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  • Gamma tocopherol, its dimmers, and quinones: Past and future trends
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Liyou Zheng; Jun Jin; Longkai Shi; Jianhua Huang; Ming Chang; Xingguo Wang; Hui Zhang; Qingzhe Jin

    Gamma-tocopherol (γ-T), the major form of vitamin E in many plant seeds and products derived from them, has been attracting increasing attention because of its health-promoting roles. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear, to some degree. Furthermore, its dimmers and quinones are expected to be potential nutritious and pharmaceutical agents, however, the knowledge about these dimmers (γ-TBD and γ-TED) and quinones (para- and ortho-quinones) is relatively limited. Thus, a comprehensive summary of the history, chemical structure, source, determination, absorption, transport, and metabolism of its dimmers and quinones compared to γ-T has been reviewed. In addition, the antioxidant activity (AOA) and non-AOA activity of these substances are highlighted. It is suggested that more special attention be paid to the dimmers and quinones for better understanding and further applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Food material properties as determining factors in nutrient release during human gastric digestion: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Geeshani Somaratne; Maria J. Ferrua; Aiqian Ye; Francoise Nau; Juliane Floury; Didier Dupont; Jaspreet Singh

    The fundamental mechanisms of nutrient release from solid foods during gastric digestion consists of multiple elementary processes. These include the diffusion of gastric juice into the food matrix and its simultaneous enzymatic degradation and mechanical breakdown by the peristaltic activity of the stomach. Understanding the relative role of these key processes, in association with the composition and structure of foods, is of paramount importance for the design and manufacture of novel foods possessing specific target behavior within the body. This review covers the past and current literature with respect to the in-stomach processes leading to physical and biochemical disintegration of solid foods and release of nutrients. The review outlines recent progress in experimental and modeling methods used for studying food disintegration mechanisms and concludes with a discussion on potential future research directions in this field. Information from pharmaceutical science-based modeling approaches describing nutrient release kinetics as a result of food disintegration in the gastric environment is also reviewed. Future research aimed at understanding gastric digestion is important not only for setting design principles for novel food design but also for understanding mechanisms underpinning dietary guidelines to consume wholesome foods.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The effects and associations of whole-apple intake on diverse cardiovascular risk factors. A narrative review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Berner Andrée Sandoval-Ramírez; Úrsula Catalán; Lorena Calderón-Pérez; Judit Companys; Laura Pla-Pagà; Iziar A. Ludwig; Ma Paz Romero; Rosa Solà

    Abstract Apples are among the world’s most consumed fruits. However, while the impact of whole-apple intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unknown. This narrative review summarizes a novel integrated view of whole-apple intake, CVD risk association (through observational studies; OSs), and the effects on CVD risk factors (randomized trials; RTs). In 8 OSs, whole-apple intake was associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, ischemic heart disease mortality, stroke mortality, all-cause mortality, and severe abdominal aortic calcification, as well as with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. In 8 RTs, whole-apple consumption reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and plasma inflammatory cytokines, and noticeably reduced CRP, whereas it increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and improved endothelial function. Thus, consuming between 100 and 150 g/day of whole apples is associated with a lower CVD risk and decreases in blood pressure, pulse pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inflammation status as well as with increases in HDLc and endothelial function. These results, support the regular consumption of whole apples as an aid in the prevention of CVD.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Safety, beneficial and technological properties of enterococci for use in functional food applications – a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ken Graham; Helena Stack; Rosemary Rea

    Enterococci are ubiquitous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that predominantly reside in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals but are also widespread in food and the environment due to their robust nature. Enterococci have the paradoxical position of providing several benefits of technological interest in food fermentations but are also considered as opportunistic pathogens capable of causing infection in immunocompromised patients. Several species of the genus have been correlated with disease development in humans such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis. The pathogenesis of enterococci has been attributed to the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance and the possession of virulence determinants. On the contrary, enterococci have led to improvements in the aroma, texture, and flavor of fermented dairy products, while their beneficial use as probiotic and protective cultures has also been documented. Furthermore, they have emerged as important candidates for the generation of bioactive peptides, particularly from milk, which provide new opportunities for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals for human nutrition and health. The detection of pathogenic traits among some species is compromising their use in food applications and subsequently, the genus neither has Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) status nor has it been included in the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) list. Nevertheless, the use of certain enterococcal strains in food has been permitted on the basis of a case-by-case assessment. Promisingly, enterococcal virulence factors appear strain specific and food isolates harbor fewer determinants than clinical isolates, while they also remain largely susceptible to clinically relevant antibiotics and thus, have a lower potential for pathogenicity. Ideally, strains considered for use in foods should not possess any virulence determinants and should be susceptible to clinically relevant antibiotics. Implementation of an appropriate risk/benefit analysis, establishment of a strain’s innocuity, and consideration for relevant guidelines, legislation, and regulatory aspects surrounding functional food development, may help industry, health-staff and consumers accept enterococci, like other LAB, as important candidates for useful and beneficial applications in food biotechnology.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Grape juice or wine: which is the best option?
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sandra Maria Barbalho; Alda Maria M. Bueno Ottoboni; Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini; Élen Landgraf Guiguer; Claudia Cristina Teixeira Nicolau; Ricardo de Alvares Goulart; Uri Adrian Prync Flato

    Grapes used in the wine or juice production are mainly Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca and possess high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are associated with the reduction of the inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and protection against cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processes used for juice and wine production may interfere with the antioxidant composition of these products and the effects on human health. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of the consumption of wine or grape juice on cardiovascular risk factors. We used PRISMA guidelines and Medline/PUBMED and EMBASE to perform our search. The main effects of red wine and grape juice in humans were a reduction of body mass index, waist circumference, glycemia, plasma lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol, LDL-c, triglycerides, blood pressure, and homocysteine levels. Both wine and grape juice possess numerous bioactive compounds that are potentially responsible for many beneficial effects on human health. Nevertheless, there is a need for more double-blind, randomized controlled studies comparing the effects of juice and wine consumption without the biases that occur when comparisons are made with different populations, ages, doses, and different types of wine or juice.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Health benefits and bioavailability of marine resources components that contribute to health – what’s new?
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Paulo Nova; Ana Pimenta-Martins; Joana Laranjeira Silva; Ana Machado Silva; Ana Maria Gomes; Ana Cristina Freitas

    The strict connection between nutritional intake and health leads to a necessity of understanding the beneficial and protective role of healthy nutrients and foods. The marine environment is a source of a plethora of many organisms with unique properties, extremely rich in bioactive compounds and with remarkable potential for medical, industrial and biotechnological applications. Marine organisms are an extreme valuable source of functional ingredients such as polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, pigments, enzymes, proteins and peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), phenolic compounds and other secondary metabolites that prevent or have the potential to treat several diseases given their cardiovascular protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-proliferative and anti-diabetic activities. This review provides an overview on the current advances regarding health benefits of marine bioactive compounds on several diseases and on human gut microbiota. In addition, it is discussed a crucial factor that is related to the effectiveness of these compounds on human organism namely its real bioavailability.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Acrylamide in coffee: formation and possible mitigation strategies – a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-05
    Maria Alessia Schouten; Silvia Tappi; Santina Romani

    It is widely known that acrylamide, present in some different heat-treated foods, is an important toxic compound to humans. Coffee beverage is one of the most important sources of acrylamide, because the raw bean contains the reaction substrates and it is processed at very high temperature during roasting. Due to its high consumption all over the world, it is necessary to find applicable solutions to decrease the concentration of this undesired Maillard reaction product. The present review summarizes the advance made in understanding the acrylamide formation and describes the potential acrylamide reduction strategies along all coffee production steps, from raw material to coffee brew preparation with a dominant focus on roasting stage. Currently, it is quite established that the selection of the highest quality Arabica green coffee variety, high roasting thermal input and shortest brewing techniques lead to low final acrylamide levels. There are also few innovative interventions proposed for acrylamide control in coffee such as enzymatic treatments of raw material, vacuum or steam roasting, roasted beans supercritical fluid extraction, final beverage treatments like yeast fermentation and amino acids/additive additions. However, for these strategies the impact on the desired sensorial and nutritional coffee brew properties must be evaluated and some proposed procedures are still difficult to be applied at real industrial scale. Furthermore, in-depth studies are needed in order to find appropriate and practical solutions for acrylamide mitigation in coffee with a holistic risk/benefit approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • A comprehensive review on cereal β-glucan: extraction, characterization, causes of degradation, and food application
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sandra Milena Vásquez Mejía; Alicia de Francisco; BenjaminM. Bohrer

