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  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
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  • Nanofluid extraction of Ochratoxin A in food
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Rouhollah Karami-Osboo

    Monitoring of Ochratoxin A (OTA), a toxic and carcinogenic metabolite of fungi, requires accurate and precise analytical methods. Quantitative determination of OTA at trace level in raisin samples was evaluated by nanofluid extraction coupled with HPLC–FLD. The experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of OTA were investigated and optimized. The validated method has low detection and quantification limit (0.2 and 0.5 ng g-1). Moreover, under optimum conditions, the repeatability of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation for intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) was below 15% (n = 3). This method has also been successfully applied to the analysis of trace amounts of OTA in real samples with satisfactory relative recoveries in the range of 70.3-84.7%.

  • Development of an accurate and reliable DNA method for botanical origin authentication of ginseng food products
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Xiaoran Tian; Shixin Lv; Huili Tian; Rongbo Wang; Hongtao Wang

    Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius are two of the most commonly used Panax species with similar morphology but different pharmacological effects. These two species may be substituted for each other due to commercial interest or misidentification caused by similarity in appearance. Therefore, botanical origin authentication of ginseng food products is of great importance for their origin authenticity control and food safety. However, DNA degradation is the chief obstacle to marker-based origin authentication of ginseng products. In this study, indel markers were exploited from introns of 6 ginseng contigs by using an intron-flanking strategy. Specific primers were respectively designed for Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius based on their insertion sequences in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene. The developed multiplex PCR assay, mitigating the deficiency of DNA degradation, was proved to be effective for botanical origin authentication of ginseng food products. Furthermore, the assay can detect 0.1% of intentional adulteration of P. quinquefolius into P. ginseng down to 0.001 ng of genomic DNA and vice versa. This study provides an accurate and reliable DNA method for botanical origin authentication of ginseng food products, and the presented method can be employed in origin authentication of other herbal preparations.

  • Determination of Chromium Picolinate and Trace Hexavalent Chromium in Multivitamins and Supplements by HPLC-ICP-QQQ-MS
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ovidiu Mihai; Mayumi S. Kawamoto; Kelly L. LeBlanc; Patricia Grinberg; Ana Rita de Araújo Nogueira; Zoltán Mester

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) and trace hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) content were characterized in VITA-1 and VITB-1, two new multivitamin and mineral supplement candidate reference materials from National Research Council Canada, by two methods of high performance liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The conditions for the separation of Cr(VI) from EDTA-complexed Cr(III) were optimized such that species interconversions were not observed during analysis. Following extraction with dilute NH4OH in water at pH 10 (for Cr(VI)) or 3:2 acetonitrile:water (for CrPic) and quantification by standard addition, it was concluded that CrPic accounted for 95-96% of the Cr in VITA-1 and VITB-1, while Cr(VI) was not present above the detection limit of 0.13 µg Cr g-1. Using the two developed methodologies, commercially-available nutritional supplements, in the form of vitamin tablets and dried food supplements, were assessed, and it was determined that CrPic accounted for the majority (92%-98%) of the chromium present in the tablets, and that Cr(VI) concentrations were below the detection limit for all samples except for the powdered beets where it accounted for nearly half of the total Cr present.

  • Metabolic profiling of organic acids in honey by stable isotope labeling assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Na An; Wen-Jing Cai; Quan-Fei Zhu; Wei Wang; Dilshad Hussain; Yu-Qi Feng
  • Determination of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid and free amino acids in royal jelly supplements with purpose-made capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity detection
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Hong Anh Duong; Minh Tuan Vu; Thanh Dam Nguyen; Manh Huy Nguyen; Thanh Duc Mai

    This study reported a simple and inexpensive method for determination of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and free amino acids in different royal jelly based dietary supplement samples using a purpose-made dual-channeled capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D). The objective of the work is to propose a tool for food / quality control activities that can be realizable even with a modest infrastructure. 10-HDA and free amino acids were analyzed using the background electrolyte (BGE) solutions composed of 20 mM Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane adjusted to pH8.5 with acetic acid and of 2 M lactic acid, respectively. The best achieved detection limit for 10-HDA was 0.039 mg/g and those for free amino acids were in ranged of 0.039 - 0.090 mg/g using the developed CE-C4D methods. Good agreement between results obtained from CE-C4D and those with the standard confirmation methods (HPLC-PDA) was achieved, with the result deviation for the two pairs of data being less than 5 % for 10-HDA and 16% for free amino acids.

  • Application of QuEChERS-EMR-Lipid-DLLME method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked food of animal origin
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Tereza Slámová; Anna Sadowska-Rociek; Adéla Fraňková; Magdalena Surma; Jan Banout

    The aim of this study was to develop an effective sample preparation procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fatty products of animal origin (fish, cheese and sausage). Two different approaches were tested: classical QuEChERS and procedure with the use of Enhanced Matrix Removal (EMR)-Lipid material. Two techniques of extract preconcentration: under nitrogen stream and with the use of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), were also taken into consideration. All samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed the optimised sample preparation procedure was composed of three steps: 1) QuEChERS extraction, 2) clean-up by EMR-Lipid material and 3) extract preconcentration by DLLME. The obtained recovery rates within the range of 50-120% were received for all compounds with relative standard deviation (RSD) values lower than 16.7%. The proposed method is fast and effective and can be successfully applied for PAHs determination in difficult matrices such as heat-treated food of animal origin with high fat content. The research also discovered the significance of the quality of the laboratory disposables. Contaminants present in plastic consumables can be transferred to the sample extract contributing to its contamination and can also lead to failure of analytical equipment.

