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  • Ohmic heating assisted inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms in foods: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    H.A. Makroo; N.K. Rastogi; B. Srivastava

    Background Ohmic heating (OH) is a novel method of heating various food materials efficiently, instantly and volumetrically. The quick and volumetric heating during OH results in efficient enzyme and microbial inactivation. Thus, OH can be used as an efficient alternative to the conventional thermal processing method. Scope and approach OH has been applied to various food materials, which include fruits and vegetable products, milk, meat, seafood etc. Inactivation of quality degrading enzymes and spoilage causing microbes to a desired safe level is the prime objective of thermal processing of food, which can be easily achieved by OH process. In addition to the thermal effects, OH also has some non-thermal effects on microbial and enzyme activities due to the presence of electric current during heating. However, these non-thermal effects of OH are possible only in enzymes containing prosthetic metallic groups such as, Cu in PPO, Fe in lipoxygenase, Zn and Mg in alkaline phosphatase. Key findings and conclusions Various models such as First order, Bi-phasic and Lumry–Eyring mechanism have been reported in literature for the enzyme inactivation by OH. Enzyme inactivation has been found to increase with increasing electric field strength (V/cm) during the OH process. The spoilage causing microorganisms can also be inactivated efficiently by OH as compared to conventional heating. Higher voltage gradients enhance the non-thermal effects of OH on microbial reduction by resulting in the higher electroporation. The frequency of the electric current also plays an important role in microbial reduction. Various components present in food such as fat, sugar and acid content affect the electrochemical properties of food material, thus affect the performance of OH in reducing the microbial load.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • 更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Is a higher ingestion of phenolic compounds the best dietary strategy? A scientific opinion on the deleterious effects of polyphenols in vivo
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Daniel Granato; Andrei Mocan; José S. Câmara

    Background Phenolic compounds have been studied for a variety number of bioactivities using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo protocols. Most of the studies dealing with phenolic compounds deal with in vitro antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antihemolytic effects in human erythrocytes, hypolipidemic, and antiproliferative activities. Scope and approach Companies have used the overall understanding of the beneficial effects of polyphenols to develop “functional” ingredients and foods. However, the main question that arises is still the target of warm discussions: Is the higher ingestion of phenolic compounds the best dietary strategy? Our commentary focuses on this question and we list some examples in which phenolic compounds show deleterious effects in vivo. Key findings and conclusions Two main conclusions arise: (i) any presumption of “functional effects” based on test-tube studies should be avoided as these results do not represent the real biological effect in humans; (ii) at high concentrations and in specific populations, polyphenols may have several potential adverse health effects presumably associated to their pro-oxidative capacity. All in one, the dietary supplementation containing high doses of polyphenols should be well justified in each case until a consensus is reached supported on medical, nutritional and toxicological data.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Considerations for progressing a mainstream position for sorghum, a potentially sustainable cereal crop, for food product innovation pipelines
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Anita Stefoska-Needham; Linda Tapsell

    Background Sorghum grain is a sustainable cereal crop. There is growing interest in sorghum as a food ingredient, particularly in Western societies that do not traditionally consume it. There is emerging food and nutrition science supporting this, but to achieve consumer acceptance requires a commitment to food innovation and the promotion of sorghum as a human food. Scope and approach This commentary highlights key considerations for progressing sorghum in Western food product innovation pipelines. It discusses evidence for health effects of sorghum consumption, market trends and commercialisation issues, food regulation matters and the significance of stakeholder collaborations. Conclusions are drawn by integrating current knowledge from scientific literature, market reports and consumer trends analyses, along with guidance on food regulation, and pragmatic, experiential knowledge of past research collaborations between academia and food industry. Key findings and conclusions Commercial investment in sorghum food product development is warranted, with value adding opportunities seen in sorghum's gluten-free attribute, its valuable nutrients, slowly digestible starches, dietary fibre, and antioxidant compounds. To create successful sorghum-based products requires the integration of knowledge and expertise across a wide spectrum, from grain breeders and producers, to food scientists and technologists, nutrition scientists, and the whole food manufacturing team working with consumers and food regulators. A concerted research effort, with collaborations between stakeholders and academic researchers, along a defined value chain, and with an eye to food policy and regulations, is critical. With this collective approach, the outlook for sorghum as a human food in Western societies is positive.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Succinylation of milk proteins: Influence on micronutrient binding and functional indices
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Aanchal Agarwal; Ashok K. Pathera; Ravinder Kaushik; Naveen Kumar; Sanju B. Dhull; Sumit Arora; Prince Chawla

    The functionality of milk proteins is an important feature used in food industries. Milk proteins are effectively capable of binding divalent metal ions electrostatically. As well, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains present in milk proteins make them excellent modules for the site-specific delivery of various bioactive analytes. Apart from vital functional properties, solubility and stability of milk proteins is always a matter of concern. To achieve the potential functional properties and micronutrient binding ability succinylation of proteins gained candidature of interest. Succinylation of milk proteins improves cellular mineral absorption during simulated gastrointestinal and transwell assay, respectively. Succinylation of various types of milk protein concentrates results in improved functional properties and micronutrient binding abilities. In the present review, functional properties, mineral and vitamin binding properties of milk proteins and their fractions are represented in detail along with the influence of the succinylation upon the respective properties of milk proteins and their fractions.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Volatile compounds, affecting factors and evaluation methods for rice aroma: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Xianqiao Hu; Lin Lu; Zhenling Guo; Zhiwei Zhu

    Background Rice aroma was a comprehensive result of numerous volatiles and human sense. More than 300 volatiles were reported in rice. Rice aroma was widely researched by using sensory evaluation, gas chromatography (GC) method, and electronic nose (E-nose). Genetic factor was the main cause for rice aroma. However, the same rice variety might result in different aroma quality due to different planting, processing and storage. Scope and aproach The main purpose of this review is to elaborate the main volatiles contributing rice aroma, methods used for rice aroma evaluation and factors affecting rice aroma. Most volatiles with odor descriptions, odor thresholds and retention indices were summarized. Sensory evaluation, GC method, and E-nose were elaborated with respect to rice aroma analysis. The effects of gene, planting, processing and storage on rice sample were pointed out. Key findings and conclusions 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), aldehydes, heterocyclics, alcohols play important roles in rice aroma quality. GC-O-MS which combines the advantages of sensory descriptive analysis and GC-MS, can not only realize detailed sensory analysis of odor quality but also realize quantitative and qualitative detection of volatiles, playing an important role in exploring key aroma-active compounds. Besides of traditional electronic sensors, mass spectrometry and colorimetric sensors were used for E-nose, making it more novel and applicable. Water washing, high hydrostatic pressure, roasting and parboiling were thought as effective processing to improve rice flavor. Degree of milling and storage significantly affected rice flavor.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Camellia oil authentication: A comparative analysis and recent analytical techniques developed for its assessment. A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Ting Shi; Gangcheng Wu; Qingzhe Jin; Xingguo Wang

    Background Camellia oil is obtained from the camellia seed with various cultivated species (Camellia. oleifera (C. oleifera), C. meiocarpa, C. vietnamensis, C. yuhsienensis, C. chekiangoleosa, C. semiserrata, C. reticulata, C. gigantocarpa, C. octopetala, C. semiserrata var. abliflora etc.), by widely used cold press extraction. As the earliest specie with high oil yield (40–60%) in China, C. oleifera, has become the most commonly available seed for camellia oil manufacturing. Because of its high nutritional and economic value, camellia oil is frequently adulterated with other cheap oils. Additionally, its quality is also susceptible to different species or regions, and various extraction technologies. These factors result in the incorrect labeling of camellia oil, and destabilize the local camellia oil market economies. Therefore, a rapid and accurate method should be prerequisite to authenticate camellia oil. Scope and approach The officially recommended methods are tedious, and destructive to detect camellia oil adulteration. Therefore, various rapid, precise, and non-destructive techniques should be developed for camellia oil authentication. This present review provides a critical overview of these existing analytical methods in the past few years. Key findings and conclusion The mass-chromatographic, spectroscopy techniques, and other techniques including electronic noses (e-noses), isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and DNA, have been used for camellia oil authentication. Compared with the traditional chromatographic methods, infrared spectroscopy (IR), Fourier transformed (FT)-Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, respectively, are efficient alternative analytical techniques for camellia oil quality control.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Application of nanofluids for thermal processing of food products
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Saeed Salari; Seid Mahdi Jafari

