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  • Osmotic Processing of Meat: Mathematical Modeling and Quality Parameters
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Dafni Dimakopoulou-Papazoglou, Eugenios Katsanidis

    Osmotic processing is a mild treatment which promotes the simultaneous water removal and solute impregnation of meat, maintains the organoleptic and functional properties of the products, and extends meat product shelf life. This review has given emphasis on the mechanism of osmotic processing and on recent developments regarding the factors affecting the osmotic treatment of meat. These factors are related to the food product, the nature and properties of the osmotic agents, and the process parameters, such as temperature, concentration of solution, duration time, and agitation. Moreover, the mathematical models used to describe mass transfer phenomena during osmotic processing of meat are discussed. Specifically, the diffusion model and some of the more important empirical models (Peleg, Azuara, Hawkes and Fink, Zugarramurdi and Lupin) are discussed, and a comparison among the different models is presented. Additionally, the quality characteristics and shelf life of the resulting products are also discussed. Despite the fact that there are several studies on osmotic processing of meat, reports on the effects of treatment on final product quality are still limited.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Nanoscale Delivery System for Nutraceuticals: Preparation, Application, Characterization, Safety, and Future Trends
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Jiawei Chen, Liandong Hu

    Nutraceuticals are an emerging food category defined as food or parts of food that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. The potential disease prevention and health promotion of many nutraceuticals are not fully realized because they are susceptible to the changes in the external environment and the gastrointestinal tract environment. Consequently, the great potential of nanoscale delivery systems in the nutraceutical industry is being rapidly established, especially in the encapsulation, protection, and delivery of nutraceuticals. This article first introduces the challenges of incorporating nutraceuticals into foods. Then, various nanoscale delivery systems (nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, polymer nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and nanosuspension) including their advantages and disadvantages, preparation, characterization, and application are described. Finally, the safety and future trends of nanoscale delivery are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Recent Advances in the Production of Fruit Leathers
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Raquel da Silva Simão, Jaqueline Oliveira de Moraes, Bruno Augusto Mattar Carciofi, João Borges Laurindo

    Fruit leather is a sheet or flexible strip of dried fruit that is made typically by hot air drying of fruit puree or fruit juice concentrate, with or without the addition of other ingredients. Dehydration is the most important step for fruit leather production. Processing prior to the drying step is crucial to obtain high-quality fruit leathers. The heat treatment that is widely applied before drying the fruit pulp is aimed at enzyme inactivation, microbiological decontamination, and pulp concentration. However, this heat treatment results in color changes, significant degradation of nutrients, and possibly in the production of some toxic compounds. Therefore, recent studies have focused on producing fruit leathers without heat treatment to yield products with higher bioactive compound content. The literature reports some innovative methods, such as infrared drying, cast-tape drying, and freeze-drying, as suitable alternatives in producing fruit leathers with improved sensory attributes and retention of nutritional compounds. The presentreview of published studies discusses the effects of the heat treatment on fruit pulp before the drying process, the presence of additives in the pulp, and different innovative drying methods on the physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory properties of the resulting fruit leathers, with an overview of the development, advantages, and limitations of these drying techniques.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Development of Emulsion Gels for the Delivery of Functional Food Ingredients: from Structure to Functionality
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Yao Lu, Like Mao, Zhanqun Hou, Song Miao, Yanxiang Gao

    Emulsion gels are widely used in food products, and they have the characteristics of both emulsions and biopolymer gels. When distributed in gels, functional ingredients are protected by the gels and immobilized by the gel network, and thus, they usually have improved physicochemical stability. Emulsion gels are generally prepared based on proteins, polysaccharides, or their mixtures, and characteristics of the oil droplets played essential roles in the properties and functions of the systems. Emulsion gels can be fabricated to behave differently when encountered with different environment by controlling the physical structures of the gels, including their digestion behaviors in the digestive tract, which allowed adjustment of the stability and releasing behaviors of the incorporated functional ingredients, contributing to their enhanced bioavailability. A lot of studies in the last 10 years have proved that emulsion gels can effectively deliver vitamins, carotenoids, minerals, phenolic bioactives, flavors, unsaturated fatty acids, and other functional ingredients, and they are also suitable for the development of fat-reduced food. This article systematically reviewed recent studies regarding the use of emulsion gels as delivery systems for various functional ingredients, trying to get an improved understanding of the structures and functionalities of emulsion gels, for the better design of functional foods.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Preparation of Food Flavor Nanoemulsions by High- and Low-Energy Emulsification Approaches
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Shima Saffarionpour