  • Widely targeted metabolomic analysis of active compounds at different maturity stages of ‘Hupingzao’ jujube
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Zhihong Feng; Zhenfeng Gao; Xuan Jiao; Junfeng Shi; Rufu Wang

    Understanding the variation in active ingredients of ‘Hupingzao’ during maturity is important for the development of functional jujube products and the efficient use of ‘Hupingzao’ resources. We investigated the metabolic variation of active ingredients of ‘Hupingzao’ at different maturity stages (S1–S5) using widely targeted metabolites. In total, 406 compounds were detected, 191 were annotated by the KEGG database, and 40 active compounds showed significant differences, which may be related to 18 core metabolic pathways. Except for some nucleosides and carbohydrates, the content of most active compounds increased and then decreased with jujube fruit growth. ‘Hupingzao’ was richer in nucleosides and organic acids. The ideal times for the development of eight different active compounds (nucleosides, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, lipids, alcohol, vitamins, and terpenoids) were at seven different maturity stages (S5, S5, S3, S4, S2, S3, and S1), respectively. Widely targeted metabolomics analysis was shown to be a good method to determine the composition of functional jujube compounds. The results of this study serve as a new theoretical reference for functional food experts to promote functional jujube products of ‘Hupingzao’.

  • Impact of management system and lactation stage on fatty acids composition in camel milk
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Chamekh Latifa; Calvo Marivi; Khorchani Touhami; Castro-Gómez Pilar; Hammadi Mohamed; Fontecha Javier; Yahyaoui Mohamed Habib

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of management system and lactation stage on camel milk fatty acids (FA) composition, with emphasis on odd and branched-chain FA (OBCFA), conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), and trans-FA (TFA). Milk samples were collected from thirteen camels managed under intensive and semi-intensive systems at early, mid, and late lactation. Our results provided for the first time the OBCFA profile in camel milk. Eleven OBCFA are identified with a predominance of C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and C17:0. The vaccenic acid (VA) was the predominant TFA; other isomers appeared in smaller amounts. The Δ9-desaturase activity measured as desaturation index of C14:0 was relatively high in the mammary gland of camel. Milk from the semi-intensive system was characterized by a higher nutritional value, due to the higher contents of polyunsaturated FA, total CLA, RA, VA, linoleic, and α-linolenic compared with milk from the intensive system. Few differences were found in the OBCFA profile throughout lactation. Our study provided deeper information on FA composition, showing that camel milk is a good source of OBCFA, RA and VA. These results have to be taken into account in the investigation of the functional properties of camel milk fat as well as in the ongoing intensification of camel farming systems.

  • Inter‐and intra-stock bioaccumulation of anionic arsenic species in an endangered catfish from South American estuaries: risk assessment through consumption
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Esteban Avigliano; Jonatan Schlotthauer; Barbara Maichak de Carvalho; Mirna Sigrist; Alejandra V. Volpedo
  • Changes in sodium levels of processed foods among the International Food and Beverage Association member companies in Australia: 2013-2017
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Rhoda N Ndanuko; Elizabeth K Dunford; Jason HY Wu; David Raubenheimer; Bruce C Neal

    Excess dietary sodium is a modifiable cause of high blood pressure. The World Health Organization has targeted a 30% reduction in mean population sodium consumption by 2025. In 2008, members of the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) made commitments to lower sodium content in their products. The aim of this study was to determine recent changes in sodium levels between 2013 and 2017 in foods and beverages produced by companies that are IFBA members (n = 10) and non-IFBA members (n = 6) that were included in the 2018 Global Access to Nutrition Index operating in Australia. Independent Samples T tests and Mann Whitney U tests were used to test the differences in sodium levels. There was no clear difference in sodium content between 2013 and 2017 detectable for the IFBA members (mean difference 17 mg/100 g, 95% confidence interval (CI), -82 to +48; p = 0.612; median difference 27 mg/100 g, p = 0.582). For the non-IFBA companies there was a decrease in median sodium content (−30 mg/100 g; P = 0.002) but not mean sodium content (−52 mg/100 g, 95% CI -106 to +3; p = 0.064). Sodium reduction in IFBA companies appear to have had slow progress in Australia. Stronger implementation and monitoring programs are needed to drive industry action.

  • Portable Near-Infrared spectroscopy for rapid authentication of adulterated paprika powder
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    M.M. Oliveira; J.P. Cruz-Tirado; J.V. Roque; R.F. Teófilo; D.F. Barbin

    Paprika powder is a widely consumed spice, making it an attractive target for adulteration, which is not easily detected. In this study, a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used for fast detection of paprika adulteration. Nine paprika samples from five suppliers were adulterated with potato starch, acacia gum and annatto at different concentrations (0 to 36% by weight of potato starch and acacia gum, and 0 to 18% by weight of annatto). The NIR spectrum of each mixture (n = 315) was used as predictors to determine adulteration by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). First, PLS-DA was applied to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated samples, as well as the type of adulterant. This method proved to be efficient, with specificity greater than 90% and error rate lower than 2%, for all models constructed. PLSR was used to predict the concentration of adulterants in paprika samples. In addition, PLSR models with reduced number of wavelengths (predictors) were built by selecting the variables with larger weights on the regression coefficients. Coefficient of prediction (R2p) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) obtained were 0.95 and 2.12; 0.97 and 1.68; 0.87 and 1.74, for potato starch, acacia gum and annatto, respectively. In conclusion, results showed that NIR spectroscopy is a useful screening technique for identification and quantification of adulteration in paprika.

  • Polyphenols composition and anti-diabetic properties in vitro of haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) berries in relation to cultivar and harvesting date
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    A.B. Kithma; H. De Silva; H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

    Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) is a recently commercialized fruit crop in Canada. Berries of four cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie, were harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) and assessed for their polyphenol composition and anti-diabetic potential in vitro. The analyses revealed that the interaction effect of cultivar and harvesting date influenced the concentration of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside represents about 79% of total anthocyanins present in ripened haskap berries. Total anthocyanins estimated by a non-destructive method showed a strong correlation for quantified anthocyanin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), indicating the potential application of the non-destructive method for deciding the berry maturity for mechanical harvesting of haskap berry for value-added processing. Extracts derived from five maturity stages of four cultivars showed anti-diabetic properties including inhibition of activities of alpha-amylase (IC50 ranges from 2,380 to 5,080 µg/mL), alpha-glucosidase (IC50 ranges from 1,130 to 2,120 µg/mL), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, IC50 ranges from 2,150 to 11,600 μg/mL), and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE, IC50 ranges from 1,200 to 4,790 µg/mL) in vitro. Though the impact of harvesting date on polyphenol composition is very distinct, the late harvesting date (H5) reduced the anti-diabetic activities in vitro in Aurora and Larisa cultivars. Inhibition of DPP-4 and AGE formation dependent on cultivar and harvesting date. Haskap berry warrants further investigation as a dietary therapeutic to manage type 2 diabetes.