    Background The conventional heat transfer fluids are widely considered to be one of the leading causes of the poor performance of heat transfer equipment, increasing the energy costs. For this issue to be fixed, nanofluids have been introduced as potential alternatives to the conventional fluids due to their capability to enhance the overall heat transfer coefficient. Besides, in the food industry, nanofluids can improve the food products qualitatively by reducing the processing time. Scope and approach In the current review, nanofluid properties, their benefits and downfalls, and their preparation have been briefly described. Also, their application in different heat exchangers, along with their applicability in the food industry for the optimization of thermal processing unit operations, have been studied for the first time. Key findings and conclusions Nanofluids have a higher thermal conductivity and viscosity in comparison to the base fluids. Higher viscosity deteriorates the process efficiency by increasing the pressure drop and pumping power. In order to minimize the effect of viscosity, an optimum concentration for each nanofluid should be obtained. Regarding the food industry, a significant reduction in processing time and better retention of food quality and bioactive compounds have been reported by using nanofluids in thermal processing operations such as pasteurization.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Effects of novel physical processing techniques on the multi-structures of starch
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Zhong Han; Rui Shi; Da-Wen Sun

    Background Native starches have been modified by employing various methods for desired industrial applications over the last few decades. There have been intense interests to develop novel methods with advantages of high-efficiency, environment-friendly and easy operation for starch modification. Although there is more attention to the functional properties of modified starch for practical applications in the industry, structural changes are the basis of functional changes, hence understanding the structural alteration induced by processing techniques is a fundamental issue towards better utilization of starch and starch modification techniques. Scope and approach The current review mainly presents the effects of several efficient physical processing techniques on the changes in the starch multi-scale structure including molecular structure, crystallinity, lamellae structure, and morphology characteristic. Among these techniques, the influences of high hydrostatic pressure, cold plasma, and microwave treatments are emphasized, and research gaps to better develop these techniques for starch modifications are suggested. Key findings and conclusions Physical processing techniques by means of pressure, heat, radiation or free radicals can affect amylose, amylopectin, and degree of their interactions in the crystalline and amorphous region, as well as the packing mode of the crystal structure, thereby resulting in various functional properties and extensive applications in starch industries. However, the exact mechanisms behind these modification techniques are inconclusive because there are many affecting factors mainly including processing parameters, starch origin, and environment. Exploring new research methods or improving modified equipment to reduce the influence of these interference factors should be a good inspiration to study physical modification.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Chitosan based nanocomposite films and coatings: Emerging antimicrobial food packaging alternatives
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Santosh Kumar; Avik Mukherjee; Joydeep Dutta

    Background Demand for healthy and safe food with minimal use of synthetic inputs (including synthetic preservatives) is increasing rapidly. Plastic polymers being hazardous to the environment, significant efforts have been devoted to evaluate various bio-based polymers as alternatives to synthetic plastic packaging. Chitin and its deacetylated derivative, chitosan, is primarily a by-product of crustacean, fish and seafood processing and handling. Chitosan possesses antimicrobial activities and film forming property, making them attractive biopolymers for food packaging and food preservation applications applied through spraying, dipping, coating, or wrapping by films. Scope and approach This comprehensive review of contemporary research focuses on applications of chitosan and chitosan based nanocomposites in the area of food packaging and preservation. It includes different properties and functionalities of chitosan, various blends and nanocomposites of chitosan, their fabrication techniques, and applications in shelf life extension of fruits, vegetables, meat and fish products. Key findings and conclusions Chitosan is an attractive alternative to synthetic plastics polymers due to its biodegradability, antimicrobial activity, and film forming properties. Incorporation of nanomaterials into chitosan based food-packaging systems can prevent the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, improve food quality and safety, and extend shelf-life of food. It has been reported that applications of chitosan-based films or coatings or treatments have resulted in shelf life extension of fresh produce, meat products, bread, and dairy products such as cheese which has been highlighted.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Possible beneficial effects of xyloglucan from its degradation by gut microbiota
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Hong Chen; Xiujuan Jiang; Shanshan Li; Wen Qin; Zhiqing Huang; Yuheng Luo; Hua Li; Dingtao Wu; Qing Zhang; Ye Zhao; Bing Yu; Cheng Li; Daiwen Chen

    Background Xyloglucan (XyG) is a ubiquitous polysaccharide that possesses hypoglycemic effects, antihyperlipidemia effects, gut barrier protective properties, and positive effects on coronary heart disease. As a nonstarch polysaccharide, XyG cannot be processed directly by enzymes encoded on the human genome. After being ingested, XyG transits the large intestine where it becomes food for the intestinal microbial community. The species within the intestinal microbiota use various strategies to recognize and degrade XyG. However, most current studies focus on the industrial application of XyG. We must examine the beneficial effects of XyG on human health and the roles that the gut microbiota play in XyG degradation. Scope and approach The current review summarizes the relationship between XyG and intestinal microbiota, including the degradation process of XyG by gut Bacteroidetes and the influence of XyG on the intestinal microbiota. In addition, the possible effects of XyG or its microbial degradation products on human health are presented. Key findings and conclusions XyG breakdown in the large intestine is mediated by several proteins encoded on XyG utilization loci. Surface glycan-binding proteins and glycan-degrading enzymes encoded on XyG utilization loci are the main components that utilize XyGs in the large intestine. Secondary metabolites and fermentation end products that are generated in XyG degradation by gut microbiota can improve human health. The beneficial effects of XyG on human health may be realized through its microbial degradation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Diacylglycerol in food industry: Synthesis methods, functionalities, health benefits, potential risks and drawbacks
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Wan Jun Lee; Zhen Zhang; Oi Ming Lai; Chin Ping Tan; Yong Wang

    Background Diacylglycerol (DAG) has been a research topic that is of great interest due to its multiple functionalities which enables its extensive use in various lipid systems besides of the sought-after health benefits. However, there are several drawbacks and safety risks which DAG demonstrated that limits its wide applications. This article aims to provide a review both on the desirable traits and the drawbacks of DAG. Scope and approach This review encompassed several main sections including: (i) major pathways for the production of DAG followed by the techniques used to enhance the purity of DAG, (ii) health benefits, (iii) previous and recent DAG applications in the food industry, and (iv) the potential hazards or risks regarding the applications and consumption of DAG. Key Findings and Conclusion: The use of enzymes which are regioselective and reusable, aids in increasing the DAG yield and purity besides of reducing production cost. DAG has been applied as an emulsifier, crystallization modifier and functional ingredient in various fat-based products which not only exhibited great functionalities but also with great health beneficial properties. Nonetheless, DAG exhibited inferior performance as cooking due to the low oxidative and thermal stability. The exposure to high temperature also potentially cause the formation of glycidyl fatty esters and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters. Future research can be performed to address the subjects on the low stability of DAG through synthesizing medium chain or medium-long chain DAG, incorporation of anti-oxidants or by microencapsulation technologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Determining common contributory factors in food safety incidents – A review of global outbreaks and recalls 2008–2018
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jan Mei Soon; Anna K.M. Brazier; Carol A. Wallace

    Background Global food safety incidents are frequently reported and are on the rise. Although the increase in number of food safety incidents is impacted by improved surveillance and reporting systems and increased awareness from consumers, nevertheless the increase in food safety issues is a threat to public health and the economic costs of countries and businesses. Hence, identifying the root causes of contamination or recall is critically needed to understand the source of contamination in foodborne outbreaks and product recalls, thus helping food businesses to develop risk mitigating strategies. Scope and approach This study aims to identify common contributory factors in food manufacturing incidents leading to potential food safety incidents (e.g. product withdrawals and recalls, food poisoning incidents and legal offences), and to near misses. This study reviews published food safety incidents and recalls collated from official websites (e.g. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, Food Standards Australia New Zealand) and journal databases (e.g. Science Direct, PubMed). Ishikawa cause and effect analysis was used along with published information to identify possible root causes. Key findings The total specific food safety incidents and/or recalls with known or suspected causes found over the period 2008–2018 is 2932. Where possible, the contributory and root causes of incidents were identified, or literature evidence was used to determine the suspected cause. Undeclared allergens and cross contamination were identified as the top two recorded causes of food safety incidents/recalls. This review has further proposed the primary and secondary causes for undeclared allergens and cross contamination. Conclusions This study offers key insights into global food safety incidents according to food and drink categories, hazards and common contributory factors. Food manufacturers could use the identified primary and secondary causes as guidance for continuous improvement programmes to prevent food safety incidents.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Bio-active compounds and functional properties of pistachio hull: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Edris Arjeh; Hamid-Reza Akhavan; Mohsen Barzegar; Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina

    Background Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull is the major part of pistachio by-product that has a high content of bio-active compounds (such as polyphenols, tocopherols, dietary fibers, essential oils, and unsaturated fatty acid) with antioxidant properties and health-promoting effects. However, it is considered as a waste and can lead to environmental problems. Scope and approach This review presents the chemical composition, traditional and modern extraction methods and the reported functional effects of pistachio green hull, aiming to find potential uses for this valuable natural resource. Key findings and conclusions: Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated how pistachio extract acts as antioxidant, cytoprotective, and photoprotective and shows antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-melanogenic, and anti-mutagenicity activities. Several studies evaluated the use of pistachio hull as a source of healthy and technological compounds that could be used in food and pharmaceutical industries to improve their products stability and nutritional characteristics. Further studies are needed to develop the application of this natural by-product.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Biospeckle laser technique – A novel non-destructive approach for food quality and safety detection
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    R. Pandiselvam; V.P. Mayookha; Anjineyulu Kothakota; S.V. Ramesh; Rohit Thirumdas; Praneeth Juvvi

    Background Biospeckle laser technique is an emerging non-destructive, quality detection tool used for the evaluation of biological samples. It is rapid, easy to operate and economical, and assures the quality and safety of the fresh produces. Scope and approach The biological activity of the materials is altered due to the contamination, damages, maturation, etc. Hence, these factors can be non-destructively analyzed by the biospeckle method combined with the numerical processing techniques. Several qualitative and quantitative methods namely, Fujii, Absolute Value Difference, Inertia Moment, Generalized Difference, etc have been developed for effective biospeckle analysis. Major applications of this tool include identification of bruises, maturation and ripening changes in fruits and vegetables, meat quality detection, seed viability analysis, and detection of fungal colony infection. Key findings and conclusions Even though the technology has got a wide range of applications, there are some limitations and challenges that hinder its large scale adoption. The impediments such as external noise and interferences have to be addressed to obtain accurate results. There is a need for the development of standardized procedures for conducting the analysis. This review mainly discusses the various applications of biospeckle laser technique as a non-destructive tool in quality and safety analysis, the methods adopted for the evaluation process, the relation between biochemical changes and biospeckle and the various challenges thereof.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Finite element modelling for fruit stress analysis - A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Nurazwin Zulkifli; Norhashila Hashim; Hazreen Haizi Harith; Mohamad Firdza Mohamad Shukery

    Background A deep understanding of the motion and the intensities of forces endured by the fruits overtime during the various handling processes is necessary if improvements are to be made in the handling systems or related tools. The finite element method (FEM) has been used to investigate the effect of mechanical loading on fruit before developing a prototype of the intended design. Simulation tests were performed to visualise the time-dependent deformation behaviour. Various studies have been reported on the use of FE for studying the effect of compression and drop forces on fruits. However, to the best of the knowledge of the authors, the application of finite-element analysis in fruit mechanics has not been summarized yet. Scope and approach This review is concerned with establishing the introductory concept of FEM for evaluating fruit response under the static and dynamic loading. The FE equations were formulated based on the stress-strain constitutive equations. Key findings and conclusions The review summarises the application of FEM for fruit stress-strain analysis. A brief description of the fundamentals and the existing models that have been developed to cope with problems of fruit mechanics are reported. This paper provides a review of the main FEM studies and a comparison between different types of stress analysis as well as outlining the potential use of FEM for future reference. This review can become an appropriate, timely and beneficial reference for any relevant follow-up research for the assessment of the quality of agricultural produces.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Applications of imaging and spectroscopy techniques for non-destructive quality evaluation of potatoes and sweet potatoes: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Philip Donald C. Sanchez; Norhashila Hashim; Rosnah Shamsudin; Mohd Zuhair Mohd Nor

    Potato and sweet potato are two among the most important commodities worldwide due to their significant role in human diet and food security. As highly demanded crops, rapid quality monitoring methods prior to marketing, processing, and other post-harvest activities are the major concerns of consumers and food processors. The non-destructive techniques in terms of imaging and spectroscopy have become effective analytical tools in evaluating the quality of various horticultural and food products including potatoes and sweet potatoes. Hence, this paper reports the current knowledge on the recent applications of imaging and spectroscopy for inspecting the quality and safety of raw potato and sweet potato tubers. In this comprehensive review, the conventional quality evaluation (internal and external) are discussed, followed by description of imaging and spectroscopy as non-destructive techniques and, the summary of the recent successful implementations of these tools in relation to quality evaluation. The basic and fundamental components of the technique, measurement methods and data analysis applied, advantages, and challenges are also critically reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Bitterness in alcoholic beverages: The profiles of perception, constituents, and contributors
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Yi Luo; Linghua Kong; Ruiqi Xue; Wu Wang; Xiaole Xia
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Recent advance in edible coating and its effect on fresh/fresh-cut fruits quality
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Bernard Maringgal; Norhashila Hashim; Intan Syafinaz Mohamed Amin Tawakkal; Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed

    Background Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the capability of edible coatings for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf life of fresh/fresh-cut fruits. Evidence has shown that an edible coating could function as a barrier on the fruit surface, modify the internal gas atmosphere, decrease water losses and delay fruit ripening. Efforts have been exerted to introduce new natural coating materials to sustain the safety and quality of fresh/fresh-cut fruits. Scope and approach This review attempts to provide a summary of the recent studies on the application of edible coatings on different fresh/fresh-cut fruit categories, namely pome fruits (apple and pear), citrus, stone fruits, tropical and exotic fruits, berries, melon, and tomatoes. A fundamental theory behind the edible coating treatment and the effect on the physiological, physicochemical, sensory, and antimicrobial properties of fresh/fresh-cut fruits is discussed. The future perspective of this preservation method is also highlighted. Key findings and conclusions Edible coating can be used as an alternative strategy to prolong the shelf life of fresh/fresh-cut fruits. The materials selection for edible coating play a key role in determining its effectiveness and consumers acceptability. The ability of the selected materials in extending the shelf life of fresh/fresh-cut fruits without reducing the sensory and nutritional characteristics are the main challenges in the edible coating techniques, which demands attention for further research.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Recent advances on toxicity and determination methods of mycotoxins in foodstuffs
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Yan Yang; Guoliang Li; Di Wu; Jianghua Liu; Xiuting Li; Pengjie Luo; Na Hu; Honglun Wang; Yongning Wu

    Background Mycotoxins exposure from foodstuffs can trigger serious health hazards (e.g. cancers, deformity and mutation), which has been a global public health concern. In recent years, large-scale poisoning incidents and international trade disputes caused by fungal contamination are extremely common. Unremitting efforts have been devoted to the investigations on classification, toxicity and occurrence of mycotoxins. Monitoring mycotoxins is highly important to ensure human health. Pretreatment technologies offer a pre-analytical separation process for reducing the instruments contamination, signal interference and matrix effects of complex foodstuffs. Scope and approach In this review, the classification, toxicity and occurrence of mycotoxins were concisely summarized. We then concentrated our attentions on the methods of extraction, clean-up, separation and determination of mycotoxins. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology has brought many opportunities for sample pretreatment. We have also summarized the available and advanced adsorbents based on the emerging nanomaterials for pretreatment of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. At the end of the article, future opportunities and challenges in the field of mycotoxins research are tentatively proposed. Key Findings and Conclusions: This review comprehensively summarized the latest achievements and improvements in the classification, toxicity, occurrence and detection approaches of mycotoxins. Impressively, the sample pretreatment and detection methods applied for mycotoxins determination in foodstuffs have been summarized, regarding the novel nanomaterial-based pretreatment technologies as well as the development of chromatographic and sensing technologies in the last six years. Furthermore, the current trends and the future perspectives in the toxicity and detection method of mycotoxins are tentatively proposed.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal in food products: A review of the toxicity, occurrence, mitigation strategies and analysis methods
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Hongxia Liao; Mengting Zhu; Yi Chen