    Flavor ingredients are major contributors to the profile of food products. As these components are mostly volatile and hydrophobic, achieving their enhanced bioaccessibility and controlled release during processing is of utmost concern to food manufacturers. Emulsions prepared at nanoscale (2–200 nm) not only give the opportunity to protect the flavor ingredients but also enable achieving higher homogeneity in the emulsion system through produced smaller droplet size. Among developed approaches of high and low energy for preparation of flavor nanoemulsions, low-energy approaches give the possibility to develop nanoemulsions in absence of high shear and pressure, and are suitable selections for preparation of nanoemulsions for thermal-sensitive flavor components with the requirement of consuming less energy in comparison to high-energy methods. However, limitation of using synthetic surfactants might limit their applications for food systems and high amount of surfactant might be necessary to produce stable nanoemulsions with small droplet sizes. Preparation of nanoemulsions for encapsulation of food flavors applying low-energy methods is considered as a new emerging approach with potential for further research for development of ingredients applicable in food formulations and production of stable nanoemulsions at large scale. Considering the growing demand for food flavors, this review aims to highlight recent advancements in the application of high- and low-energy approaches for preparation of flavor nanoemulsions with the focus on discussing the main factors influencing stability and particle size of prepared nanoemulsions during development and storage and can provide insights on further production of nanoemulsions at an industrial large scale.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Expanded Discrete and Continuous Bĕlehrádek/Ratkowski Models of Microbial Growth Rates Under Oscillating and Extreme Storage Temperatures
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Micha Peleg

    The Bĕlehrádek/Ratkowski, also known as the square root model, was originally developed to describe and quantify the temperature dependence of organisms’ growth rate, in terms of a simple power-law expression that contains a threshold growth temperature. The model’s original version implied that the rate rises monotonically with temperature. Therefore it has been modified to account for peak growth at the organism’s optimal temperature, by adding a falling multiplying factor. The modified model has been extended to post-peak growth temperatures, and all the way to where growth turns into thermal inactivation. In principle, the model can also be extended to low temperatures where growth not only ceases, as the original model implies, but turns into mortality, albeit at a much slower pace. The performance of the original and extended model’s versions can be visualized with three freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstrations available on the Internet. The three versions can be combined into a single temperature-dependence model that covers the entire temperature range from lethal cold to death by heat. This combined model can be incorporated into a general dynamic (non-isothermal) growth/mortality model, in the form of a differential rate equation, which can describe oscillations between growth, no growth, and mortality modes during a population’s thermal history. All the Bĕlehrádek/Ratkowski model’s variants can be replaced by a single continuous algebraic expression that eliminates the need to have “If statements” in their equations. The continuous version too can be incorporated into a dynamic rate model to describe growth, no growth, and mortality, and transitions between them.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Intelligent Packaging with pH Indicator Potential
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Evellin Balbinot-Alfaro, Débora Vieira Craveiro, Karina Oliveira Lima, Helena Leão Gouveia Costa, Danielle Rubim Lopes, Carlos Prentice

    Intelligent packaging, in addition to acting as a food protection barrier, can emit a signal (electric, colorimetric, among others) in real time in response to any change in the initial packaging conditions and food quality. Packaging with pH indicators or pH sensors usually consists of two parts, a solid base and a dye sensitive to the pH change that makes up the colorimetric sensor. The dyes are extracted from various sources of fruits and vegetables or synthetics. At the beginning of the food deterioration process, alteration of the pH occurs; this change is one of the indicators of product quality. Packaging with a pH indicator is a measure that could indicate the quality of the food at the time of purchase or before consumption, making it safer for consumers. Research is being carried out with the aim of improving the characteristics and applicability of these indicators. This review paper presents research results on intelligent pH indicator packaging, with studies covering pigments, polymers, food and packaging solutions, as well as an overview of the materials/technologies used for the development, and the perspectives/challenges that involve this new technology.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Vinegar Engineering: a Bioprocess Perspective
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    U.F. Hutchinson, N.P. Jolly, B.S. Chidi, M. Mewa Ngongang, S.K.O. Ntwampe

    Food engineering is an important sub-field that requires special attention in the food industry. The application of biochemical process engineering principles in food production often leads to the optimization of certain features of the food production process; similarly, it results in rapid production, improved quality and reduced food losses. Consequently, to address each aspect of food processing including engineering adequately, researchers must have a multidisciplinary approach, using aspects from a number of fields such as microbiology, chemistry, food technology, process engineering and molecular biology. Accordingly, this review focuses on the engineering of various vinegars. Furthermore, cognizance is given to the gaps that need to be addressed in vinegar engineering, particularly to address limitations employed in traditional approaches during vinegar production. Food engineering assessments address numerous functions in integrated systems for which fermentation systems are the primary process. Mathematical models are used to describe the process, simulate future fermentations and describe process performance. Vinegar engineering also includes the use or design of bioreactors intended for improved product yield and rapid production, improved mass or energy transfer efficiencies and the reduction of detrimental hydrodynamics fermentor conditions on the microorganisms used. For vinegar fermentation, bioreactor selection which might include cell immobilization requires that appropriate process control and optimization be conducted using mathematical models, with rates of acetification being influenced by parameters such as the ratio of dissolved oxygen consumption in comparison to acetic acid yield.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Models of Sigmoid Equilibrium Moisture Sorption Isotherms With and Without the Monolayer Hypothesis
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Micha Peleg

    Among the numerous moisture sorption models, the GAB, an expanded version of the BET equation originally derived for inert gases adsorption on solid surfaces, is the most prominent. Both models are based on distinction between the adsorbate molecules settling on the bare surface in a monolayer (Langmuir adsorption) and those settling on already absorbed molecules forming multilayers. The BET theory has been successfully used to determine porous catalysts’ and fine powders’ specific surface area to this day. In contrast, applying the BET and GAB equations to water vapor sorption by solid foods (and non-foods) has at least three major problems: The calculated food powders’ specific surface area is independent of their particle size; the expected shoulder in foods’ enthalpy vs. moisture plot is absent; and there is a huge discrepancy between the specific surface areas calculated from moisture sorption isotherms and those of nitrogen. An alternative modeling approach posits the non-existence of a water monolayer, and suggests that moisture sorption is governed by at least two simultaneous mechanisms having different scaling exponents. Mathematical analysis and comparison of the resulting sorption models with the GAB equation show that they produce practically indistinguishable moisture sorption isotherms even with the same number of adjustable parameters. They also demonstrate that the sigmoid shape of a moisture sorption isotherm does not contain enough information to identify and quantify the underlying sorption mechanisms, and that a model’s good fit by statistical criteria in itself does not validate mechanistic assumptions.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Green Solvents for the Extraction of High Added-Value Compounds from Agri-food Waste
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Laura Sofía Torres-Valenzuela, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez, Soledad Rubio

    Large amounts of agri-food by-products, non-edible food, and waste are produced throughout the supply chain from the initial production to the final consumption stages. The valorization of this biomass to obtain high value-added compounds has been the focus of extensive research in the last decade. For this purpose, the use of green techniques is essential to reduce the negative impact on the health and the environment. In this review, we discuss the use of green solvents for the valorization of agri-food waste and by-products, and we consider their potential to replace conventional organic solvents in order to provide more environmentally friendly and sustainable processes. The use of supercritical fluids, neoteric (ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents), bio-based, and supramolecular solvents is critically dicussed. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency are detailed for each type of solvent along with advantages and limitations for application at the industrial scale.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Sanitization Potential of Ozone and Its Role in Postharvest Quality Management of Fruits and Vegetables
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Raouf Aslam, Mohammed Shafiq Alam, Panayampadan Afthab Saeed

    The worldwide consumption of fruits and vegetables has witnessed a surge in the recent past which has led to an increase in the frequency of foodborne illnesses associated with fresh produce. For an effective food contamination control, conventional sanitization methods have recently been under scrutiny due to the production of undesirable and harmful by-products. As such, potential alternatives are being sought by the fresh and fresh-cut industries that can effectively eliminate pathogenic and spoilage-causing microorganisms and, at the same time, leave minimal or no residues in the product. Recent developments in the ozone technology along with its globally acknowledged regulatory status have made its integration in the food processing line easier. However, nonoptimization of process parameters and variability in working conditions has led researchers to often arrive at contradictory results. This review paper is aimed to give a detailed outline of the potential of ozone in providing efficient sanitization of fresh produce and the role of technological parameters and ozonation conditions and their effect on nutritional and sensory quality of the treated produce.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Water Vapor Transport Properties of Polyurethane Films for Packaging of Respiring Foods
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Deniz Turan

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) polymers with different chemical compositions were synthesized and casted to films, and their water vapor barrier properties at different range of relative humidity (RH) were characterized. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of packaging films is one of their most important properties to identify their suitability for use as packaging materials and is rather a complicated phenomena if the polymer has polar nature. The WVPs of PU films are determined both by permeation measurements which are a steady-state method and water vapor sorption measurements which are a non-steady-state method. Effective permeability (Peff), solubility (Seff), and diffusion (Deff) coefficients of PU films were determined at 23 °C within the RH range of 0–97%. It was found that Peff, Seff, and Deff increased with increasing RH gradient due to water vapor and polymer interactions. Microscopic images showed that 1,4-butanediol (BDO) helped to improve porous structure. Castor oil (CO) caused a decrease in the intensity of active absorption sites, namely, the C=O···H-N hydrogen bonds between chains. Results of two methods were yielded in the same magnitude of order. In most cases, the non-steady-state (sorption) method yields higher WVP values than steady state. At 0➔85% RH, the difference was up to 8-fold. Conditioning and equilibrating of films at 50% RH helped to reach sorption data approximate to permeation data. It was suitable to use sorption measurements to estimate the WVP which is a considerable simplification for polar polymers, e.g., developed PU film.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Applications of 3D Printing in Food Processing
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    N. Nachal, J. A. Moses, P. Karthik, C. Anandharamakrishnan

    3D printing is an innovation that promises to revolutionize food formulation and manufacturing processes. Preparing foods with customized sensory attributes from different ingredients and additives has always been a need. The competency that additive manufacturing offers has been among the key reasons for its success in food processing applications. In this work, an up-to-date review on insight into the properties of printing material supplies and its effect on printing processes is presented. A detailed note on the globalization of customized printed foods, personalized nutrition, and applications in food packaging to highlight the range of applications of 3D printing in the food industry is also given. Importantly, key challenges in 3D food printing, emphasizing the need for future research in this field are elaborated.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Estimation of Safety and Quality Losses of Foods Stored in Residential Refrigerators
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Veronica Rodriguez-Martinez, Gonzalo Velazquez, Sofia Massa-Barrera, Jorge Welti-Chanes, Fabian Fagotti, J. Antonio Torres

    This article overviews the technological evolution of residential refrigerators, key national and international regulations covering them, and summarizes the information available to estimate the quality and safety deterioration in foods and beverages stored in them. At present, the national and international government standardized performance tests used to assess residential refrigerators focus on energy consumption. Efforts by refrigerator manufacturers to consider the impact of temperature fluctuation, temperature recovery, extreme ambient temperature, door openings, and other factors affecting temperature control and, thus, food safety and quality need to be harmonized, validated, and implemented as official standardized tests. Published predictive models here summarized, and describing microbial growth and other product degradation mechanisms, could be combined with energy efficiency evaluations in future science-based regulations seeking a balance between energy consumption and food preservation. While numerous mathematical models are available, this review identified a serious lack of model parameter values to allow a combined assessment of energy consumption and food preservation in residential refrigerators. Much of past research has focused on temperature abuse effects and, thus, not applicable to estimating food preservation under the prevailing temperatures in residential refrigerators. Particularly urgent is the data on the microorganisms’ response at multiple temperature levels, allowing the development of secondary models to assess the temperature effect on the safety and quality of a diverse but representative pool of products. New standardized testing procedures could then be developed to guide the design of new residential refrigerators minimizing food waste and the frequency of foodborne diseases while meeting energy consumption requirements.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Analysis and Prediction Methods for Energy Efficiency and Media Demand in the Beverage Industry
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    R. M. Bär, T. Voigt

    Since the production of food and beverages is energy-intensive, the political, economic, ecologic and social conditions are posing a challenge to the manufacturing industry. Small- and medium-sized companies in particular lack the time and knowledge to identify and implement suitable energy efficiency measures. With the help of computer-aided solutions, decision-makers can pursue numerous approaches and make well-founded decisions. The aim of this review is to summarise and critically discuss current analysis and prediction methods concerning energy and media consumption in the beverage industry. To date, there have been no tools or approaches available that permit a simple, holistic analysis and prediction. Breweries serve as a good example for the beverage industry due to numerous and various complex processes. To identify energy-saving potential, the main consumers and consumption structures within the brewery are presented. Current approaches such as simulations, pinch analyses, benchmarks and real-time operating systems are briefly explained, and the relevant publications related to the beverage industry described and categorised. The critical comparison of the different approaches clearly shows that simulation enables a holistic analysis and prediction of energy and media consumption in the brewery. Since the data basis is mostly insufficient and this method requires expert knowledge, we propose a holistic modelling and simulation approach. An easy-to-use and context-free modelling environment should enable the generation of a simulation model, with limited expertise or effort.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Potassium Permanganate-Based Ethylene Scavengers for Fresh Horticultural Produce as an Active Packaging
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Marianela Hazel Álvarez-Hernández, Ginés Benito Martínez-Hernández, Felipe Avalos-Belmontes, Marco A. Castillo-Campohermoso, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel, Francisco Artés-Hernández

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a powerful ethylene (C2H4)-scavenging agent widely used in fresh horticultural commodities to delay the postharvest maturation. According to databases, it has been used for almost 50 years in food-packaging systems, and over 70 studies have evaluated its effects on fresh produce quality, mainly on climacteric fruit. However, the use of KMnO4-based technology remains limited at a commercial scale, since there are still lots of doubts on its potential as an effective postharvest tool, as well as in relation with health, environmental and safety concerns. Depending on the commodity, and even the variety, these scavengers may have different effects, but overall, they can delay ripening/senescence-related processes such as chlorophyll degradation/colour changes, weight and firmness losses, disorders and diseases, acidity and sugar changes. This review comprises an updated overview of the current knowledge regarding the use of KMnO4 as C2H4-scavenging agent, providing a concise appraisal on KMnO4-based C2H4 removal application and its effect on the quality of fresh produce. KMnO4 is commonly supported onto microporous mineral particles, which are placed into small sachets to avoid direct food contact within packages. Generally, KMnO4-based C2H4 scavengers are jointly used with modified atmosphere packaging. Hence, KMnO4-based C2H4-scavenging systems, as an active food-packaging technology, seem to be a relevant option to preserve the quality and safety of fresh horticultural produce. Nevertheless, although there are many KMnO4-based products available in the market, which are presently reviewed, more research is required in order to obtain an optimal C2H4-scavenger performance.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Mid-infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy for Quality Analysis of Liquid Foods
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Wen-Hao Su, Da-Wen Sun

    Liquid foods play important roles in the development of human culture due to their own peculiarities. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combines several advantages such as non-invasive operation and high-efficiency detection and is thus proposed to be a prospective alternative to conventional techniques for food quality assessment. However, no reviews on MIR spectroscopic analysis of liquid food products are reported. This review summarizes the recent research progress of MIR chemical sensing methods for determinations of the authenticity and related quality attributes of liquid foods (such as milk, edible oils, alcoholic beverages, honeys, and vegetable and fruit juices). The characteristics and applications of MIR spectroscopic technique in tandem with chemometrics, along with the major challenges and future prospects, are discussed. MIR spectroscopy has great potential to fulfill the need of food industry for quality and authenticity analysis of liquid foods. Nevertheless, further measurements and analyses based on the existing results of food inspection are still required. It is believed that this review will be an effective signpost for scholars in related research fields to study the comprehensive quality of liquid food products.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Electromagnetic Freezing in a Widespread Frequency Range of Alternating Magnetic Fields
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-03-08
    A. C. Rodríguez, L. Otero, J. A. Cobos, P. D. Sanz

    The effectiveness of electromagnetic (EM) freezing in improving freezing kinetics and/or the quality of frozen foods constitutes a current controversial topic in Food Technology. The dipolar nature of water could explain potential effects of electric fields on freezing, but the physical basis that supports effects of magnetic fields on freezing is not clear. Therefore, it is in some way striking that the only EM freezers existing at the market are those that generate magnetic, and not electric, fields to assist the freezing process. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the state of the art in EM freezing is presented. The results reported in the literature on the effects of both static and oscillating, either electric or magnetic, fields on supercooling and freezing kinetics are controversial, even for the simplest system, that is, pure water. Moreover, the reviewed results show that frequency and dielectric relaxation could play an important role on water supercooling. Thus, positive effects on freezing have been found in experiments with oscillating, both electric and magnetic, fields of frequencies significantly higher than that of the mains. As oscillating electric fields are induced in the presence of oscillating magnetic fields, this opens a door to explain the potential effects of oscillating magnetic fields on freezing. For a correct interpretation of the data, future research should consider any induced field during the freezing experiments and its potential consequences. All the above reveals the urgent need to perform high-quality scientific research and well-designed experiments, at wide field strengths and frequencies, that can be replicated and confirmed by different laboratories.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Dairy Products
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-01-28
    Fehmi Görkem Üçtuğ

    Dairy products such as processed milk, cheese, yoghurt and butter are produced and consumed globally. While having several dietary and economic benefits, their production and consumption also have many environmental impacts of various nature. In this study, a comprehensive review of studies that focus on the life cycle environmental impact analysis of dairy products has been conducted. A total of 31 studies that satisfy certain filtering criteria have been analysed, covering 6 different products and 17 different impacts. Cheese was observed as the most widely studied dairy product whereas global warming potential was the most commonly calculated impact, as it appeared in all 31 of the reviewed studies. The contributions of different stages (raw milk production, factory processes, storage and use, transportation, waste treatment) have been investigated. For many impacts, raw milk production was found to be the main contributor regardless of the product type. Fertiliser use, agricultural material production and use and on-site emissions were the main drivers associated with the raw milk production stage, leading to several impacts such as global warming potential, acidification and eutrophication. As far as the production processes are concerned, energy use emerged as the main cause of environmental footprint. Transportation, storage/use and waste treatment were found to have slightly significant to negligible contributions to almost all the impacts except for ozone layer depletion. Butter appeared as the dairy product with the highest environmental footprint, followed by cheese. The most common recommendations in order to reduce the environmental footprint of dairy products were as follows: using more energy-efficient equipment for production, optimising transportation routes and using more environmentally friendly vehicles, modifying the feed content for the farm animals, and using renewable energy sources.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Protein-Based Films: Advances in the Development of Biomaterials Applicable to Food Packaging
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-03-18
    Sergio J. Calva-Estrada, Maribel Jiménez-Fernández, Eugenia Lugo-Cervantes

    Consumer demands and requirements by regulatory agencies to use more environmentally friendly and less polluting packaging have directed researchers to consider packaging materials that are naturally derived or made from renewable resources to replace or reduce use of synthetic polymers. Biodegradable and/or edible films have the potential to reduce some traditional synthetic polymeric packaging materials for specific applications. In recent years, biodegradable films prepared with animal and vegetable proteins have received increasing attention and are increasingly being used in the food-packaging industry due to their relative abundance, film-formation capacity, biodegradability, and nutritional value. However, the ideal protein films for food-packaging application should be strong, be elastic, and have very low permeability. The aim of this review is to offer a comprehensive view of recent state-of-the-art protein-based films as biodegradable materials applicable to food packaging with special reference to the application and combination of technological advances. Such advances include plasticization, cross-linking techniques, nanotechnology, and composite films. The results indicate that the functional properties of protein films are still not comparable with those of synthetic films, but there are promising potential methodologies that might further improve the mechanical and barrier properties of protein-based films. Nanocomposite films with well-controlled structures comprise an up-and-coming area of research. Research into nanocomposite film includes the opportunity to design biofilms and packaging materials with the precisely desired functional properties. By employing natural agents with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, these materials promise to provide maintenance during storage time and to increase the shelf life of food products.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Berry Drying: Mechanism, Pretreatment, Drying Technology, Nutrient Preservation, and Mathematical Models
    Food Eng. Rev. (IF 4.217) Pub Date : 2019-01-28
    Yanan Sun, Min Zhang, Arun Mujumdar

    Fresh berries containing in bioactive compounds are perishable under natural conditions. Drying is one of the most effective processing techniques to extending the shelf life of berry products, and the nutrients and active components of berries can be retained to a great extent. However, the flavor and texture of the final product considerably correlate with drying techniques. Therefore, the present reviewed work summarizes the research progress of berry drying technology by the perspectives of traditional drying technology and innovative drying concepts and explores the research situation of convective drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying and innovative drying technology for berry drying. The dehydration mechanism, pretreatment methods, and drying technology of various berries were summarized. And the effects of different drying treatments on nutritional components of berry drying were presented; application status of mathematical modeling employed in berry drying was also discussed. Moreover, the research direction and development trend of berry drying techniques in the future were pointed out, which are aimed at improving the drying efficiency of berries, preserving the active components of berries to the greatest extent, and promoting the processing utilization of berries and economic benefits in the future to provide a reference for further research and utilization of drying technology.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
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