当前期刊: Food Policy Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Integrating fisheries, food and nutrition – Insights from people and policies in Timor-Leste
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Anna K. Farmery; Lana Kajlich; Michelle Voyer; Jessica R. Bogard; Augustinha Duarte

    The important role of fish in food and nutrition security is becoming more widely acknowledged by the fishery sector and within food policy. Integration of fish and food policy, at national, regional or global levels, is required to ensure the contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to human health is supported through governance arrangements. We explore this aspect of food policy integration in Timor-Leste, where malnutrition is a critical health problem. Consumption of fish is low by international standards and only a small proportion of the population engages in fishing. We used a mixed method approach involving desktop policy analysis, interviews and social network analysis to explore interactions among sectoral instruments and organisations. Our results show generally good integration of food security into fisheries policies, but a lack of integration of fish into food policies. Policy network analysis revealed evidence of collaboration and cooperation between sectors, however, consideration of fish and food concerns was not well embedded across all organisations. We discuss challenges and options for future integration of fisheries into sustainable food systems in Timor-Leste and more broadly, including the need for greater political will and resources, combined with clearer targets and actions within instruments.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Monetary policy and food inflation in South Africa: A quantile regression analysis
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Abdul-Aziz Iddrisu; Imhotep Paul Alagidede

    Although optimal monetary policy stabilizes food inflation theoretically, empirical studies remain limited not only in the context of volumes and the estimation approaches, but are focused on selected advanced and emerging countries to the neglect of Africa where poverty and dominance of food in the consumption basket are more pronounced. We provide empirical evidence in the context of South Africa using quantile regressions. Rising food prices are destabilized even further by restrictive monetary policy; a finding that has ramifications for inflation targeting, especially given that a quarter of the country’s population is food poor.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Do firms leverage the FDA nutrient label rounding rules to generate favorable nutrition fact panels or health claims?
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Melissa A. Wright; Timothy K.M. Beatty; Hayley H. Chouinard

    The increasing incidence of nutrition related health concerns has made food labeling an important policy issue. Previous work suggests the importance of communicating nutrition information to consumers through product packaging. This paper investigates the role of labeling guidelines, which allow the rounding of calorie and nutrient levels on nutrition fact panels and affects front of package claims. We examine ready-to-eat cereal products as a bundle of nutrient attributes, and estimate the likelihood and magnitude of the rounding of specific nutrients and calories. We find systematic rounding, both up and down, of several nutrients, which affects allowable health claims and may influence consumer product choice and health outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The impact of agricultural commercialisation on household welfare in rural Vietnam
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Chiara Cazzuffi; Andy McKay; Emilie Perge

    Commercialisation by smallholder farmers has played a major role in agricultural development in many Asian countries, and while there are assumptions that this has led to welfare improvement, in fact there is relatively little evidence on this question. In this paper we use high quality panel data to examine the welfare impact of agricultural commercialisation in a leading Asian producer, Vietnam. We use the five-wave Vietnam Access to Resources Household Survey (VARHS) panel data set from 2008 to 16, three measures of household welfare and create commercialisation indexes in relation to all crops and to rice specifically. We find a significant positive relationship of commercialisation with household asset accumulation, but a negative association with consumption expenditure.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Where’s the beef? Cattle producers’ response to endangered species listings
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Trey Malone; Richard T. Melstrom

    Agricultural production in the United States relies on extensive land use that sometimes conflicts with federal policies to protect wildlife habitat. A prime example of this conflict is the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which can impose significant penalties on landowners and producers who destroy the habitat of listed species. While prior research has measured the effects of ESA regulations on land values and natural resources, no research has identified the consequences of listing a species on livestock production. In this study, we measure the effect of ESA listings on beef cattle production in the central United States. Results suggest that listing likely has a small positive effect on cattle stocks.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Changes in food purchases at retirement in France
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Olivier Allais; Pascal Leroy; Julia Mink

    We estimate the impact of retirement on food expenditure and food quantities purchased, using detailed home-scan panel data on food purchases and household characteristics in France. We identify a causal relationship by exploiting the French legal minimum age for retirement as an exogenous shock to retirement behavior. Upon retirement, households significantly decrease their expenditure on food and the amount of food purchased. Households with lower pre-retirement income appear to be more severely affected. Our results indicate that the decrease in food quantities purchased at the aggregate level is driven by a decline in purchases of food from animal origins. A reduced consumption of animal based food products is likely to undermine the diet balance of retirees.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Shocks and agricultural investment decisions
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Carol Newman; Finn Tarp

    This study explores the impact of weather shocks on the investment decisions of farmers. We distinguish between the long-term effect of exposure to weather shocks, measured as past exposure to deviations in average rainfall levels, and the effect of weather-related shocks that have recently occurred. We examine how households cope with shocks in the short term, in terms of consumption smoothing and the depletion of liquid assets, and whether over the longer-term shock exposure impacts on household investment decisions and welfare. Our results show that households on average manage to smooth consumption in the face of recent shocks by depleting savings and borrowing. Over the longer-term, households that are exposed to shocks invest less in productive assets leading to lower consumption levels. Moreover, the investment strategies of these households do not appear to pay off once additional shocks occur later on.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • The effects of trust and land administration on economic outcomes: Evidence from Viet Nam
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Duc Anh Dang; Kim Khoi Dang; Vuong Anh Dang; Thi Lan Vu

    This paper examines how the interaction of social trust and institutions, such as land administration, affects household economic decisions in Viet Nam. Using a panel dataset of rural households from 2008 to 2014, we show that negative consequences of the duration of land administration on agricultural investment have been lower in rural households with higher level of trust. Higher-trust households, when facing higher barrier from land administration, tend to invest more on agricultural land compared to low-trust households where household heads are male. We also find that high-trust households enhance land property rights when facing obstacles from land administration.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Geographical indications in the UK after Brexit: An uncertain future?
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Craig Prescott; Manuela Pilato; Claudio Bellia

    The protection of geographical indications (‘GIs’) within the UK is placed into doubt by the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union (‘Brexit’). The default legal position is that after Brexit, there would be no legal provision for GIs in UK law. This default position can only be changed if the UK and the EU agree the terms of the UK’s withdrawal and then their future relationship. The article considers the implications of the draft withdrawal agreement which, inter alia ensures the continuing reciprocal protection of UK and EU GIs. In July 2019, a new UK Prime Minister took office, and renegotiated the draft withdrawal agreement, which retained the reciprocal protection of GIs. The ratification of this renegotiated withdrawal agreement depends on the result of the December 2019 general election. Under the withdrawal agreement GIs from outside the EU are not protected. Consequently, the article considers how UK GIs will continue to be protected in countries that have concluded a free trade agreement with the EU, by examining the rollover agreements that the UK Government are concluding around the world. Finally, given the intention of the UK Government that, post-Brexit, the UK will conclude free trade agreements with countries that have traditionally been reluctant to recognise GIs, such as the USA and Australia, the article examines the prospects for GI protection to be included in these agreements.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • What is the intrinsic value of fertilizer? Experimental value elicitation and decomposition in the hill and terai regions of Nepal
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Patrick S. Ward; Shweta Gupta; Vartika Singh; David L. Ortega; Shriniwas Gautam

    We use Becker-DeGroot-Marshak value elicitation methods to derive the intrinsic value that farmers in Nepal place on fertilizers. Eliciting values under three distinct procurement scenarios, we are able to decompose the total intrinsic value of fertilizer into a willingness-to-pay (WTP) to travel to procure fertilizer, a WTP for assured fertilizer supplies, and a WTP for the productivity benefits of fertilizer. Disaggregating our sample according to location (hills versus terai), we are able to estimate differences in total intrinsic value as well as value components along these geographical dimensions. While farmers in the hills are generally willing to pay more for urea than their counterparts in the terai, the total amount they are willing to pay is, on average, less than the market price for urea. We explore heterogeneity in valuations and discuss the implications of our findings on fertilizer procurement and distribution policies, as well as direct support policies that the Nepal government may consider. While support policies such as subsidies may encourage increased utilization of fertilizers, policies that lower barriers to private sector entry and increase the density of fertilizer retailers could also increase fertilizer utilization.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Estimating the effects of agri-environmental measures using difference-in-difference coarsened exact matching
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Danilo Bertoni; Daniele Curzi; Giacomo Aletti; Alessandro Olper