    Background Lipid peroxidation yields a large number of aldehydes and carbonyl-containing compounds, of which the reactive and toxic compound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) derived from ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-6 PUFAs) is the most extensively studied. The high reactivity of 4-HNE enables this compound to crosslink with various biomolecules and thus contribute to the pathological processes of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative disorders. Scope and approach From the perspective of food safety, the emergence of lipid peroxidation contaminants in foodstuffs remains a major concern of consumers, health departments, and industries. This review highlights the latest developments regarding the formation pathways, toxicity, analysis methods, occurrence in foodstuff, and mitigation strategies for 4-HNE. Future prospects on measuring and controlling 4-HNE in food are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions: The determination of 4-HNE levels in different types of foods indicates that PUFAs-rich vegetable oil and oil-based food are major intake sources of 4-HNE. Considering the toxicity of 4-HNE, sensitive detection techniques combined with feasible control methods should be an effective solution for food quality maintenance and safety assurance. However, current detection methods and 4-HNE control strategies possess inherent advantages and limitations. Therefore, effective 4-HNE detection and new controlling technologies that are practically viable at the industrial level need to be developed.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Microbial phospholipase D: Identification, modification and application
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Zhenxia Zhang; Ming Chen; Wei Xu; Wenli Zhang; Tao Zhang; Cuie Guang; Wanmeng Mu
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Safety considerations on food protein-derived bioactive peptides
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Ling Liu; Shanshan Li; Jiexia Zheng; Tingting Bu; Guoqing He; Jianping Wu

    Background Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins are continuing gain the momentum as an important constituent of functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals. Although there is a burgeoning body of literature about preparation, characterization and activity study of food-derived bioactive peptides and several bioactive peptides have been commercialized, there is lack of systemic review on the safety of food protein derived bioactive peptides. Scope and approach This article reviews the possible formation of allergenic and toxic peptides from their parent proteins, as well as hazardous compounds during protein extraction, protein pretreatment, and bioactive peptides preparation. The impacts of administration dosage (including frequency) and length of bioactive peptides on safety are discussed. Finally, the challenges in researching the safety of bioactive peptides are also presented. Key findings and conclusions Potential toxic and allergenic peptides, often showing biological activities, may be released during hydrolysis of food proteins. Amino acid racemization, peptide modification/derivation including the formation of iso-peptide bonds, and Maillard reaction may occur during protein extraction, sample pretreatment, and peptide preparation. The safety of bioactive peptides can also be affected by administration dosage (including frequency) and length of use. It is expected that this review can facilitate the development of effective strategies to address the safety concerns of food protein-derived bioactive peptides.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Banana inflorescence: Its bio-prospects as an ingredient for functional foods
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Beng Fye Lau; Kin Weng Kong; Kok Hoong Leong; Jian Sun; Xuemei He; Zhenxing Wang; Mohd Rais Mustafa; Tau Chuan Ling; Amin Ismail
    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • It is important to differentiate sensory property from the material property
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Jianshe Chen

    A sensory property is human's perception or sensory response to a material stimulus (or stimuli). Despite of the intrinsic relationship between a sensory property and its corresponding material property, the two properties are fundamentally different. However, in sensory practice, the two different properties are very often mixed up and instrumental measured material property is often mistaken as sensory property. Correct differentiation of the two properties is critically important for fundamental understanding of human sensory and in particular for practical sensory analysis. While it is perfectly feasible using an instrument to measure material property, it is much more complicated when using an instrument for sensory perception prediction.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Current in vitro digestion systems for understanding food digestion in human upper gastrointestinal tract
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Cheng Li; Wenwen Yu; Peng Wu; Xiao Dong Chen

    Background Food digestion rate and location within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are important for human health. Ideally, food digestion studies should be performed in vivo but this is not always technically, ethically and financially possible. Thus, various in vitro digestion systems have been developed, from static mono-compartmental to dynamic multi-compartmental models, to simulate food digestive behaviors within the GI tract. Scope and approach In this review, food digestion process along the GI tract is briefly described. The current in vitro digestion systems with regards to the human GI physiology, and their advantages versus limitations in the understanding of various food digestion processes in the upper GI tract are critically discussed. There is an emphasis on the “near real” dynamic rat (DRSD) and human (DHSI) gastric-intestinal systems, which not only mimic the peristaltic movements and biochemical conditions found in vivo, but also incorporate the gastric morphology and anatomical structures. Key findings and conclusions Although some in vitro digestion systems reported in literature can be statistically correlated with certain perspectives of food digestion processes in vivo, many physiological, anatomical and geometrical factors that play important roles in determining the digestion rate and extent have been overlooked. The DRSD and DHSI are advantageous in terms of being able to resemble the gastric morphology and anatomy in the rats and humans, respectively. It is of importance that the upper GI anatomy and morphology along with the related biochemical environments and peristaltic movements occurring in vivo should be considered in the development of more advanced and biologically relevant in vitro digestion systems.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Advances in umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Li-bin Sun; Zhi-yong Zhang; Guang Xin; Bing-xin Sun; Xiu-jing Bao; Yun-yun Wei; Xue-mei Zhao; He-ran Xu

    Background Edible mushrooms have been used as food and medicine materials for thousands of years, and the yield of cultivatable edible mushrooms has increased in recent years. The increased consumption of edible mushrooms is not only due to their nutritional value, but also to their unique taste and specific flavor. As consumer awareness of food sensory qualities increases, umami taste and aroma have become important factors affecting consumer choices. There are many factors affecting umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms, such as cultivation conditions, species, maturity, grading, parts of mushrooms, and processing and storage methods. However, the mechanisms underlying the variations in umami taste and aroma components of different mushrooms are still unclear. Scope and approach In this review, traditional umami components, novel umami peptides, and aroma compounds are discussed, as well as the perception of umami taste and aroma. Based on a combination of human sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis, changes in the composition of these components in edible mushrooms are summarized, and the metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions involved in these changes are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions The umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms were closely related to nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and the Maillard reaction. Umami peptides and the synergy between these compounds contribute to overall umami taste. There are differences in umami taste and aroma between cultivated and wild mushrooms. The selection of processing and storage techniques is, therefore, based on the established demand for umami taste and aroma of edible mushrooms.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Cereal-derived arabinoxylans: Structural features and structure–activity correlations
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Jing Wang; Junying Bai; Mingcong Fan; Tingting Li; Yan Li; Haifeng Qian; Li Wang; Hui Zhang; Xiguang Qi; Zhiming Rao

    Background Arabinoxylans (AXs) are important constituents of hemicelluloses in the endosperm and outer layers of cereal grains, including corn, wheat, rye, barley, oat and rice. The enzymatic hydrolysis of AXs yields arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides. Recently, structure–activity correlations between AX fine structural features and antioxidative activities, prebiotic potentials and immunomodulatory properties have been introduced. Scope and approach This review summarizes recent findings on the structural features of AXs from various cereal origins subjected to different extraction methods. The correlations between fine structural features (molecular mass, bound ferulic acid and arabinosyl substitutional positions) and the AXs’ biological activities (antioxidative activities, prebiotic potentials and immunomodulatory properties) are introduced. The prospects for future research on these topics are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions AXs exhibit very different characteristics, which are dependent on the cereal's origin and the extraction method. The three biological activities of AXs and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides were closely correlated with their fine structural features. The bound ferulic acid mainly contributes to the antioxidant capacities of AXs. Arabinosyl substitutional position in the xylan backbone can target to alter the microbial population in the gut. The low molecular mass and arabinose substitution at the O-3 position mainly contribute to immunological properties.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Complicated interactions between bio-adsorbents and mycotoxins during mycotoxin adsorption: Current research and future prospects
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ying Luo; Xiaojiao Liu; Li Yuan; Jianke Li