  • Use of NMR techniques to investigate the changes on the chemical composition of coffee melanoidins
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Beatriz Ripper; Carlos R. Kaiser; Daniel Perrone
  • The influence of exogenous methyl jasmonate on the germination and, content and composition of flavonoids in extracts from seedlings of yellow and narrow-leafed lupine
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Kazimierz Zalewski; Bartosz Nitkiewicz; Mariusz Stolarski; Ryszard Amarowicz; Adam Okorski

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the content and composition of flavonoids (isoflavones) in extracts from hypocotyls (with cotyledons) and radicles of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) var. Polo and in extracts from radicles of narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) var. Graf. Lupine seeds were harvested when fully ripe. Two months after harvest, the effect of various MJ concentrations (10-6 M to 10-3M) on seed viability, seed vigor and the content and composition of flavonoids in extracts from seedlings that emerged from germinated lupine seeds (72 h, 20 °C) was determined. At high concentrations (10-4 M to 10-3 M), MJ suppressed the germination rate and germination capacity of seeds and decreased the growth rate of seedlings of the analyzed varieties of yellow and narrow-leafed lupines in the first 5 days of growth. In seedlings, MJ significantly increased the content of isoflavones (including daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein) in 3-day-old hypocotyls (with cotyledons) and radicles of yellow lupine. This correlation was also observed in the hypocotyls (with cotyledons) and radicles of 3-day-old narrow-leafed lupine seedlings treated with MJ. Narrow-leafed lupine seeds were more sensitive to exogenous MJ then yellow lupine seeds during germination.

  • Application of novel Fe3O4-g-GO-g-RAFT agent nanoabsorbents for D-SPME of biogenic amines in smoked fish
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Rahim Molaei; Hossein Tajik; Mehran Moradi; Mehrdad Forough

    Herein, a dispersive solid phase microextraction (D-SPME) approach based on magnetic nanoabsorbents was developed for the simultaneous extraction of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine in smoked fish. The desired magnetic nanocomposite was prepared with surface modification of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with graphene oxide via surface reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization. Preparation, size, morphology, surface functional groups and magnetic properties of as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized. The obtained results showed acceptable r2 values (≥0.9949) for all analyte as well as good recovery (>98.36), repeatability (RSD%<3.57), and reproducibility (RSD%<5.16) of the developed method. The developed method was successfully employed to estimate four biogenic amines in 40 samples from different species of smoked fishes available in northern Iran. Thirty-six out of 40 samples exceeded an acceptable level of histamine (50 mg Kg-1). Cadaverine and putrescine were founded at a higher level, while tyramine was detected at the lowest level in comparison with other BAs (<11%).

  • Determination of moisture, total lipid, and bound lipid contents in oats using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Yuntong Li; Mohammed Obadi; Jiachen Shi; Jun Sun; Zhongwei Chen; Bin Xu

    In this study, we aimed to establish a novel method for determining moisture and lipid contents in oats using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The applicabilities of the internal and external standard methods for determining oat moisture were compared. To determine oat lipids, calibration curves were established using the external standard method, and then the LF-NMR method and the conventional method were compared. The independent peaks of T21 (0.01–3.0 ms) and T22 (9.01–410.27 ms) in the T2 spectral curves of oat flour represented water and lipid, respectively. Analysis of moisture content with the internal standard method was more accurate than with the external standard method, which uses 3% MnCl2•4H2O as a standard. The area of T21 peak and T22 peak has a good linear correlation with the mass of water weight and lipid weight, respectively. The results of the LF-NMR method were consistent with the results of the oven method (for moisture content) and the Bligh method (for total lipid content). Moreover, the endosperm was found to contain 0.58–1.36% of the bound lipid, which was slightly lower than the value for the oat bran.

  • Assessing sialic acid content in food by hydrophilic chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Linyang Ye; Li Mu; Gang Li; Yi Bao

    We have established a novel hydrophilic chromatography (HILIC)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to assess sialic acid content in food products. Single-factor and response surface methodologies (RSM) were used to systematically optimize the hydrolysis conditions of the food samples to extract the maximum amount of sialic acid. Chromatographic conditions were also adjusted. In foods containing sialic acid, we observed a strong linear relationship between sialic acid and peak area, ranging from 5-100 μg/mL (R2 = 0.9998). The lowest detectable sialic acid concentration (RSN = 3) was 0.2 μg mL-1, and the method detection limit was 0.02mg kg-1. Sample recovery ranged from 95.85% to 99.78%, with an RSD of 1.46% (n = 6). Thus, the described method can be applied to the study of sialic acid content in foods.

  • Salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for the spectrophotometric determination of iodate in food grade salt
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Manju Gupta; Anjali Dsouza

    A simple and rapid method has been reported for the determination of iodate in food grade salt samples where iodate has been used for the oxidation of phenylhydrazine to phenyldiazonium ion which then couples with 2-naphthol or with 8-hydroxyquinoline to produce orange red azo dye. The dye was extracted with microliter volume of 2-propanol, when the phase separation occurred by addition of ammonium sulphate, a process called salting out homogeneous liquid liquid microextraction (SH-LLME), and analysed spectrophotometrically. Relative efficiencies of both the coupling reagents were compared for iodate determination, when both coupling agents, 8-hydroxyquinoline and 2-naphthol, produced relatively comparable results. The method has been optimized for the reaction time, and type of extracting solvent and salt for phase separation. A linear calibration curve was obtained for 0.08-10 mg L-1 of iodate with correlation coefficient of 0.998 and limit of detection of 16 µg L-1. Food grade salt samples have been analyzed with adequate recovery in spiking experiments, being, 86.2-114.6 (RSD, 6.6-12.6%) and 90.8-111.3 (RSD, 7.1-12.6%) using 2-naphthol and 8-hydroxyquinoline as a coupler, respectively. The SH-LLME avoids pH adjustment of the final test sample before extraction, and Cu(II) and Fe(III) up to 1 and 6 mg L-1, respectively, can be tolerated. Enrichment factors with the two reagents in that order were 21 and 20, respectively.