    This paper studies the effect of agri-environmental measures (AEMs) in improving greener farming practices. We focus on the quantification of the effectiveness of AEMs implemented in the Rural Development Programme of the Lombardy Region, during the 2007–2013 programming period. Our work attempts to address the well-known potential failures of these kinds of policy instruments – such as adverse selection effects – by relying on an innovative matching procedure, the coarsened exact matching (CEM). This methodology presents a number of interesting properties that are worth considering in policy-evaluation analyses. Our empirical analysis focuses on three AEM schemes protecting and enhancing the environment, Crops diversification, Grassland maintenance and Organic farming. Overall, our results suggest that AEMs were apparently effective in improving the farms’ environmental performances. However, our preliminary cost-benefit analysis highlights that the costs of implementing this policy, when compared to the additional results obtained, tend to be quite large.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Crop prices and the individual decision to migrate
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Gaia Narciso

    This paper investigates the effect of commodity prices, in particular rice and coffee, on the decision of migrating at the individual level. As most coffee production is sold by households for exports, we would expect that coffee price shocks would have a direct effect on the probability to migrate. On the other hand, we would anticipate that fluctuations in rice prices have little or no effect on migration decisions, given that rice is mainly produced for household consumption. We test these hypotheses drawing evidence from migration in Viet Nam. We show that the lower the price of coffee, the higher the likelihood of migrating. This evidence seems to suggest that migration acts as a shock-coping strategy. We find that rice prices have no effect on the probability of migrating. We further explore the extent of migrants’ self-selection and show that lower coffee prices increase the migration probability of individuals with lower education.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Does farm structure affect rural household incomes? Evidence from Tanzania
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Jordan Chamberlin; T.S. Jayne

    Many African countries have recently experienced rapid growth in the numbers of medium- and large-scale farms. These developments have generated considerable speculation about the impacts of farmland concentration and inequality on smallholder households and communities. This study exploits inter-district variation in farm landholding patterns in Tanzania to determine how differences in localized farmland structure affect rural household incomes using nationally representative household panel survey data. Because farm structure is a multifaceted concept, five alternative indicators of farmland structure are defined for 142 districts in Tanzania: (i) the Gini coefficient; (ii) skewness; (iii) coefficient of variation; (iv) share of controlled farmland under medium-scale farms; and (v) share of controlled farmland under large farms. These alternative farm structure variables are included in models of rural household income to test their effects after controlling for available household and community covariates. The study highlights four main findings. First, most indicators of farmland concentration are positively associated with rural household incomes. Second, household incomes from farm and non-farm sources are positively and significantly associated with the share of land in the district controlled by farms in the 5–10 and 5–20 ha category. Third, these positive spillover benefits are smaller and less statistically significant in districts with a relatively high share of farmland controlled by farms over 20 ha in size. Fourth, poor rural households are least able to capture the positive spillovers generated by medium-scale farms and by concentrated farmland patterns.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Impact of the eKutir ICT-enabled social enterprise and its distributed micro-entrepreneur strategy on fruit and vegetable consumption: A quasi-experimental study in rural and urban communities in Odisha, India
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Laurette Dubé, Cameron McRae, Yun-Hsuan Wu, Samik Ghosh, Summer Allen, Daniel Ross, Saibal Ray, Pramod K. Joshi, John McDermott, Srivardhini Jha, Spencer Moore

    This paper reports results of a quasi-experimental study designed to assess the impact of an information and communication technology (ICT) –enabled ecosystem, led by the social enterprise eKutir, on household fruit and vegetable consumption in Odisha, India. eKutir aims at providing self-sustaining solutions to poverty and undernutrition in developing countries by leveraging ICTs through ecosystem development anchored into a distributed micro-entrepreneurial strategy. eKutir’s farming micro-entrepreneurs (FME) provide agricultural knowledge, inputs, and market linkages at household and community level, followed by progressive integration of other micro-entrepreneurs at different points along the value chain on both supply and demand sides. The present case examined core FMEs along with retail micro-entrepreneurs (RMEs) deployed in low-resource rural and urban communities. Structural equation modeling was used to compare rural outcomes and the role of homegrown consumption as a mediator. Multivariable linear regression and ANOVA were used to test group differences in the urban sample. Positive β coefficients represent an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption in communities exposed to the eKutir ecosystem in contrast to the comparison group. Farmers in rural communities exposed to the eKutir ecosystem consumed more overall fruit and vegetables (β = 0.30, p < 0.001) and fruits alone (β = 0.53, p < 0.05) than those farmers in comparison villages unexposed to the eKutir ecosystem. This effect was concentrated in households exposed to both FMEs + RMEs (β = 0.60, p < 0.0001) and was mediated by homegrown consumption. A non-significant directional effect was observed in comparing fruit and vegetable consumption in rural households exposed to RMEs only over comparison communities. Urban consumers, exposed to the eKutir ecosystem through access to RMEs operating in their neighborhood community, did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption compared to non-intervention communities. The results reveal the potential of reaching nutritional impacts through homegrown consumption and with farm-level support outside of governmental/philanthropic interventions through an ICT-enabled social enterprise. They also underscore, however, the challenges of both changing eating behaviour and intervening along the agri-food value chain. Implication for more effective digital ecosystem design and intersectoral policies are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Sugary drink excise tax policy process and implementation: Case study from Saudi Arabia
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Reem Alsukait, Sara Bleich, Parke Wilde, Gitanjali Singh, Sara Folta

    Saudi Arabia’s residents are the fifth-largest consumers of calories from sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) globally, likely contributing to high rates of overweight and obesity. In 2017, Saudi Arabia implemented the largest SSB tax worldwide, increasing the prices of soft and energy drinks by 50% and 100%, respectively. The purpose of this research is to add to the global discussion on SSB tax design and policy process by highlighting the Saudi Arabia’s barriers and facilitators to implementation. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of ten informants among key stakeholders, including government, industry, and health organizations who worked on the sugary drink tax in Saudi Arabia. Interviews were conducted in the five months following tax implementation in June 2017. The questions were designed to understand how the tax originated, the motivations for its structure, and the barriers and facilitators associated with its implementation. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Our results suggest that energy drinks were perceived as more harmful than other soft drinks and thus taxed at a higher rate. We also found that the tax was perceived to be easy to administer by all stakeholders. Post tax implementation, some stakeholders expressed concern about pressures from the World Trade Organization requiring scientific justification for the specific tax rates and beverage categories. In response to the tax, the beverage industry reportedly reduced retail prices and absorbed some of the tax costs. There is a strong interest from the Saudi government in expanding the tax to include all SSBs and other food categories. In conclusion, there were several factors unique to the Saudi environment that facilitated tax implementation. However, our study highlights the importance of explicitly articulating a clear evidence-based rationale for SSB tax administration to enhance sustainability.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • The evolution of Coca-Cola Australia’s soft drink reformulation strategy 2003–2017: A thematic analysis of corporate documents
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jennifer Lacy-Nichols, Gyorgy Scrinis, Rachel Carey

    Governments around the world are pressuring the soft drink industry to reformulate sugary drinks, in particular through taxes on sugar content or front-of-pack labels identifying products high in sugar. Even in countries with no sugary drink tax, such as Australia, the soft drink industry has a reformulation policy. While reformulation is often framed as a “win-win” solution for business and public health, many public health experts consider it to be a political strategy to improve corporate reputations and minimise the threat of regulation. We use a case study of Australia’s largest soft drink company, Coca-Cola Australia, to examine the evolution of corporate reformulation policies. We analysed a dataset of 144 corporate documents published between 2003 and 2017 to analyse how Coca-Cola’s policies changed and how it described and justified its reformulation initiatives. Between 2003 and 2017, Coca-Cola Australia shifted its reformulation strategy from “offering choice” to “systematic” sugar reformulation. It also presented two predominant rationales for reformulation: that it would grow its business and that it was “part of the solution” to obesity. We discuss these findings in relation to market and regulatory challenges facing the soft drink industry globally, including the spread of sugary drink taxes as well as consumer rejection of artificial sweeteners. This paper examines how a regional branch of the world’s largest soft drink company is adapting to pressures to reduce the sugar in its products as well as the tensions and barriers it faces in negotiating different consumer and public health interpretations of healthy beverages.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Investigating menu kilojoule labelling policy adoption from a political science perspective
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Brydie Clarke, Boyd Swinburn, Gary Sacks