    Background Mycotoxins have received much attention due to their potential harmful impact on humans. Increasing awareness of environmental protection and food safety prompts the use of eco-friendly and biosafe strategies for mycotoxin elimination in food production. Scope and approach Mycotoxin adsorption by microorganisms has become increasingly promising due to its environmental friendliness and efficiency. This review is mainly focused on discussing different kinds of microorganisms able to adsorb mycotoxins, exploring the main mechanisms of yeast and lactic acid bacterial bioadsorption actions involving cell wall physical structure, chemical components, and their complicated interactions with mycotoxins. Moreover, industrial applications and future research needs are also proposed. Key findings and conclusions Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria have the great advantages of their adsorption capability and being food security friendly, and their complicated interactions with mycotoxins indicate that cell wall structural integrity, physical structure and morphology, and chemical components all play important roles in the adsorption process. On this basis, future approaches may rely on combinations of different microorganism to provide complementary advantages in mycotoxin degradation and adsorption.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • The influence of dietary patterns on gut microbiome and its consequences for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Qing-Song Zhang; Feng-Wei Tian; Jian-Xin Zhao; Hao Zhang; Qi-Xiao Zhai; Wei Chen

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease and has great effects on quality of human life. Diets are one of the most important factors in the development of NAFLD, and in shaping gut microbiome. The role of the gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD has been increasingly studied in recent years. Therefore, the relationship among diet, the gut microbiome, and NAFLD requires discussion and clarification. Scope and approach This review provides a comprehensive survey of the effects of the Western diet, Mediterranean diet, and Vegetarian diet on NAFLD and summarizes the current known mechanisms by which the gut microbiome affects NAFLD. In addition, the manner by which diet affects NAFLD via alteration of characteristic microorganism was also evaluated. Key Findings and Conclusions: In the Mediterranean diets, the representative foods such as olive oil (rich in MUFA) and fish (rich in omega-3 PUFA) reduce the risk of NAFLD. Typical foods in the Vegetarian diets are vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains. These foods are rich in dietary fiber, polyphenol, folate and carotenoid, which are beneficial against the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Red and processed meat (rich in saturated fat) and sugar (rich in fructose) are the most common foods in the Western diet, which may contribute to the development of NAFLD. The gut microbiome exerts various effects on the development and progression of NAFLD, by affecting host energy balance, intestinal permeability, choline metabolism and short-chain fatty acids production. Furthermore, the different diets promoted the growth of characteristic microorganisms associated with NAFLD. Clarifying these associations will be useful for future dietary interventions in patients with NAFLD.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Ozone as a novel emerging technology for the dissipation of pesticide residues in foods–a review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    R. Pandiselvam; R. Kaavya; Yasendra Jayanath; Kornautchaya Veenuttranon; Piraya Lueprasitsakul; V. Divya; Anjineyulu Kothakota; S.V. Ramesh

    Background Consumption of fruits and vegetables is an indispensable component of human dietary preference, however; it is unfortunate that the enormous pesticide residues remain in the plant produces. Pesticides used to control the pests and diseases of the crops and livestock and its spill-over in the food production system has been an inevitable consequence. Researchers have been taking persistent efforts to eliminate pesticide residues in the food to make it safe for human consumption. Conventional techniques such as the washing of agricultural produces with chemicals, peeling, salting, and using different agents have not been an efficient means of pesticide removal. Scope and approach In recent times, the emergence of non-thermal technology such as the ozone to degrade the pesticide residues is of great utility in the food processing industries. It is also considered as a green technology because unlike other conventional methods ozone treatment leaves little residual traces. However, some of the discrepancies and challenges in using this technology require to be addressed to increase its efficiency. The objective of the current review is to provide a comprehensive and critical view of the use of ozone in pesticide residue dissipation in various food matrixes. Key findings and conclusion Analysis of the pros and cons of ozone treatment reveals it as a potential technique for the degradation of pesticide residues. The diversity and complexity of pesticides along with the inherent differences in their chemical structures and residue levels of pesticides in agro-products are the factors that require due consideration. Furthermore, processing and operating conditions of the ozone treatment are some of the other major determinants to improve the efficiency of ozone treatment for the degradation of pesticides.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Construction of food-grade pH-sensitive nanoparticles for delivering functional food ingredients
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ke Xiong; Liyang Zhou; Jinyu Wang; Aiguo Ma; Di Fang; Liu Xiong; Qingjie Sun
    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Ultrasound-involved emerging strategies for controlling foodborne microbial biofilms
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Hang Yu; Yang Liu; Lu Li; Yahui Guo; Yunfei Xie; Yuliang Cheng; Weirong Yao

    Background Pollution of foodborne microbial biofilms is a serious problem in the food industry. Microorganisms in the biofilms become insensitive to environmental stresses and increase tolerance to antimicrobial agents, therefore, making them extremely hard to be inactivated by conventional methods. Ultrasound-involved emerging strategies offer options for effectively controlling the biofilms formed on either food contact surfaces or real foods. Scope and approach This review emphasizes the significances of either ultrasonication alone or combined with other strategies for controlling foodborne microbial biofilms. Key findings and conclusions Ultrasound as an emerging technology would effectively destroy biofilm structure and partially inactivate microorganisms in the biofilms; however, stimulated the growth of microbes may happen after treatment of low-frequency and low-intensity ultrasound. Combined ultrasound (especially low-frequency and high-intensity ultrasound) and chemical disinfectants shows a synergistic effect with a relatively high proportion of inactivated microbes in the biofilms compared with that adopted one strategy alone. Ozone and electrolyzed water are also developed for inactivating microbes and removing the biofilms after combining with the ultrasound. Combined treatment of ultrasonication and chelating agents or enzymes is proved to effectively remove the biofilms instead of achieving a strong bactericidal effect. Mechanical oscillation, localized high temperature and pressure, as well as free radicals generated by cavitation during the ultrasonication, can partially destroy the basic structure of biofilms, and furthermore, increase the penetration and diffusion of chemicals into the deeper layer of biofilms for achieving a synergistic effect on the biofilm control.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Terminology and the understanding of culture, climate, and behavioural change – Impact of organisational and human factors on food safety management
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    N. Sharman; C.A. Wallace; L. Jespersen

    Background The topic of food safety culture and climate is growing attention from industry, researchers, standards owners and certification bodies. Authors use the terms food safety culture and climate, however, there are no unified definitions to provide clarity on the meaning of these terms. Scope and approach The objective of this study is to analyse the similarities and differences in current definitions and statements of Food Safety Culture and Food Safety Climate, and provide suggested clarifying definitions for both concepts, to bring a consistent approach to the field. The study evaluates the types of organisational cultures, climates and employees’ behaviours which provide important differences and further insights into each of these. Key findings and conclusions Looking back at the origins of safety culture following the Chernobyl accident in the 1980's provides an understanding of how this laid the foundation for safety culture and climate in the UK. Reflecting on the increasing trend in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) breaches due to the increasing number of incidents reported to authorities, the study suggests an increased focus is needed on culture, climate, and behaviour in food businesses. A critical analysis of previous definitions, statements and common words currently used to describe culture and climate in published definitions is provided. New definitions for food safety culture and climate based on factors shown to be important and are recommended for use by industry and researchers are proposed. The study assesses different types of culture, climate and employees, and suggests different employee behaviours impact the culture and climate of an organisation.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk): From evidence of health benefits to its food application
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Elisangela Aparecida Nazario Franco; Ana Sanches-Silva; Regiane Ribeiro-Santos; Nathália Ramos de Melo

    Background Fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of developing various chronic diseases such as metabolic diseases (e.g. obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia). In this line, psyllium presents a high content of soluble fiber, associated with health benefits. Scope and approach The aim of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence of psyllium health benefits. The nutritional properties of psyllium are presented, as well as its various applications in food products. The main functional benefits of psyllium are presented in topics, as follows: the effect on cholesterol control, on type 2 diabetes, and on obesity and satiety. Key findings and conclusions Products containing psyllium can be an effective alternative to improve the functionality and produce healthy foods. The addition of psyllium to a food product (e.g. bakery goods, dairy, meat and gluten-free products). Can provide the health claim for a fiber-containing product, which is an important advantage in the market. In addition, it may allow consumers to ingest adequate amounts of fiber without increasing calorie intake, as well as contributing to other health benefits such as cholesterol control, glycemic control, satiety, among others. Psyllium can be easily added to food formulations and does not change the flavor perception of the product. Thus, the food industry may play an important role in the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases when using psyllium in food products.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Efficiency of non-conventional processing technologies for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in food products
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Akbar Bahrami; Zahra Moaddabdoost Baboli; Keith Schimmel; Leonard Williams; Seid Mahdi Jafari
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in cereal-based foods: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Amin Mousavi Khaneghah; Yadolah Fakhri; Amene Nematollahi; Mohadeseh Pirhadi
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems – Potential risks for food safety
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    João Rosa; Marco F.L. Lemos; Daniel Crespo; Margarida Nunes; Andreia Freitas; Fernando Ramos; Miguel Ângelo Pardal; Sara Leston