  • Update of the Moroccan Food Composition Tables: Towards a more reliable tool for nutrition research
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Mohamed Khalis; Vanessa Garcia-Larsen; Hafida Charaka; Meimouna Mint Sidi Deoula; Khaoula El Kinany; Abdelilah Benslimane; Barbara Charbotel; Amr S. Soliman; Inge Huybrechts; Ghada A. Soliman; Nadia Slimani; Karima El Rhazi

    The last food composition table (FCT) for Morocco was published in 1984 and has not been updated since. Our study aimed at bringing this FCT up to date, taking into account the current Moroccan population’s diet. To collate nutrient information, we used the indirect method based on existing data published in the scientific literature. The primary data sources for compiling this table were local FCTs. International food composition data were used as an alternative source when Moroccan data were not available. This updated FCT includes information on 38 nutrient components, for 587 food items commonly consumed in Morocco. These foods represent an addition of 79% of foods in the FCT. About 7% of nutritional values were derived from Moroccan data sources and about 93% from international sources, namely Tunisia, West Africa, France, UK, and USA. We were unable to find approximately 20% of nutrient estimates. This updated FCT provides information on foods and dishes commonly consumed in Morocco and it can be used as a tool to foster nutritional research and to design public health strategies in Morocco. This work is a first step towards updating a standardized Moroccan FCT, which will need to be complemented with high-quality composition data.

  • Impact of Holder pasteurization on essential elements from human donor milk: total contents and protein-binding profiles
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Rafaella R.A. Peixoto; Sonia Fernández-Menéndez; Belén Fernández-Colomer; Ana I. Pérez Vaquero; Solange Cadore; Alfredo Sanz-Medel; María L. Fernández-Sánchez

    Holder pasteurization is a thermal treatment commonly applied to milk in human milk banks. However, the application of heating processes can affect the actual composition of milk. In this work, the effect of Holder pasteurization on essential elements in donor human breast milk was studied, including total contents and protein-binding profile of Cu, Fe, Se and Zn. The total contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical speciation studies were conducted by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to an ICP-MS and to an UV-Vis detector. Total concentrations (µg/L) of Cu (0.19 ± 0.01), Fe (0.35 ± 0.01), Se (0.010 ± 0.003) and Zn (0.57 ± 0.01) were obtained before pasteurization and concentrations of Cu (0.19 ± 0.01), Fe (0.36 ± 0.02), Se (0.008 ± 0.002) and Zn (0.57 ± 0.01) were obtained after pasteurization. Their protein-binding profile did not change significantly for the majority of the species, indicating a low degree of interconversion due to the elevation of the temperature. However, protein profiles changed after pasteurization, indicating that the losses occurred mainly in the apo form (metal-free form) of proteins rather than in their holo forms (metallo-species).

  • Sinapic acid derivatives in microwave-pretreated rapeseeds and minor components in oils
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Yanxia Cong; Mingming Zheng; Fenghong Huang; Changsheng Liu; Chang Zheng

    Microwave pretreatment has been considered to improve the quality of rapeseed oil for canolol generation. Canolol is assumed to be formed by the decarboxylation of sinapic acid (SA). In this work, sinapic acid derivatives in 39 microwave-pretreated rapeseeds and their roles in the enhanced oxidative stability of rapeseed oils were investigated. The average contents of sinapic acid derivatives in rapeseeds, including (from high to low) sinapine, sinapoyl glucoside (SG), disinapoyl gentiobioside (DSG), quercetin-sinapoyl-di-hexosepentose (QSDG), sinapoyl malate (SM), disinapoyl glucoside (DDSG) and SA, were determined. After microwave pretreatment, the canolol content in rapeseed increased from nil to 6.16-76.1 mg/100 g, while sinapic acid derivatives contents decreased. The degradation rates of SG, DDSG, DSG, SM, SA and sinapine were 59.1%, 40.2%, 33.7%, 27.4%, 14.4% and 11.3%, respectively. There was no correlation relationship between sinapine and canolol. However, SG, DSG, SM and DDSG were regarded to be the precursor substances of canolol. Additionally, the tocopherols, sterols and canolol contents, along with the induction period (IP) of microwaved rapeseed oil increased by 3.79%, 10.0%, 76.8 times and 38.7%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between IP and canolol content. These findings clarify the precursor substances of canolol and provide a theoretical support for the development and utilization of canolol.

  • Physicochemical characteristics, vitamin C, and polyphenolic composition of four European commercial blood-flesh peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch)
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Christophe Aubert, Guillaume Chalot

    Dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C and polyphenol contents were determined in four blood-flesh and ten white-flesh peach cultivars. Among polyphenols, kaempferol-3-glucoside, p-coumaroylquinic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were reported for the first time in blood-flesh peaches. Two pyranoanthocyanins were also reported for the first time in Prunus persica. As expected, anthocyanin content was significantly higher in blood-flesh fruits, but our results also showed they are above all richer in hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols. Chlorogenic acid content was 4 times higher in blood-fleshed fruits and those of quercetin glycosides 20–40 times higher. Conversely, (+)-catechin content was twice higher in white-flesh fruits. Among other bioactive compounds, vitamin C content was also 40 % significantly higher in blood-flesh fruits. As regards quality parameters, if levels of titratable acidity and total organic acids were about 2-fold significantly higher in blood-flesh fruits, those of total sugars and soluble solids contents were not significant. All these results show that blood-flesh peach cultivars represent an important source of antioxidants, and therefore suggest they are nutritionally interesting for health.

