perception relate to how the brain processes information about food technologies and how people respond to information about such technologies.

    更新日期:2019-10-27
  • Influence of teaware on subjective ratings of, and taste expectations concerning, tea
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Xuefei Li, Yuxuan Qi, Charles Spence, Xiaoang Wan

    Two studies were conducted in order to investigate the influence of teaware on consumers’ subjective ratings of, and taste expectations concerning, one of the world’s most popular beverages, namely tea. In Study 1, 100 Chinese participants and 100 participants from the USA viewed online photographs of Chinese brand and British brand green tea presented in either Chinese or British tea sets. The participants then rated their feelings about, taste expectations concerning, and willingness-to-pay for, each cup of tea. In Study 2, 65 Chinese participants also viewed these photos with either a high or low price label for each cup of tea. The results of both studies consistently revealed that the teaware influenced Chinese participants’ bitterness and astringency ratings concerning their tea expectations; whereas no such effects were found for the USA participants. Moreover, the teaware also influenced Chinese participants’ pleasantness ratings of tea when no price information was provided, but not when price information was presented. Collectively, these findings highlight the influence of the visual appearance of the receptacle on the subjective ratings of, and taste expectations concerning, tea. These results also compare the influence of product-extrinsic and contextual cues on consumers’ taste expectations.

    更新日期:2019-10-23
  • The relationship between disgust sensitivity and behaviour: A virtual reality study on food disgust
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Jeanine Ammann, Christina Hartmann, Vega Peterhans, Sandro Ropelato, Michael Siegrist

    This study was the first to use virtual reality for disgust research and pursued two aims. First, we explored whether it was possible to induce disgust in a virtual environment. Second, we examined the relationship between food disgust sensitivity, presence (a psychological state of “being there”), and participants’ willingness to eat a food item after exposure to a virtual disgust cue. We asked 100 participants to eat chocolate and complete a tasting experiment within a virtual environment while wearing a head-mounted HTC Vive device. The control group (n = 50) saw a piece of chocolate appear in the virtual environment on a table in front of them before being asked to take and eat it. The disgust group (n = 50) saw a dog that walked across the table and stopped halfway to produce dog faeces that looked like a piece of chocolate. Subsequently, participants were asked to eat a real piece of chocolate. In both groups, participants were given the opportunity to refuse consumption. Participants in the experimental condition were more likely to refuse consumption than those in the control condition. Furthermore, in the experimental condition, we found that physical presence mediated the relationship between participants’ food disgust sensitivity and willingness to eat the chocolate. Our data suggested that virtual reality is a valid way to evoke disgust for the purposes of research and that people who are disgust sensitive have more difficulty ignoring virtual disgust cues than people who are less disgust sensitive.

    更新日期:2019-10-22
  • An extended approach combining sensory and real choice experiments to examine new product attributes
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Petjon Ballco, Azucena Gracia

    As an extension of the current strategies employed to evaluate new products/attributes, this research presents a more realistic approach and obtains more accurate results through the combination of real choice experiments (RCEs) and sensory analysis. Two RCEs are carried out to mimic a real shopping scenario before and after experiencing the taste of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) with a new attribute. Regular EVOO consumers evaluated the products under three different stages: i) purchase stage (i.e., evaluation based on search and credence attributes); ii) consumption stage (i.e., tasting to familiarise with the experience characteristics); iii) re-purchase stage (i.e., re-evaluating the products after the taste experience). Results indicate that in a typical purchase process, consumers form taste expectations based on quality certification attributes while after experiencing the real taste of the product, preferences change. These changes are also reflected in the willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates given before and after tasting. The findings reveal that combining sensory analysis and RCEs is a promising strategy for the evaluation of new products/attributes.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Keep them coming back: the role of variety and aesthetics in institutional food satisfaction
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Julia Elizabeth Carins, S.R. Rundle-Thiele, D.LT. Ong