    β-glucan derived from cereal sources are high in soluble dietary fiber and can be used as thickeners, texture enhancers, stabilizers, and fat substitutes in foods. Due to its pronounced viscosity, β-glucan has physiological activity in the body, such as decreasing the glycemic index of foods and reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in people. This review focuses on the characteristics of cereal β-glucans, extraction methods, and causes of degradation, while presenting the most relevant and recent applications in foods. Today, there is an abundant amount of information regarding extraction and characterization of β-glucans. However, studies on the degradation and application of fiber are more recent and warrant review. The incorporation of β-glucan has worked well in high carbohydrate foods (e.g., pasta and snacks), but there are still challenges with its inclusion in protein-rich foods (e.g., dairy and meat products). After a comprehensive search and an objective point of view of these aspects, the primary challenges with the incorporation of β-glucan in foods are the inclusion of sufficient amounts of dietary fiber to have a significant nutritional contribution, the combination with other ingredients and other components of the food (evaluated synergistically or antagonistically), and the new incorporation of β-glucan in foods without their degradation during processing.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Association between obesity and breast cancer: Molecular bases and the effect of flavonoids in signaling pathways
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Oswaldo Pablo Martínez-Rodríguez; María del Rocío Thompson-Bonilla; María Eugenia Jaramillo-Flores

    Obesity is an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that leads to different health problems, such as cancer, where the adipocytes promote the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells, especially in the breast, where the epithelial cells are immersed in a fatty environment, and the interactions between these two types of cells involve, not only adipokines but also local pro-inflammatory mechanisms and hypoxic processes generating anti-apoptotic signals, which are a common result in leptin signaling. The expression of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and cyclin D1, results in the decrease in phosphorylation of AMPK, increasing the activity of the aromatase enzyme; alternatively, the adiponectin activates AMPK to reduce inflammation. Nevertheless, alterations of the JAK/STAT pathways contribute to mammary carcinogenesis, while the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway controls most of the cancer’s characteristics such as the cell cycle, survival, differentiation, proliferation, motility, metabolism, and genetic stability. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is, through the accumulated scientific evidence, to find the concordance between the signaling pathways involved among obesity and breast cancer, which can be modulated by using flavonoids.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Lipids as biomarkers of brain disorders
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Ghulam Hussain; Haseeb Anwar; Azhar Rasul; Ali Imran; Muhammad Qasim; Shamaila Zafar; Muhammad Imran; Syed Kashif Shahid Kamran; Nimra Aziz; Aroona Razzaq; Waseem Ahmad; Asghar Shabbir; Javed Iqbal; Shahid Mahmood Baig; Muhammad Ali; Jose-Luis Gonzalez de Aguilar; Tao Sun; Atif Muhammad; Arshadm Muhammad Umair

    Brain is a central and pivotal organ of human body containing the highest lipids content next to adipose tissue. It works as a monitor for the whole body and needs an adequate supply of energy to maintain its physiological activities. This high demand of energy in the brain is chiefly maintained by the lipids along with its reservoirs. Thus, the lipid metabolism is also an important for the proper development and function of the brain. Being a prominent part of the brain, lipids play a vast number of physiological activities within the brain starting from the structural development, impulse conduction, insulation, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, myelin sheath formation and finally to act as the signaling molecules. Interestingly, lipids bilayer also maintains the structural integrity for the physiological functions of protein. Thus, in light to all of these activities, lipids and its metabolism can be attributed pivotal for brain health and its activities. Decisively, the impaired/altered metabolism of lipids and its intermediates puts forward a key step in the progression of different brain ailments including neurodegenerative, neurological and neuropsychiatry disorders. Depending on their associated underlying pathways, they serve as the potential biomarkers of these disorders and are considered as necessary diagnostic tools. The present review discusses the role and level of altered lipids metabolism in brain diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, neurological diseases, and neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, the possible mechanisms of altered level of lipids and their metabolites have also been discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • The effects of resveratrol intake on weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Reza Tabrizi; Omid Reza Tamtaji; Kamran B. Lankarani; Maryam Akbari; Ehsan Dadgostar; Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh; Fariba Kolahdooz; Amir Shamshirian; Mansooreh Momen-Heravi; Zatollah Asemi

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of resveratrol intake on weight loss. We searched the following databases until July 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Out of 831 reports, 36 RCTs were eligible for including to our meta-analysis. The pooled results, using random-effects model showed that resveratrol supplementation significantly decreased body weight (SMD = −0.17; 95% CI, −0.33, −0.01; P = 0.03; I2: 62.6), body mass index (BMI) (SMD = −0.20; 95% CI, −0.35, −0.05; P = 0.01; I2: 60.6), fat mass (SMD = −0.32; 95% CI, −0.62, −0.03; P = 0.03; I2: 77.9) and waist circumference (WC) (SMD = −0.42; 95% CI, −0.68, −0.16; P = 0.001; I2: 75.2), and significantly increased lean mass (SMD = 1.21; 95% CI, 0.75, 1.67; P < 0.001; I2: 87.6). We found no significant effect of resveratrol administration on leptin (SMD = −0.20; 95% CI, −0.68, 0.27; P = 0.40; I2: 85.3) and adiponectin levels (SMD = 0.08; 95% CI, −0.39, 0.55; P = 0.74; I2: 91.0). Resveratrol supplementation significantly decreased body weight in obese patients (SMD −0.43; 95% CI, −0.60, −0.26) compared with other diseases (SMD 0.02; 95% CI, −0.29, 0.33), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (SMD −0.17; 95% CI, −0.37, 0.02). Overall, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that resveratrol intake significantly reduced weight, BMI, WC and fat mass, and significantly increased lean mass, but did not affect leptin and adiponectin levels.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Enhancing production of microalgal biopigments through metabolic and genetic engineering
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    Dinesh Kumar Saini; Hillol Chakdar; Sunil Pabbi; Pratyoosh Shukla

    The versatile use of biopigments in food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and analytical industries emphasized to find different and renewable sources of biopigments. Microalgae, including cyanobacteria, are becoming a potential candidate for pigment production as these have fast-growing ability, high pigment content, highly variable and also have “Generally recognized as safe” status. These algal groups are known to produce different metabolites that include hormones, vitamins, biopolythene and biochemicals. We discuss here the potential use of microalgal biopigments in our daily life as well as in food and cosmetic industries. Pigment like carotenoids has many health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and also provide photo-protection against UV radiation. This review details the effect of various abiotic and biotic factors such as temperature, light, nutrition on maximizing the pigment content in the microalgal cell. This review also highlights the potential of microalgae, whether in present native or engineered strain including the many metabolic strategies which are used or can be used to produce a higher amount of these valuable biopigments. Additionally, future challenges in the context of pigment production have also been discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Recent advances in protein derived bionanocomposites for food packaging applications
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Muhammad Zubair; Aman Ullah

    This review article critically presents a comprehensive overview of the current advances in the research and development of proteins derived bionanocomposites used in food packaging applications. The recent interest in protein-based biomaterials is due to sustainability, renewability, biodegradability and low carbon footprint. The inherent drawbacks of proteins-based materials for food packaging applications are their low mechanical strength, poor thermal, barrier and inferior physicochemical properties. The nanoreinforced bio-based polymers called bionanocomposites provide an opportunity to overcome these issues and have ability to supersede non-biodegradable food packaging plastics produced from petroleum resources. So far, most studied protein derived bionanocomposites suitable for food packaging are soy protein isolates (SPI) and gelatin proteins. Layered silicates are the most promising nanofillers used to increase strength, improve heat resistance and enhance barrier properties of proteins derived materials while montmorillonites (MMT) is the most commonly used silicate nanofiller. This review emphases on the processing strategies used for proteins-based biomaterials, their mechanical and moisture barrier properties for food packaging applications. Different proteins and nanofillers that have been studied to date in proteins derived food packaging applications are also discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Multifunctional nanocellulose/metal and metal oxide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Ahmed A. Oun; Shiv Shankar; Jong-Whan Rhim

    Nanocellulose materials are derived from cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on the earth. Nanocellulose have been extensively used in the field of food packaging materials, wastewater treatment, drug delivery, tissue engineering, hydrogels, aerogels, sensors, pharmaceuticals, and electronic sectors due to their unique chemical structure and excellent mechanical properties. On the other hand, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) such as Ag NP, ZnO NP, CuO NP, and Fe3O4 NP have a variety of functional properties such as UV-barrier, antimicrobial, and magnetic properties. Recently, nanocelluloses materials have been used as a green template for producing metal or metal oxide nanoparticles. As a result, multifunctional nanocellulose/metal or metal oxide hybrid nanomaterials with high antibacterial properties, ultraviolet barrier properties, and mechanical properties were prepared. This review emphasized recent information on the synthesis, properties, and potential applications of multifunctional nanocellulose-based hybrid nanomaterials with metal or metal oxides such as Ag NP, ZnO NP, CuO NP, and Fe3O4 NP. The nanocellulose-based hybrid nanomaterials have huge potential applications in the area of food packaging, biopharmaceuticals, biomedical, and cosmetics.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Food lipid oxidation under gastrointestinal digestion conditions: A review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-30
    Bárbara Nieva-Echevarría; Encarnación Goicoechea; María D. Guillén