  • Post-functionalized Al-based metal-organic frameworks for fluorescent detection of total iron in food matrix
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Chunhua Li, Li Zhu, Weixia Yang, Xie He, Haiping Zhao, Wenzhi Tang, Tianli Yue, Zhonghong Li
  • Toxic and essential trace element concentrations in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum in the Lower Amazon, Brazil
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Fabio Edir Amaral Abuquerque, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino, Marta Miranda, Carlos Herrero-Latorre, Raimundo Alves Barrêto Júnior, Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira, Salatiel Ribeiro Dias, Enrico Lippi Ortolani, Marta López-Alonso

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentrations of toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb) and essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn) in the freshwater shrimp M. amazonicum in the region of Santarem (lower Amazonia), which is affected by mining activities. The level of metal accumulation in the shrimp was found to be similar to that measured in other regions affected by anthropogenic polluted in both in Brazil and elsewhere, and does not pose a significant risk for human consumption. The different patterns of metal accumulation between the Amazon and Tapajos basins appear to be (at least partly) related to respectively bauxite exploitation and gold mining in the region. Bioaccumulation of the trace elements Co, Fe, and Mn mainly occurred in the visceral part of the shrimps from the Amazon river.

  • Geographical discrimination of red garlic (Allium sativum L.) using fast and non-invasive Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Alessandra Biancolillo, Federico Marini, Angelo Antonio D’Archivio

    Four varieties of red garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivated in different Italian territories, Sulmona (Abruzzo), Proceno and Castelliri (Lazio), and Nubia (Sicily), were analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. ATR-FTIR spectra of bulbils and bulbil tunics were separately acquired and processed by Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) with the aim of classifying the garlic samples on the basis of their geographical origin. Finally, two multi-block strategies (based on Sequential and Orthogonalized Partial Least Squares and Sequential and Orthogonalized Covariance Selection, coupled with Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis) have been applied in order to test whether a joint analysis of data could lead to higher prediction rates. Eventually, the best results were achieved by the multi-block approach based on SO-PLS, which allows obtaining a total classification rate of 95 % (corresponding to one misclassified sample over 20) in external validation.

  • UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and artificial neural networks for the cholesterol quantification in egg yolk
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Gema Puertas, Manuel Vázquez

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) are non-linear calibration methods that try to simulate the human nervous system with neurons, layers and transfer functions. In this study the input neurons were the UV-VIS-NIR spectra of egg yolks and the outputs were cholesterol content. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop and assess a UV-VIS-NIR method coupled to chemometrics and ANN for cholesterol determination in egg yolks. A total of 57 samples of egg yolks were obtained from fresh shell eggs and pasteurised egg yolks. A total of 2311 variables (wavelengths) with four variable selection methods were analysed. An enzymatic method was used as reference method for cholesterol content. The effect of the solvent was also evaluated. The best results were obtained based on selected absorbance peaks. Calibration results showed r2cal over 0.90 and RMSEC below 0.65. Validation results showed r2val close to 0.7. The ANN model developed could be useful to determine cholesterol in egg yolk for routine quality control.

  • Evaluation of quality, phenolic and carotenoid composition of fresh-cut purple Polignano carrots stored in modified atmosphere
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    B. Pace, I. Capotorto, M. Cefola, P. Minasi, N. Montemurro, V. Carbone

    Purple Polignano carrot is a traditional Italian landrace cultivated in Apulia region rich in antioxidants and with a high nutritional value. On the other hand, these carrots showed a high perishability. The postharvest behaviour of fresh-cut purple Polignano carrots stored in open bags (AIR) or passive modified atmosphere (pMA) was studied, analysing the main qualitative parameters and the polyphenols and carotenoids profile. The storage in pMA allowed to preserve visual quality and respiration rate better than the storage in AIR. Polyphenols (hydroxycinnamic acids, their derivatives and anthocyanins) increased during storage of about 249 % in samples stored in pMA and of about 306 % in those stored in AIR at 4 °C during the first 4 days of storage, respect to fresh carrots. Instead, carotenoids mean content in carrots just after harvest (6.28 ± 0.48 mg kg-1 fw) did not change significantly during storage at 4 °C (both in AIR or pMA). According to our results, pMA resulted a valid solution to cold store fresh-cut purple Polignano carrots until two weeks, preserving quality and nutritional value.

  • Effect of freezing and cool storage on carotenoid content and quality of zeaxanthin-biofortified and standard yellow sweet-corn (Zea mays L.)
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Paula Calvo-Brenes, Tim O´Hare

    Influence of freezing temperature at –20 °C and −80 °C up to three months, and influence of storage at 4 °C up to fifteen days on carotenoid content and quality parameters in zeaxanthin-biofortified and commercial yellow sweet-corn were evaluated. Cobs frozen and stored at -20 °C showed a decrease in carotenoid concentration, in which carotenoids from the β-branch were mainly affected, compared to the α-branch carotenoids. Freezing temperature at −80 °C did not affect carotenoid concentration for cobs stored up to three months. Storage at 4 °C was shown to be adequate for carotenoid retention up to fifteen days, and also as a preconditioning temperature to avoid the detrimental effects of storing cobs at −20 °C. Colour and starch content were not affected by storage at 4 °C up to fifteen days, however a reduction in sugars and total soluble solids was observed.

  • Determination of lead in dietary supplements by high-resolution continuum-source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with direct solid sampling
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Gabriela Camera Leal, Patricia Mattiazzi, Franciele Rovasi, Thaís Dal Molin, Denise Bohrer, Paulo Cícero do Nascimento, Leandro M. de Carvalho, Carine Viana
  • In vitro bioaccessibility of the Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the baru almond and bocaiúva pulp and, macronutrients characterization
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Talissa de Oliveira Gonçalves, Gabriel Silverio Filbido, Ana Paula de Oliveira Pinheiro, Patricia Daniela Pinto Piereti, Ricardo Dalla Villa, Adriana Paiva de Oliveira
  • Investigation of biologically active amines in some selected edible mushrooms
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Guilherme C.L. Reis, Flávia B. Custódio, Bruno G. Botelho, Letícia R. Guidi, Maria Beatriz A. Gloria
  • Development of an intelligent surgical knife rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry based method for real-time differentiation of cod from oilfish
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Qing Shen, Linqiu Li, Gongshuai Song, Junli Feng, Shiyan Li, Yang Wang, Jianfeng Ma, Haixing Wang
  • Study of heavy metals biosorption by tea fungus in Kombucha drink using Central Composite Design
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Azimeh Najafpour, Afshin Rajabi Khorrami, Parviz Aberoomand Azar, Mohammad Saber Tehrani