    Institutional food service settings can deliver higher levels of support for healthy eating; yet institutional food outlets are not a customer favorite. Changing food service provisioning within institutional settings is likely to create expectations for a more enjoyable experience and improve diner satisfaction, which in turn can foster increases in attendance. This study modified the food servicescape in a military dining setting, by changing the physical setting (or servicescape), variety and presentation of foods, and examined the impact of changes on customer satisfaction. Using a cross-sectional pretest/posttest survey design with (n=421) diners, followed by modelling with PLS-SEM, a strong relationship was found between food variety and satisfaction; and a moderate relationship between facility aesthetics and satisfaction. These predictors explained 58% of variance in satisfaction. This study shows how diner satisfaction can be improved in institutional food service outlets; providing a demonstration of the impact of food servicescape changes in a real-world institutional food setting.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Personality traits, knowledge, and consumer acceptance of genetically modified plant and animal products
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Aida T. Ardebili, Kyrre Rickertsen

    Several studies have investigated the associations between personality traits and consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to the role of personality traits in the acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products or knowledge concerning the application of GM technologies. We used a large Norwegian survey to investigate the associations between personality traits, knowledge about GM use in agriculture, attitudes, and willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid GM foods. Using a random effect interval regression model, we found premiums between 19% and 23% to avoid GM soybean oil, GM-fed salmon, and GM salmon. Neuroticism was associated with increased acceptance of GM soybean oil. Conscientiousness was associated with increased acceptance of GM-fed and GM salmon, and agreeableness was associated with increased aversion against these products. Conscientiousness and agreeableness were also associated with knowledge. Agreeable respondents were less likely to think that genetic modification was applied in Norwegian agriculture, and conscientious respondents were more likely to wrongly think so. Attitudes towards naturalness of foods were strongly correlated with increased WTP to avoid GM foods. Current policy restrictions concerning the use of GM technologies are likely to affect the perceived safety of GM foods. Information and more liberal regulations may change attitudes towards GM foods and reduce the resistance against GM technologies over time.

    更新日期:2019-10-17
  • Individual differences in texture preferences among European children: Development and validation of the Child Food Texture Preference Questionnaire (CFTPQ)
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    M. Laureati, P. Sandvik, V.L. Almli, M. Sandell, G.G. Zeinstra, L. Methven, M. Wallner, H. Jilani, B. Alfaro, C. Proserpio

    Texture has an important role in children’s acceptance and rejection of food. However, little is known about individual differences in texture preference. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a child-friendly tool to explore individual differences in texture preferences in school-aged children from six European countries (Austria, Finland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Six hundred and ten children aged 9–12 years and their parents participated in a cross-sectional study. Children completed the Child Food Texture Preference Questionnaire (CFTPQ) and a Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). The CFTPQ consisted in asking children to choose the preferred item within 17 pairs of pictures of food varying in texture (hard vs. soft or smooth vs. lumpy). Children also evaluated all food items for familiarity. Parents completed the CFTPQ regarding their preferred items, a food frequency questionnaire for their child, and provided background information. For a subset of children, a re-test was done for the CFTPQ and FNS to assess reliability. The results showed that the tool was child-friendly, had high test-retest reliability, and identified country-related differences as well as segments of children with different texture preferences (hard- vs. soft-likers). These segments differed in consumption frequency of healthy foods, and in food neophobia.

    更新日期:2019-10-15
  • LikeWant: a new methodology to measure implicit wanting for flavors and fragrances
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Donato Cereghetti, Chiara Chillà, Christelle Porcherot, David Sander, Isabelle Cayeux, Sylvain Delplanque