    Background The demand for fish and fish products is now higher than ever. However, several problems such as nutrient loading or excessive use of resources can be associated with the intensification of aquaculture systems. Integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems (IMTAs) refer to the co-culture of different species belonging to different trophic levels, and offer a sustainable approach to aquaculture development. In these systems, organic and inorganic extractive species will feed on other species waste or on uneaten feed nutrients, acting as bioremediators. Scope and approach The extractive capacity that these organisms have to take up nutrients from the water also means they will accumulate chemicals that are often administered in intensive productions. The present review describes a vast number of substances that can be found in IMTAs, either intentionally administered or resulting from contamination, and subsequently accumulated in species reared afterwards in these systems. The presence of such chemicals in organisms produced in IMTAs raises several food safety and human health concerns, which need to be addressed. Key findings and conclusions Although IMTAs still face many challenges in terms of large scale production, legislations are not yet ready to comprise co-cultivation of multiple species in proximity. Also, maximum residue limits already existent for fish must be set for other organisms also produced in IMTAs in order to protect consumer's health. An increase in extractive species consumption (e.g. seaweeds) has been noticed during the past few years, and as IMTAs gain importance as a sustainable production method, food safety issues must be tackled.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Coffee extraction: A review of parameters and their influence on the physicochemical characteristics and flavour of coffee brews
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Nancy Córdoba; Mario Fernandez-Alduenda; Fabian L. Moreno; Yolanda. Ruiz

    Background The physicochemical characteristics and flavour of coffee are related to the volatile and non-volatile compounds produced during roasting, which reach the coffee cup upon brewing. Scope and approach This review focuses on interpreting the contribution that various parameters have during the coffee extraction process (coffee brewing). Coffee brewing methods and their extraction parameters were analysed in terms of phenomenological explanations and their effect on the physicochemical and flavour characteristics of brewed coffee. Key findings and conclusions Many brewing methods have been developed to achieve a myriad of coffee flavour characteristics. Although several well-known brewing techniques have been adopted in the coffee industry, little associated relevant scientific data is available. Overall, these methods vary by extraction pressure, coffee/water ratio, water quality, contact time, particle size distribution, and temperature. An overview shows that all these factors modify the extraction of bioactive and volatile compounds that affect the flavour profile of the beverage. However, more in-depth explanation of the mass and energy transport phenomena would be useful to improve the understanding of the relationship between extraction variables and coffee flavour. Thus, phenomenological explanations are included to impart a better understanding of physicochemical and flavour changes in coffee beverages. Additionally, several gaps in knowledge relating to the extraction process are identified; and new trends in coffee extraction, including the cold brew method, are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Sweet, umami and bitter taste receptors: State of the art of in silico molecular modeling approaches
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Giulia Spaggiari, Antonella Di Pizio, Pietro Cozzini

    Background The human taste experience is the result of five basic taste qualities, that is sweet, salty, bitter, sour and umami. Sweet, bitter and umami are mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whereas sour and salt are modulated by specialized membrane channels. Taste perception starts with the interaction between a taste-active molecule (substance) and a specialized receptor located on the taste buds at the level of the cell membrane. Once the interaction has occurred, taste receptor cells are able to transduce the information content of the chemical stimulus into nerve signals directly to the brain. Therefore, the receptor-mediated recognition of taste molecules is the first episode leading to taste perception. Scope and approach In this review, we provide a complete overview of in silico molecular modeling techniques applied to the study of umami, sweet and bitter taste receptors. Structure-based computational tools, usually applied to investigate the binding mode of bioactive molecules into their targets and to rationally design new drug molecules, are proven equally useful in the field of chemical senses to shed light on the molecular acknowledgment of tastants. Key findings and conclusions The recent computational advancements in the taste research field, and particularly the computation-driven investigations of the tastant-receptor binding, provided a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying food tastants’ sensing and could have an impressive contribution to the identification of new taste modulators in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Membrane technologies assisting plant-based and agro-food by-products processing: A comprehensive review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Grzegorz Boczkaj, Emilia Gontarek, Alfredo Cassano, Vlastimil Fíla

    Background Nowadays, membrane-based technologies (e.g. microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, membrane distillation, and pervaporation) have demonstrated to meet the requirements to be involved in different food and bioproduct processes. Scope and approach Several applications have been developed, including either separation, recovery or concentration of bioactive molecules from agro-food products and by-products, treatment of natural extracts, recovery of aromas from natural and processed products, production of non-alcoholic beverages, as the most popular ones. Therefore, the goal of this review is to give a comprehensive outlook of the latest developments focused on the separation, fractionation and concentration of several bioactive compounds contained in their original sources, as well as the food processes-assisted by membrane technologies. Key findings and conclusions Throughout this review, ongoing literature has been analysed, discussing the relevant insights according to the type of membrane-based separation process, properties of molecules, membrane features and key factors influencing the separation performance of those technologies. Specific applications have been analysed and discussed, highlighting typical advantages and drawbacks over conventional technologies.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Phytase producing lactic acid bacteria: Cell factories for enhancing micronutrient bioavailability of phytate rich foods
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Neha Sharma, Steffy Angural, Monika Rana, Neena Puri, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Naveen Gupta

    Background Phytic acid (Phytate) present in plant-based foods is an anti-nutrient because of its tendency to chelate various nutrients thus reducing their bioavailability in animal and human physiological system. Use of phytases which bring sequential cleavage of phosphate groups from phytic acid-mineral complexes, liberating minerals in solubilized form is a viable alternative. There are many reports on phytases of different microbial origin but due to safety aspects their use in food applications is debatable. Phytases from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) which are generally recognized as safe have more scope for their application in food processing. Scope and approach LAB are among the key safe bacteria which are known to give probiotic and other health benefits. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the exploration of phytase producing LAB and their use in food processing. Number of reports are there on phytases from LAB and their applications. To further increase the scope in this area comprehensive information is required. Key findings and conclusions This review summarizes the various reports on LAB phytases with respect to their production, characterization, application in processing of various types of food and heterologous expression. Limitations and future scope of LAB phytases have also been discussed which will open new prospects of research for their application.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Pisum sativum vs Glycine max, a comparative review of nutritional, physicochemical, and sensory properties for food uses
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Estelle Fischer, Rémy Cachon, Nathalie Cayot

    Background; Current issues surrounding meat consumption and changes in eating habits have motivated the development of meat substitutes. Vegetable proteins, especially legume proteins, are of interest. Soybean is the most widely used legume crop for food, but due to some negative aspects, it may be relevant to develop soybean substitutes. Scope and approach; Pea is a possible alternative to soybean and the latter was thus compared with pea to determine if pea would be a good substitute. This review provides a brief insight into the similarities and differences between soybean and pea regarding composition and nutrition as well as physicochemical and sensory aspects impacting their food uses. Key findings and conclusions; As pea is less allergenic than soybean but has similar nutritional and functional properties, it could be a great alternative to soybean. Nevertheless, some particularities of the pea composition can lead to a stronger “beany” off-flavor and so a less acceptable product. In addition, the isoenzymes involved in the development of off-flavor are more varied in the pea. The pea off-flavor may thus be more complicated to control.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Interactions between probiotics and pathogenic microorganisms in hosts and foods: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Khadijeh Abhari, Ismail Eş, Mariana B. Soares, Rodrigo B.A. Oliveira, Hedayat Hosseini, Mohammad Rezaei, Celso F. Balthazar, Ramon Silva, Adriano G. Cruz, C. Senaka Ranadheera, Anderson S. Sant’Ana
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Naturally-derived chronobiotics in chrononutrition
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Elisa Dufoo-Hurtado, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Rocio Campos-Vega