    Kombucha is a beverage obtained by the fermentation of sugared tea with tea fungus. The tea fungus converts the sweetened tea to a refreshing beverage with a variety of beneficial micronutrients. The presence of heavy metals in beverages is a major concern for public health due to their biotoxic effects. In this work, the heavy metal removal potential of live tea fungus from Kombucha drink is studied. The effect of four influencing parameters on biosorption of metals, including initial tea fungus dosage, tea content, sugar content and water hardness, was investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of quadratic models demonstrated that all models were statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001). The optimum conditions were found to be 35.85 (g), 4.43 (g), 18.42 (g) per 500 mL of the drink, for initial tea fungus dosage, tea content, sugar content, respectively and 0.0 (mg/L) for water hardness. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental removal efficiencies for Hg2+, As3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr6+ were 93.3%, 76.7%, 76.1%, 84.3% and 75.4%, respectively. The experimental values of optimum biosorption showed an appropriate agreement with the predicted values of CCD.

  • 更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry for multielement determination in instant soups
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Larissa São Bernardo Carvalho, Caroline Santos Silva, Joaquim Araújo Nóbrega, Elane Santos Boa Morte, Daniele Cristina Muniz Batista Santos, Maria Graças Andrade Korn

    This paper presents the use of microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) for food analysis. A method for determination of Cu, K, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn in instant soups by MIP OES with N2 plasma was developed. Sample preparation procedure consisted of microwave-assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid solution. Accuracy was evaluated based on the analysis of three certified reference materials: NIST 1515 (apple leaves), NIST 1568b (rice flour) and NIST 3234 (soy flour). Recoveries ranged from 83.3–107.5 % for target elements in these materials. Addition and recovery experiments were performed and recoveries ranged from 86.0–106.0 %. All determinations were performed using external calibration. Limits of detection for Cu, K, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn were 0.09, 4.9, 1.0, 0.04, 5.4 and 0.88 mg kg-1, respectively. Concentrations ranges of Cu, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn in various types of instant soups samples were found between 1.31–13.8, 1135 - 17.824, 172–567, 1.72–12.1, 608 - 1826 and 2.90–12.1 mg kg-1, respectively. The use of N2 microwave-induced plasma is demonstrated as a low cost alternative for routine analysis.

  • Analysis of phenolic compositions in cranberry dietary supplements using UHPLC-HRMS
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Yifei Wang, Peter de B. Harrington, Pei Chen

    The potential human health benefits of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) leads to the popularity of its dietary supplements in the U.S. market. However, the qualities of the cranberry dietary supplements (CDSs) have never been carefully evaluated. In this study, the phenolic components in ten different CDSs were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The study found quercetin and myricetin aglycones in most CDSs, but not in cranberry fruits, despite otherwise similar phenolic profiles between CDS and cranberry fruits in general. One supplement with high levels of B-type proanthocyanidins and non-cranberry flavonol rutin was determined to be adulterated by other botanical extracts. The CDSs only possessed 4%–11% of the phenolic contents comparing to their claimed fresh cranberry equivalents, emphasizing the urgency of standardized product quality control and labelling for CDS manufacture and marketing.

  • Comprehensive characterization of neutral and polar lipids of buttermilk from different sources and its milk fat globule membrane isolates
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    María Visitación Calvo, María Carmen Martín-Hernández, Alba García-Serrano, María Pilar Castro-Gómez, Loreto Alonso-Miravalles, Rosa García-Martín, Javier Megino-Tello, Leocadio Alonso, Javier Fontecha
  • Reference measurements of mercury species in seafood using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Agnieszka Anna Krata, Marcin Wojciechowski, Emilia Vassileva, Ewa Bulska

    Species-specific isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SS ID ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to obtain accurate and SI traceable results for methyl mercury in seafood samples such as clam, oyster and fish homogenate. The mass fractions of (62.3 ± 2.3) μg kg−1, (5.44 ± 0.36) μg kg−1 and (531 ± 19) μg kg−1 were obtained for MeHg (as Hg) in IAEA-461, IAEA-470 and IAEA-476, respectively. Direct isotope dilution mass spectrometry was performed for total mercury content then the content of inorganic mercury in selected samples was obtained by calculation. It was found that the content of inorganic Hg in IAEA-461, IAEA-470, and IAEA-476 was as: 328 μg kg−1, 16 μg kg−1, and 62 μg kg−1, respectively. Mathematical modelling of analytical procedure and evaluation of all parameters influencing final results were adequate for validation of measurement procedure, establishing traceability and estimating expanded uncertainty. Developed procedures were successfully applied in the characterization process of fish homogenate candidate reference material and in the calculation of assigned values in the frame of IAEA-476 inter-laboratory comparison study. Compatibility between obtained results and those derived from the certification campaign, organized by International Atomic Energy Agency on the same sample matrix (<2.6 % difference) further validated performed ID ICP-MS protocols.

  • Fagopyrins in different parts of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) during growth
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jaecheol Kim, Keum Taek Hwang

    Fagopyrins, anthraquinone derivatives present in buckwheat, are structurally similar to hypericin. The objective of this study was to determine changes of fagopyrins in flowers, leaves, and stems of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum; CB) and Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum; TB) during growth. Flowers, leaves, and stems of buckwheats were collected until the 50th day after sowing (DAS) at intervals of 5 days. Fagopyrins were analyzed by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Buckwheat flowers contained significantly higher fagopyrins than the other parts. Fagopyrins in TB flowers were significantly higher than in CB flowers. Concentration of fagopyrins in the flowers gradually decreased until the 50th DAS. Fagopyrin F was the major form of fagopyrins in buckwheats, accounting for 68–79 % in CB and 81–94 % in TB with TB flowers the highest (93–94 %). This study was the first in analyzing contents of fagopyrin F and fagopyrins in different parts of buckwheats during growth.