    Implementation of internationally recommended policy options for obesity prevention has generally been slow and inadequate globally, and, as such, it is important to understand barriers and enablers to policy action in the area. This study aimed to apply political science theories to understand influences on the adoption of Menu Kilojoule Labelling Legislation in Victoria, Australia over the period 2009–2017. Data collection included 13 in-depth semi-structured interviews with participants of the policy development and decision-making processes, analysis of 68 policy documents, and field note observations. Data were analysed using established political science theories: the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and the Multiple Streams Theory (MST). There were numerous and interrelating factors that influenced the Menu Kilojoule Labelling Legislative policy processes. Barriers to policy reform included electoral turnover, a dominance of neoliberal ideology, and policy maker concerns regarding potential food industry backlash. Key enablers to eventual policy change included the accumulation of evidence on policy effectiveness and feasibility of implementation, increased recognition of the importance of tackling the issue, as well as reductions in political risks achieved, in part, through relatively long consultation and negotiation processes. Findings highlight several tactics that can be used to secure similar policy change in future, including generation, dissemination and translation of implementation evidence, effective mobilisation of supporters, and negotiation and consultation processes that can reduce the degree of opposition to proposed policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Galvanizing political commitment in the UN Decade of Action for Nutrition: Assessing commitment in member-countries of the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Patrizia Fracassi, Kendra Siekmans, Phillip Baker

    In pursuit of the global ambition of ending all forms of malnutrition, it is important to understand, measure and strengthen political commitment for nutrition. Building commitment involves advocating, establishing institutions, adopting policies, mobilizing resources and coordinating responses – within and outside of government, across sectors, from national to local levels – for as long as necessary to ensure results, sustained over time. As the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement enters its tenth year of existence, this study asks if political commitment for nutrition is evident in the 60 SUN member countries and how this commitment translates into results. Guided by a theoretical framework, we use indicators from the SUN Movement's Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL) system to measure five forms of political commitment for nutrition - expressed, institutional, operational, embedded and system-wide - in countries stratified by income and duration of SUN membership. We further determine the association between assessed levels of commitment and progress towards achieving established global nutrition targets. In doing so, we identity important commitment gaps. Results show that countries that joined the SUN Movement early (2010–12) had higher expressed and institutional commitment scores compared with late joiners (2013–17), with no difference between low and middle-income countries. For operational commitment, early joiners had higher scores for the finance and legislation subcomponents but not for nutrition-specific intervention coverage. Low-income countries, however, had significantly lower scores for the nutrition-specific intervention coverage sub-component of operational commitment and lower embedded commitment scores compared with middle-income countries. A positive association was found between institutional and operational commitment, irrespective of country economic status. Early joiners in the SUN Movement were more likely to rank in the top half of SUN countries for all four forms of commitment. When divided into terciles based on their overall rank for system-wide political commitment, countries in the highest tercile were more likely to be making progress in the reduction of U5 child stunting. The results point to the importance of working to strengthen all forms of commitment, especially converting expressed and institutional commitments into operational commitment. While institutional commitment matters, it can be ‘tokenistic’ only if there is limited capacity to operationalise that commitment. Countries with system-wide political commitment appear to achieve better nutrition impact. It is difficult to determine whether early joiners were already more committed to nutrition and therefore more likely to join the SUN Movement or whether membership in the SUN Movement compelled such commitment. Most likely it is a combination of both, but it is hard to disentangle the direction of causality without measuring changes in commitments over time, and complementing this type of analysis with qualitative research on the perspectives of different stakeholders. Nonetheless, the ongoing measurement and reporting of political commitment can inform dialogue with country and global-level stakeholders on how to galvanize further commitment during the UN Decade of Action on Nutrition especially in view of the 2020 Nutrition for Growth (N4G) Summit in Tokyo, Japan.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Do farmers’ organizations enhance the welfare of smallholders? Findings from the Mozambican national agricultural survey
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Maren Elise Bachke

    Farmers’ organizations have been used as a tool to improve the living conditions of farmers in many countries by improving market access, access to information and capacity to increase production. I employ panel data from Mozambique to investigate how membership in farmers’ organizations impacts smallholders’ welfare. Using difference-in-difference estimators that control for unobservable selection bias, I find a positive impact of membership on the marketed surplus (25%), the value of agricultural production (18%) and on total income (15%, and more than 20% for those whose main source of cash income is the agricultural sector).

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Chinese consumers’ preferences for food quality test/measurement indicators and cues of milk powder: A case of Zhengzhou, China
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Erpeng Wang, Zhifeng Gao, Yan Heng, Lijia Shi

    Many food regulations focus on test/measurement indicators, such as hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) and traceability, etc. Other than these indicators, the food industry uses various cues such as product origin as indicators of product quality. However, in an environment where consumers’ confidence in food safety is low due to frequent food safety scandals, little is known about the efficiency of these test/measurement indicators and cues. This paper used the primary data collected in Zhengzhou (China) to estimate consumers’ preferences for test/measurement indicators and a new cue of “own farm” for milk powder. Our results show that country of origin is the most important cue attribute, followed by price and own farm. The importance of test/measurement indicators such as organic, traceability, and HACCP certification is relatively low. Also, the individual parameter estimates show that consumers’ preferences for test/measurement indicators currently in the market are weak and fragile. Interestingly, price has an inverse-U-shaped relationship with consumer utility, implying that Chinese consumers may perceive low-price milk powder as low quality. The results of this study provide important insight for regulatory authorities and the food industry to develop more effective policies and programs to improve consumer preferences for milk powder.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Urban food policies in German city regions: An overview of key players and policy instruments
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Alexandra Doernberg, Paula Horn, Ingo Zasada, Annette Piorr

    Although food is an emerging topic on municipal policy and planning agendas, a systematic examination of policy development, its implementation and the instruments used at the urban level is lacking. This study was carried out with the aim of gaining new insights into the prevalence of certain food policy instruments and capacity of policy action. In order to do so, we developed an analytical framework to investigate urban policy and planning approaches related to food issues and applied it in ten large German cities. First, we identified different actor groups and analysed their role in urban food policy (level of involvement in municipal food projects). We then studied the variety of policy and planning instruments and their application for different elements in the food system. For the empirical study, we employed a case study approach and utilised data gathering methods of qualitative research, i.e. expert interviews and document analysis. Our empirical findings in the studied cities reveal that urban food policy activities are still very fragmented and often based on individual initiatives within the administration. Integrated urban food policies and their implementation through urban food strategies are still an exception in major cities in Germany. We found that municipal actors follow mainly sectoral approaches, using a wide array of steering instruments, i.e. informational instruments and public procurement policies. However, their capacities for policy implementation remain limited due to missing financial and staffing resources. Accordingly, the potential the urban food system offers for sustainable development through multifunctionality and sectoral integration, is still underexploited. The systematic approach developed in this study may contribute to a better understanding of different policy approaches taken. The applied typology of policy instruments might also be useful for identifying effective ways to implement urban food strategies, to understand mismatches between instruments and different policy domains, levels and administrative units, e.g. at the urban-rural interface, and to design of new policy instruments.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • The long overhang of bad decisions in agro-industrial development: Sugar and tomato paste in Ghana
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Emmanuel Frimpong Boamah, James Sumberg

    In theory, learning from past mistakes should result in adapted and improved development policy. However policy learning can be difficult to achieve, and the link between learning and policy change is neither direct nor immediate. In this study we look at learning in agro-industrial policy in Ghana, by tracing the interest in sugar production and tomato processing over six decades. Specifically we ask why four failed factories established in the early 1960s have continued to play central roles in both policy and public discourse. Using policy documents, academic material, and the popular press, we show that Ghana’s policy focus on sugar production and tomato processing has endured, despite the fact that the factories were misconceived, poorly sited, ill-equipped and poorly managed. Indeed, the political ideas that underpinned the establishment of these factories in the early days of independence can be seen in the current One District, One Factory policy. We suggest that it is their symbolic and political value, not their economic value, which keeps the discussion around these factories alive. Even when shut down, they are a physical manifestation of historic commitments by the state, and as such they guarantee the attention of politicians, and hold out hope of a next re-launch. Unfortunately as long as the factories continue to be incorporated into each new generation of agro-industrial policy, it is difficult for any alternatives to gain traction. This analysis highlights the very long overhang of bad decisions, particularly when they are associated with physical infrastructure. Learning from past mistakes will only happen if the short-term political cost of turning policy learning into policy action can be overcome.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Understanding beliefs and concerns towards palm oil: Empirical evidence and policy implications
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Stefania Capecchi, Mario Amato, Valeria Sodano, Fabio Verneau