    According to the incentive salience hypothesis framework (Berridge, 2007, Berridge, 2012, Berridge and Robinson, 1998, Berridge and Robinson, 2003, Berridge et al., 2009), wanting and liking can be dissociated, suggesting that two products having similar liking levels could trigger different wanting behaviors in consumers. Defined as a motivational state that promotes approach toward and consumption of rewarding stimuli, wanting can be measured through the Pavlovian instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure. Having emerged from animal models, the PIT procedure aims to measure the effort exerted by an organism (consumer) to obtain a particular reward (product). By adapting and optimizing existing human PIT procedures, we developed LikeWant, an innovative behavioral method that measures consumers’ motivation to pursue flavors and fragrances as rewards. Two studies were conducted to test the sensitivity of the LikeWant procedure. In the first experiment, we investigated the sensitivity of the LikeWant procedure to measure wanting for a pleasant odor with odorless air as a neutral control. In the second experiment, we assessed the ability of the LikeWant procedure to simultaneously measure wanting for two competing fine fragrances. The results showed that the LikeWant procedure is able to (1) measure wanting for a pleasant odor with odorless air as a neutral control condition and (2) discriminate between two fine fragrances on the basis of their rewarding properties, potentially enabling the use of the procedure in consumer studies.

    更新日期:2019-10-14
  • Consumers’ attitudes and intentions toward consuming functional foods in Norway
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Bjørn Tore Nystrand, Svein Ottar Olsen

    This study investigates antecedents of consumers’ attitudes and intentions to eating functional foods in a representative sample of Norwegian consumers (N = 810). The theory of planned behavior (TPB), with an extension of self-efficacy and descriptive norms and, as well, hedonic and utilitarian eating values, is used as a conceptual framework. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to test the hypothesized relationships. The findings differed significantly between the basic and extended model, particularly for the perceived behavioral control (PBC) constructs. Perceived control over behavior was insignificantly related to intention and consumption frequency in the basic model and significantly negatively related in the extended model. The inclusion of self-efficacy, conceptualized as confidence in the ability to consume functional foods regularly, proved to be the most important explanatory factor of intention. Descriptive and injunctive norms were both significant and relatively strong predictors of intention. However, injunctive norms lost explanatory power when descriptive norms were included in the structural model. The strong influence of attitude on intention also diminished in the extended model. Utilitarian eating values clearly outperformed hedonic eating values as a basis for explaining consumer attitude toward eating functional foods. Whereas utilitarian eating values were strongly and positively associated with participants’ attitude toward the consumption of functional foods, hedonic eating values were less strongly and negatively related to attitude. Thus, the food industry needs to improve the hedonic value of functional foods to commercially succeed.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Measuring food preference and reward: application and cross-cultural adaptation of the leeds food preference questionnaire in human experimental research
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Pauline Oustric, David Thivel, Michelle Dalton, Kristine Beaulieu, Catherine Gibbons, Mark Hopkins, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson

    Decisions about what we eat play a central role in human appetite and energy balance. Measuring food reward and its underlying components of implicit motivation (wanting) and explicit sensory pleasure (liking) is therefore important in understanding which foods are preferred in a given context and at a given moment in time. Among the different methods used to measure food reward, the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) is a well-established tool that has been widely used in the scientific field for over 10 years. The original LFPQ measures explicit liking and implicit wanting for the same visual food stimuli varying along two nutritional dimensions: fat (high or low) and taste (sweet or savoury/non-sweet). With increasing use of the LFPQ (in original or adapted forms) across different cultural and scientific contexts, there is a need for a set of recommendations for effective execution as well as cultural and nutritional adaptations of the tool. This paper aims to describe the current status of the LFPQ for researchers new to the methodology, and to provide standards of good practice that can be adopted for its cultural adaptation and use in the laboratory or clinic. This paper details procedures for the creation and validation of appropriate food stimuli; implementation of the tool for sensitive measures of food reward; and interpretation of the main end-points of the LFPQ. Following these steps will facilitate comparisons of findings between studies and lead to a better understanding of the role of food reward in human eating behaviour.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Panel performance and memory in visually impaired versus sighted panels
    Food Qual. Prefer. (IF 3.684) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Carlos Gómez-Corona, Armando Pohlenz, Isabelle Cayeux, Dominique Valentin
    更新日期:2019-10-12
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