  • Milk quality control requirement evaluation using a handheld Near Infrared Reflectance spectrophotometer and a bespoke mobile application
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Rubén Muñiz, María Cuevas-Valdés, Begoña de la Roza-Delgado

    This research introduces a novel approach for real-time analysis of individual cow milk samples in order to get an estimation of required quality control parameters such as lactose, protein, fat, and solids-non-fat (SNF), in order to distinguish their concentrations in conventional cow milk. This will permit the classification of milk samples according to their quality, and help to avoid penalties over quality issues in dairy facilities. To fulfil this goal a newly developed mobile application has been implemented, along with a Neural Network based model fed with spectral data from a handheld Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectrophotometer. With the combination of this application and a portable NIR sensor, milk quality parameters can be estimated by dairy farms on their own premises. The model was obtained by means of the widely used machine learning framework TensorFlow provided by Google Inc. A total of 903 fresh cow milk samples collected over a 3 year period, were used to train and validate the models. The advantages provided by this mobile application at the milking stage allows us to know in real-time the quality control parameters for each cow milk sample, individually. This offers an immediate management change capability along with enhanced decision making potential at farm level, thus leading to the optimisation of the quality of milk production.

  • Determination and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Rice Bran Oil in Iran
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Afsaneh Mohajer, Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Parisa Sadighara, Kiandokht Ghanati, Shahrokh Nazmara
  • Separation and determination of alkylamides from prickly ash powder using molecularly imprinting technique
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Yao Li, Jianquan Kan

    In this work, a molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction method was developed to extract Zanthoxylum alkylamides from prickly ash. Surface molecularly imprinted polymers (SMIP) were prepared using the molecular structural analogs of sanshool as a dummy template molecule and acylated silica as backbone. The structural characteristics of the polymers were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic adsorption and isothermal adsorption were investigated. SMIP was used to prepare a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction column (SPEC) for the extraction of Zanthoxylum alkylamides from prickly ash powder, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination. Through separation by SMIP-SPEC, the purity of alkylamides in prickly ash extracts increased from 27.26% to 93.58%. Good linearity for alkylamides standard solution was obtained in the range of 1.0–800.0 μg/mL, and low detection and quantification limits were 0.044 and 0.147 μg/mL, respectively. The method recoveries at four concentration levels of alkylamides were found within 90.3−97.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.5% to 5.9%. These indicate the good recognition ability and affinity to Zanthoxylum alkylamides of SMIP and the novelty of the method for the extraction of alkylamides. The method described could be used for the enrichment of alkylamides and rapid detection.

  • 更新日期:2019-12-11
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Deivisson Ferreira da Silva, Patriciani Estela Cipriano, Ray Rodrigues de Souza, Matias Siueia, Valdemar Faquin, Maria Ligia de Souza Silva, Luiz Roberto Guimarães Guilherme

    It is well known that selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans, presenting antioxidant functions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Raphanus sativus L. as an agricultural crop indicated for selenium biofortification and to investigate the influence of different sources and forms of application on Se accumulation and macronutrient absorption. The experiment followed a randomized complete design with five replicates, arranged in a 2 x 2 + 1 factorial scheme, consisting of two sources of Se (sodium selenate and sodium selenite) and two forms of application (application in the soil at the dose of 1.2 mg kg -1 of Se and foliar application at the dose of 50 μmol L-1 of Se), with a control treatment without the addition of selenium. The accumulations of Se in the leaf, root, and whole plants were higher with the selente source applied via soil when compared with the foliar application. For the selenite source applied via soil, Se root contents were higher when compared with the fertilization via leaf. The Se content in the root was lower for the selenate applied via soil when compared with the other treatments and the control. Raphanus sativus L is an agricultural crop suitable for the agronomic biofortification of selenium, since it concentrates the appropriate levels of Se in the roots and leaves, not harming the crop yield. The application of Se in the form of selenate and via soil was the best technique to increase the contents of Se in the plant, without causing damages in the accumulation of biomass, despite having led to a reduction in the accumulation of S.

  • Essential and non-essential/toxic trace elements in whey protein supplements
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Edgar Pinto, Isabel M.P.L.V.O. Ferreira, Agostinho Almeida

    Twenty-six (26) trace elements (essential and non-essential/toxic) were determined in 49 whey protein (WP) supplements available for sale in the Portuguese market by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry. The most abundant essential trace element was Fe (13.7 ± 16.7 µg/g) and the least abundant was Co (0.040 ± 0.028 µg/g). The estimated daily intake was calculated and, considering a daily consumption of 50 g of WP supplement, on average, 100% of the recommended dietary allowance for Mo and ca. 40% for Se is met. A safety assessment was also performed based on the Permitted Daily Exposure limits settled by the USP, general chapter <2232 > . The daily consumption of 50 g of WP supplement does not contribute for more than 12.1% (Cd) of those limits, as regards As, Cd, Pb and Hg. Thus, WP supplements can be considered safe products, regarding the presence of potentially toxic elements.

  • Content and Variability of Vitamin D and Iodine in Processed Egg Products in the United States (U.S.)
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Janet M. Roseland, Meena Somanchi, Rahul Bahadur, David B. Haytowitz, Pamela R. Pehrsson

    Iodine and vitamin D deficiencies among specific subpopulations within the U.S. are of concern. Eggs, including processed forms, can be an important dietary source of iodine, vitamin D3, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Processed eggs (dried and frozen liquid forms of whole eggs, yolks, and whites) are used in food manufacturing and foodservice. Samples were obtained from six U.S. processors (up to three production lots per category), to examine analytical iodine and vitamin D values and variability measures. Samples and quality control materials were sent to USDA validated analytical laboratories. Nutrient values were statistically compared after adjusting the values for moisture content, with each nutrient dataset modeled separately using linear mixed models. No significant differences were found for vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3 or iodine content of dried eggs compared to frozen liquid eggs by their whole egg and yolk parts, on a dry weight basis. Updated values and variability data for processed eggs were incorporated into FoodData Central, the U.S. Department of Agriculture food composition database. These data contribute valuable information for estimating U.S. intake amounts of iodine and vitamin D.