    Over the last years palm oil has become a controversial product, due to its alleged harmful environmental and health effects. As a consequence, many food companies have taken concrete actions for meeting growing concerns. In this respect, a field survey was carried out amongst a sample of 607 Italian respondents, in order to highlight the potential effect of consumers’ attitudes towards health, social and environmental worries referred to palm oil consumption. Individual responses were statistically processed by means of a mixture model which allows for the detection of agreement and heterogeneity among respondents with respect to a given item. The results of this study suggest that respondents are worried for the current discussion on palm oil issues. This preoccupation affects both decision of purchasing and interest in further accurate knowledge. Overall, the consumer envisioned by the present study gives some hope on the effectiveness of consumer social responsibility in helping tackle food system sustainability concerns.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developing the Women's Empowerment in Nutrition Index in Two States of India
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Sudha Narayanan, Erin Lentz, Marzia Fontana, Anuradha De, Bharati Kulkarni

    Rural women face many obstacles that thwart their well-being. Policies that seek to empower them, for example, by improving livelihood opportunities, often do not translate into improvements in other areas, notably in their nutritional status. Indeed, many existing measures of women’s empowerment have ambiguous associations with indicators of nutritional status. This is likely because existing operationalizations of empowerment often focus on aspects that are somewhat distal from factors that influence nutrition. In this paper, we present an index that aims to measure women’s empowerment in the realm of nutrition. We define nutritional empowerment as the process by which individuals acquire the capacity to be well fed and healthy, in a context where this capacity was previously denied to them. Our index draws on theory and multi-site formative research from South Asia and captures multiple dimensions of empowerment spanning domains that influence nutritional outcomes. We construct this index using data from two sites in India and validate it by estimating two nutritional outcomes, body mass index (BMI) and anemia, as a function of the index. We find that our index is significantly associated with these outcomes, indicating that, in rural South Asia, the women’s empowerment in nutrition index can assist researchers to understand the nutritional status of women and their families.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Effect of Cash Transfers and Household Vulnerability on Food Security in Zimbabwe.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Garima Bhalla,Sudhanshu Handa,Gustavo Angeles,David Seidenfeld

    We study the impact of the Zimbabwe Harmonized Social Cash Transfer (HSCT) on household food security after 12 months of implementation. We investigate determinants of food security as measured by a well-known food security scale - the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) - and as measured by value of household food consumption composed of own-production, market purchases and gifts received. We find that several dimensions of household vulnerability correlate more strongly with the food security measure than with food consumption. Labor constraints, which is a key vulnerability criterion used by the HSCT to target households, is an important predictor of the food security score but not food consumption, and its effect on food security is even larger during the lean season. Impact analysis shows that the program has had statistically significant impacts on Food Security and Diet Diversity scores but null to low impacts on food consumption. However aggregate food consumption hides dynamic activity taking place within the household where the cash is used to obtain more food from the market and rely less on food received as gifts. The cash in turn gives beneficiaries greater choice in their food basket, which improves diet diversity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Poverty, population and environmental degradation in China.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1997-06-01
    S Rozelle,J Huang,L Zhang

    This article examines the relationship between poverty, population, and environmental degradation in China. Environmental conditions include water pollution, deforestation, destruction of grasslands, soil erosion, and salinization. The authors review China's success in controlling environmental degradation through leadership, environmental policies, and institutional capacity. Findings suggest that environmental progress is best achieved indirectly by poverty alleviation, market integration, and population control. Government policies were not very effective. Degradation occurs due to limited financial resources, poorly trained personnel, and political factors. Control of water pollution was instituted since the 1980s. The levels of pollutants have been reduced, but the type of pollutant determines the seriousness of impact. Water pollution is due to industrial wastes, agricultural run-off, and soil erosion. Since the 1970s, reforestation targets have not been met. Technical extension and monitoring of planting is not available in most areas, and private, profit seeking interests control acreage. Grassland destruction is due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, and overgrazing. Independent regional authorities have successfully managed pasture programs. Erosion is the most serious in Loess Plateau, the Red Soils area, the Northeast China Plain, and the Northwest Grasslands, which comprise 70% of total land area. In 1990, erosion control was practiced in 39% of eroded land area. Salinization has remained fairly constant. Environmental controls (direct regulation, planned recovery, and state-mandated technological improvements) are uneven. The main tool for environmental management is the State Environmental Protection Commission and its executive unit, SEPA. Problems stem from vague laws, lack of means of enforcement, lack of coordination of laws, and lack of standards, schedules, and other provisions in ordinances.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emerging issues confronting the renewable natural resources sector in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1996-05-01
    A Marter,A Gordon

    The renewable natural resources sector in Africa is highly important because of the relatively high proportion of livelihoods it supports relative to other developing regions. However, ongoing rapid population growth threatens the long-term survival of the sector. Key concerns include the need for agricultural intensification in the context of systems which are often located in marginal areas, the demands imposed by rapid urbanization, and access rights to essential resources such as water. The policy and institutional environment can make problems worse since trends toward greater democracy often prove destabilizing or deflect the political agenda toward short-term expediency instead of longer-term strategies essential to the renewable natural resources sector. Structural adjustment has yet to produce the expected benefits and it is clear that the private sector will be unable to meet growth and distributional objectives on its own. A broader-based strategy is needed which includes not only government institutions at national and local levels, but also nongovernmental organizations, community organizations, and regional and international bodies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1988-05-01
    J Hoorweg

    A review of current practices and recent developments regarding impact evaluation of nutrition programs for preschool children in developing countries is presented. Nutrition education, food suplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation, the 3 major components of intervention in child nutrition, generally focus on food consumption and are directed at individual cases. Impact evaluations are generally confronted with situations where different programs operate in a variety of cultural settings, where the effects of the interventions are small, and where methodological difficulties usually weaken the evaluations. Definitions of impact evaluation generally include reference to the measurement of program effects by "objective" and "systematic" means. The 1st refers to the use of reliable measuring instruments with standard routines; the 2nd to the comparison of different groups of recipients (and nonrecipients) in such a way that it reveals the impact of the intervention, irrespective of other factors that influence child nutrition. Impact evaluation has 2 major components the indicators selected to reflect program impact, and the design used for the comparison of different groups of recipients. Both the interventions and evaluations have to operate under restricting conditions, and different strategies to accomodate this situation are mentioned. It is argued that the contribution of evaluation is not so much in the nature of being a final arbiter, but rather in the nature of helping to seek the optimal combination of local conditions and type of assistance offered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Food aid: pitfalls and potential.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-11-01
    F Stewart

    This article poses the question of whether it is possible to use food aid to meet short-run needs while supporting and not undermining the achievement of long-term goals of self-reliance at the household and national levels. Often either some degree of self-reliance is sacrificed or people will suffer malnutrition. Food aid may be used to generate employment for low income families (food-for-work schemes), to reduce food prices during shortages by increasing the supply, and it can be delivered to target groups as a direct entitlement. What happens to food after delivery is important: often it goes to family members not targeted. Other factors (e.g. measles) affect nutritional status. Food aid must often continue for long periods to avoid nutritional regression. The stage in distribution at which food is used is important; e.g. a measles epidemic might affect the consumption but not the supply of food, or poor targeting might benefit families who do not need it. Complementary actions may improve conditions; for example, if food is sold, increasing income improves the situation. A problem with provision of food is depression of local prices, reducing incentives to produce food locally. Most food aid does not increase demand, and in fact if the effect is to change tastes away from local products demand may be reduced. The effect on demand depends on the type of aid scheme, the timing and duration, and the locality of the project. Most objectives are better achieved by the use of cash aid, which promotes rather than weakens local food producers' incentives, reduces transport and storage, redistributes food, does not affect taste, and adds income by contributing to local decentralized transport. Food aid is a good temporary intervention, but cash aid should be used in the long term.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The food crisis and environmental conservation in Africa.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-11-01
    D Stiles,R Brennan