    Unravelling the relationship between food and health requires a more in-depth knowledge of the various changes occurring in the gastrointestinal tract during digestion and which may ultimately affect the nutritional quality and safety of ingested food lipids before absorption into the bloodstream. In this context, this review deals with the oxidation process of food lipids under digestive conditions and the studies carried out on this topic using different digestion models: in vitro, in vivo or ex vivo, static or dynamic, and including one, two and/or three digestive phases (oral, gastric and duodenal). These studies have contributed to clarifying the occurrence and extent of lipid degradation under such a particular environment, many of them also highlighting the factors affecting the advance or delay of the oxidation of dietary lipids during digestion, like: food lipid content, unsaturation degree and initial oxidative status; the presence in the food bolus of compounds showing antioxidant activity (polyphenols, tocopherols…) either added or naturally present; the presence in the food bolus of proteins (including iron or not); food technological or culinary processings (salting, smoking, cooking…), among others. Likewise, the methodologies employed to study lipid oxidation under digestive conditions are also summarized and future research perspectives are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Gluten contamination in food services and industry: A systematic review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-22
    Ana Luísa Falcomer; Letícia Santos Araújo; Priscila Farage; Jordanna Santos Monteiro; Eduardo Yoshio Nakano; Renata Puppin Zandonadi

    Gluten-related disorders (GRD) affects approximately 10% of the general population. The only treatment for GRD is still so far is the lifelong complete exclusion of gluten from the daily diet. The correct information about the presence/absence of gluten in food is very important to this group. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of gluten contamination in gluten-free industrial and non-industrial products. In this systematic review, 24 cross-sectional studies were analyzed. The authors developed specific search strategies for Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies using criteria from Meta-analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (MASTARI). We performed the statistical meta-analysis by metafor package of R program. 95.83% (n = 23) of the studies presented positive results for contamination (over 20 ppm). In industrial food products, studies showed a contamination prevalence of 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8%–15.7%). In non-industrial food products, studies showed a contamination prevalence of 41.5% (95% CI: 16.6%–66.4%). Despite the non-industrial products presented higher contamination prevalence than the industrial products, the difference was not significant (p = 0.072). The findings indicate cross-contamination in industrialized and non-industrialized products. As expected, industrial products labeled as gluten-free showed a lower percentage of gluten-contamination than non-industrialized. Despite that, any contaminated sample found in this group present greater relevance than non-labeled foods. It indicates that foods labeled as “gluten-free” should not be considered safe for patients with GRD since information on the label regarding the presence/absence of gluten is unreliable. Therefore, any gluten-contamination in products labeled as gluten-free is a serious problem to whom present GRD. Further studies are needed to estimate gluten cross-contamination in food service meals and industry better.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Bioactive compounds from Cudrania tricuspidata: A natural anticancer source
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-22
    Xusheng Li; Zilan Yao; Xinwei Jiang; Jianxia Sun; Guojing Ran; Xuan Yang; Yaqi Zhao; Ying Yan; Zisheng Chen; Lingmin Tian; Weibin Bai

    The tumor is becoming a critical threat to our lives in these years. Searching for antitumor substances from natural products is a great interest of scientists. Cudrania tricuspidata (C. tricuspidata) is a regional plant containing 158 flavonoids and 99 xanthones, and others ingredients with favorable bioactivity. This review comprehensively analyzes the antitumor compounds from C. tricuspidata against different tumors, and 78 flavonoids plus xanthones are considered as underlying antineoplastic. Importantly, the structure of preylation groups is the primary source of antitumor activity among 45 flavonoids plus xanthones, which could be a direction of structural modification for a better antitumor ability. Additionally, the fruits are also preferable sources of antitumor compounds compared to the roots and barks due to the abundant isoflavones and sustainability. However, many studies only focused on the cells viability inhibition of the compounds, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the intracellular targets remain ambiguous. In conclusion, C. tricuspidata has a great potential for anti-tumor prevention or therapy, but more attention should be paid to deeper research in vitro and in vivo models.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Catechins enhance skeletal muscle performance
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Penghui Li; Ailing Liu; Wei Xiong; Haiyan Lin; Wenjun Xiao; Jianan Huang; Sheng Zhang; Zhonghua Liu

    Muscle-related disorders, such as sarcopenia and cachexia, caused by aging and chronic diseases can lead to the loss of muscle mass and strength to different degrees, severely affecting human health. Globally, tea is one of the three most popular beverages, and its major active ingredient catechins have been reported to delay muscular atrophy and enhance movement. However, currently, there is no systematic review to elaborate its roles and the associated mechanisms. This article reviews the (1) functions and mechanisms of catechins in the differentiation of myogenic stem cells, biogenesis of mitochondria, synthesis and degradation of proteins, regulation of glucose level, and metabolism of lipids in muscle cells; and (2) effect of catechins on the blood vessels, bones, and nerves that are closely related to the skeletal muscles. Catechins could prevent, mitigate, delay, and even treat muscle-related disorders caused by aging and diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • A review of encapsulation of carotenoids using spray drying and freeze drying
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jong-Bang Eun; Ahmed Maruf; Protiva Rani Das; Seung-Hee Nam

    Carotenoids are potent antioxidants, but they are highly unstable and susceptible during processing and storage. Encapsulation technologies protect against degradation and are capable of releasing individual or combination of bioactive substances during processing as well as development of various functional food products. Moreover, encapsulating agents can be used to increase the stability of carotenoids and form a barrier between the core and wall materials. Suitable encapsulating agents, temperature, and drying methods are the most important factors for the encapsulation process. In this report, we reviewed the current status of encapsulation of carotenoids from different fruits, vegetables, spices, seaweeds, microorganisms, and synthetic sources using various types of encapsulating agents through spray drying and freeze drying. We also focused on the degradation kinetics and various factors that affect the stability and bioavailability of encapsulated carotenoids during their processing and storage.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The potential of insects as food sources – a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Nelson Mota de Carvalho; Ana Raquel Madureira; Manuela Estevez Pintado

    Entomophagy is a long-time practice and a food source for many cultures. Still, many societies have abandoned it a long time ago, and regard it as a primal behavior. However, nowadays, the challenge for food demand, with the urge of new nutritional sources, and the problems of undernourishment, mainly on underdeveloped countries, has reached a point where a new perspective is demanded. This review gathers some of the most recent studies regarding the potential benefits and concerns of entomophagy, trying to show the potential of insects as food source and possible ways to introduce them in cultures that have disregarded entomophagy. Entomophagy is taking its place, showing the grand potential of insects as feed and food source. As neophobia and disgust are the main western cultures barriers to accept entomophagy, today’s comprehension of this practice and processing capabilities can take that source, to any dish in any form. A simple but nutritive insect powder can create a path to a widely, sustainable, rich food source—insects.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Is dairy consumption associated with depressive symptoms or disorders in adults? A systematic review of observational studies
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Meghan Hockey; Amelia J. McGuinness; Wolfgang Marx; Tetyana Rocks; Felice N. Jacka; Anu Ruusunen

    Diet quality is associated with depression risk, however the possible role of dairy products in depression risk is unclear. A number of epidemiological studies have examined associations between dairy consumption and depressive symptoms, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to examine whether an association exists between dairy consumption and depressive symptoms or disorders in adults. Anxiety symptoms were also explored as a secondary outcome. CINAHL, Cochrane, MEDLINE complete, EMBASE, Scopus and PsycINFO databases were searched from database inception to December 2018. Studies were included if they used a case-control, cross-sectional, or cohort study design, and included community dwelling or institutionalized adults (≥18 years). Seven prospective and six cross-sectional studies (N = 58,203 participants) reported on the association between dairy consumption and depressive symptoms or disorders. Findings were mixed, with one study reporting a positive association; five studies reporting no association; and seven studies reporting mixed associations depending on dairy type, gender or population group. We found conflicting and inconsistent associations in studies that were generally of fair quality. Future longitudinal and intervention studies that employ more rigorous dietary assessment methods are warranted.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Differences in efficacy evaluation endpoints in clinical trials for claiming reduction of post-prandial glycemic response between Japan and the European Union
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Nanae Tanemura; Keisuke Ito; Naobumi Hamadate; Masaya Koshizaka; Hisashi Urushihara

    When evaluating the efficacy of foods with health claims (FHC), each country sets different standards for efficacy evaluation endpoints in clinical trials, which may result in a barrier, namely the case that the claim that is allowed in Japan cannot be used on the label in another region and vice versa. We aimed to investigate the efficacy evaluation endpoints used in clinical trials of FFCs containing ID and submitted in Japan, in reference to the EU requirements for substantiating the claim, namely “reduction of post-prandial glycemic responses”. We detected only one difference in efficacy evaluation endpoints, which was insulin levels. We found 67 such clinical trials cited in systematic literature reviews on finished products or functional substance(s). Of these, 43 (64%) trials lacked insulin assessment. Particularly, for foods that were claimed to reduce post-prandial glycemic responses, the EU does not consider a claim to be substantiated unless insulin levels have been evaluated. Our findings suggest the need for standardization of requirements for FHC between Japan and the EU. This consideration will strengthen the evidence for clinical significance of ID and allow products labeled with this health claim to be more widely distributed.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Effects of processing and storage on pesticide residues in foods
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Nuran Yigit; Yakup Sedat Velioglu

    Pesticides are chemicals frequently used in agriculture to obtain maximum yield and improve product quality. Thousands of active ingredients and formulations of different pesticides are commercially available. Besides their advantages, a major disadvantage of pesticides is their residues, even though strict maximum residue limits have been set for each pesticide and permitted agricultural commodity. Permanence of pesticide residues on agricultural products depends on several factors such as the properties of pesticide, formulation, and applied concentration. Light, temperature, plant morphology, and plant growth factors are also effective in determining permanence. Degradation effects of the processing treatments rely on the dissolution of pesticides in the surrounding atmosphere, hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, penetration, and photo-degradation. Various steps applied during food processing, such as washing with water or other aqueous solutions, peeling, chopping, pickling, heat treatments, and processes such as drying, canning, fruit juice and concentrate production, malt, beer and wine production, oil production, and storage have certain effects on the presence of pesticide residues as well. Only washing with water can remove pesticide residue up to 100%, depending on the location of residue, residence time on food, water solubility of residue, washing temperature, and agents used to increase effectiveness. Besides washing, skin removal or peeling is one of the most effective treatments for residue removal, especially on non-systemic pesticides. During cooking, residues might be evaporated or hydrolyzed. Effects of storage temperature on reduction are related to volatilization, penetration, metabolism of pesticide, moisture content, and microbial growth, if any. In refrigerated or frozen storage, residues are stable or degrade slowly. Drying may increase the residue content because of the concentration, but in sun-drying reduction may occur because of photo-degradation. Clarification and filtration may eliminate residues retained in suspended particles. The degradation product, however, may be more toxic than the initial compound in some cases.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Inhibitory effects of organic acids on polyphenol oxidase: From model systems to food systems
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Lei Zhou; Tao Liao; Wei Liu; Liqiang Zou; Chengmei Liu; Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe

    Organic acids are widely utilized in the food industry for inhibiting the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and enzymatic browning. This review discusses the mechanisms of inhibition of PPO and enzymatic browning by various organic acids based on studies in model systems, critically evaluates the relevance of such studies to real food systems and assesses the implication of the synergistic inhibitory effects of organic acids with other physicochemical processing techniques on product quality and safety. Organic acids inhibit the activity of PPO and enzymatic browning via different mechanisms and therefore the suitability of a particular organic acid depends on the structure and the catalytic properties of PPO and the physicochemical properties of the food matrix. Studies in model systems provide an invaluable insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of various organics acids. However, the difference in the effectiveness of PPO inhibitors between model systems and food systems and the lack of correlation between the degree of PPO inhibition based on in vitro assays and enzymatic browning imply that the effectiveness of organic acids can be accurately evaluated only via direct assessment of browning inhibition in a particular food system. Combination of organic acids with physical processing techniques is one of the most viable approaches for PPO inhibition since the observed synergistic effect helps to reduce the undesirable organoleptic quality changes from the use of excessive concentration of organic acids or intense physical processing.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • The effects of isolated soy protein, isolated soy isoflavones and soy protein containing isoflavones on serum lipids in postmenopausal women: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Maedeh Moradi; Elnaz Daneshzad; Leila Azadbakht

    Background: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of soy products on serum lipids. However, the responsible soy components and the magnitude of effects in healthy or hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women are unclear. This review assessed the quality of these RCTs and estimated the effects of isolated soy protein, isolated soy isoflavones and soy protein containing isoflavones on total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG), Apolipoprotein (Apo) A-1 and Apo B among postmenopausal women. Design: Forty-six eligible randomized controlled trials published up to 20 May 2019 were identified from the PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes in serum lipid concentrations by using random-effect models. Specific subgroup analyses were performed to identify the effect of covariates on serum lipid changes. Results: Soy consumption was associated with significant decrease in TG (mean differences (MD): −5.04 mg/dl; 95% CI: −9.95, −0.13; P = 0.044), TC (MD: −3.02 mg/dl; 95% CI: −5.56, −0.47; P = 0.02), LDL-C (MD: −3.27 mg/dl; 95% CI: −6.01, −0.53; P = 0.019) and HDL-C (MD: −2.28 mg/dl; 95% CI: −4.27, −0.29; P = 0.025). The reduction in LDL-C, TG and HDL were larger in subjects consuming isolated soy protein than isolated soy isoflavones. There was a significant decrease in serum TG and HDL levels with dosages of >25 grams per day soy protein rather than lower dosages of soy protein. The reductions in Apo A-1 were significantly larger in hypercholesterolemic subjects than in healthy subjects. Conclusions: Isolated soy protein significantly reduced serum TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and Apo-B levels in postmenopausal women. Isolated soy isoflavones had a significant lowering effect on serum TC and Apo B levels. Soy protein containing isoflavones significantly reduced TG, TC, LDL-C and Apo B levels. Therefore, hyperlipidemia risk reduction with soy products is not uniform and strongly depends on the protein and isoflavone content of soy products, duration and dosage of consumption.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • The effects of vitamin C and E on exercise-induced physiological adaptations: a systematic review and Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Tom Clifford; Owen Jeffries; Emma J. Stevenson; Kelly A. Bowden Davies

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the effect of vitamin C and/or E on exercise-induced training adaptations. Medline, Embase and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for articles from inception until June 2019. Inclusion criteria was studies in adult humans where vitamin C and/or E had to be consumed alongside a supervised exercise training program of ≥4 weeks. Nine trials were included in the analysis of aerobic exercise adaptations and nine for resistance training (RT) adaptations. Vitamin C and/or E did not attenuate aerobic exercise induced improvements in maximal aerobic capacity ( V̇O2max) (SMD −0.14, 95% CI: −0.43 to 0.15, P = 0.35) or endurance performance (SMD −0.01, 95% CI: −0.38 to 0.36, P = 0.97). There were also no effects of these supplements on lean mass and muscle strength following RT (SMD −0.07, 95% CI: −0.36 to 0.23, P = 0.67) and (SMD −0.15, 95% CI: −0.16 to 0.46, P = 0.35), respectively. There was also no influence of age on any of these outcomes (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that vitamin C and/or E does not inhibit exercise-induced changes in physiological function. Studies with larger sample sizes and adequate power are still required.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Health promoting properties of blueberries: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-29
    Sara Silva; Eduardo M. Costa; Mariana Veiga; Rui M. Morais; Conceição Calhau; Manuela Pintado

    With the strengthening of the link between diet and health, several foodstuffs have emerged as possessing potential health benefits such as phenolic rich fruits and vegetables. Blueberries, along with other berries, given their flavonoid and antioxidant content have long since been considered as a particularly interesting health promoting fruit. Therefore, the present work aimed to compile the existing evidences regarding the various potential benefits of blueberry and blueberry based products consumption, giving particular relevance to in vivo works and epidemiological studies whenever available. Overall, the results demonstrate that, while the evidences that support a beneficial role of blueberry and blueberry extracts consumption, further human based studies are still needed.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based microfluidic chip for pathogen detection
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-20
    Yuting Shang; Jiadi Sun; Yongli Ye; Jumei Zhang; Yinzhi Zhang; Xiulan Sun

    Due to the significant growth of food production, the potential likelihood of food contamination is increasing. Foodborne illness caused by bacterial pathogens has considerably increased over the past decades, while at the same time, the species of harmful microorganisms also varied. Conventional bacterial culturing methods have been unable to satisfy the growing requirement for food safety inspections and food quality assurance. Therefore, rapid and simple detection methods are urgently needed. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology is a highly promising approach for the rapid and sensitive detection of pathogens, which allows nucleic acid amplification under isothermal conditions. The integration of the LAMP assay onto a microfluidic chip is highly compatible with point-of-care or resource-limited settings, as it offers the capability to perform experiments in combination with high screening efficiency. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in LAMP-based microfluidic chip technology for detecting pathogens, based on real-time or endpoint determination mechanisms. We also discuss the promoting aspects of using the LAMP technique in a microfluidic platform, to supply a guideline for further molecular diagnosis and genetic analysis.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Swabbing the surface: critical factors in environmental monitoring and a path towards standardization and improvement
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Sarah L. Jones; Steven C. Ricke; D. Keith Roper; Kristen E. Gibson

    Cross-contamination can be broadly defined as the transfer, direct or indirect, of microorganisms from a contaminated product to a non-contaminated product. Events that may result in cross-contamination include inadequate hygiene practices, contaminated equipment surfaces, contamination via food handling personnel, further product processing, or storage abuse All of these niches require consistent environmental surveillance systems to monitor microbial harborage sites to prevent foodborne illnesses via cross-contamination. Environmental surveillance is achieved through routine surface sampling of the food contact surfaces and surrounding areas. To better understand cross-contamination, the role of environmental surface transmission during outbreaks due to the presence and persistence of pathogenic microorganisms on various food contact surfaces must be investigated. However, studies on environmental sampling techniques are rarely performed in an actual food processing environment but rather under controlled variables within a laboratory-setting. Moreover, results and conclusions of studies differ because of the considerable variability across surface sampling tools due to individual operator dependency, low recovery rates, and low reproducibility. Information is also often lacking on environmental sampling tools used within a processing facility, the characterization of these tools, and the optimization of recovery of microorganisms for surface sampling. Thus, this review aims to: (1) discuss and compare factors impacting the recovery of microorganisms and the standardization of surface sampling methods for optimal recovery of microorganisms and (2) examine how research strategies could focus more towards the development of standard methodologies for surface sampling.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Bacterial folate biosynthesis and colorectal cancer risk: more than just a gut feeling
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-03
    Dieuwertje E. Kok; Wilma T. Steegenga; Eddy J. Smid; Erwin G. Zoetendal; Cornelia M. Ulrich; Ellen Kampman

    Abstract Folate is a B-vitamin with an important role in health and disease. The optimal folate status with regard to human health remains controversial. A low intake of natural folate as well as excessive intake of synthetic folic acid, were previously linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer or with aberrant molecular pathways related to carcinogenesis in some studies. Importantly, most studies conducted so far, solely focused on dietary intake or circulating levels of folate in relation to cancer risk. Notably, diet or dietary supplements are not the only sources of folate. Several bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract can synthesize B-vitamins, including folate, in quantities that resemble dietary intake. The impact of bacterial folate biosynthesis concerning human health and disease remains unexplored. This review highlights current insights into folate biosynthesis by intestinal bacteria and its implications for processes relevant to cancer development, such as epigenetic DNA modifications and DNA synthesis. Moreover, we will reflect on the emerging question whether food-grade or intestinal bacteria can be considered a potential target to ensure sufficient levels of folate in the gastrointestinal tract and, hence the relevance of bacterial folate biosynthesis for disease prevention or treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Important drug-micronutrient interactions: A selection for clinical practice
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-23
    Uwe Gröber; Joachim Schmidt; Klaus Kisters

    Interactions between drugs and micronutrients have received only little or no attention in the medical and pharmaceutical world in the past. Since more and more pharmaceutics are used for the treatment of patients, this topic is increasingly relevant. As such interactions – depending on the duration of treatment and the status of micronutrients – impact the health of the patient and the action of the drugs, physicians and pharmacists should pay more attention to such interactions in the future. This review aims to sensitize physicians and pharmacists on drug micronutrient interactions with selected examples of widely pescribed drugs that can precipitate micronutrient deficiencies. In this context, the pharmacist, as a drug expert, assumes a particular role. Like no other professional in the health care sector, he is particularly predestined and called up to respond to this task. The following article intends to point out the relevance of mutual interactions between micronutrients and various examples of widely used drugs, without claiming to be exhaustive.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Research advances on the formation mechanism of resistant starch type III: A review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-30
    Zhen Ma; Xinzhong Hu; Joyce I. Boye

    Resistant starch (RS) plays a key role in providing metabolic and colonic health benefits. In particular, RS type III (RS3) is of great interest because of its thermal stability and its preserved nutritional functionality. RS3 can be prepared by physical treatment, including high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, extrusion, autoclaving, microwave cooking, and heat-moisture treatment. The acid and enzymatic hydrolysis can also be applied to facilitate the generation of small molecules, which increases the inherent crystallinity of RS3 upon retrogradation. Depending on processing conditions, RS3 with diversified structural characteristics can be formed. These structures play a key role in determining the physiological behavior of RS3. Therefore, a deep understanding of the structural rearrangement pattern during different processing treatment is of great importance for regulating the molecular structure of RS3 and thereby its corresponding physiological properties. This review thus focuses on the past and current status of research into the in-depth study of RS3 formation mechanism and the changes to RS3 structural characteristics under different processing conditions. The objective was to provide a theoretical guidance for the rational selection of preparation methods for RS3 and for designing RS3 structures with specific physiological functionalities for relevant industrial applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Current regulatory guidelines and resources to support research of dietary supplements in the United States
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Regan L. Bailey

    The U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) established the regulatory framework for dietary supplements as foods through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). DSHEA outlined the legal definition, labeling requirements, and process for adverse event reporting for dietary supplements. FDA also issued formal guidance on current Good Manufacturing Practice to ensure that processes for preparation, packaging, labeling, and storage of supplements and ingredients are documented and meet specifications to ensure purity, composition, and strength. However, efficacy of dietary supplements is not required under U.S. law. Despite regulations to improve the marketplace, many challenges remain; as a result, the quality and safety of products available can be highly variable, especially for botanical and herbal products. The ability of regulators to successfully carry out their mission is hampered by the sheer number of products and manufacturing facilities and a lack of analytical methods for all ingredients and products in the marketplace, this is especially difficult for herbal and botanical dietary supplements. Safety issues continue to exist such as adulteration and contamination, especially with specific product types (i.e. body building, sexual enhancement). Thus, a need remains for continued efforts and improved techniques to assess the quality of dietary supplements, especially with regard to purity, bioavailability, and safety. This review will highlight the existing American regulatory framework for dietary supplements and will describe the remaining regulatory barriers to ensuring that safe and high-quality dietary supplements are offered in the marketplace.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Essential oils as natural preservatives for bakery products: Understanding the mechanisms of action, recent findings, and applications
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Mohsen Gavahian; Yan-Hwa Chu; Jose M. Lorenzo; Amin Mousavi Khaneghah; Francisco J. Barba

    Bakery products, as an important part of a healthy diet, are characterized by their limited shelf-life. Microbiological spoilage of these products not only affects the quality characteristics and result in the economic loss but also threatens consumer’s health. Incorporation of chemical preservatives, as one of the most conventional preserving techniques, lost its popularity due to the increasing consumer’s health awareness. Therefore, the bakery industry is seeking alternatives to harmful antimicrobial agents that can be accepted by health-conscious customers. In this regard, essential oils have been previously used as either a part of product ingredient or a part of the packaging system. Therefore, the antimicrobial aspect of essential oils and their ability in delaying the microbiological spoilage of bakery products have been reviewed. Several types of essential oils, including thyme, cinnamon, oregano, and lemongrass, can inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms in bakery products, resulting in a product with extended shelf-life and enhanced safety. Research revealed that several bioactive compounds are involved in the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. However, some limitations, such as the possible negative effects of essential oils on sensory parameters, may limit their applications, especially in high concentrations. In this case, they can be used in combination with other preservation techniques such as using appropriate packaging materials. Further research regarding the commercial production of the bakery products formulated with essential oils is required in this area.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Recently isolated antidiabetic hydrolysates and peptides from multiple food sources: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-21
    Bababode Adesegun Kehinde; Poorva Sharma

    Diabetes, a metabolic syndrome of global importance has been on a progressive rise in recent years. Several pharmacological approaches have been made, which have proved effective, but with underlying side effects. Bioactive hydrolysates (BHs) and peptides (BPs) from food sources, however, have shown the relative advantage of imparting less adverse effects. Furthermore, BHs and BPs from food have been discovered to impart their antidiabetic potentials through one or more mechanisms such as inhibition of digestive enzymes, inhibition of the antigenic enzyme – Dipeptyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), decrease in blood glucose levels and increase in insulin uptake. Several plants and animal sources have been used as protein sources for the isolation of antidiabetic hydrolysates and peptides through different mechanisms and analytical techniques. This review integrates recent research information about several popular and unconventional food sources of BHs and BPs, their isolation techniques, antidiabetic effects and protein profiles. In addition, the fractionation technique(s) employed in each study and inhibition potentials of BHs and BPs are reviewed. This article is intended to supplement accessible scholarly literature and intellectual awareness on the subject of food-oriented approach for the management of diabetes.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • A comprehensive review of the value-added uses of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skins and by-products
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-30
    Ondulla T. Toomer

    Globally, peanut seeds are grown for oil production, peanut butter, confections, snacks and protein extenders, leaving the peanut by-products (skins, peanut hulls) as waste for disposal. Numerous studies have identified the value added attributes of peanut skins and/or peanut skin extracts as an antioxidant, functional food ingredient, animal production feed ingredient, and antimicrobial agent. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the food and non-food uses of peanut skins and/or extracts, and new uses of this significant agricultural waste product produced in the peanut industry. An improved comprehensive knowledge and better understanding of the value added uses of peanut skins enables us to better define future food and non-food uses of this agricultural by-product.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Current processing and packing technology for space foods: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Jiahui Jiang; Min Zhang; Bhesh Bhandari; Ping Cao

    With the launch of aerospace business, the national space agency has been working actively to improve the living environment of astronauts in outer space. Since 1980s, space food has been greatly enriched, except the differences in form, most of the foods on earth can be enjoyed in space. In this article, the space foods are classified, in general divided into five parts that include natural form food, intermediate moisture food, thermostabilized food, rehydrating food and irradiated food. New type of space food processing technology is also reviewed, including freeze-drying, irradiation sterilization, high pressure processing, microwave assisted thermal sterilization, food 3 D printing and the packaging of space food products, mainly including the packaging materials already used by the present space food system, and the feasibility analysis of some emerging high barrier packaging materials in the research stage. Finally, the review highlights the prospects of future space food system, including the development of in-orbit food preparation technology and the research of life support system.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and dietary fructose in relation to risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Soraiya Ebrahimpour-koujan; Parvane Saneei; Bagher Larijani; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    Background: Findings on the association of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fructose intakes with gout and hyperuricemia have been conflicting. Objective: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies that examined the association of SSB and fructose consumption with gout and hyperuricemia in adults. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar up to Aug 2017 for all relevant published papers assessing SSB and fructose intakes and risk of gout and hyperuricemia. After excluding non-relevant papers, 10 studies remained in our systematic. Meta-analysis on SSB consumption and risk of gout was done on three effect sizes from cohort studies and five effect sizes from case-control studies. For risk of hyperuricemia, the meta-analysis was done on six effect sizes from cross-sectional studies. All analyses were performed on ORs or RRs. Results: We found an overall significant positive association between SSB consumption and risk of gout in both cohort (summary effect size: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.18–1.55) and case-control studies (summary effect size: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06–1.66). Meta-analysis on cross-sectional studies revealed that SSB consumption was associated with 35% greater odds of hyperuricemia (summary effect size: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.19–1.52). No evidence of between-study heterogeneity as well as publication bias was found. Although the studies on fructose intake and risk of gout and hyperuricemia were included in our systematic review, we did not perform met-analysis on these studies due to insufficient number of publications. Conclusion: We found that SSB consumption was significantly associated with increased risk of gout and hyperuricemia in adult population. Further studies are needed to examine the association between dietary fructose intake and risk of gout and hyepruricemia.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Molecular techniques reveal more secrets of fermented foods
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Aly Farag El Sheikha; Dian-Ming Hu

    Fermented foods were likely to have been the first among all types of processed foods consumed by human beings. The role that fermented food plays is not only related to the development of civilizations and cultural relationships between countries but also related to the nutritional importance of its population. Of course, the early manufacturers of fermented foods didn’t take into account the advantages of modern sciences, because enzymes and microorganisms were discovered just 150-200 years ago. For that reason, we can conclude why the ancient fermentation techniques were known to philosophers and alchemists, but not to biologists. It demonstrated that the fermentation mechanisms involved many secrets still undiscovered. Recently, applications of molecular techniques for analyzing and study the fermented foods have been explored. In this review, we provide answers with a critical vision to many questions for understanding the role of molecular techniques to discover the secrets of fermented foods such as how to evaluate the traditional fermented foods? Why using molecular techniques to study the fermented foods not else? Is the future will carry to us a boom in molecular technologies contribute to the detection of more secrets of the fermented food?

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Cheesomics: the future pathway to understanding cheese flavour and quality
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Roya Afshari; Christopher J. Pillidge; Daniel A. Dias; A. Mark Osborn; Harsharn Gill

    Cheese is a fermented dairy product, harboring diverse microbial communities (microbiota) that change over time and vary depending on the type of cheese and their respective starter and adjunct cultures. These microorganisms play a crucial role in determining the flavor, quality and safety of the final product. Exploring the composition of cheese microbiota and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cheese ripening has been the subject of many studies. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) methods and the development of sophisticated bioinformatics tools have provided deeper insights into the composition and potential functionality of cheese microbiota far beyond the information provided by culture-dependent methods. These advances, which include rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomics, have been complemented and expanded in recent years by the application of metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics. This paper reviews studies in which application of these meta-omics technologies has led to a better understanding of the microbial composition and functionality of cheese and highlights opportunities by which the integration of outputs from diverse multi-omics analytical platforms (cheesomics) could be used in the future to advance our knowledge of the cheese ripening process and identify biomarkers for predicting cheese flavor, quality, texture and safety, and bioactive metabolites with potential to influence human health.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Methods of extraction, separation, purification, structural characterization for polysaccharides from aquatic animals and their major pharmacological activities
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Qingping Xiong; Zhuoyue Song; Weihui Hu; Jian Liang; Yi Jing; Lian He; Song Huang; Xiaoli Wang; Shaozhen Hou; Tingting Xu; Jing Chen; Danyan Zhang; Yingying Shi; Hailun Li; Shijie Li

    The further development of fishery resources is a hotspot in the development of the fishery industry. However, how to develop aquatic animal resources deeply is a key point to be solved in the fishery industry. Over the past decades, numerous aquatic animals have gained great attention in the development and utilization of their bioactive molecules which are of therapeutic applications as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Recent research revealed that aquatic animals are composed of many vital moieties, such as polysaccharides and proteins, which provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. In particular, aquatic animal polysaccharides are gaining worldwide popularity owing to their high content, ease of extraction, specific structure, few side effects, prominent therapeutic potential and incorporation in functional foods and dietary supplements. Thus, tremendous research on the isolation, identification and bioactivities of polysaccharides has been carried out. This review presents comprehensive viewpoints on extraction, separation, purification, structural characterization and bioactivity of various polysaccharides from aquatic animals, such as sea cucumber, abalone, oyster and mussels. In addition, this review profiled a brief knowledge on both current challenges and future scope in aquatic animal polysaccharides field. The review will be a direction of deep processing in fishery resources, which is a hotspot, but technical bottleneck. Furthermore, the review could be served as a useful reference material for further investigation, production and application of polysaccharides from aquatic animals in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Interactions of salivary mucins and saliva with food proteins: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Hilal Y. Çelebioğlu; Seunghwan Lee; Ioannis S. Chronakis

    Mucins are long glycoprotein molecules responsible for the gel nature of the mucous layer that covers epithelial surfaces throughout the body. Mucins, as the major salivary proteins, are also important proteins for the food oral processing and digestion. The interactions of salivary mucins and saliva with several food proteins and food protein emulsions, as well as their functional properties related to the food oral processing were reviewed in this paper. The target food proteins of focus were whey proteins (lactoferrin and beta-lactoglobulin) and non-whey proteins (casein, gelatin, galectin/lectin, and proline-rich proteins). Most of the studies suggest that electrostatic attraction (between positively charged food proteins with negatively charged moieties of mucin mainly on glycosylated region of mucin) is the major mode of interaction between them. On the other hand, casein attracts the salivary proteins only via non-covalent interactions due to its naturally self-assembled micellar structure. Moreover, recent studies related to β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-mucin interactions have clarified the importance of hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic interactions, such as hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, in vitro studies between protein emulsions and saliva observed a strong aggregating effect of saliva on caseinate and whey proteins as well as on surfactant-stabilized emulsions. Besides, the sign and the density of the charge on the surface of the protein emulsion droplets contribute significantly to the behavior of the emulsion when mixed with saliva. Other studies also suggested that the interactions between saliva and whey proteins depends on the pH in addition to the flow rate of the saliva. Overall, the role of interactions of food proteins and food protein emulsions with mucin/saliva-proteins in the oral perception, as well as the physicochemical and structural changes of proteins were discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Effect of nuts on energy intake, hunger, and fullness, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Masoumeh Akhlaghi; Saeed Ghobadi; Morteza Zare; Sahar Foshati

    Despite high energy content, nut consumption has not been associated with weight gain in epidemiological and clinical investigations. Since a satiety effect a decreased sense of hunger in the following meals has been proposed as the mechanism of nuts against obesity, the present meta-analysis was performed to examine how nut consumption affects “energy intake”, “hunger”, and “fullness”. “Weight” was not included among the search terms but weight data were extracted from the collected articles in order to help interpreting the results. A total of 1048 trials were found, of which 31 passed the eligibility process. Daily energy intake was mostly assessed by 3-day food records, and hunger and fullness were estimated by visual analog scale (VAS). Nut consumption was associated with increased energy intake (mean difference (MD) (nuts - control) = 76.3 kcal; 95% CI: 22.7, 130 kcal; P = 0.005). In contrast, hunger suppressed following nut consumption (MD = −6.54 mm VAS; 95% CI: −12.7, −0.42 mm VAS; P = 0.03). Nuts did not affect sense of fullness and weight in the overall estimate. Subgroup analysis based on participants’ BMI revealed that energy intake of overweight/obese individuals was increased following nut consumption while such effect was not observed in normal weight participants. In conclusion, pooled estimates of available clinical trials showed increased energy intake following nut consumption in overweight/obese individuals but not in persons with normal weight. Nut consumption was associated with decreased hunger but no effect was observed on fullness and weight.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Saponins as modulators of nuclear receptors
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-22
    Tiehua Zhang; Shuning Zhong; Tiezhu Li; Jie Zhang

    As plant-derived natural products, saponins have been widely applied for the dietary modification of metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms of their preventive and therapeutic effects are still largely unclear. Nuclear receptors have been identified as potential pharmaceutical targets for treating various types of metabolic disorders. With similar structure to endogenous hormones, several saponins may serve as selective ligands for nuclear receptors. Recently, a series of saponins are proved to exert their physiological activities through binding to nuclear receptors. This review summarizes the biological and pharmacological activities of typical saponins mediated by some of the most well described nuclear receptors, including the classical steroid hormone receptors (ER, GR, MR, and AR) and the adopted orphan receptors (PPAR, LXR, FXR, and PXR).

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Alicyclobacillus spoilage and control - a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-02-07
    Soisuda Pornpukdeewattana; Aphacha Jindaprasert; Salvatore Massa

    In the last few decades Gram positive non pathogenic, rod shaped, thermo-acidophilic and acid-tolerant spore-forming bacteria such as Alicyclobacillus spp. have been identified as the causative agent in spoilage of commercially pasteurized fruit juice. In particular, A. acidoterrestris is considered a major producer of off-flavors. The spores of A. acidoterrestris possess the ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes, to germinate and grow in low pH environments and to produce volatile, unpleasant odorous compound (guaiacol) in fruit juices. The flat sour type of spoilage (without gas production or package swelling) is characterized as having a “medicinal,” “smoky,” and “antiseptic” off-flavor and makes the final juice product unacceptable. Spoilage by Alicyclobacillus is a major concern for producers since many of the new methods, which can destroy spores in the absence of chemical additives, may not destroy Alicyclobacillus. Although A. acidoterrestris is not pathogenic to humans, it can result in significant economic losses to juice processors because of its odor. The present review includes the taxonomy of Alicyclobacillus spp., their general characteristics, their resistance to heat and possible off-flavor production pathways. Particular emphasis is given to commonly used control measures, including physical, chemical and biological treatments currently available for removal of Alicyclobacillus spp.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Synthesis of novel α-glucans with potential health benefits through controlled glucose release in the human gastrointestinal tract
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-11
    Joana Gangoiti; Sarah F. Corwin; Lisa M. Lamothe; Christina Vafiadi; Bruce R. Hamaker; Lubbert Dijkhuizen

    Abstract The glycemic carbohydrates we consume are currently viewed in an unfavorable light in both the consumer and medical research worlds. In significant part, these carbohydrates, mainly starch and sucrose, are looked upon negatively due to their rapid and abrupt glucose delivery to the body which causes a high glycemic response. However, dietary carbohydrates which are digested and release glucose in a slow manner are recognized as providing health benefits. Slow digestion of glycemic carbohydrates can be caused by several factors, including food matrix effect which impedes α-amylase access to substrate, or partial inhibition by plant secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds. Differences in digestion rate of these carbohydrates may also be due to their specific structures (e.g. variations in degree of branching and/or glycosidic linkages present). In recent years, much has been learned about the synthesis and digestion kinetics of novel α-glucans (i.e. small oligosaccharides or larger polysaccharides based on glucose units linked in different positions by α-bonds). It is the synthesis and digestion of such structures that is the subject of this review.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Allergic reactions to hydrolysed wheat proteins: clinical aspects and molecular structures of the allergens involved
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-11-21
    Olivier Tranquet; Colette Larré; Sandra Denery-Papini

    Wheat gluten can be chemically or enzymatically hydrolysed to produce functional ingredients useful in food and cosmetics. However severe allergies to hydrolysed wheat proteins (HWP) have been described in Europe and Japan since the early 2000’s. Triggering proteins and IgE epitopes were described both for French and Japanese cohorts and appeared remarkably similar leading to define a new wheat allergic entity. Deamidation induced by functionalisation generate neo-allergens responsible for this particular allergy. This article aims to review the processes leading to deamidation and the clinical features of the patients suffering from this allergy. Then the molecular determinants involved in HWP-allergy were exhaustively described and hypothesis regarding the sensitizing mechanism of HWP-allergy are discussed. Finally, current regulation and tools aiming at managing this risk associated with HWP are presented.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Paper-based lateral flow strip assay for the detection of foodborne pathogens: principles, applications, technological challenges and opportunities
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Ke Luo; Hae-Yeong Kim; Mi-Hwa Oh; Young-Rok Kim

    As a representative colorimetic biosnesor, paper-based LFSA have emerged as a promising and robust tool that can easily and instansly detect the presence of target biological components in food sample. Recently, LFSAs have gained a considerable attention as an alternative method for rapid diagnosis of foodborne pathogens to the conventional culture-based assays such as plate counting and PCR. One major drawback of the current LFSAs for the detection of pathogenic bacteria is the low sensitivity, limiting its practical applications in POCT. Not like many other protein-based biomarkers that are present in nM or pM range, the number of pathogenic bacteria that cause disease can be as low as few CFU/ml. Here, we review current advances in LFSAs for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in terms of chromatic agents and analyte types. Furthermore, recent approaches for signal enhancement and modifications of the LFSA architecture for multiplex detection of pathogenic bacteria are included in this review, together with the advantages and limitations of each techniques. Finally, the technological challenges and future prospect of LFSA-based POCT for the detection of pathogenic bacteria are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • The effects of curcumin supplementation on body weight, body mass index and waist circumference: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-29
    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Alireza Milajerdi; Hamed Kord Varkaneh; Mohammad Mohsen Gorjipour; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    Background & Objectives: Inconsistent data are available about the effect of curcumin supplementation on body weight. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to summarize data from available clinical trials on the effect of curcumin supplementation on body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and Waist Circumference (WC). Methods: PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched to find relevant articles up to August 2018. The effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Subgroup analysis was done to find possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: Totally, 11 studies that enrolled 876 subjects (53% women) were included. Combining effect sizes suggested a significant effect of curcumin administration on body weight (Weighed Mean Difference (WMD): −1.14 kg, 95% CI: −2.16, −0.12, P = 0.02) and BMI (WMD: −0.48 kg/m2, 95% CI: −0.78, −0.17, P = 0.002), respectively. However, no significant effect of curcumin supplementation on WC was found (WMD: −1.51 cm, 95% CI: −4.041, 1.003, P = 0.23). Based on subgroup analysis, we found that the effect of curcumin on WC was significant in studies that prescribed ≥1000 mg/d curcumin (P ≤ 0.001), those with the intervention duration of ≥8 weeks (P ≤ 0.001), and those that was performed on overweight subjects (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: We found a significant effect of curcumin supplementation on body weight and BMI, but not on WC. However, the effect of curcumin on WC was significant in studies done on overweight subjects, used ≥1000 mg/d curcumin, and ≥8 weeks of duration.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Effects of phytochemicals on cellular signaling: reviewing their recent usage approaches
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Dinh-Chuong Pham, M. A. Shibu, B. Mahalakshmi, Bharath Kumar Velmurugan

    Most of the previous studies in last three decades report evidence of interactions between the different phytochemicals and the proteins involved in signal transduction pathways using in silico, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses. However, extrapolation of these findings for clinical purposes has not been that fruitful. The efficacy of the phytochemicals in vivo studies is limited by parameters such as solubility, metabolic degradation, excretion, etc. Various approaches have now been devised to circumvent these limitations. Recently, chemical modification of the phytochemicals are demonstrated to reduce some of the limitations and improve their efficacy. Similar to traditional medicines several combinatorial phytochemical formulations have shown to be more efficient. Further, phytochemicals have been reported to be even more efficient in the form of nanoparticles. However, systematic evaluation of their efficacy, mode of action in pathway modulation, usage and associated challenges is required to be done. The present review begins with basic understanding of how signaling cascades regulate cellular response and the consequences of their dysregulation further summarizing the developments and problems associated with the dietary phytochemicals and also discuss recent approaches in strengthening these compounds in pharmacological applications. Only context relevant studies have been reviewed. Considering the limitations and scope of the article, authors do not claim inclusion of all the early and recent studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Nutritional and other health properties of olive pomace oil
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Raquel Mateos, Beatriz Sarria, Laura Bravo

    Olive-pomace oil is rich in oleic acid, and thus it can be an interesting dietary fat alternative as it can allow reaching the recommendation of consuming 20% of total diet energy in the form of monounsaturated fatty acids. In addition, olive-pomace oil also contains a wide range of minor components that may contribute to its healthy properties. The major components identified with healthy properties are triterpenic dialcohols and acids, squalene, tocopherols, sterols, fatty alcohols and phenolic compounds. The refining process, that the crude pomace-oil must undergo for commercial purposes, significantly reduces the content of phenolic compounds, while the other minor components remain at concentrations which can induce positive health effects, especially on cardiovascular health, outstanding pentacyclic triterpenes and aliphatic fatty alcohols in olive-pomace oil. Numerous in vitro and preclinical studies support that mainly the pure compounds, or extracts isolated from plant sources, play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Likewise, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols, in addition to the minor fraction of phenolic compounds, have shown high biological activity with particular association to the cardiovascular function. In the light of the foregoing, and taking into consideration the absence of clinical studies with olive-pomace oil, it would be of great interest to develop randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind studies to extend the knowledge and understanding on the health effects of olive-pomace olive.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Sour Cherry By-products: Compositions, Functional Properties and Recovery Potentials – A Review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz, Ahmet Görgüç, Mehmet Karaaslan, Hasan Vardin, Seda Ersus Bilek, Özge Uygun, Cavit Bircan

    Sour (tart) cherry is an industrial fruit where a considerable amount of by-products remain after processing. Sour cherry by-products consist of pomace (skin and flesh) and seeds (pit, stone) which remain after the fruit juice and IQF processes. Sour cherry pomace is characterized with a high content of phenolic compounds and the seed constitutes a high oil yield with beneficial effects on human health because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. There has been a great interest in sour cherry by-products due to the increasing production rate of sour cherry worldwide and the increasing efforts on seeking bioactive compounds from natural sources as functional food. Thus, there have been a number of studies regarding the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed, especially in the last five years. The present review summarizes the chemical, biological, functional, and technological properties of the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed with their current and potential applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Effects of protein oxidation on the texture and water-holding of meat: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Yulong Bao, Per Ertbjerg

    Protein oxidation readily occurs in postmortem muscle during storage and processing. Over the past decade new analytical methods have been developed and new aspects of protein oxidation in meat have been studied, such as the reaction mechanism, and impacts on eating quality and nutritional value. It is now evident that amino acid side chains in myofibrillar proteins undergoes modifications due to oxidative stress. In turn this will lead to formation of new protein-protein cross-links in structural proteins, however, also the overall level of fixed-charge groups attached to the peptide backbones is modified. Meat texture and water-holding are important quality attributes and they are affected by the oxidation of structural proteins. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the oxidation-induced quality changes, focusing mainly on reduced proteolysis and formation of cross-links. This review explores the current understanding of protein oxidation in fresh meat in relation to texture and water-holding. The consequences of protein oxidation at molecular level in relation to oxidation-induced cross-linking and changes in net charges of myofibrillar proteins, and the impacts on texture and water-holding are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Thermal processing food-related toxicants: a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Agnieszka Koszucka, Adriana Nowak

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines, acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, acrolein, chloropropanols and chloroesters are generated toxicants formed in some foodstuffs, mainly starchy and protein-rich food during thermal treatment such as frying, roasting and baking. The formation of these chemical compounds is associated with development of aromas, colors and flavors. One of the challenges facing the food industry today is to minimize these toxicants without adversely affecting the positive attributes of thermal processing. To achieve this objective, it is essential to have a detailed understanding of the mechanism of formation of these toxicants in processed foods. All reviewed toxicants in that paper are classified as probable, possible or potential human carcinogens and have been proven to be carcinogenic in animal studies. The purpose of that review is to summarize some of the most frequent occurring heat-generated food toxicants during conventional heating, their metabolism and carcinogenicity. Moreover, conventional and microwave heating were also compared as two different heat treatment methods, especially how they change food chemical composition and which thermal food toxicants are formed during specific method.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the quality and safety analysis of fats and oils: A review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-20
    Qi Li, Jia Chen, Zongyao Huyan, Yuxing Kou, Lirong Xu, Xiuzhu Yu, Jin-Ming Gao

    Fats and oils are essential food components. Their quality and safety pose major concerns for consumers and food producers because of factors such as oxidation and rancidity, excessive levels of trans fatty acid (TFA), and widespread adulteration. Thus, a rapid and easy-to-use technique must be exploited for quality parameter evaluation and monitoring to ensure the edibility, safety, and quality of fats and oils. In the last decades, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has shown great potential in analyzing fats and oils given its speed and simplicity. FTIR-based analytical techniques for common intrinsic quality parameters, including peroxide value, free fatty acid, moisture, TFA, iodine value, as well as oxidation stability, adulteration, and classification of various fats and oils, are summarized in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of selected infrared spectral accessories and sample preparation and spectral processing methods are highlighted. The prospects and reformative aspects for future application of the FTIR technique in the field of fats and oils are also discussed. This review may serve as a basis for applying FTIR not only in future research but also in the fat and oil industries.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • The food matrix: implications in processing, nutrition and health
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    José Miguel Aguilera

    The concept of food matrix has received much attention lately in reference to its effects on food processing, nutrition and health. However, the term matrix is used vaguely by food and nutrition scientists, often as synonymous of the food itself or its microstructure. This review analyses the concept of food matrix and proposes a classification for the major types of matrices found in foods. The food matrix may be viewed as a physical domain that contains and/or interacts with specific constituents of a food (e.g., a nutrient) providing functionalities and behaviors which are different from those exhibited by the components in isolation or a free state. The effect of the food matrix (FM-effect) is discussed in reference to food processing, oral processing and flavor perception, satiation and satiety, and digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The FM-effect has also implications in nutrition, food allergies and food intolerances, and in the quality and relevance of results of analytical techniques. The role of the food matrix in the design of healthy foods is also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Recent advances in Levansucrase and Inulosucrase: evolution, characteristics, and application
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-12-30
    Wei Xu, Dawei Ni, Wenli Zhang, Cuie Guang, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu

    Levan and inulin are two types of fructan. Levan is composed of β-(2, 6) fructosyl linkage and inulin is composed of β-(2, 1) linkage. Both levan and inulin have been accepted and applied in the food, medicinal and chemical industries for their outstanding physicochemical properties in recent years. Microbial levansucrase and inulosucrase are key enzymes responsible for the synthesis of fructan from sucrose. In this review, levansucrase and inulosucrase are discussed together for the first time regarding the evolutionary relationships, bacteria origin, crystal structure, product-forming mechanism and commercial applications. Particularly, some insights into the product specificity about levansucrase and inulosucrase as well as the mechanism for product elongation for fructan are also discussed in the article.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Intestinal in vitro cell culture models and their potential to study the effect of food components on intestinal inflammation
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2018-10-02
    Maria del Carmen Ponce de León-Rodríguez, Jean-Pierre Guyot, Caroline Laurent-Babot

    Cell cultures are widely used in pharmaceutical, medical, food/nutrition and biological sciences. In food and nutrition science, intestinal cell culture models of human origin are attracting increasing interest but are still rarely used in investigations of the effects of bioactive food compounds on intestinal inflammation. However, such in vitro models would, among other benefits, limit the use of in vivo models and could provide new molecular data. This review is an overview of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) intestinal cell culture models and their potential use in gut inflammation studies. After describing the features of healthy and inflamed intestinal barriers, we describe the main intestinal cell lines (Caco2, HT29, T84) and their use in investigations of the transport and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory potential of some bioactive food compounds. Finally, different co-culture models of gut inflammation, in association with immune cells (PBMC, THP1 and RAW 264.7 cell lines) in both 2D and 3D models are presented. 3D models called organs-on-chips or biochips are the most recent and very promising approach made possible by bioengineering and biotechnological improvements and more accurately mimic the gut microenvironment.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Application of nanotechnology based-biosensors in analysis of wine compounds and control of wine quality and safety: A critical review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Bozena Hosnedlova, Jiri Sochor, Mojmir Baron, Geir Bjørklund, Rene Kizek

    Nanotechnology is one of the most promising future technologies for the food industry. Some of its applications have already been introduced in analytical techniques and food packaging technologies. This review summarizes existing knowledge about the implementation of nanotechnology in wine laboratory procedures. The focus is mainly on recent advancements in the design and development of nanomaterial-based sensors for wine compounds analysis and assessing wine safety. Nanotechnological approaches could be useful in the wine production process, to simplify wine analysis methods, and to improve the quality and safety of the final product.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Emerging trends of advanced sensor based instruments for meat, poultry and fish quality– a review
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    John Lewis Zinia Zaukuu, George Bazar, Zoltan Gillay, Zoltan Kovacs

    Abstract Meat and fish chemical composition and sensory attributes are markers of quality that require innovative assessment methods as existing ones are rather technical, laborious, and expensive. Emerging trends of advanced technology instruments have been lauded in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries for their high sensitivity, customizability, rapidness and affordability. Common among these, are the electronic tongue (e-tongue) and electronic nose (e-nose) but their use for meat and fish quality, remains scanty and scattered. This paper aims to systematically discuss the developing trends, principles and the recent use of e-tongue and e-nose for quality measurements in fish and meat. From over 90 research papers, it was observed that an arsenal of chemometric tools have been pivotal in applying these instruments for rapid quantitative, qualitative and predictive analysis of some physical properties, chemical properties, storability and the authentication of meat and fish. Both instruments require no reagent (waste free analytical procedure) and have been lauded for precision and*accuracy but e-nose may be better suited for meat and fish assessments. Unlike the e-tongue, e-nose requires no liquid sample preparation and portable versions are promising for rapid remote analysis of meat and fish samples that can save cost on transferring carcass to laboratories.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
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