    Background The circadian clock is an evolved autonomous timekeeping system that aligns body functions to the solar course, by anticipating/coordinating the required metabolic activities; such internal clock responds to several exogenous stimuli (Zeitgebers) able to synchronize the endogenous rhythm. A disrupted circadian rhythm leads to several neurodegenerative and metabolic illness such as obesity, diabetes, and psychiatric disorders. Scope and approach Circadian rhythm disorders have no current medical treatment, but chrononutrition has emerged as an important tool to enhance metabolic and nutritional health in sleep disorders. This review highlights the effects of meal timing, food types, nutrients and several bioactive xenobiotic compounds (chronobiotics) on circadian clocks. The potential application of diet therapies is discussed particularly to deal with certain metabolic disorders related to circadian misalignment. Key findings and conclusions: The desynchronization of circadian rhythms negatively influences health necessitating the development of molecular modulators of circadian rhythms including food components, meal timing, or different diet types that can help correct circadian disorders attenuating the burden of chronic diseases. However, there is limited research on the chronobiotic effect of specific foods/compounds in clinical trials. Animal studies evaluating the chronobiological response, resulting from the ingestion of a particular food, are also limited; most available studies (in vitro and animal models) report the effect of a single nutrient (e.g., caffeine, palmitate, among others) which is difficult to translate to real-life situations. This review offers the perspective of a chronobiotic-based approach, identifying targets for health improvement, which are current lifestyle-associated issues.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Nanobubbles: Fundamental characteristics and applications in food processing
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Khanh Kim Thi Phan, Tuyen Truong, Yong Wang, Bhesh Bhandari

    Background The importance of nanobubbles (NBs) is widely acknowledged, along with their size and stability. NBs are tiny gas-filled cavities having unique physical characteristics. Excellent stability, high internal pressure, extremely large surface to volume ratio and high gas dissolution rate are the important features of NBs which lead to many promising applications in various fields of advanced science and technology. Scope and approach This paper reviews recent research progress relating to the use of bubbles with a scale of nanometers in food sectors. A focus will be placed on the current status of applications of NBs in food processing operations and associated applications. The characterization parameters with modern means of measuring and analysing the NBs are also summarised. Key findings and conclusions Despite its remarkable characteristics, usage of NBs technology in food products is still limited and challenging. Based on this review, various potential areas and gaps for NBs research in food science fields are identified for further investigations.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Recent advances in the extraction of bioactive compounds with subcritical water: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Jixian Zhang, Chaoting Wen, Haihui Zhang, Yuqing Duan, Haile Ma
    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Sensory attributes of edible insects and insect-based foods – Future outlooks for enhancing consumer appeal
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Maryia Mishyna, Jianshe Chen, Ofir Benjamin

    Background Edible insects are considered a new alternative sustainable source of proteins that exhibits higher feed-conversion efficiency and has a less negative environmental impact, compared to conventional animal-derived protein sources. Highly nutritional edible insects may help solve issues of global malnutrition and food insecurity, while byproducts have the potential for practical application in the food industry, agriculture, and medicine. Despite these numerous benefits, negative attitudes toward insects as food exist in societies where it is not part of their culture to consume insects, raising barriers to the wider introduction of edible insects in the diet on a regular basis. Scope and approach In this review, we discuss the sensory characteristics, such as flavor and texture, of edible insect and insect-based foods, their contribution to consumers’ attitudes toward edible insects, and approaches to altering the quality of sensory attributes—from insect farming and processing to novel product formulation and taste education. Key findings and conclusions Sensory and visual characteristics of edible insects, and availability of information on their origin and safety, are important factors in consumer appeal and their willingness to try eating insects in the future. Flavor and texture of edible insects depend largely on the insect species, its development stage, and the way it is processed. Recent findings on insect production, processing, and formulation of insect-based foods, as well as ways to increase familiarity with edible insects, demonstrate the potential to enhance the acceptability of insects as a novel food.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Carbon dots derived fluorescent nanosensors as versatile tools for food quality and safety assessment: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Xueli Luo, Yong Han, Xiumei Chen, Wenzhi Tang, Tianli Yue, Zhonghong Li
    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Effect of dried fruits and vegetables powder on cakes quality: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Fakhreddin Salehi, Sara Aghajanzadeh

    Background; Bakery products such as cakes are widely consumed all over the world; so, their enrichment with nutrients is an effective way to prompt the people health. This goal can be achieved using the powder of dried fruit and vegetable in cake formulation. Scope and approach; In this paper, the effects of dried fruits and vegetable powder (apple, quince, orange, various berries, grape pomace, mango, peach, melon, carrot, pumpkin and mushroom) on the batter rheology, physicochemical properties, organoleptic aspects and microbial attributes of the cakes were reviewed. It was determined that these kinds of powder raised the fibers content and nutritional values of the cakes (antioxidants, vitamins and minerals). The high water absorption capacity of the fiber affects batter rheology, the texture, volume, density and microbial attributes of the cake. Key finding and conclusion; In conclusion, powder of fruit and vegetable exhibited benefits of attracting the consumers by improving appearance, texture, nutritional values, sensorial properties and shelf life of the cake.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Stabilization and controlled release of gaseous/volatile active compounds to improve safety and quality of fresh produce
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Mo Chen, Xi Chen, Soumi Ray, Kit Yam

    Background Gaseous/volatile active compounds are effective tools for pre-harvest and postharvest management/preservation of fresh produce, e.g., 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene for regulating ripening, and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for inhibiting microbial growth. Various approaches for their stabilization and controlled release have been developed to improve the safety and maintain the quality of fresh produce. Scope and approach This paper reviews and categorizes the approaches to stabilize and control the release of selected active compounds, including 1-MCP, ClO2, ethylene, SO2, and essential oils. Knowledge and research gaps are also discussed. Examples of some commercially available systems are used to demonstrate how to stabilize and achieve controlled release for different applications and purposes. Key findings and conclusion Various methods can be used to develop formulations/compositions in different forms to achieve stabilization and controlled release. Since moisture/water is often used to initiate the release, most methods focus on controlling water penetration into the formulation/composition. Among various forms of application, fumigation in storage rooms is the most commonly applied. There is also a growing interest to develop controlled release packaging systems. More efforts are needed to understand the physical and chemical interactions between the active compounds and the formulation/composition to predict the retention and release kinetics of the active compounds. Researchers should also be mindful of the regulatory limitations of these compounds to ensure the practicality of the research data.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Food waste as a carbon source in carbon quantum dots technology and their applications in food safety detection
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Hanzhi Fan, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Chao-hui Yang

    Background In recent years, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) has received a lot of attentions owing to their great physical and optical properties. There are different kinds of carbon sources applied in various fields, however, CQDs used in the food industry have higher requirements for their safety. Therefore, it is the best way to use natural materials for preparing CQDs without the participation of chemicals. Up to now, there are many natural food products for preparing CQDs. However, food waste is often overlooked. Actually, food waste is rich in carbon sources. And the efficient utilization of food waste plays a positive role in economic benefit and environmental pollution. Scope and approach Proper use of food waste as carbon source not only facilitates food safety detection but also increases byproduct value. This paper was intended to review the research progress of food waste utilization as carbon precursor and applications in food safety detection. The approaches of preparing CQDs from different sorts of food wastes, the characteristics and applications of CQDs were described in detail. Particularly the applications in food quality and safety detection including food additives, heavy metal ions were also elaborated. Key findings and conclusions Currently, food waste as carbon source could be divided into plant byproducts, animal food byproducts and food processing byproducts. Moreover, there are many applications of food waste as carbon precursor in CQDs technology to detect food additives and heavy metal ions. However, detection of pathogens and other harmful substances in food industry is rare. Last but not least, it was concluded that food waste had potential to prepare CQDs and be applied to food safety detection.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Interplay of antibiotic resistance and food-associated stress tolerance in foodborne pathogens
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Xinyu Liao, Yanna Ma, Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shigenobu Koseki, Shuai Wei, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Tian Ding