    In spite of good rains in Africa in 1985, 30-35 million people suffered the effects of famine. Much of Africa is still dependent on food aid. The main causes of insufficient food production are land degradation--desertification--and high population growth. Distribution of the US $2.9 billion in food and non-food aid has been hampered by transport and logistical problems. The major challenge for 1986 is non-food support. Only US $460 million (15.3%) of non-food aid had been received as of March. Country profiles of Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Somalia, Sudan, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia show a pattern of high food assistance needs and displaced refugee populations. The 1st 6 of the group suffer from civil strife. There is some good news; e.g. Niger, which is embarking on agressive agricultural development, and Tanzania, which has enjoyed bumper crops, but the crisis is clearly far from over. Few African Governments have been willing to face the population problem; population in the area will probably continue to increase at 3% yearly. It is shown that desertification: reducing the biological potential of the land through over-exploitation, animal husbandry, and deforestation, is a wordwide problem particularly acute in Africa. Lost production totals $26 billion annually. Straightforward cost-benefit analysis of projects to halt or reverse the problem does not adequately take factors such as human attachment to the land into account. Unfortunately halting desertification does not receive the attention it should receive from donor agencies. Investment goes towards high-return projects, e.g. power dams; sugar factories, when a more careful study reveals that returns from afforestations are much more long-term. There has been increased consciousness of the long-term benefits of dryland rehabilitation, which will hopefully impact policy in the future. But since desertification is a self-accelerating process, there is a need for very rapid action.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The new political economy of food and agricultural development.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-11-01
    J W Mellor,Adams Rh

    This paper emphasizes the benefits of an agricultural strategy of development in developing countries. It begins by analyzing the close links between food and employment in the development process. In an underdeveloped country, food production is minimal, but demand is as well because of the small population growth. After development begins, income rises and food demand outstrips production. Only at later stages of development can food production meet demand. The middle stage of development describes most developing countries, which have averaged annual growth rates of 3% per capita in 1966-80. The growth in food demand must be met through technological advance in agriculture: high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation, which, for example, helped India increase cereal yields 29% between 1954-55 and 1964-65. The rate of growth in cropped areas has declined between 1961-1980, making increased yields more necessary. Growth in employment and income leads to higher food demand, which leads to higher prices and labor costs and a tendency towards capital-intensive agriculture. As the rural sector becomes wealthier, there is also more opportunity for non-agricultural rural workers, creating still more demand. In the final development stage, agricultural products can generate foreign exchange. In Asia, the priority is to ensure efficient outcomes of capital allocations, while in Africa, technology must be instituted. Public investment has been shown to be essential to rapid development in Japan, Taiwan, and the Punjab of India. The absence of this investment in Africa, partly because of an overemphasis on urban sector investment, is largely responsible for the backward state of African agriculture. Often rural areas are overtaxed, agricultural experts are lacking, and there is a growing presence of urban bureaucrats. Both experts in the donor community and farmers themselves must become more vocal in demanding investment in the agricultural sector.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-11-01
    J A Mollett

    This review of the state of food and agriculture in Islamic countries underlines the need for much greater public commitment to agricultural development. Within the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), 44 member nations, exibiting immense geographic and economic diversity, have come together recently to begin to cooperate on increasing food production. It is difficult to generalize about food production conditions in Islamic nations, but basically, within the OIC, total arable land increased from 159 to 167 ha in the 1970s, a small amount unevenly distributed over the group. Dry-land farming has not received enough public attention, and the dependence on cereals grown under rainfed conditions leaves the population vulnerable to fluctuation. Many of the poorer nations have not given the priority to land improvement that has been successful in Egypt, Pakistan, and some other countries. The economic burden of food imports has become lighter in some countries, although in all it continues to be serious. Net cereal imports to Islamic countries rose from 21 to 39 million tons from 1975-83. An overall increase in the per capita dietary energy supplies masks broad differences between the wealthier and poorer nations of the OIC, and between more and less priviledged populations within the societies. A small proportion of financial commitments to agriculture (15%) come from Islamic community donors; this is not a leading program priority. Often spending has been for large capital-intensive projects depending on imported skills and inputs. As a group, the OIC must plan to take advantage of their technical and environmental diversity, and work together to avoid inefficient dispersal of personnel and other resources. Tabular data show selected indicators of agricultural development (e.g. % of food imported, food production growth), average annual rate of food production change related to population growth, per capita dietary energy supplies, and external assistance commitments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Towards a food and nutrition policy for Australia, an environmentalist view.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-11-01
    F G Fisher

    The state government of Victoria, Australia, recently prepared a discussion paper towards a regional food and nutrition policy. This evaluation finds it deficient in various ways. The critique contains recommendations for the building of a national food policy. The commission report displays a lack of a systems view of the problem of nutrition, which would recognize a diversity of influences on eating (e.g. social frameworks and frameworks by which we think and know). Linear causality is not an adequate concept. Agribusiness impacts heavily on the environment. In the case of meat production, inputs to production far exceed food energy outputs. Disposal of the by-products of meat production is also more problematic. The way to impact on these wasteful and destructive industrial practices is to consume less meat. Additives in food are a serious problem not well enough addressed. This and other processing increase the cultural perception of foodstuffs as human artifacts. Awareness of the cultural role of foods would allow Australians to cope with industry campaigns promoting meat and processed foodstuffs. There should be more attention to mutual impacts of environment, consumptiuon, and additives and processing. Food from low in the food chain (cereals, seafood) should be promoted not as substitutes but as foods in their own right. Commission recommendations should deal with questions such as nutritional information labeling of foods, and especially an attempt to foster consciousness of the environmental impact of food consumption: Government policy should be mindful to the extent possible of the impact on poor areas of the world of wasteful food consumption in Australia. Proposals for action should benefit from the impact of several fields of expertise beyond health, agriculture, consumer affairs and others; for instance, anthropology or environmental science.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Alleviating rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-02-01
    A A El Sherbini

    This analysis of rural poverty and hunger in Africa discusses the intertemporal and cross-sectional dimensions of poverty as an aid to policies and programs to alleviate hunger. Since nutritional adequacy of diets varies according to season, seasonality is an important cause of poverty especially in countries with 1 major harvest. In agricultural communities the wet season brings on food shortages and high prices, requiring assistance programs to concentrate on alleviating hunger at this time of year. Drought places a similar demand on resources. People may be poorer in 1 section of a country than another if they have no access to the existing power system, depriving them of services and assistance. There are forgotten regions of Africa where people are poor due to physical isolation, increasing the risk of drought and impeding emergency relief. Production in these areas may be low because there are no consumer goods to buy with surplus. It is important to identify target groups for financial assistance which will change with time and environmental conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutrition work in socioeconomic development agencies.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1985-05-01
    F Meissner

    Since the early 1980s nutritional levels have deteriorated in Latin America. A growing number of multinational and bilateral assistance agencies have intensified ongoing efforts at incorporating nutrition components into the formulation of agricultural, fisheries and development projects. The main focus is on measures that would reduce additional deterioration of nutritional status. This paper reviews the response of bilateral and multilateral development agencies to the situation and outlines some practical options of systematically incorporating nutrition considerations in the formulation of agricultural, rural, urban, educational, housing, health and industrial projects. The Sub-Committee on Nutrition (SCN) of the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination has served as a clearinghouse for information on the subject. In spite of the SCN efforts to work closely with nutrition authorities of bilateral and multinational development aid agencies, nutrition has not yet become an integral component of rural or urban development projects. A number of workshops have been sponsored by the SCN and by other agencies such as the International Development Bureau (IDB); their goals and aims are reviewed and it is concluded that to incorporate nutritional considerations into development projects requires overcoming image barriers to the effect that nutrition activities are complex, costly, difficult to administer and economically not readily justifiable.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Improving the nutritional impact of extension services in rural Africa.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1985-05-01
    G P Sevenhuysen