  • Comparison of Colorimetric Methods for Determination of Phytic Acid Content in Raw and Oil Extracted Flour Samples of Maize
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Fatih Kahriman, Umut Songur, Mehmet Şerment, Şule Akbulut, Cem Ömer Egesel

    There are different colorimetric methods, with various analysis principles and phases, for the estimation of phytic acid content in agricultural products. Maize genotypes may possess a wide range of oil content, which is considered as a factor affecting the results of phytic acid analyses. Elaborative studies are needed to examine these methods to clarify the effect of oil content on the results, especially in the sample sets with varying oil concentrations. We utilized 4 different colorimetric methods; namely, AOAC, Wade, Chen and Haug-Lantzsch (H-L), to estimate phytic acid content in 19 maize genotypes, classified as having high (>7%, n = 7) normal (3-5%, n = 6) and low (<3%, n = 6) oil content. Phytic acid determination was carried out on 2 groups of flour samples (raw: E1, and oil extracted: E2) using 3 replications. The results indicated that analysis methods yielded rather different phytic acid values. They also differed significantly in time and cost, with the Chen method being the cheapest and Haug-Lantzsch (H-L) the quickest. Oil extraction had significant effects on phytic acid results, and these effects varied across the analysis methods and the oil content of the genotypes. Our data suggest that either novel or improved colorimetric methods are necessary when analyzing phytic acid in special maize genotypes, considering the dissimilarity of the results from the current methods.

  • Antioxidant characteristics of honey from Mozambique based on specific flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Fernando Tanleque-Alberto, Isabel Escriche

    The most recent guidelines of IUPAC and AOAC recommend the analysis of specific compounds present in antioxidant fractions. For the first time, honey from different provinces of North (Nampula) and Central Mozambique (Sofala, Manica and Zambezia) was analysed considering specific flavonoids and phenolic acid profiles. Seven phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric and sinapic) and eight flavonoids (catechin, chrysin, kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin, pinocembrin, quercetin and rutin) were screened in the samples. Nampula honey had a higher content of most of these compounds and the total antioxidant activity (even reaching up to 40 mg TE/100 g) compared honey from the other provinces. Unlike in other African honeys, luteolin had the greatest impact in the flavonoid content (in some cases up to 72 mg/100 g), representing alone more than 50% of this family. Resulting from a discriminant analysis, specific flavonoids (pinocembrin, kaempferol, rutin and catechin) followed by the chlorogenic phenolic acid were the most important variables that distinguishes Nampula from the other provinces. This work underlines the importance of Mozambiquean honey as a source of natural antioxidants both of which concern the health benefits and its exploitation as a viable and sustainable income for the local population.

  • Impact of flour particle size on nutrient and phenolic acid composition of commercial wheat varieties
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Ayaz Ali Memon, Inamullah Mahar, Roomia Memon, Sanam Soomro, James Harnly, Najma Memon, Muhammad Iqbal Bhangar, Devanand L. Luthria

    In the present study, the effect of particle size (PS) on phenolic acid content and proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, total fat, crude fiber and total carbohydrates) of whole-wheat flour (WWF) was determined. Five different particle size fractions <1.18 to >0.43, <0.43 to >0.30, <0.30 to >0.15, < 0.15 to >0.08 mm, and < 0.08 mm (ASTM recommended), of three commercial wheat varieties (Benazir, TJ-83, Imdad) were used for the present study. Total phenolic acid was determined using HPLC-DAD detections after base hydrolysis of the samples. Proximate composition of each particle size fraction of all three wheat flours were determined by recommended AOAC methods. In all wheat varieties, maximum quantities of total phenolic acids (162.12-554.16 mg/100 g) were obtained from <1.18 to >0.43 mm PS fractions. The maximum moisture content (8.12-8.98 g/100 g) was observed in the two lower PS (<0.15 mm) fractions while ash and protein were highest in the largest PS (<1.18 to >0.43) i.e. 2.10-2.77 mg/100 g and 10.9-11.8 mg/100 g respectively. The total fat (0.24-0.53 mg/100 g) and crude fiber (0.40-0.59 mg/100 g) were highest in <0.43 to >0.30 PS fraction of all wheat varieties. The carbohydrates (g/100 g) and energy (kilojoules) were observed in the average range from 77.4-79.9, 1502.0-1518.8 for Imdad; 79.7-84.3, 1518.8-1527.2 for Benazir; and 78.4-81.1, 1506.2-1518.8 for TJ-83 wheat varieties. Pearson correlation showed negative correlation between particle size and carbohydrate and energy content and positive correlation with phenolic acids content. This study concludes that particle size has direct influence on the distribution of phenolic acids, carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber, ash, crude fat and moisture in the three wheat varieties.

  • Concentrations and Health Risk Assessment of Total Mercury in Canned Tuna Marketed in Southest Brazil
    J. Food Compos. Anal. (IF 2.994) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Camila Valente Alva, Eliane Teixeira Mársico, Roberta de Oliveira Resende Ribeiro, Carla da Silva Carneiro, Julia Siqueira Simões, Micheli da Silva Ferreira

    The aim of this research was to determine total mercury (Hg) content in 69 canned tuna of 13 brands marketed in southwest Brazil. All values are reported in µg. g-1 wet weight basis. Potential health risk was estimated on the basis of mercury concentration and average consumption (175 g/per week) of fish in Brazil comparing to PTWI of 1.6 µg.kg-1 (FAO/WHO, 2010). A large variation in the concentration of mercury in different species was observed. Mean mercury concentration was 0.256 ± 0.215 µg.g-1 with a highest value of 1.060 µg.g-1 in a single can. In general average concentration was below the legislation of 1.0 µg.g-1 for predatory species (BRASIL, 2014). Estimate weekly intake (EWI) varied 0.2 to 1.7 µg.kg-1. For the analyzed brands and Brazilian fish consumption, no human health risk is likely to occur. However one brand was higher than PTWI of 1.6 µg.kg-1 showing no safety for specific risk group. Further studies including specific data on canned tuna consumption in specific populations will be needed as well as the fish type, fish size and fishing location.

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上海纽约大学William Glover