    Background The discovery and use of antibiotics have produced tremendous benefits for human society, however, with the large-scale use of antibiotics in medicine, animal husbandry and other fields, more and more antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged. Since diseases caused by such antibiotic resistant bacteria could require more drastic measures to treat, the emergence of such resistant bacteria in food has attracted much concern. Scope and approach In this review, we summarized the interplay between antibiotic resistance and food-associated stress tolerance, and the hypothesized molecular mechanisms for the cross protection in bacteria. Key findings and conclusions In this review, we found that some common food-associated stresses, such as cold, acid, osmosis and sanitizers could provide cross protection for bacteria against antibiotics. In turn, antibiotic resistance could also render bacteria more tolerant to food-associated stresses. Meanwhile, novel nonthermal technologies may more likely result in little or no difference in bacterial antibiotic resistance, and this can be an advantage over traditional sterilization methods. Several molecular mechanisms for the cross protection between antibiotics and food-associated stresses have been discussed in this review. General stress response (e.g., sigma factors and two-component system), SOS response, mutations, and other mechanisms have been proposed as strategies for bacteria acquisition of cross protection.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Microbial response to some nonthermal physical technologies
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Dan Wu, Fereidoun Forghani, Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Jiao Li, Xinyu Liao, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Tian Ding

    Background In response to the worldwide interest in safe, nutritious and minimally processed food products, innovative nonthermal processing for microbial inactivation has been developed as one of the major growth sectors in the food industry. In contrast to traditional thermal processing, nonthermal physical technologies have the ability to inactivate microorganisms at lower temperatures and maintain the organoleptic and nutritional qualities of food products. However, microbial cells can also develop a range of strategies to adapt rapidly to environmental stimuli and to survive under harsh conditions, posing a potential hazard to the food processing industry. Scope and approach This review concluded the microbial response to nonthermal technologies from the perspective of three states of microbes, sublethal cells, viable but non-culturable cells, and apoptosis. This work describes the responses of microorganisms to nonthermal physical technologies, mainly focusing on their physiological modifications and genetic regulatory mechanisms. Key Findings and Conclusion: Most nonthermal physical treatments are unable to sterilize thoroughly, thereby resulting in suppressed or sublethally injured microbial cells instead of killing them completely. This poses food safety hazards since microorganisms may re-grow at post-processing stage as favorable conditions are available again. Studying the mechanism of these responses on microorganisms may help us to do better in anticipating possible risks during food processing and preventing potential food safety incidents.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Feeding the skin: A new trend in food and cosmetics convergence
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Catarina Faria-Silva, Andreia Ascenso, Ana M. Costa, Joana Marto, Manuela Carvalheiro, Helena Margarida Ribeiro, Sandra Simões
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Naturally sourced biosubstances for regulating freezing points in food researches: Fundamentals, current applications and future trends
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    You Tian, Zhiwei Zhu, Da-Wen Sun

    Background Foods have been commercially frozen for over 140 years. While improper frozen storage often causes food quality loss, the frozen damage induced by ice crystal growth is a serious problem. Freezing point (FP) regulation that promotes and inhibits ice nucleation, and controls ice crystal growth and recrystallization, may alleviate this problem. Some naturally sourced biosubstances with eco-friendly, green, nontoxic and highly effective characteristics are verified to regulate FP, showing potential for application in foods and food-related areas. Scope and approach This review introduces three groups of FP-regulating biosubstances, including ice-nucleating proteins (INPs), anti-freezing proteins (AFPs) and natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES). Existing knowledge of these biosubstances and updated information concerning their mechanisms for regulating FP are summarized. In addition, current applications of these natural FP regulators in foods or in food-related areas are presented, involving food processing, packaging and transgenic foods. Future applications of these biosubstances in the food and food-related researches are briefly discussed. Key findings and conclusions The effect of natural FP regulators in improving food quality is worthy of further investigation into more extensive food applications, especially for INPs and NADES. The current review indicates that natural FP regulating biosubstances reveal application potential in foods and food-related areas. Future studies should mainly focus on bio-based or bio-inspired anti-freezing, micro/none ice-based cold storage and energy conservation in the food and food-related researches.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Recent development in rapid detection techniques for microorganism activities in food matrices using bio-recognition: A review
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Heera Jayan, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen Sun

    Background Microbial contamination is an increasing concern in the food industry. In order to understand the effect of microorganisms, the study of their characteristics and behavior in various platforms is of prime importance. Over the years, time-consuming and labor-intensive, culture-based enumeration techniques have become obsolete for real-time applications, and increasing concerns on foodborne outbreaks necessitate rapid, on-site and sensitive methods for the detection of microorganisms in food matrices. Scope and approach In the current review, a brief discussion about biomarkers in microorganisms and bio-recognition ligands commonly used for detection assay are presented. The molecular interaction between biomarkers and ligands is critically evaluated and recent developments in bio-recognition based detection techniques for analyzing microorganism activity in complex food matrices are reviewed. Key findings and conclusions The microbial activity in food can be detected by analyzing the specific biomarkers of microorganisms such as nucleic acids, proteins, antigens, and metabolic products. Recent bio-recognition ligands in detection techniques such as biosensors, lateral flow assay, and microfluidic devices can improve the selectivity in detecting cells from complex food matrices. The emerging bio-recognition based methods bridge the gap between culture-dependent enumeration and molecular methods, and they could be employed in the industry to ensure food safety. However, the development of a validation protocol for all the emerging methods is necessary to assess their efficiency in real samples.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Recovery of wasted fruit and vegetables for improving sustainable diets
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    M.A. Augustin, L. Sanguansri, E.M. Fox, L. Cobiac, M.B. Cole

    Background Fruits and vegetables are an excellent source of nutrients, with numerous health benefits. Most consumers are not meeting the daily recommended intake of fruits and vegetables. Yet, a significant amount of fruits and vegetables that is produced is wasted. There are opportunities to recover the wasted fruits and vegetables for manufacturing value-added products to improve the sustainability of healthy diets and reduce the environmental footprint. Scope and approach We discuss the challenges and opportunities in collection of food loss in the horticultural chain for return to the human food supply, science-based strategies that underpin the recovery and conversion of food loss from farm to retail into value-added safe and nutritious food ingredients and products, and use of food processing and stabilising technologies to recover fruits and vegetables for producing safe, healthy and nutritious foods. We advocate for a whole of value chain approach for capturing market-led business opportunities in the agri-food system to reduce food wastage and increase the availability of fruit and vegetable-based foods for consumers. Key findings and conclusions The conversion of edible biomass that is currently lost to the food supply into safe, nutritious and appealing products could help contribute to the mitigation of low nutrient intakes of at-risk nutrients for vulnerable populations by driving higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. The recovery of wasted horticultural produce for return to the food supply improves the sustainability of the food system. It requires the establishment of a new value chain for the sector.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Loading of phenolic compounds into electrospun nanofibers and electrosprayed nanoparticles
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Sara Khoshnoudi-Nia, Niloufar Sharif, Seid Mahdi Jafari
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Estrogenic biological activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of green tea constituents
    Trends Food Sci. Tech. (IF 8.519) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Ryoiti Kiyama

    Background Green tea is produced from the tea plant Camellia sinensis without fermentation, and contains characteristic constituents, which are associated with health-promoting effects such as physiological, immunological, neurological and psychological effects, and protective effects against diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Catechins, such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and other green tea constituents, such as anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, phenolic acids/depsides and caffeine/vitamins, are associated with many biological activities and cell signaling through interactions with specific proteins and signaling pathways. Scope and approach Among the activities and pathways induced or mediated by green tea constituents, estrogen action was focused on through a comprehensive literature search. Key findings and conclusions Estrogenic activity was evaluated by animal tests, cell assay, ligand-binding assay, protein assay, reporter-gene assay, transcription assay and yeast two-hybrid assay. Furthermore, health benefits, such as bone protection/bone regeneration, cardioprotection and neuroprotection, have been reported as the potential applications of the estrogenic activity of green tea constituents, whereas their anti-estrogenic activity has been discussed in association with cancer treatment and chemoprevention. Controversial results about their mixed estrogenic/anti-estrogenic/non-estrogenic and biphasic activity, and associated toxicity require further detailed studies to clarify the benefits and risks.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
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