    Experience in nutrition interventions in Africa points to several design characteristics of field programs which could improve their effectiveness. Regular government extension services have the potential to reach large numbers of people, yet staff will require additional training to respond to the changing demands of field work. A new approach to obercome 2 implementation difficulties found in previous interventions has recently been formulated. The 1st difficulty addressed is that of reaching large enough numbers of people to affect the national prevalence of nutritional and other health problems. The 2nd is to present information that is directly relevant to the situation of people in different localities. The new approach to training rural extension workers has been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The approach provides staff with information and managerial skills that are common to all extension work. The practical examples used to introduce these techniques illustrate nutritional problems that fieldworkers face and give a measure of confidence in finding solutions. The problems discussed include the adequacy of the techical information given during basic training; the need to understand the administrative aspects of a program or service, and the need to develop effective communication skills. It is intended that the fieldworker will be able to assess the situation in a locality and decide on appropriate action related to the nutritional problems identified. Subsequent action will always conform to the ministry's technical madate. The process of developing an understanding of the nutritional realities of a locality introduces a number of managerial techniques. These techniques for efficient management of field programs are explained and demonstrated during training, using examples that are nutritionally appropriate. In showing the step-by-step application of these techniques to nutritional activities, fieldworkers become familiar with nutritional terms. They also become confident in dealing with the nutritional implications of their work.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutritional considerations in project planning.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1985-05-01
    J Mason,M Garcia,J Mitchell,K Test,C Henderson,H Tabatabai

    This paper discusses procedures for "ex ante" assessment of likely nutritional effects of development projects. Reported are results of 1 field trial in the Philippines of the "ex ante" assessment procedure in terms of: its feasibility and timeliness and the recommendations for project design that can be made and their influence. In the procedure described, emphasis is placed on assessing likely direct effects--through income, environmental changes and access to services. Indirect effects through food output and prices are assessed qualitatievly. 2 primary questions are addressed in the "ex ante" assessment: 1) who is to benefit directly from the project, in relation to their need (measured in terms of nutrition) and 2) is there reason to suppose that these benefits will not improve their nutrition? The procedure began with an initial assessment to identify the main issues based on reviewing existing data and a short field visit; since there was insufficient information, a rapid nutrition survey was conducted and analyzed; recommendations for project design were made within the necessary time for inclusion. The assessment of the large-scale development project in the Philippines indicates priority to remote areas, small farmers and subsistence fishermen. It is concluded that production-oriented components (e.g., agricultural and infrastructure development) of the project appear likely to improve nutrition insofar as they reach the priority groups defiend above. There is little reason to believe that increased income will not improve nutrition. Finally, there is evidence that an intervention to improve water supply is likely to be effective. Limitations of the procedure are that the assessment is limitied to direct, microlevel effects; long-term influences on nutrition, through changes in the overall economy of the area, are not assessed. Also, the data used cannot easily quantify expected effects on nutrition of project participants. Future application of such procedures are seen to be important if they can be fully integrated with the overall project planning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Resource allocation decisions in low-income rural households.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1985-05-01
    D L Franklin,M W Harrell

    This paper is based on the theory that a society's nutritional well-being is both a cause and a consequence of the developmental process within that society. An approach to the choices made by poor rural households regarding food acquisition and nurturing behavior is emerging from recent research based on the new economic theory of household production. The central thesis of this approach is that household decisions related to the fulfillment of basic needs are strongly determined by decisions on the allocation of time to household production activities. Summarized are the results of the estimation of a model of household production and consumption behavior with data from a cross-sectional survey of 30 rural communities in Veraguas Province, Panama. The struture of the model consists of allocation of resources to nurturing activities and to production activities. The resources to be allocated are time and market goods, and in theory, these are allocated according to relative prices. The empirical results of this study are generally consistent with the predictions of the neoclassical economic model of household resource allocation. The major conclusions that time allocations and market price conditions matter in the determination of well-being in low-income rural households and, importantly, that nurturing decisions significantly affect the product and factor market behavior of these households form the basis for a discussion on implucations for agricultural and rural development. Programs and policies that seek nutritional improvement should be determined with explicit recognition of the value of time and the importance of timing in the decisions of the poor.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutrition policies and programmes: a decade of redirection.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1984-11-01
    A Berg,J Austin

    This article assesses the effectiveness of nutrition programs and policies since the World Food Conference, 10 years ago. The authors perceive several distinct approaches. Just before the World Food Conference, nutrition programs had passed through an era of enchantment with technological solutions (single-cell protein, oilseed protein isolates). Supply was regarded as the problem; protein inadequacy as the crisis. None of the technological fixes had much of an impact on the malnutrition problem. This contributed to a willingness to entertain a much broader approach to nutrition. The new paradigm manifested itself 1st as a movement toward integrated nutrition planning. The national planning process was assumed to be the appropriate vehicle for applying this methodology. However, integrated nutrition planning threatened, conflicted with or at least brought pressure for change in the administrative and political reality of governmental organizations. Moreover, the nutrition community's capacity to respond to the demands flowing from the new paradigm was limited. The difficulties encountered in trying to achieve full integration led to a reexamination of working within traditional sectors but addressing the problem in several key sectors simultaneously, such as health and agriculture. The past decade also saw a move toward analyzing and improving the design and implementation of various kinds of nutrition interventions. The emphasis was on understanding and dealing with the administrative, economic and political realities of such efforts. Incorporation of consumption and nutrition considerations in the analysis and formulation of food policies in some countries is 1 of the important achievements of the past decade. This overwhelmingly economic approach focuses on pricing policies and market effects, recognizing that poverty and purchasing power are central to the malnutrition problem. Analysis of macrofood policy has filled an important void, giving a more concrete and inclusive view of food security. Nutrition progress during the next decade will require the development community to confront a changed environment and several key challenges, namely the surge of conservative politics in the early 1980s, and the severe economic problems most countries face. There is a need to be realistic about the tenacity of the problem and the multiple barriers to implementation of nutrition policies. The challenges face both national governments and development agencies. There is agreement that, during the decade since the World Food Conference, the field of nutrition has gone through a metamorphosis and that there has been progress. However, the development community still faces an unfinished nutrition agenda.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Promoting child health and nutrition in India.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1983-02-01
    C Gopalan

    This article discusses the reasons for poor child nutrition in India. Inadequate advice to mothers in poor rural communities about breast milk supplements could allow progressive erosion of breast feeding practices in the face of aggressive promotion from baby food manufacturers. Health workers need better information about possible supplements produced from locally available foods if nutrition education programs are to succeed. The author warns of the detrimental effect on nutritonal status of the deemphasis of school health nutrition programs in India, and points to the need for a nutrition component as an integral part of rural employment/development programs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conceptual problems in nutrition education in Western Nigeria.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1982-11-01
    N Bankole

    A pilot survey of the factors affecting infant feeding practices in rural Western Nigeria highlights intercultural perceptual problems. Results show widespread use of imported, high cost carbohydrate foods and great resistance to the early introduction of local health protective items. It is commonly thought that "too much food" is bad for a child. Staff responsible for health education are held in a degree of disrepute not conducive to the acceptance of their educational efforts in the community. Recommendations include control of advertising; reviewed staff orientation and training; and an intensive campaign to reestablish breast feeding as the cultural norm. No data is presented on feeding of fluids (breast milk, additional milk, boiled water and glucose in water) and nonfluids (imported carbohydrate, local carbohydrate, local protein and fruits and vegetables) based on the mother's estimate of the age of a baby shown in a photograph. Approximate market prices of imported commodities commonly used for infant feeding in the study area are also included.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • National nutrition planning: lessons of experience.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1982-11-01
    J M Pines

    National nutrition planning has failed to fulfill its initial promise because of inadequate consideration of political and administrative obstacles to applying the methodology. The political and operational contexts within which multisectoral nutrition planning has occurred are reviewed in order to draw insights and lessons from the experience of the last 10 years. Considered are the political process, macro and micro planning, the multisectoral approach, integration with agricultural and health planning, nutrition interventions, community participation, cost benefit analyses, and information systems evaluation, management and organization. Emphasis on the multisectoral causation of malnutrition has contributed substantially to nutrition programming and remains indispensable for improving nutrition, but requires more thoughtful response to practical implementation problems. Integrating nutrition concerns more effectively into health and agriculture systems offers a more promising approach than efforts to attack malnutrition by encouraging multisectoral nutrition coordinating agencies and national plans.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A reappraisal of the extent of world hunger.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1981-11-01
    T T Poleman

    The variation between different estimates of the magnitude of the world food problem are enormous. The author questions the basis of the major surveys of FAO, the World Bank, and USDA, and suggests that they have grossly overestimated the extent of world hunger. By analyzing the connection between population, food, and economic participation, a more realistic view is obtained, suggesting a return to targeted assistance programs for the improvement of maternal and child health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Towards a food and nutrition policy in Tanzania.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1980-05-01
    U Jonsson

    Fragments of a nutrition policy are seen throughout the different phases of Tanzania's modern history. Efforts of the pre-Independence period culminated in formation of a committee on nutrition which advocated improving food storage, food legislation and standardization, and nutrition education. After independence, an initial period of concentration on cash crops was followed by increased cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, and some nutritional surveys were undertaken. After the Arusha Declaration in 1967 a basic needs strategy giving greater stress to food production and adequate nutrition received emphasis, and a Food and Nutrition Centre was established with 4 departments: food science and technology; manpower development; medical nutrition; and planning and coordination. Emphasis on production is reflected in a target of reducing malnutrition by 30 to 50% in every region by 1981, and an interdisciplinary approach is being used to achieve this goal. The basic similarity in proposed activities during the various phases of Tanzania's history indicates that political will is necessary for carrying out the policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Food consumption in Mexico: demographic and economic effects.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1989-05-01
    D Heien,L S Jarvis,F Perali

    Disaggregated demand analysis is beginning to receive increased importance in food policies for developing countries. Using household data from the 1977 Mexican Income and Expenditure Household Survey, the authors estimate the income and demographic effects on expenditures for 9 aggregate food categories. In addition, they use a probit model to explore the effect of these variables on the purchase decision for 5 high protein supplying goods. The results indicate that demographic variables, as well as income, have important effects in determining food expenditures. The authors analyze these effects and indicate the role they might play in food policy programs such as PRONAL, the National Food Programme.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multisectoral nutrition planning: a post-mortem.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1987-02-01
    J O Field

    Multisectoral nutrition planning emerged in the early 1970's as a bold new approach to combating malnutrition in low-income countries. Conceptually elegant and operationally ambitious, it blossomed on paper but collapsed in practice notwithstanding vigorous promotion by international assistance agencies. This essay reviews the meteoric rise and fall of the multisectoral approach and then proceeds to examine its theoretical underpinnings. The essay concludes by identifying 12 lessons learned that, if heeded, can help the current generation of intersectoral initiatives against malnutrition to realize their potential. In retrospect, it was a mistake to assign responsibility for nutrition to economic planners and scientists who possessed little political influence or operational authority. Nutrition requires high-level political sponsorship if it is to command resources, be integrated with established ministerial responsibilities and have staying power. Nutrition planning bcame attractive to basically conservative governments anxious to accommodate international benefactors without having to accept more fundamental reforms; the analysis of malnutrition causality focused primarily on attributes of the malnourished and their families, not on the social, economic, and political order around them.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Supplementary feeding in rural Egypt--the health system in action.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1981-08-01
    J O Field,R Burkhardt,G Ropes

    Of the several direct interventions against malnutrition, supplementary feeding is the most frequently employed in poor countries. If properly designed, implemented, and integrated with other services, the allocation of supplementary foods can contribute significantly to the alleviation of malnutrition. The authors survey the ambitious efforts of Egypt's Ministry of Health to make food available to chidlren at risk. These efforts are likely to have disappointing results unless the process of distribution is accompanied by improved program design and management, and greater sensitivity to the culture of health care delivery at the grassroots level.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endemic malaria, malnutrition and child deaths.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1981-05-01
    R W Wenlock

    Past failures of nutrition programs could lead to disillusionment among governments with nutritionists unless realistic targets are adopted. High child death rates are due to both infection and malnutrition, both causes of high general fertility rates. A nutrition program in Zambia examined malarial infections and undernutrition as causes of death. Where malnutrition was diagnosed in youngest children, significantly more siblings had died. However, positive malaria in the youngest child was associated with most sibling deaths; rates being always higher among children where it was detected. A reduction in malaria transmission is proposed as a more effective policy than that of increasing general food production. This would reduce death rates and population growth and increase the availability of family resources for each child.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Human rights in nutrition and nutrition in human rights.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1996-03-01
    C A Florencio

    Many countries around the world are involved in nutrition planning and nutrition program implementation. This concern and activity with regard to nutrition, however, has failed to give the issue proper and adequate consideration in development plans and programs of action. The author proposes a two-pronged approach to promote nutrition as a human right. One approach is to include nutrition as a human right in educational and training programs in nutrition. Another approach is to include nutrition as a human right in educational and training programs on human rights. These approaches are described using examples from experiences in the Philippines. Families, universities, and other training institutions have roles to play in making sure that individuals and groups receive the nutrition they need. It should be stressed that nutrition is both a right and an input for development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The food-first bias and nutrition policy: lessons from Ethiopia.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1995-08-01
    D L Pelletier,K Deneke,Y Kidane,B Haile,F Negussie

    This paper presents results of the 1992 National Rural Nutrition Survey in Ethiopia that challenge the appropriateness of the centrality of food security as a dominant element of nutrition policy and planning. While the focus of this work is on protein-energy malnutrition in Ethiopia, the implications extend to other countries, and some of the same principles apply to micronutrient deficiencies. After a description of the design of the Ethiopian national nutrition surveillance system, results are presented for rural Ethiopia in terms of 1) the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight by age; 2) changes in prevalence of stunting and underweight between February 1983 and March 1992; 3) prevalence of stunting and wasting by region; 4) distribution of stunted children by economic group and size of cultivated land; 5) prevalence of stunting and wasting in selected household economic groups by age group; 6) prevalence of stunting and wasting among children 24-59 months of age by size of cultivated area among cereal growers; 7) height-for-age z-scores across regions and cultivated areas; 8) weight-for-age z-scores; and 9) prevalence of stunting and medial age of introducing complementary foods. The most relevant findings of the study are that 1) stunting is far more common than wasting; 2) chronic malnutrition occurs at high rates among infants aged 6-11 months despite a typical rate of low birth rate, and the presence of stunting does not increase markedly after 24 months; 3) high rates of chronic malnutrition are ubiquitous, with some of the highest in food surplus areas; 4) the prevalence of chronic malnutrition has increased since 1983; 5) household food security is not uniformly associated with child nutritional status; and 6) cultivated area and child nutritional status are not significantly associated among children 6-23 months old.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Macroeconomic adjustment, food availability and nutrition status in Nigeria. A look at the 1990s.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1990-12-01
    S O Igbedioh

    Faced with balance of payment problems, declining commodity prices, and a corresponding reduction in foreign exchange earnings, Nigeria implemented a structural adjustment program in 1986. This step was taken in response to encouragement from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and was aimed to accomplish the following: find the true value of the official currency; overcome public sector inefficiency through improved public expenditure and parastatal rationalization; reschedule medium- and long-term debt to relieve debt burden; and encourage net foreign capital inflow while limiting foreign loans. Implementing and adhering to these macroeconomic adjustment policies has brought unprecedented inflation, lower real earnings, and increased malnutrition among lower income sectors of the population. The poor have suffered diminishing access to nutritious foods. Conscribed access to food and compromised nutritional status will most likely persist into the 1990s unless corrective policies are adopted. Appropriate policy would aim to increase the poor's access to food and limit population growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Socioeconomic impacts of school feeding programmes: empirical evidence from a South Indian village.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1989-02-01
    S C Babu,J A Hallam

    Tamil Nadu a poverty-stricken rural community in South India, funds a school feeding program with about 10% of the state budget. Comparisons of nutrition and literacy show that they are significantly related. No studies have yet been performed to analyse the effect of the feeding programs on aspects of a household's economic and social welfare. The feeding program in Tamil Nadu extends throughout the year, 7 days a week. It provides not only a reason for children to attend school, but also employment opportunities for those who wish to cook. 455 households were surveyed from 1 village using. A Gini coefficient of inequality to determine inequality levels of nutrition, food, and consumption expenditure. Sen's index of poverty was used to calculate the reduction in poverty levels. 3 household groups were defined: the agricultural labor, the silk weaver, and the cultivator. Linear program modelling utilized these 3 groups to study the total effect of nutrition on education. Linear regression was then used to determine the effect of the feeding program on participation in school. At the village level, a reduction of inequality in consumption and intake, an increase in energy intake, and a decrease in poverty level were found. In agricultural labor and silk weaver households, most of the money was spent on cereal food grains and children were mostly uneducated. If modelled to assume that children must be educated and are educated in schools providing food, results suggest that the increase in nutrition helps retain the children in the schools. Cultivator household response to the food programs was poor, since they usually have enough money to meet nutritional needs. Household income and school nutrition, but not adult literacy affect school participation. In general, nutrition offered in school caused a subsequent increase in household purchases of non-cereal items in the first 2 household types.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • AIDS and food production in East and Central Africa: a research outline.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1989-02-01
    T Barnett,P Blaikie

    AIDS has penetrated at least 42 countries in Africa. Death of Africans usually occurs within 3 years of diagnosis. Not much is currently known about the demographics of the disease or about its impact on economic and social behavior, farming, and food production. There is currently a food crisis in Africa, so it is appropriate to study how much of an impact this disease has on future food production. In order to study the problem, one must predict the spread of AIDS. 2nd, one must infer how labor loss effects current rural production. Labor loss will cause changes in organization of production, technology, and types of crops grown. As a crisis increases, certain groups will be cut out of the food distribution. Characterizations such as these allow the mapping of areas vulnerable to labor loss. Field analysis and modeling must substantiate the theories and predictions. This paper describes the research design which will be used by 2 researchers from the Overseas Development Group of the University of East Anglia to measure the impact of AIDS on food production, working initially in a high HIV - prevalent area in Uganda.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An improved maize marketing system for African countries: the case of Zimbabwe.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1985-11-01
    B Child,K Muir,M Blackie

    This article proposes a system for Zimbabwe which retains government control of national stocks and enables the parastatal marketing system to stabilize prices, at the same time ensuring a more rational delivery system in rural areas with prices reflecting storage and transport costs. The local population is encouraged to fulfill local needs, thus avoiding the expense of directing all marketing and processing through the urban areas. A more localized system will also have greater multiplier effects. Zimbabwe's maize marketing system is used to show how this system could be modified with benefits to rural consumers, producers and government. Data suggest there is little market exploitation: price differentials between markts reflect transport costs, returns on storage are reasonable, and voluntary procurement operations are usually able to stabilize prices. Zoning, movement restrictions and compulsory procurement have been shown to destabilize food markets; prices between markets are higher in periods of strict control than when marketing is relatively free. Controlled marketing answers a real political and economic need in Zimbabwe. Existing public food marketing agencies are not inherently inefficient. While stabilizing maize supply, there are important advantages in announcing preplanting prices, but any trade in maize only takes place after price setting. It is unlikely that there would be both imports and exports in any 1 year, except when previous contracts are being fulfilled. 2 policy options are available to cover anticipated periods of insufficient national maize production: the maintenance of a strategic reserve; and importation of maize to cover supply shortfalls. Single-channel marketing should be replaced by an internal free market operating between floor and ceiling prices by supply manipulation to prevent excessive producer and consumer welfare fluctuations. This system would be more efficient and have beneficial effects on development. It is more equitable for the rural poor, and result in greater stability of producer incomes, more reliable food supplies, higher producer prices and the release of public funds.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1985-02-01
    T C Elliot,K O Agunda,J G Kigondu,S N Kinoti,M C Latham

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rejoinder: nutrition planning is alive and well, thank you.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1987-11-01
    A Berg

    This article is a rejoinder to an article by John Osgood Field which discussed the failure of multisectoral nutrition planning. The author argues that, although nutrition planners may have been overly optimistic in their hopes that political political systems could be made responsive to the problems, significant advances have been achieved. Many of the successes of nutrition planning and theimportance of multisectoral work are outlined. Malnutrition is a problem that escapes all the standard programs, and cannot be tackled through the health and agriculture sectors alone. There has been much critical thinking by many concerned people various countries. To suggest that nutrition planners moved blindly is to ignore much of the literature. A number of cautions--some of them very early--make it clear that practitioners were not oblivious to the bureaucratic constraints and political realities Professor Field now identifies. It would be cruelly wrong to suggest that no progress has been made. Nutrition planning may have borne fruit of a different sort than some of its early advocates envisioned, but there is no question that it bore fruit. The issue is whether nutrition planning has influenced the way people think about nutrition and the way they analyze problems. And about this there can be no doubt.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Survey on attitudes to nutrition planning.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1984-05-01
    C Schuftan,W Bertrand

    The results of a worldwide survey of nutrition planning professionals' attitudes towards nutrition policy are presented. The objective of the survey was to determine what those involved in nutrition planning perceive to be the causes of hunger and malnutrition, and their views on the effectiveness of the programs implemented to overcome these problems. In mid-1979, a questionnaire was compiled comprising 48 questions related to attitudes towards nutrition policy, voluntary questions about social class, political classification and professional behavior and a question on perceived major impediments to solving malnutrition in the world. The questionnaire was sent to 728 professionals 87 countries; 250 replies from 55 countries; 250 replies from 55 countries were received. 44% of respondents resided in the US, 16% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 14% in the Far East, 12% in Africa and the Middle East and 13% in Europe, Canada and Australasia. Self-classification of political beliefs is the most clear cut correlate in predicting attitudes towards food and nutrition policy. There appear to be 2 clear schools of scientific/political behavior in the sample: one holds a more moderate, but generally liberal, set of views regarding the failure of modern technology in resolving world hunger and nutrition problems; a 2nd more liberal group believes political causes to be at the root of hunger. There is no single profession that can be typified as a breeding ground for nutrition planners. While the European trained and/or native group tends to be more to the left in their attitudes than their counterparts in the US, both groups are decidedly liberal and believe that social structural changes are needed to solve the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the world.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Women and food aid: a developmental perspective.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-08-01
    J Katona-apte

    The unique aspect of food aid projects is that food, rather than money, is used for achieving developmental objectives. As food is usually controlled by women, they benefit most from considering it to be of economic value. Poor women seem to be short of resources--time and money--which can be supplemented by food aid. Through its income-transfer effect, food aid can enable women to work fewer hours/day and thus have more discretionary time. It can also provide, directly or indirectly, the cash necessary for women to use skills they already possess to set themselves up in small businesses. Food aid projects achieve their developmental objectives through: the nutritional content of the distributed commodity; the income transfer effect; cooperatives or associations; specific activities associated with the project; community improvement aspects resulting from the project; and provision of budgetary support to release resources for additional developmental activities. There are a number of ways through which food aid exerts its effect on women from a developmental perspective. Consumption of the food aid commodity provides women with an improved diet. Food aid as an income transfer can enable women to have more discretionary time. Providing women with opportunities for income-generating activities is an important aspect of development. Women's cooperatives or associations funded by food aid commodities can provide women with income. Current food aid projects, if properly planned, can be beneficial to women without the incorporation of specific activities or skills training. One way that food aid helps women gain more time is by freeing them from wage employment. Another way is to use the income transfer for the purchasing of consumer goods that reduce their labor.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • After the famine: food aid policy and management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-08-01
    T W Stephens

    The large amount of food aid that was required to meet Africa's emergency food situation resulted in the postponement of some fundamental decisions that were being taken about food aid use in sub-Saharan Africa. Now the donor community and recipient governments are again giving priority to integrating food aid with other available resources in order to meet longer-term food policy and wider development objectives. This paper looks at some of the policy and management issues which need to be addressed if the effectiveness of food aid assistance is to be improved in the current African context. Shortages of locally qualified personnel to administer project food aid have proven to be a major bottleneck in most sub-Saharan countries. Most sub-Saharan states receive food aid from a variety of sources: multilateral, bilateral and a few private-voluntary organizations. As a result, countervailing priorities are set by the donors themselves and give rise to conflicts. The recent drought and famine conditions have compounded an image problem in which food aid is narrowly identified by recipient governments as a project resource to be used primarily for nutrition interventions and for the rural sector. The image problem often limits project selection and overlooks innovative uses of food aid. Many sub-Saharan countries are starting to acquire considerable amounts of counterpart funds from program food aid. However, their use is not coherently integrated with the total aid flow. Multi-year programming has emerged as a management issue which has unnecessarily divided the food aid donor community. The fundamental issue is flexibility in programming, not multi-year programming. The major policy objective now facing the food aid donor community and recipient countries is how to lower emergency allocations while simultaneously increasing project and program aid. Most nonfood-aid donor agencies and their constituent bodies do not treat food aid as a valid economic resource, thereby undermining its effectiveness. The eventual success of food aid use in Africa may be a function of the recipient governments and other major donor and financial organizations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Food and environmental policies in Africa.
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 1986-08-01
    M R Biswas,A K Biswas

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
上海纽约大学William Glover
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug