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  • Ultrasonication of Milky Stage Rice Milk with Bioactive Peptides from Rice Bran: Its Bioactivities and Absorption
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Samuchaya Ngamsuk, Jue-Liang Hsu, Tzou-Chi Huang, Prisana Suwannaporn

    Abstract Rice in early development stage contains peptides and various bioactive compounds. Rice protein hydrolysate was prepared from Riceberry bran protein hydrolysed with Alcalase® and trypsin. Protein hydrolysate from Alcalase® (MW < 3 kDa) was fractionated into 12 fractions using RP-HPLC and tested for antioxidant, ACE, and ROS-inhibitory activity. Peptide from RP-HPLC fraction 1 showed that the lowest ROS inhibition and highest antioxidant were identified by LC-MS/MS as Val-Leu-Ala-Ala-Gly-Cys-Pro-Leu. Peptide fraction 4 showed that the strongest in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity was identified as Ala-Met-Ser-Phe-Ala-Glu-Met. Young Riceberry milk was then enriched with Alcalase® protein hydrolysate (MW < 3 kDa) and sonicated at amplitude 20% for 30 min and 40% for 60 min. Particle size, transmittance, and Caco-2 cell absorption were measured. The highest peptide content and % absorption was found in young rice milk ultrasonicated at 40% for 60 min. Rice bran protein hydrolysate produced by Alcalase® had much smaller MW bioactive peptides and could be used as a potent functional food ingredient. The young rice milk fortified with bioactive peptides after high power ultra-sonication could increase the in vitro intestinal absorption.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Review on the Potential Reuse of Functional Polysaccharides Extracted from the By-Products of Mushroom Processing
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Chung-Yi Wang

    Abstract Mushrooms contain many types of nutrients; they are widely regarded as healthy food product. The development of the global mushroom industry has resulted the production of by-products such as stipes, discarded space bags, and broken fruiting bodies. Mushroom by-products account for approximately 20% of mushroom weight and have a high recycling value. Mushroom by-products are most commonly used as compost and animal feed. They contain large amounts of polysaccharides, triterpenes, ergosterol, glycoproteins, dietary fiber, and other components from which functional components could be extracted. Among those components, polysaccharides have been widely studied. This review paper evaluated current research findings, which revealed that new extraction techniques such as microwave, ultrasound, pulsed electrical fields, and high pressure could be used to increase the efficiency of polysaccharide recovery from mushroom by-products. We also separately discussed the functionality of various types of polysaccharides extracted from different mushroom by-products with regard to immune regulation, alleviation of cardiovascular disease, protection of intestinal health, as well as anticancer, antibacterial, and other health promoting effects. This review highlights that mushroom waste contains many types of functional polysaccharide components that have potential applications in foodstuffs and medicine. The use of new extraction techniques can improve the utilization of whole mushrooms. Effective recovery of polysaccharide components from mushroom by-products can increase the overall value of mushroom cultivation and decrease the production of agricultural waste.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Repeated Heat-Moisture Treatment: a more EffectiveWay for Structural and Physicochemical Modification of Mung Bean Starch Compared with Continuous Way
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Kun Zhao, Bo Zhang, Chunyan Su, Bing Gong, Jianmei Zheng, Hao Jiang, Guoquan Zhang, Wenhao Li

    Effects of repeated heat-moisture treatment (RHM) and continuous heat-moisture treatment (CHM) on structural, physicochemical, and digestibility properties of mung bean starch were investigated. Rupture and scallops appeared on the surface of starch granules and some polarization cross disappeared after CHM and RHM. Besides, CHM starch exhibited severe rupture than RHM with the same treatment time. Crystal type of CHM and RHM starch maintained A-type while crystallinity decreased first but then increased as treating time increased. Besides, the relative crystallinity, transition temperatures, ΔH, and slowly digestible starch and rapidly digestible starch content of RHM were significantly higher than CHM whereas solubility, swelling power, and pasting viscosities of RHM samples were lower than CHM under the same treating time. Overall, RHM measures have more advantages than CHM in the modification of the structural, physicochemical, and digestibility properties of starch.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Effects of Extrusion Technology Combined with Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Porous Corn Starch
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Wenqi Wu, Aiquan Jiao, Enbo Xu, Yuan Chen, Zhengyu Jin

    Abstract Effects of the combination of extrusion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on corn starch are investigated through its microstructural and physicochemical properties. This combined modification resulted in the formation of more pores on the surface of native starches (NS), as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with either single-treatment modified starch samples, starch that was bioextruded and treated by enzymatic hydrolysis achieved higher crystallinity, more uniform pore structure, and higher gelatinization temperature than those of native porous starch, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments showed that the specific surface area (2.52 m2/g), total pore volume (4.53 × 10−3 cm3/g), and average pore size (7.36 nm) of porous starch were significantly increased by bioextrusion combined with enzyme hydrolysis (P < 0.05). The results of hydrolysis degree (DH) also showed that bioextrusion could improve the efficiency of hydrolysis. Starch that was bioextruded followed by enzyme hydrolysis showed the highest adsorption capacity in adsorption tests of adsorption of oil (63.29%), water (162.61%), and methylene blue (6.04%). The present study suggests that the combination of bioextrusion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is an attractive alternative for preparing porous corn starches.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Effect of Ultrasonic Power on Water Removal Kinetics and Moisture Migration of Kiwifruit Slices During Contact Ultrasound Intensified Heat Pump Drying
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Yunhong Liu, Ya Zeng, Xiaoyue Hu, Xue Sun

    Abstract The experiments of contact ultrasound intensified heat pump drying (CUHPD) of kiwifruit slices were conducted to investigate the effect of ultrasonic power on dehydration process and water migration of kiwifruit during CUHPD. The results clarified that contact ultrasound (CU) application could reduce the drying time of HPD significantly, and the rise of ultrasonic power had stronger reinforcing effect on dehydration rate. Weibull distribution function could simulate the dehydration process of CUHPD of kiwifruit with high precision, and the β values verified that ultrasonic power improvement could transform the moisture diffusion mechanism of CUHPD from total internal moisture diffusion control to partial internal moisture diffusion control. The Dcal values were 2.304 × 10−9~4.026 × 10−9 m2/s and increased as the rise of ultrasonic power. The scanning electron microscopy results illustrated that increasing ultrasonic power could produce more porous and spacious microstructure which was beneficial for water migration. The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance results elucidated that free water, immobilized water, and bound water in kiwifruit migrated and changed during CUHPD. Free water with the highest mobility was the most abundant water in kiwifruit, and was the first kind of water to be completely removed. With drying progressed, the contents of immobilized water and bound water gradually increased and then decreased, but they were not completely removed. The increasing in ultrasonic power was beneficial to promoting internal water migration and shortening the required dehydration time, especially for free water. Proton density images visualized that increasing ultrasonic power could significantly promote the water diffusion from internal kiwifruit outward the surface, and thereby accelerate the rate of water removal. Therefore, CU application is a suitable method to accelerate the water diffusion and moisture migration of HPD process.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effect of Peppermint Oil on the Storage Quality of White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Tongtong Qu, Beibei Li, Xiaofei Huang, Xianxian Li, Yang Ding, Jifeng Chen, Xuanming Tang

    White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were treated with 5 μl L−1, 10 μl L−1, 20 μl L−1, and 50 μl L−1 peppermint oil and then stored at 4 °C for 8 days to investigate with respect to browning and postharvest qualities. It was found that 20 μl L−1 peppermint oil treatment could provide the best effect on inhibiting browning of fruit bodies. Our results indicated 20 μl L−1 peppermint oil fumigation restrains browning development and alleviated membrane lipid peroxidation, as reflected by lower electrolyte leakage (17.42%), malondialdehyde (MDA) content (21.95%), and weight loss (1.69%) compared with those of the control mushrooms at 8 days, respectively. In addition, the 20 μl L−1 peppermint oil fumigation had 1.49-fold and 1.24-fold higher phenolics and flavonoids accumulation respectively than those in control and retained high levels of soluble protein and total sugar at the end of the storage time. Furthermore, peppermint oil treatment significantly improved the antioxidant system, which increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalnine ammonia lyase (PAL), and inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), as well as regulated the relative expression levels of genes encoding polyphenol oxidase (AbPPO1, AbPPO2, AbPPO5, AbPPO6) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (AbPAL1, AbPAL2) during the storage period. These findings suggest that peppermint oil fumigation is a promising method to control browning and improve the quality of button mushrooms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Correction to: the Inhibitory Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on Lipid Oxidation of Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) during Chilled Storage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Qiongju Cao, Hongying Du, Yuan Huang, Yang Hu, Juan You, Ru Liu, Shanbai Xiong, Anne Manyande

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained some mistakes.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The Impact of High-Pressure Processing on the Structure and Sensory Properties of Egg White-Whey Protein Mixture at Acidic Conditions
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Zhong Zhang, Ying Li, Michelle C. Lee, Raheleh Ravanfar, Olga I. Padilla-Zakour, Alireza Abbaspourrad

    Abstract This study aims to unveil the impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the structure and sensory properties of the mixture of egg white and whey protein at acidified conditions. Under HPP treatment, we hypothesized that egg white protein can form gel structures and encapsulate or crosslink with the whey protein, thus masking the interaction sites of whey protein with salivary protein and reduce its astringency at pH 3.5. Various characterization techniques, including turbidity measurements, zeta size, optical and scanning microscopy, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were used to illustrate the structural changes of the proteins and the interactions between the egg white and whey proteins. The results show that HPP treatment at 450 MPa and 600 MPa can induce significant changes to the egg white-whey protein mixture in terms of size, microstructure, secondary structure, and crosslinking. We also confirmed by electrophoresis that the egg white and whey protein form complexes through covalent bonding that feature a molecular weight of ~ 90 kDa under HPP treatment at a pH value of 3.5. Although the egg white forms microgel and may partially encapsulate the whey protein, sensory studies showed such complexation does not reduce the astringency of whey protein at acidified conditions (control astringency score = 9.0). On the contrary, the HPP-treated samples showed a higher astringency (astringency score = 11.1–11.3), possibly due to the exposure of more hydrophobic sites on the proteins.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Investigation of Hot Air–Assisted Radio Frequency as a Final-Stage Drying of Pre-dried Carrot Cubes
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Chuting Gong, Meiji Liao, Hangjin Zhang, Yuanrong Xu, Yubin Miao, Shunshan Jiao

    Carrot cubes were firstly blanched by radio frequency (RF) heating and then pre-dried by ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration (UOD). Hot air–assisted radio frequency (HA-RF) was applied as a final-stage drying method for pre-dried carrot cubes in this study. HA-RF drying characteristics and associated quality of carrot cubes were evaluated by comparing with those dried by conventional hot air (HA) and vacuum freeze (VF) drying. Moisture content of carrot cubes was reduced to < 10% (w.b.) after 235–260 min HA-RF drying with 6.0–7.0-cm electrode gap and 60 °C HA; the drying time was reduced by > 50% when compared with conventional HA drying (550 min). LF-NMR and MRI results showed that the inside moisture migrated to the outside along with the evaporation of surface moisture during the drying process which indicated that HA-RF was a relatively uniform drying process. Logarithmic model was found to be more suitable for HA-RF drying with R2, RMSE, and SEM value at 0.994, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively. Carrot cubes dried by HA-RF had expected redness and relatively high hardness, and Vc retention rate was comparable with that dried by VF. This study demonstrated that HA-RF is an effective final-stage drying method for pre-dried carrot cubes.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Structure Restoration of Thermally Denatured Collagen by Ultrahigh Pressure Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Man Sun, Xu Wei, Haibo Wang, Chengzhi Xu, Benmei Wei, Juntao Zhang, Lang He, Yuling Xu, Sheng Li

    Thermal denaturation is the primary reason for the loss of excellent performance for collagen-based materials. It is particularly urgent to explore an effective structure restoration strategy for thermally denatured collagen. In this study, three different degrees of collagen thermal denaturation models were constructed; the effects of ultrahigh pressure treatments of varying intensities on the structure and properties of partially thermal denatured collagen were investigated. Those results showed that ultrahigh pressure partially restores the triple helix conformation and the α helix of low thermally denatured collagen molecules and moderately restores collagen thermal stability. However, this recovery is not a “perfect” structural restoration; it cannot effectively restore the fibrotic ability of collagen which leads to a decrease in the fiber diameter of the product and an increase in the storage modulus of the product gel. As the degree of thermal denaturation of collagen increases, the ultrahigh pressure recovery effect is gradually lost. For moderate thermally denatured collagen, ultrahigh pressure treatments only recover a small amount of its triple helical conformation. For high thermally denatured collagen, ultrahigh pressure treatments exacerbate the destruction of the three-dimensional structure of collagen molecules, thereby losing the order of molecular structure and the capability of fibrosis self-assembly.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Electrohydrodynamic Encapsulation of Resveratrol Using Food-Grade Nanofibres: Process Optimization, Characterization and Fortification
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    B.G. Seethu, Heartwin A. Pushpadass, F. Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald, B. Surendra Nath, N. Laxmana Naik, K.S. Subramanian

    Utilization of resveratrol as a nutraceutical in foods is limited due to its low bioavailability and chemical instability. Therefore, resveratrol was encapsulated into nanofibres by electrospinning at concentrations of 15, 18 and 21% TS, applied voltage of 13, 18 and 23 kV and feed rates of 0.6 and 1 mL/h using WPI-pullulan as wall material. Electrospinning conditions were optimized as 18% TS, 18 kV applied voltage and 0.6 mL/h flow rate. SEM images showed formation of clean and continuous fibres at 18 and 23 kV applied voltage, with a mean fibre diameter of 63 to 208 nm and encapsulation efficiency of 74 and 96.70%. Successful encapsulation of resveratrol was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. The zeta potential of resveratrol-loaded nanofibres was in the range of − 20.5 to − 32.2 mV, suggestive of higher stability. The antioxidant property of resveratrol in nanofibres was retained. No significant physiochemical and sensorial changes were observed in resveratrol fortified milk.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Effect of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles Plus Herring Antifreeze Protein on Conformation and Oxidation of Myofibrillar Protein From Red Sea Bream ( Pagrosomus major ) After Freeze-Thaw Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Luyun Cai, Linyu Nian, Ailing Cao, Yuhao Zhang, Xiuxia Li

    The effects on the quality of frozen red sea bream, which were pretreated by soaking in solutions containing trehalose, carboxymethyl chitosan magnetic nanoparticles (CCMN), and glycerin or 0.1% herring antifreeze protein (hAFP), were investigated. In this study, the viscoelastic properties of protein studied with the dynamic rheology, Raman and intrinsic fluorescence spectrometry were used to explore the conformation changes of MFP. Surface hydrophobicity, particle size, and zeta potential were carried out to analyze protein aggregation. Solubility, the content of total sulfhydryl/disulfide bond/carbonyl/dityrosine, and the Ca2+-ATPase activity were measured to explore the degree of protein oxidation. SDS-PAGE was conducted to analyze the protein denaturation. Results showed that the pretreatment of red sea bream with soak solutions could improve the viscoelasticity of fillets protein, stabilize the secondary and tertiary conformation of the MFP, inhibit the protein aggregation and oxidation, and decrease the degree of protein denaturation compared with the control (4 °C thawing), especially the soak solutions containing hAFP could minimize the freeze-thaw damage. To summarize, the hAFP helped to retain the above characteristics of frozen fillets much better than that of conventional cryoprotectants (glycerin) to improve the quality of the frozen product after thawing.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Legume Seeds Treated by High Hydrostatic Pressure: Effect on Functional Properties of Flours
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Eliana Fernández Sosa, Cinthia Thompson, María G. Chaves, Belén A. Acevedo, María V. Avanza

    Pigeon pea (PP), cowpea (CU), dolichos bean (DB), and jack bean (JB) are legumes that constitute the daily diet in many countries. Legumes are a good source of proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. Considering that legumes present potentials to be used as ingredients for food formulation, the study of functional and physicochemical properties of flours obtained from legume seeds treated by high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HHPT) (200, 400, 600 MPa) was conducted. Flours were evaluated for polypeptide composition (SDS-PAGE), fluorescence spectroscopy, color, protein solubility (PS), water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), emulsion activity (EA), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), foaming stability (FS), and least gelation concentration (LGC). PS of PP, CU, and DB diminished with the increase of pressure and only CU showed an increase of PS (7–40%) at the isoelectric point. WHC of PP, CU, and DB varied with the pressure applied; however, WHC of JB was not modified by HHPT as we observed in lambda max fluorescence-emission values and PS. Only PP showed an increment of OHC at 400 and 600 MPa. EA of PP was not affected by HPPT, while DB and JB showed a decrease. ES of CU, DB, and JB was not affected by HHPT. FC of PP, DB, and JB diminished with the increase of pressure. FS of DB and CU (400 MPa) was improved and continued for 120 min. LGC values and the equilibrium moisture content of flours were not influenced by HHPT, but the last decreased with the increase of temperature. Moisture sorption isotherms of flours fitted adequately to H-H equation covering the practical range of water activity (0.10–0.90) at the three temperatures tested. High pressure processed flours of PP, CU, DB, and JB showed functional properties that could be useful for food formulation.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Cheese Whey and Ricotta Whey for the Growth and Encapsulation of Endogenous Lactic Acid Bacteria
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Gabriela Rabaioli Rama, Daniel Kuhn, Simone Beux, Mônica Jachetti Maciel, Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza

    The aim of this study was to compare the ability of endogenous Lactobacillus paracasei ATR6 to grow in unsupplemented bovine cheese whey (CW) and ricotta whey (RW), and to evaluate the efficiency of these media as encapsulating agents for the spray-drying (SD) of this bacterium. Growth assays indicated that both CW and RW are adequate culture media since L. paracasei ATR6 grew satisfactorily (~ 4 log cycles) in both compared to the control medium (skimmed milk). Concerning their potential as encapsulating agents, results showed that survival rates after SD were similar for CW and RW (> 78%), as were the yields (> 47%) of this process. CW allowed the formation of smaller capsules (5.31 ± 1.27 μm) than RW (15.21 ± 7.24 μm), with lower moisture: 8.60% and 13.52%, respectively. Powders were stored at 25 °C for 60 days, during which CW and RW maintained satisfactory bacterial viability. Water activity increased, yet remained below 0.3. Moisture content of CW and RW powders was relatively stable throughout the 60 days; however, values obtained in this study are considered to lie outside the adequate range (4–7%) for product stability. We did not observe color changes in CW and RW microcapsules during storage. Due to its lower protein content, RW offered less protection, which led to higher loss in acidification ability of the strain. CW and RW are suitable culture media and encapsulating agents for the growth of L. paracasei ATR6; however, the former offered better protection, which enabled the maintenance of biological activity.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Effect of Pectin Coating Infused with Gallic Acid on the Quality and Shelf Life of Japanese Sea Bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas ) Fillets
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Xiaobao Nie, Zhe Gao, Xinrong Ren, Qiannan Jiang, Songlin Li, Changxing Jiang, Bin Liu, Xinfu Liu, Fangyun He

    In the present study, the effect of a pectin (PE) coating infused with gallic acid (GA) on the quality of fresh Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) fillets stored at 4 °C was evaluated over a 20-day period. PE or GA treatment alone and the PE infused with GA coating (PE-GA) all reduced microbial counts, with the PE-GA providing the greatest reduction. In general, samples of fish fillet treated with PE-GA had significantly lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen, lipid oxidation, and total sulfhydryls, but higher Ca2+-ATPase activity during the storage period, compared with the untreated (control), PE-coated, and GA-treated fillets. Notably, PE-GA-treated samples also had the highest sensory quality rating. Results of the present study indicate that the PE-GA composite coating represents a promising food-grade biopreservative that can be used for maintaining the storage quality of fresh fish fillet.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Characterization of Water Binding Properties of Apple Pectin Modified by Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Drying (DIC) by LF-NMR and DSC Methods
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Xiao Li, Jinfeng Bi, Xin Jin, Xuan Li, Xinye Wu, Jian Lyu

    Effects of instant controlled pressure drop drying (DIC) on the hygroscopic behavior of water-soluble pectin (WSP), chelator-soluble pectin (CSP), and sodium-carbonate-soluble pectin (NSP) were explored to reveal the modification effect of DIC treatment on apple pectin and the correlations between water binding capacity and the inherent characteristic of pectin. The results showed that DIC treatment significantly increased the water binding properties of CSP even though it was decreased slightly in WSP and NSP. Meanwhile, the methylesterification degree (DE) of CSP decreased significantly by 43.04% whereas it was increased slightly in WSP and NSP. Although the effect of DIC on GalA contents and the changes in the functional group structures were negligible, the changes in the crystalline state of three pectin fractions were significant. The results suggest that there are strong correlations between the water binding properties and the DE and the crystalline state of the three pectin fractions after DIC drying.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Relationship between Formulation, Gelation Kinetics, Micro/Nanostructure and Rheological Properties of Sodium Caseinate Nanoemulsion-Based Acid Gels for Food Applications
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Juan M. Montes de Oca-Ávalos, Virginia Borroni, Cristián Huck-Iriart, Alba S. Navarro, Roberto J. Candal, María L. Herrera

    Legislation and concerns about health effects of trans and saturated fatty acids have led to elimination or reduction of them in foods formulation. One of the alternatives for structuring food with healthy ingredients is using food-grade biopolymers such as proteins or polysaccharides to formulate hydrogels. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship among formulation, gelation kinetics, structure, and rheological properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas)/sunflower oil hydrogels prepared from nanoemulsions. NaCas was used as stabilizer in concentrations of 1, 2, 3, or 4 wt.%. Sucrose was also added in 2, 4, 6, or 8 wt.% to the 4-wt.% nanoemulsion. Gelation kinetics was studied by two methods: oscillatory rheometry and Turbiscan. Although gelation time values were significantly different between methods, tendencies were similar: values decreased with increasing protein and sucrose contents. However, the most influential factor on gelation time was the ratio glucono-delta-lactone (GDL)/NaCas. Structure was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Low-protein content hydrogels (1 or 2 wt.%) had an inhomogeneous structure containing nano- and conventional-size droplets while the 4-wt.% hydrogel kept the initial structural characteristics: homogeneity in dispersed phase distribution and non-aggregated nanodroplets. Sucrose improved structure in terms of homogeneity. Analyses of X-ray microtomoghraphy data showed that while the porosity diminished, the wall width increased with increasing protein and sucrose contents. The hydrogel formulated with 4 wt.% NaCas and 8 wt.% sucrose showed a structure with nanodroplets evenly distributed and the highest G′∞ values of all hydrogels.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Stability of Fish Oil in Calcium Alginate Microcapsules Cross-Linked by In Situ Internal Gelation During Spray Drying
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Scott A. Strobel, Kevin Hudnall, Benjamin Arbaugh, Julia C. Cunniffe, Herbert B. Scher, Tina Jeoh

    Microencapsulating bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in dry cross-linked alginate serves to enhance their shelf life, mask unwanted flavors and odors, facilitate their incorporation into food products, and provide an intestinal release mechanism. Alginate microencapsulation is challenging to implement at industrial scale, but a recently developed process provides scalability by accomplishing alginate cross-linking in situ during spray drying. This study investigated how formulation variables affect the oxidative stability of fish oil in cross-linked alginate microcapsules (CLAMs) prepared via this industrially scalable process. Storage stability of PUFA from fish oil was prolonged by microencapsulation in CLAMs, relative to nonencapsulated fish oil. Neither the choice of emulsifier (Tween 80 or whey protein isolate) nor the extent of alginate cross-linking influenced the duration of storage stability of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, the retention of EPA and DHA during spray drying was significantly lower for CLAMs prepared with Tween 80. The addition of n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch into spray-drying formulations improved the storage stability of microencapsulated fish oil. With increasing OSA-starch content in CLAMs, surface oil content decreased, particle size and powder yield increased, and PUFA storage stability increased. Despite OSA-starch being the majority component, OSA-starch CLAMs exhibited gastrointestinal release properties more akin to CLAMs than control OSA-starch microcapsules. OSA-starch CLAMs retained fish oil cargo in simulated gastric fluid and released it in simulated intestinal fluid, while OSA-starch microcapsules completely released cargo in either fluid. Overall, OSA-starch CLAMs show promise as an industrial-scale system for stabilizing PUFA while providing an enteric delivery mechanism.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Encapsulation of Oils Recovered from brewer’s Spent Grain by Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions Technique
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    John Ndayishimiye, Giovanna Ferrentino, Haman Nabil, Matteo Scampicchio

    The work aimed to encapsulate oils recovered from brewer’s spent grain by particles from gas saturated solutions technique using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent and polyethylene glycol as wall material. The process conditions (pressure and temperature) and the wall material content were tested to produce an ingredient with enhanced physical properties and oxidative stability. Among the applied pressures (10, 20, 30, and 35 MPa), temperatures (45 and 55 °C) and oil to polyethylene glycol mixing ratios (1:5; 1:3, 1:2.5 and 1:2), the highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained at 20 MPa, 55 °C with an oil to polyethylene glycol mixing ratio equal to 1:3. With such conditions, the particles reported 73.5 ± 1.5% of encapsulated oil, with 58.1 ± 2.8% of the powder showing a mean diameter equal to 375 μm. The bulk and tapped densities were equal to 0.35 ± 0.01 and 0.38 ± 0.01 g · cm−3, while the wettability resulted of 3.2 ± 0.01 min. Furthermore, the encapsulated oil was oxidative stable up to 130 ± 3.2 h at 40 °C, as measured by isothermal calorimetry and peroxide value. The findings showed the potentials of particles from gas saturated solutions technique for the production of an ingredient for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Effect of Applied Voltage on the Aggregation and Conformational Changes in Peroxidase Under Electrospray
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Jingjing Xu, Bo Wang, Yuchuan Wang, Min Zhang, Bimal Chitrakar

    The application of electrospray to treat enzyme solution can produce electrically charged micro- or nanoparticles. Peroxidase is usually regarded as a typical enzyme indicating quality changes. In this study, we evaluated the effect of voltage on peroxidase inactivation under electrospray, and the structural changes caused by increasing voltages were analyzed. The results showed that peroxidase activity decreased with the increasing applied voltages. The relative residual activity of peroxidase reduced to 7.7% by electrospray applied with the voltage of 25 kV. The alteration of particle size and zeta potential indicated that the applied voltage caused aggregation or dissociation of peroxidase, affecting the activity of the peroxidase. From the analysis of spectra for electrospray treatment and control (no voltage), the former had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the damage of secondary structure (α-helix) stability and has changed the spatial position of tertiary structure. This study provides a sound basis for the application of electrospray in enzyme inactivation and advanced food processing.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Linear and Non-linear Rheology of Bread Doughs Made from Blends of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and Rye ( Secale cereale L.) Flour
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Yannick Meeus, Frederik Janssen, Arno G. B. Wouters, Jan A. Delcour, Paula Moldenaers

    Strain hardening of wheat flour (WF) proteins during fermentation and baking is at the basis of the excellent quality of wheat breads. Yet, there are good reasons to use rye flour (RF), such as its high content of dietary fiber and other bioactives. However, rye proteins lack the ability to form dough with sufficient strain hardening capacity under extension, which partially explains the inferior quality of rye breads. A promising strategy to make high-quality breads with high nutritional value is the use of WF and RF blends. Despite this, the rheological behavior of WF/RF bread doughs has not yet been investigated. This study examines their rheology by non-linear uniaxial extensional and small-amplitude oscillatory shear measurements, and relates these measurements to the quality of the resulting breads. The strain hardening index (SHI), derived from extensional measurements, is expressed as the transient extensional viscosity at maximum strain [ηe+(εmax)] relative to the linear extensional viscosity extrapolated to maximum strain [ηe0+(εmax)]. Both the SHI and bread volume decreased when the level of RF in the blend increased. As an example, replacing 60% WF by RF led to a relative decrease of the SHI and bread volume of 34 and 64%, respectively. The decrease of the SHI is correlated to an increase in ηe0+(εmax). Comparison of the extensional curves of doughs made with blends of WF and RF and doughs made with blends of WF and wheat starch (WS) further revealed that RF components play a major role in the rheology of the doughs. In conclusion, it was found that WF/RF blends need to contain at least 60% WF to obtain bread of proper quality.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Effects of ε-Polylysine/Chitosan Composite Coating and Pressurized Argon in Combination with MAP on Quality and Microorganisms of Fresh-Cut Potatoes
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Xu Shen, Min Zhang, Kai Fan, Zhimei Guo

    Effects of ε-polylysine/chitosan (ε-PL/CS) composite coating and pressurized argon (Ar) in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality and the microbial load of fresh-cut potatoes during refrigeration were studied. Sliced potatoes were treated with pressurized Ar at 4 MPa for 1 h, and then immersed in ε-PL (1 g L−1)/CS solution for 1 min. Treated samples were sealed in MAP (94% N2, 4% O2, 2% CO2), and stored at 4 °C. Water loss, ascorbic acid content, respiration rate, malondialdehyde content, color, firmness, enzyme activities, and microbial load were measured at 3-day intervals. Results indicated that synergistic treatment (ε-PL/CS + pressurized Ar) significantly delayed the losses of water, ascorbic acid, color, and firmness, and inhibited the increase of respiratory rate, MDA content, and enzyme activity (PPO and POD). The microbial loads including coliform, mold, and yeast counts were significantly reduced. Preservation effect of pressurized Ar was noted to be superior to that of ε-PL/CS composite coating. Therefore, ε-PL/CS composite coating and pressurized Ar in combination with MAP is an effective method for maintaining the quality and improving the safety of fresh-cut potatoes during refrigeration.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) Processing on Immunoreactivity and Spatial Structure of Peanut Major Allergen Ara h 1
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Di Pan, Biling Tang, Huipeng Liu, Zhenglong Li, Rongrong Ma, Yajuan Peng, Xuee Wu, Liming Che, Ning He, Xueping Ling, Yuanpeng Wang

    Ara h 1 is recognized as a major peanut allergen. The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the immunoreactivity and structure of Ara h 1 were investigated in this study. The immunoreactivity of Ara h 1 was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) after HHP treatment (≥ 400 MPa) with the increase of pressure holding time. The maximum reduction of 74.32% was achieved at 600 MPa for 1200 s. The particle size and molecular weight of Ara h 1 increased, and the secondary/tertiary structure changed markedly. The decrease of the immunoreactivity of Ara h 1 was mainly due to the changes in conformation (especially the tertiary structure) and the formation of new multimers, resulting in the inactivation of immunoreactive sites. Results indicate that HHP technology has the potential to be applied to the preparation of hypoallergenic peanut products.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Aldehydes as Wort Off-Flavours in Alcohol-Free Beers—Origin and Control
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    D. C. Gernat, E. Brouwer, M. Ottens

    Although present in concentrations in microgrammes per litre level, aldehydes, in particular those derived from Strecker degradation, are known to majorly contribute to the undesired wort flavour of alcohol-free beers. In order to improve currently available products, one needs to understand the underlying cause for the over-prevalence and identify leverage points and methods to selectively reduce the aldehydes in alcohol-free beers. This work gives a short overview on relevant flavour-active wort flavours identified in alcohol-free beer and on their involved chemical formation pathways. Consequently, aldehyde removal technologies in general and in brewing industry are presented. Adsorptive removal of off-flavours by aldehyde-scavenging groups is already widely exploited in the packaging industry and may achieve reduction of these components to near depletion, depending on the process conditions. Its principles are adaptable to recovering off-flavours before filling. Also, supercritical CO2 extraction has been successfully applied to separate flavours from food matrices. In brewing, the focus has been set to biologic conversion by restricted fermentation steps, but the reduction of key components of more than 70% is not achieved. Newer developments focus on thermal separation techniques that not only include non-specific physical dealcoholisation but also more selective technologies such as pervaporation, where aldehydes are reduced to near depletion. However, for most unit operations, selectivity and capacity are not yet investigated. Future research should explore the shortcomings of current techniques and overcome bottlenecks either by developing more specific methods for aldehyde removal and/or a clever combination of unit operations to optimise the separation and process integration.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Effect of Salicylic Acid Incorporated Chitosan Coating on Shelf Life Extension of Fresh In-Hull Pistachio Fruit
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Homa Molamohammadi, Zahra Pakkish, Hamid-Reza Akhavan, Vahid Reza Saffari

    The effect of edible coating on the postharvest quality of fresh pistachio covered by a yellow-red colored soft shell (hull) was evaluated. Fresh pistachio fruit were immersed in different surface treatment solutions of 2% (w/v) chitosan (CT) in 0.5% acetic acid solution, 2 mmol L−1 salicylic acid (SA), and the combination of CT and SA (CT-SA), then packed in perforated polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and stored in a refrigerator for 28 days at 4 °C. Distilled water and 0.5% acetic acid solution containing 0.1% Tween were considered as control treatments. The weight loss and also the peroxide and free fatty acid values of treated fresh pistachio fruit were lower than the controls at the end of the storage period. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase enzymes in the treated pistachio fruit was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.05). The SA-treated pistachio fruit shows the lowest activity of polyphenol oxidase. Also, the pistachio fruit treated with CT and SA were lighter (L*), redder (a*), and more yellow (b*) in color as compared with controls, so that the highest sensory scores of color, texture, and overall acceptance were attributed to these treatments. Interestingly, SA treatment resulted in a remarkable superiority of the fruit color score among the samples. Furthermore, the CT and SA treatments alone or in combination significantly reduced the growth of bacteria and fungi. Overall, it can be concluded that SA and CT-SA treatments can assure the safety and quality of fresh pistachio fruit in refrigerated storage.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Effect of Sustainable Chemical Modifications on Pasting and Gel Properties of Sorghum and Cassava Starch
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Pablo Martín Palavecino, María Cecilia Penci, Pablo Daniel Ribotta

    Starch isolated from two different sorghum hybrids and a commercial cassava starch were modified in order to assess the improvement in rheological and thermal properties that could be produced by sustainable methods. Modifications were acetylation with acetic anhydride, hydrolysis with acetic acid, and esterification with octanoyl chloride. All sorghum starch paste exhibited higher syneresis than cassava ones and acetylation slightly improved water retention. In general, pasting profiles were significantly altered throughout modifications and the paste textural properties and rheological results suggested a physical gel behavior. Cassava and white sorghum unmodified gels showed higher values of textural parameters than those of brown sorghum. The flow data were adequately fitted by the power-law model (R2 > 0.96) with flow behavior index < 1. The acetylation, acid treatment, and octanoyl esterification of cassava and sorghum starch resulted in significant changes in water interaction, indicating a wider range of properties.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Gaseous Ozone as a Suitable Solution for Postharvest Chestnut Storage: Evaluation of Quality Parameter Trends
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Anna Maria Vettraino, Vittorio Vinciguerra, Giulia Pacini, Roberto Forniti, Valentina Goffi, Rinaldo Botondi

    The storage of chestnuts is a highly critical phase due to the considerable postharvest losses of the product with relevant commercial impact. The effect on the chemical quality parameters of chestnuts treated with 300 ppb of gaseous ozone in air or in atmospheric air at T = 2 °C for 150 days during the storage has been investigated. The ozone treatment increased sucrose and total sugar contents; while tocopherols were reduced. No significant differences in weight loss and fatty acid content were recorded between chestnut treated with ozone and untreated fruits (P ≥ 0.05). In addition, chestnut ozone exposure for 150 days reduced the total microbial populations associated with the pericarps of about 1.6 logs for mesophilic bacteria and 1.0 logs for fungi. Overall, our results suggested that gaseous ozone treatment is a valid and economic technology to ensure the shelf life quality of chestnut during the long storage periods.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Evaluation of UV-C Irradiation Treatments on Microbial Safety, Ascorbic Acid, and Volatile Aromatics Content of Watermelon Beverage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Brahmaiah Pendyala, Ankit Patras, Ramaswamy Ravi, Vybhav Vipul Sudhir Gopisetty, Michael Sasges

    UV-C treatment technology is proposed as a potential alternative to thermal treatments for decontamination of beverages because heat may adversely affect the nutritive value and quality. Effects of UV-C irradiation processing on microbial inactivation, ascorbic acid, and volatile aromatics of watermelon beverage were evaluated using a flow-through UV system. Selected microbial agents Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus endospores were inactivated by 5.31 ± 0.01 and 6.1 ± 0.01 log CFU mL−1 at UV equivalent fluence levels of 12 and 60 mJ cm−2, respectively. At UV pasteurization equivalent exposure (40 mJ cm−2), 93% ascorbic acid was retained. No significant loss of volatile aromatic aldehydes was noticed at fluence 40 mJ cm−2. Overall, the results support the UV-C processing as an alternative to traditional thermal processing to preserve quality in conjunction with microbial safety aspects of watermelon beverage.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of the Pretreatment of Grains on the Interparticle Porosity of Feed Material and the Torque Supplied During the Extrusion of Brown Rice
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Jhony Willian Vargas-Solórzano, José Luis Ramírez Ascheri, Carlos Wanderlei Piler Carvalho, Cristina Yoshie Takeiti, Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying, grinder type, and moistening conditions on the interparticle porosity of feed material and the torque supplied to the screw during the single-screw extrusion processing of brown rice. The grains were dried at 60 °C up to moisture contents of 9 and 6% and then milled using two grinder types (disc and roller). The milled products were moistened at levels to produce extruded snacks (11 and 14%). Irrespective of drying the grains, lower particle diameters in the fine and coarse fractions, and narrower distributions were obtained by grinding brown rice in a roller mill than in a disc mill. The disc mill products presented lower interparticle porosity and generated higher torque values than the roller mill products. A reduction in grain moisture from 9 to 6% only decreased the interparticle porosity of disc mill products and increased the torque. An increase in feed moisture from 11 to 14% only increased the interparticle porosity of roller mill products and decreased the torque regardless of grain moisture. This work contributed to understanding the impact of the morphology of the particles in the torque variability during the extrusion processing of brown rice. Few published works correlate physical properties of the feed material with extrusion dependent variables. In the present study, feed materials with high interparticle porosity were produced with roller mill and when extruded they generated low variabilities in the torque.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Development and Characterization of Lipid-Based Nanosystems: Effect of Interfacial Composition on Nanoemulsion Behavior
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Hélder D. Silva, Miguel A. Cerqueira, Francesco Donsì, Ana C. Pinheiro, Giovanna Ferrari, António A. Vicente

    Nanoemulsions were successfully developed through high-pressure homogenization. The layer-by-layer electrostatic technique was used for the subsequent deposition of a chitosan and alginate polyelectrolyte layers, thus leading to the development of a multilayer nanoemulsion. The effect of polyelectrolytes concentration in the development of multilayer nanoemulsions was evaluated in terms of hydrodynamic diameter (Hd), polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential (Zp), and curcumin encapsulation efficiency. The interactions between polyelectrolytes and nanoemulsion were further analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), while curcumin degradation was determined through the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of the nanosystems. Results showed an encapsulation efficiency of 99.8 ± 0.8% and a loading capacity of 0.53 ± 0.03% (w/w). The presence of the multilayers leads to an increase of the Hd of the nanosystems, from 80.0 ± 0.9 nm (nanoemulsion) to 130.1 ± 1.5 nm (multilayer nanoemulsion). Release profiles were evaluated at different conditions, fitting a linear superposition model to experimental data suggests an anomalous behavior, being the relaxation of the surfactant and polyelectrolytes the rate-determining phenomena in curcumin release. The developed nanosystems showed great potential for the incorporation of lipophilic bioactive compounds, in view of their application in food and pharmaceutical products.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Clarification of Apple Juice Using New Generation Nanocomposite Membranes Fabricated with TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 Nanoparticles
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Solmaz Sebnem Severcan, Nigmet Uzal, Kevser Kahraman

    To enhance anti-fouling properties of polymeric membranes during apple juice clarification, PSF/PEI (20/2 wt%) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were modified with TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles using the phase inversion method. Turbid apple juice samples were clarified using cross-flow membrane filtration system. All fabricated nanocomposite UF membranes had higher apple juice flux values than PSF/PEI membrane. Membrane prepared with 0.01% TiO2 (UFT1) had the highest apple juice flux (at steady state, 44.6 L/m2h). The FRR (%) value of TiO2 and Al2O3 incorporated UF membranes was between 90.9–94.0% and 79.6–97.6%, respectively, and these FRR values were higher than that of PSF/PEI membrane (UF2, 60.3%). Porosity and hydrophilicity of the UF membranes significantly increased with the addition of nanoparticles and the highest porosity and hydrophilicity was achieved in the 0.01% TiO2 incorporated UF membrane (UFT1) membrane. Higher flux recovery ratio (FRR) and lower relative flux reduction (RFR) values of Al2O3 and TiO2 incorporated nanocomposite membranes, compared with the unmodified membrane, demonstrated the enhancement in the anti-fouling properties of the PSF/PEI membrane. SEM images of the nanocomposite membranes also proved the nanoparticle incorporation to the PSF/PEI matrix. Color, turbidity, total soluble solid, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of the samples using nanocomposite membranes were better than that of clarified using both commercial and unmodified membranes. TiO2 incorporated nanocomposite membranes had superior performance than Al2O3 incorporated nanocomposite membranes and among these membranes, the ones prepared with the addition of 0.01 wt% TiO2 exhibit the best performance in terms of clarification of apple juice.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Encapsulation of Pomegranate Seed Oil by Emulsification Followed by Spray Drying: Evaluation of Different Biopolymers and Their Effect on Particle Properties
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Talita A. Comunian, Ana Gabriela da Silva Anthero, Eveling Oliveira Bezerra, Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes, Miriam Dupas Hubinger

    Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) is rich in bioactive compounds and is susceptible to oxidation. This research sought to encapsulate PSO in conventional and Pickering emulsions using whey protein isolate (WPI) microgels, WPI in its natural form, gum Arabic (GA), and WPI combinations with GA, maltodextrin (MD), and modified starch (Capsul®) as aqueous phase/emulsifier followed by spray drying. Emulsions with 1.39–2.55 μm droplet size, low viscosity (1.47–3.96 mPa s), and final interfacial tensions of 4.21–9.97 mN m−1 were obtained. All formulations were stable with the Turbiscan stability index between 4.57% and 12.95% at 24 h. Emulsions resulted in particles with encapsulation efficiency and yield of 56.28–73.83% and 28.07–93.99%, respectively. PSO powders had small particle sizes (9.86–22.60 μm), high glass transition temperature (103.24–121.62 °C), and oxidative stability index (OSI) of 2.71 h and in the range of 4.11–21.23 h for non-encapsulated and encapsulated PSO, respectively. All formulations promoted the oil oxidative protection when compared with the non-encapsulated one. Treatments presented feasible values of Aw, moisture, solubility, and hygroscopicity for handling and storage of the powders. WPI, WPI:Capsul®, and Pickering treatments promoted greater protection of the encapsulated oil; however, the combination of WPI with modified starch was considered the best wall material, allowing protection of PSO and future applications in the food industry.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Freshness Maintenance of Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) During Postharvest Using Ozone in Aqueous Phase: Microbiological, Structure, and Mechanical issues
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Gabriela Jaramillo-Sánchez, Eunice V. Contigiani, Maria A. Castro, Karina Hodara, Stella M. Alzamora, Analía García Loredo, Andrea B. Nieto

    The effect of aqueous ozone at different doses on fungal incidence, microstructure, mechanical properties, and weight loss of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. O’Neal) throughout 20 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C was studied. Fruits were exposed to 10 and 18 mg O3 L-1 in a bubble column for different periods of time ranging from 10 to 30 min. Native mycobiota and Botrytis cinerea incidences were reduced by ozone exposure. After 15 days of storage, exposure to 18 mg O3 L-1 for 10 and 20 min reduced the percentage of infected fruit in ~ 34 and 40 %, respectively, when compared with untreated blueberries. Slight but no significant differences among ozone treatments were observed for native mycobiota and B. cinerea incidence. Stiffness, rupture force, and mechanical work required to break the fruit epidermis were not significantly affected by ozone treatments. The effect of ozone treatment on weight loss of blueberries was dose-dependent and was partially correlated with microstructural changes induced by ozone: disruptions in outer tangential and epidermal cell walls and alteration of the cuticle. Exposure times beyond 15 min significantly increased weight loss and did not achieve greater fungal inhibition with respect to 10- and 15-min ozonized fruit. Thus, the ozone dose to be selected would be limited by the negative effect on weight loss. Exposure to 18 mg O3 L-1 for 10 min would be the most suitable treatment to reduce fungal decay without causing an excessive loss of weight along cold storage.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Characteristics of Pitaya After Radio Frequency Treating: Structure, Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant, and Antiproliferative Activity
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Yingbin Shen, Luyao Zheng, Min Gou, Tianyu Xia, Wenhao Li, Xun Song, Hao Jiang

    The performances of radio frequency (RF) heating treatment of pitaya fruits, with varying distances between the electrode plates, were investigated. The data indicated that a large gap between the electrode plates would reduce the highest temperature and the temperature rising rates. Contrarily, Smaller gap between the electrode plates always resulted in non-uniform heating. However, the RF heating treatment method was effective for enzyme inactivation. The results of the antiproliferative activity and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay indicated that the RF heat treatment had limited effects on the functional features of the samples. However, the functional features of the pitaya samples obtained from the 100-mm and 120-mm gap RF heat treatments were better than those of the 140-mm and 160-mm gap RF heat-treated pitaya samples. The results suggested that RF heat treatment is an efficient method for enzyme inactivation.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Effects of Golden Flaxseed Flour on Ice Recrystallization in Uvaia ( Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) Diet Sherbet
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Tales Márcio de Oliveira Giarola, Cristina Guimarães Pereira, Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado, Luiz Ronaldo de Abreu, Jaime Vilela de Resende

    In this study, the effects of golden flaxseed flour (GFF; Linum usitatissimum) concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3%; w/w) on ice recrystallization in uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) diet sherbets fortified with iron were evaluated. Experiments were performed to simulate the conditions of temperature fluctuations. Samples were transferred from storage (− 25 °C) to a freezer programmed to perform 14 temperature fluctuation cycles ranging from − 20 °C/12 h to − 10 °C/12 h (each cycle, 48 h). The chemical composition and pH were determined before the temperature cycles. Physical parameters such as overrun, rheological properties of steady and dynamic shear, hardness, thermal properties, and ice crystal sizes were measured before the temperature cycles and every 7 days for 4 weeks. The sensory attributes were evaluated using an optimized descriptive profile (ODP). The ash content and pH results were statistically significant, and their values increased as the GFF concentration increased. The results were significant for instrumental hardness, initial melt resistance, rheological behavior, frequency and temperature sweeps, ice crystal size, and recrystallization. In the sensory evaluation, scores for coarse texture decreased and scores for GFF flavor increased as the GFF concentration increased. The ODP results were consistent with those for the rheological parameters, which justified the ice crystal size and ice recrystallization observed in the sherbets.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Highly Stable Microparticles of Cashew Apple ( Anacardium occidentale L.) Juice with Maltodextrin and Chemically Modified Starch
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Paola D. D. S. Maia, Diego dos Santos Baião, Victor Paulo F. da Silva, Verônica Maria de Araújo Calado, Christiane Queiroz, Cristiana Pedrosa, Vera Lúcia Valente-Mesquita, Anna Paola T. R. Pierucci

    The cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) is rich in antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, in addition to the macronutrients. In recent years, there has been a growing demand of “easy to prepare” fruit products for the general population. This work aimed to evaluate the microencapsulation of cashew apple juice by spray drying using different ratios of encapsulating matrices and different concentrations of total solids. The formed microparticles were evaluated by the retention of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, moisture, yield, solubility, and particle size and morphology. Three samples formulated with 15% total solids and three encapsulating matrices (40:60% of maltodextrin: starch octenylsuccinate, 100% of maltodextrin, and 100% starch octenylsuccinate) were selected for the stability study. All microparticles were 100% soluble, and the best results were obtained using the microparticles with the highest total solids ratios (15%). When using a single encapsulant, starch octenyl succinate was superior to maltodextrin in terms of ascorbic acid and total phenolics retention, moisture, yield, solubility, and particle size. The microparticles with 40:60% of maltodextrin: octenylsuccinate and 15% total solid showed the highest ascorbic acid and total phenolics retention as well as good physical properties and better performance when compared to other encapsulating matrix compositions. The microencapsulated cashew apple juice using such a formulation can be used in the food industry to produce functional and special-purpose foods to promote human health.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Microencapsulation of Garlic Extract by Complex Coacervation Using Whey Protein Isolate/Chitosan and Gum Arabic/Chitosan as Wall Materials: Influence of Anionic Biopolymers on the Physicochemical and Structural Properties of Microparticles
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Loleny Tavares, Hélio Lopes Barbosa Barros, Júlio César Pacheco Vaghetti, Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña

    The aim of this study was to encapsulate garlic extract by complex coacervation method using whey protein isolate (WPI)/chitosan (CH) and gum Arabic (GA)/CH as wall materials. Two anionic biopolymers (GA and WPI) were used to find the most suitable wall materials to interact electrostatically with cationic CH. The complex coacervates were freeze-dried to obtain microparticles powders. The microparticles were examined for the nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), sorption isotherms, zeta potential, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, solubility, moisture content, hygroscopicity, size distribution, and water activity. X-ray diffractograms evidenced microparticles with amorphous structure. WPI/CH and GA/CH microparticles showed surface area of 2.23 and 2.40 m2 g−1 and mean pore diameter of 5.20 and 5.37 nm, respectively. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption assay showed that microparticles presented mesopores and macropores that resulted in quick completion of microparticles surface monolayer with nitrogen. The sorption characteristics of microparticles followed the type II isotherm and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was the best model to fit the experimental data. FTIR spectrum of microparticles reveals physical interactions between garlic compounds and functional groups of wall materials, indicating that garlic compounds were intact and encapsulated. TGA results indicated that the wall materials were effective in protecting the garlic sensitive compounds. The negative carboxyl groups (–COO−) of GA were better than WPI for coacervation with positive amino groups (NH3+) of chitosan in terms of less hygroscopicity, smaller particle size, and higher retention of garlic phenolic compounds.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields on Vacuum Drying and Quality Characteristics of Dried Carrot
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Caiyun Liu, Annachiara Pirozzi, Giovanna Ferrari, Eugene Vorobiev, Nabil Grimi

    This study investigates the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the kinetics of vacuum drying (VD) of carrot and on the preservation of the quality of dried carrot tissue. The impacts of PEF-treatment and VD on β-carotene content and color of carrot samples were studied. PEF treatment was applied with intensity E = 0.6 kV/cm and total treatment time tPEF = 0.1 s to reach a high level of carrot tissue electroporation. The VD was applied at the pressure p = 0.3 bar for different temperatures, Td = 25, 50, 75, and 90 °C. The spectrophotometric method was used to determine the β-carotene content. The color was measured using the CIE L* a* b* method. Obtained results indicated that PEF treatment let to a noticeable decrease of drying time (by 33–55% at Td = 25–90 °C). The activation energy was found to be 18.25 kJ/mol and 13.4 kJ/mol for untreated and PEF-pretreated samples, respectively. The reduction of drying time by PEF pretreatment was beneficial for the retention of β-carotene in dried samples. The application of PEF treatment resulted in smaller changes in color ∆E as compared with untreated samples; this tendency was observed for all studied temperatures.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Bimetallic and Trimetallic Nanoparticles for Active Food Packaging Applications: A Review
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Nagaraj Basavegowda, Tapas K. Mandal, Kwang-Hyun Baek

    Nanotechnology is poised to have a huge impact on food packaging applications. Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) are formed by combining two and three different metals and metal oxides, respectively. Compared with monometallic NPs, bimetallic and trimetallic NPs have attracted immense attention because of their diverse shape, size, high surface-to-volume ratios, chemical/physical stability, activity, and greater degree of selectivity, with respect to both technological and scientific view. Metal and metal oxide NPs proved to be highly potent antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, together with nanobiosensors for tracing and monitoring the condition of food. These nanostructured materials embedded with both biodegradable and non-degradable polymer to increase mechanical strength and barrier properties to extend the shelf life of various foods. In addition, polymer nanocomposites are treated with essential oils (EOs) to improve their performance in food packaging. In this review, we summarized most recent innovations in food packaging, merits, and demerits of biodegradable and non-degradable polymer used for food packaging. It also provides the different synthetic methods, importance of bimetallic and trimetallic NPs in relation to food packaging to enhance the shelf life of food. Finally, mode of action, toxicity, regulation, and legislation for safety in human consumption and the environment are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Psyllium as a Fat Replacer in Layer Cakes: Batter Characteristics and Cake Quality
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Mayara Belorio, Marta Sahagún, Manuel Gómez

    Consumers are demanding healthier and lower calorific products. In this study, oil was substituted in layer cakes using a combination of psyllium and water. Psyllium was used as an oil replacer because of its gelling and emulsifying properties, as well as its beneficial health properties. Substitutions of 25, 50, 75 and 100% were carried out to evaluate batter (density and bubble distribution) and cake characteristics (specific volume, weight loss, texture and colour). An acceptability test was also made. A higher substitution of oil increased bubble size, but no significant difference was observed in batter density. Increasing the oil replacement decreased the specific volume of cakes; however, there was no significant difference in hardness compared with control cake, even after 7 days of storage. There was no significant difference in cohesiveness and springiness when 25% of the oil was replaced, but it did increase with higher substitution levels. Crust colour became lighter with increases in oil replacement, showing smaller values to a* and higher to b*. Cakes replaced with 25% of psyllium and water showed no significant differences in acceptability when compared with control cakes, but those with up to 75% of oil replacement were highly acceptable (7 out of 9 points).

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • High-Pressure Processing (HPP) for Decreasing Weight Loss of Fresh Albacore ( Thunnus alalunga ) Steaks
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Lucía Cartagena, Eduardo Puértolas, Iñigo Martínez de Marañón

    This research is focused on optimizing high-pressure processing (HPP) for decreasing weight loss of albacore steaks (Thunnus alalunga) while retaining as much as possible the quality of fresh fish. After HPP treatments (0.1–500 MPa, 2 min), samples were stored (24 h, 4°C) and then analyzed (weight loss, color, texture, appearance, water holding capacity, salt-soluble protein content, and lipid oxidation). Weight loss increased from 50 to 150 MPa, without other substantial modification. Above 200 MPa, HPP treatment caused a progressive weight loss reduction. 200 MPa decreased weight loss by 41.6% with respect to 150 MPa, without noticeable changes in color, texture, appearance, or lipid oxidation. 250 MPa decreased weight loss by 50.1% compared to the controls but produced minor changes in color. 500 MPa provoked the maximum reduction of weight loss with respect to the controls (59%), although it caused marked differences in all quality parameters, which would affect consumer acceptance.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Influence of Novel Infrared Freeze Drying of Rose Flavored Yogurt Melts on Their Physicochemical Properties, Bioactive Compounds and Energy Consumption
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Kay Khaing Hnin, Min Zhang, Sakamon Devahastin, Bin Wang

    Attempt was made to produce a novel snack viz. dried rose flavored yogurt melts via the use of infrared freeze drying (IRFD). Selected physicochemical properties; color; hardness; rehydration time; total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins contents; microstructure; as well as sensory characteristics of samples prepared at different drying temperatures (45, 55, and 65 °C) were determined. Energy consumption of the drying process was also evaluated. The results were compared with those of conventional freeze drying (FD). IRFD samples exhibited smaller total color changes than those prepared by FD at the same drying temperatures. Hardness of FD samples was lower than that of IRFD samples at the same drying temperatures; IRFD sample prepared at 55 °C nevertheless received the highest total score among all the samples. FD samples exhibited shorter rehydration time compared with IRFD samples at the same drying temperatures. The analysis of microstructure of IRFD samples showed more compact layer structure compared to FD samples at the same drying temperature. Drying at 55 °C resulted in higher contents of phenolics and flavonoids, while drying at 45 °C resulted in the highest retention of anthocyanins. IRFD could save 5–14% of the drying time and 9–19% of the energy compared to FD at different drying temperatures.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Vacuum Belt Dehydration of Chopped Beetroot ( Beta vulgaris ) and Optimization of Powder Production Based on Physical and Chemical Properties
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    William L. Kerr, Audrey Varner

    Beets contain the red and yellow pigments known as betalains, as well as nitrates and other phytochemicals that may affect human health, and have been studied for possible effects on lowering blood pressure and enhancing athletic performance. Betalains are heat-labile, so developing relatively low-temperature drying methods is one way to turn the perishable root vegetable into a value-added ingredient. The objective of this study was to determine if continuous vacuum belt drying (VBD) could be used to produce powdered ingredients with good color, physical properties, and retention of betalains. Drying studies showed that drying rate could be increased somewhat by increasing temperatures from 75 to 95 °C, with drying times ranging from 160 to 115 min. Drying times were substantially shorter than for powders produced by freeze drying (FD) (26 h) or hot air drying (HAD) (~ 6 h). Properties such as flowability or color did not depend on drying temperature. VBD beet powders had a red-purplish color that was slightly darker (L* = 25.74) than for freeze-dried powders (L* = 38.92). In contrast, HAD samples were much darker than VBD or FD powders, and showed signs of browning. Flowability was improved by the addition of maltodextrins, but at the expense of some increase in drying time. VBD powders were less hygroscopic than FD powders, but reached the same final moisture content. HAD powders were less hygroscopic. VBD samples had slightly lower betalain levels (261–273 mg betanin/g dry beet) than FD powders (291.2 mg betanin/g dry beet). Both had much greater levels than HAD powders (127.8 mg betanin/g dry beet). Powder dried at 95 °C without maltodextrin was optimal as it dried most quickly and had minimal betalain loss.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • The Mediation of NO-Enhanced Chilling Tolerance by GSK-3 in Postharvest Peach Fruit
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Caifeng Jiao, Yuquan Duan

    The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in nitric oxide (NO)-enhanced chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit was investigated. The fruits were immersed in sodium nitroprusside (SNP; exogenous NO donor) and bikinin (GSK-3 inhibitor). Results showed that the chilling injury (CI) index declined following the exposure of the peach fruit to exogenous SNP. SNP treatment also induced GSK-3 expression. Furthermore, SNP treatment reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage in the peach fruit. In addition, SNP treatment induced the increase in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity and the upregulation of the gene expression of 18.1-kDa class I heat shock protein (HSP), WRKY2, and C-repeat binding factor (CBF). The effects of SNP treatment were partly weakened by the addition of bikinin. These findings indicate that GSK-3 mediated the reduction of MDA content and electrolyte leakage and the activation of AOX, 18.1-kDa class I HSP, WRKY2, and CBF by NO, thereby inducing chilling tolerance in peach fruit.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • The inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on lipid oxidation of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) during chilled storage
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Qiongju Cao, Hongying Du, Yuan Huang, Yang Hu, Juan You, Ru Liu, Shanbai Xiong, Anne Manyande

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a kind of freshwater fish which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and easily exposed to lipid oxidation during refrigeration. The effect of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, enzymatic activities, and color stability of grass carp muscle during chilled storage was investigated. The lipid oxidation was inhibited by CGA, as evidenced by lower thiobarbituric acid values, peroxide values, carbonyl valence, less free fatty acid content, and higher amount of unsaturated fatty acid compared to the control group. CGA also had a positive effect on the whiteness value and the stability of protein oxidation of fish samples. In addition, the inhibitory study of CGA on endogenous lipase and lipoxygenase activities of fish muscle can help to partly illustrate the mechanism that retains its freshness effect. The results indicate that CGA is a novel natural additive which can be used to inhibit lipid and protein oxidation and be applied in the storage of aquatic products or some similar fields.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Correction to: Fabrication of Gel-like Emulsions with Whey Protein Isolate Using Microfluidization: Rheological Properties and 3D Printing Performance
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Yaowei Liu, Wenjin Zhang, Keyu Wang, Yulong Bao, Joe Mac Regenstein, Peng Zhou

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained some mistakes. The Fig. 7 was published with incomplete content due to incorrect image processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Behavioral Solubilization of Peanut Protein Isolate by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma (ACP) Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Hui Ji, Fei Han, Shanli Peng, Jiaojiao Yu, Ling Li, Yunguo Liu, Yue Chen, Shuhong Li, Ye Chen

    The solubilization of peanut protein isolate (PPI) powders modified by atmospheric pressure cold plasma (ACP) treatment was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (low-field NMR) spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Significant improvements in both the solubility and water holding capacity (WHC) of the PPI gel were observed after treatment with ACP. The PPI solubility reached a maximum value after 7 min of treatment, with a 12.17% increase over the values observed for the untreated samples. In addition, the WHC increased by 17.90% after 3 min of treatment. The SEM and EDS data revealed that following the 7-min treatment, the PPI surface was rougher and more loosely bound than that of the untreated sample. This indicated an increase in the PPI specific surface area and exposed protein–water binding sites on the treated PPI surface as well as a marked increase in its oxygen content, suggesting an increase in the hydrophilic groups on the PPI surface. The low-filed NMR measurements revealed that the trend in the T21 peak area of the relaxation time was consistent with the data observed for the WHC. The FTIR results revealed a decrease in the proportion of β-sheets and an increase in that of the β-turns within 3 min of treatment, suggesting that the polarity and hydrophilicity of the protein surface were enhanced. The protein structure changed from a compact folding to a loose unfolding configuration after ACP treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Microencapsulation of Microbial Transglutaminase by Ultrasonic Spray-Freeze Drying
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Hilal Isleroglu, Izzet Turker, Banu Koc, Mehmet Tokatli

    Microencapsulation of partially purified microbial transglutaminase (mTG) was investigated using ultrasonic spray-freeze drying (USFD), and the optimum coating materials (gum arabic, maltodextrin, inulin) ratio and the process parameters (flow rate and nozzle frequency) were determined using a D-optimal combined design. Also, the microencapsulated samples by USFD were compared with microencapsulated samples by conventional freeze drying (CFD) and conventional spray drying (CSD) in terms of microencapsulation efficiency, enzyme stability at extreme pH and high temperature conditions, and the presence of metal ions, physical (moisture content, particle morphology, particle and pore size, surface area, pore volume distribution, density and flow properties, caking degree, color), and reconstitution (wettability and solubility) properties. As a result, the optimum coating materials composition was determined as 60% gum arabic and 40% inulin, and process conditions were found to be flow rate of 6.83 ml/min and nozzle frequency of 48 kHz applying desirability function method. Microcapsules with smaller particle size, pore volume, and porosity, with lower moisture content and good reconstitution characteristics, were obtained by USFD with a maximum microencapsulation efficiency of ~ 97%.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Effect of Edible Coating from Cassava Starch and Babassu Flour ( Orbignya phalerata ) on Brazilian Cerrado Fruits Quality
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Danielle C. M. Ferreira, Gustavo Molina, Franciele M. Pelissari

    New edible coatings made of cassava starch and babassu flour were applied on cagaita and mangaba, two typical fruits from the Brazilian Cerrado, by dipping method. The effect of the babassu flour concentration (10, 30, or 50 g/100 g of starch) on the properties of coated fruits were studied. Fruits treated with cassava starch coating added with 50% babassu flour provided the most satisfactory results in terms of weight loss: mass loss was only 14% and 7% for cagaitas and mangabas, respectively. Meanwhile, uncoated fruits experienced greater weight loss up to 35%, indicating water loss due to product degradation during storage period and led to weight loss. Therefore, edible coatings protected fruits from dehydration. Uncoated fruits had the highest increase in a* parameter, which provided them with a more reddish color and faster ripening rate. Total soluble solids were stable for coated fruits along storage. All treatments showed an increase in pH values attributed to the degradation of organic acids in fruits. These results are in agreement with the acidity reduction reported for mangabas. Unlike mangabas, acid values increased in cagaitas which was associated with galacturonic acid formation by pectinesterase. Overall, cassava starch added with babassu flour is a promising material to produce edible coatings with adequate physical properties for food applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chilling-Induced Changes in Aroma Volatile Profiles in Tomato.
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2015-09-29
    Brian Farneti,Alberto Algarra Alarcón,Fotios G Papasotiriou,D Samudrala,Simona M Cristescu,Guglielmo Costa,Frans J M Harren,Ernst J Woltering

    Fruit and vegetables are regularly stored by consumers in the refrigerator at temperatures that may be well below the recommended storage temperatures. Apart from causing visible symptoms such as watery, sunken areas on the skin, chilling may also induce changes in fruit textural properties and flavour. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of low temperature storage on tomato flavour and off-flavour production. To more closely mimic the real-consumer aroma perception while eating, in addition to the standard solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) analysis, volatiles were also measured using a chewing device connected to a proton-transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Aroma volatiles were assessed in red ripe tomatoes of the cvs Cappricia RZ (round truss) and Amoroso RZ (cocktail truss) stored at refrigerator temperature (4 °C) and at higher temperatures (16 and 22 °C) for 20 days. The changes in aroma production were also monitored when the fruit was brought from room to refrigerator temperature and vice versa. After bringing the fruit from room to refrigerator temperature, the abundance of most volatiles was greatly reduced within 3 to 5 h, closely following the decrease in fruit temperature. When temperature was restored to room temperature following varying times of cold storage, the abundance of most volatiles increased again, but generally not to the original levels. Overall, the effects of low temperature storage on the decrease in volatile abundance were more pronounced in cv Cappricia RZ than in cv Amoroso RZ. On the contrary, the production of off flavours following prolonged cold storage was more pronounced in cv Amoroso RZ than in cv Cappricia RZ. Apart from changes in the overall abundance of the volatiles, marked changes in the volatile profile were observed in fruit stored for longer times in the cold and this may at least in part explain the negative effect of cold storage on overall tomato flavour.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Laboratory IGBT-Based High-voltage Pulsed Electric Field Generator for Effective Water Diffusivity Enhancement in Chicken Meat
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Klimentiy Levkov, Edward Vitkin, César A. González, Alexander Golberg

    Enhancing water diffusivity shortens meat processing time and saves energy and costs. One of the processes that can enhance water diffusivity in tissues is high-voltage, short-pulsed electric fields (PEF). However, for industrial PEF process development, there is a need in adaptable laboratory instruments. Here we report on a laboratory PEF generator, based on insulated-gate monopolar transistor switching, coupled with sliding positive electrode for the enhancement of water diffusivity in chicken breast muscle. The system generates rectangular monopolar pulses with a voltage amplitude up to 1000 V, current up to 160 A, pulse duration of 5 to 100 μs, and a frequency of pulse repetition of 1–16 Hz. The energy conversion efficiency of the developed PEF generator is 88%. We found that applying 120 pulses at 1000 V (~ 500 V mm−1), and a pulse duration of 50 μs at 1 Hz, on the chicken breast muscle, increased the effective diffusivity of water by 13–24% and reduced convective air drying time by 6.4–15.3%. These results provide new information on the design of laboratory equipment to improve and optimize meat pre-processing on a small scale. Flexible, small-scale PEF equipment is a necessary step for the industrial development of new processes which could reduce equipment size and process energy consumption in the meat industry.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Zein/Pectin Nanoparticle-Stabilized Sesame Oil Pickering Emulsions: Sustainable Bioactive Carriers and Healthy Alternatives to Sesame Paste
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Yang Jiang, Feng Li, Dapeng Li, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Qingrong Huang

    In this study, a kind of Pickering emulsion with a desirable interface architecture and sesame paste flavor was prepared using zein, apple pectin (AP), and sesame oil. Zein-AP composite nanoparticles (ZAPs) were first assembled via an anti-solvent procedure and electrostatic adsorption for stabilizing sesame-oil-in-water Pickering emulsions (ZASPEs). ZASPEs (volume fraction of oil φ = 0.7) exhibited excellent plasticity and viscoelasticity (indicated by low-field NMR spectroscopy and rheology). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), demonstrated the anchoring of ZAPs at the oil–water interface, while cryo-SEM confirmed the three-dimensional microstructural network formed inside the emulsion. Compared to a commercial sesame paste, diluted ZASPEs (φ = 0.35) exhibited similar rheological and sensory properties, while ZASPEs (φ = 0.7) and diluted ZASPEs possessed greater smoothness and spreadability. Accordingly, the current ZASPEs as new additions to the existing Pickering emulsions not only function as bioactive carriers but also impart desirable flavor in food applications.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • A Fuzzy Mathematical Approach for Selection of Surface Coating and Its Effect on Staling Kinetics in a Formulated Gluten-Free Flatbread
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Sonal Patil, Sachin K. Sonawane, Shalini S. Arya

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of additives premix (guar gum (0.8%), xanthan gum (0.3%), and glycerol mono-stearate (0.9%), surface coating (groundnut oil, ghee, and potassium sorbate solution), and storage temperatures (30 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 2 °C) on the staling kinetics of gluten-free flatbread (GFFB). Fuzzy mathematical approach was employed to select the surface coating for GFFB. Staling kinetic was monitored for control GFFB with/without additives and with/without groundnut oil surface coating at different storage temperatures for 192 h. The staling parameters such as moisture, tear force, water-soluble starch, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were studied. Staling kinetics in GFFB followed first-order kinetics. Staling rate was successfully retarded with the help of additives, oil coating on the surface of the flatbread during storage temperatures. GFFB prepared with additive premix followed by groundnut oil coating has fresh flatbread alike characteristics when stored at 4 ± 2 °C for the period of 192 h.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Changes in enzyme activities and amino acids and their relations with phenolic compounds contents in okra treated by LED lights of different colors
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Nattanan Wilawan, Luxsika Ngamwonglumlert, Sakamon Devahastin, Naphaporn Chiewchan

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different wavelengths or colors (i.e., white, red, blue, and green) were used to treat postharvest okra, which is a rich source of phenolic compounds. Relationships between changes in the activities of key enzymes involving in the formation of phenolics (i.e., 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase, chorismate mutase, anthranilate synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and their contents upon different LED light treatments were for the first time investigated and are fully discussed. The contents of three intermediate amino acids (i.e., phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) that formed during light treatments were also measured to confirm the enzyme activities data. White and blue light treatments increased the content of phenolics in the treated okra, while red and green lights increased the formation of other compounds. These results could be well explained by the changing levels of the measured enzyme activities and amino acids contents.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Effects of Low Heat-Moisture Treatment in Prata Green Banana Starch ( Musa AAB-Prata )
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Sabrina dos Santos Costa, Maria Climene Bezerra de Medeiros Almeida, Eveline Lopes Almeida, Mônica Tejo Cavalcanti

    Green banana is a great potential source for starch. The functional properties of starch can be improved by applying various innovative and safe technologies with the physical modifications being most desired by maintaining granular integrity and not making use of chemical reagents. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of physical modification by low heat-moisture treatment (HMT) using moisture contents of 15%, 20%, and 25% in Prata green banana starch (Musa AAB-Prata). The extraction yield of starch was 23.80 ± 3.3%. The native starch showed a high amylose content (42.13 ± 0.26%), which was reduced by HMT at 15 and 20% moisture. The HMT did not change the morphology and the degree of molecular ordering in Prata green banana starch granule observed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, respectively. However, starch modification caused a significant reduction in the swelling power of the starches at the higher temperatures (70 °C to 90 °C), besides increasing the gelatinization peak temperature and reducing the gelatinization enthalpy determined by differential scanning calorimetry. On the pasting profile of Rapid Visco Analyzer, it was possible to verify that the HMT reduced peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, and final viscosity and increased the pasting temperature and time to peak viscosity, thereby indicating improvements in starch thermostability and broadening the starch application range in the food industry.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Laser-Based imaging for Cocoa Pods Maturity Detection
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Nuradila Athirah Lockman, Norhashila Hashim, Daniel I. Onwude

    Non-destructive and laser-based technologies have been explored widely in recent years as a way to monitor fresh produce and crops quality in the agriculture sector. In this study, the effectiveness of laser-induced backscattering imaging (LLBI) was investigated to determine the firmness and colour of cocoa pods at different maturity stages. The LLBI system with 1 mm laser diode beam diameter emitting at 658 nm and 705 nm wavelengths were used to capture backscattered images of Theobroma cacao at three different maturity stages, which were unripe, ripe and over-ripe. The samples were also measured using reference measurement such as colorimeter and handheld penetrometer for measuring colour and firmness, respectively, in order to compare with the LLBI. Results indicated that chroma (C) regressed linearly well with the backscattering parameters with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.755 for 658 nm and 0.800 for 705 nm. Classification of samples according to their maturity stages resulted in 90% correctly classified samples into an unripe group using a laser diode at 658 nm and 95% at 705 nm. These findings also revealed that LLBI with laser diode emitted light at 705 nm wavelength gave better evaluation and classification results compared with 658 nm. This study has demonstrated the ability of non-destructive LLBI technique to evaluate the maturity stages of cocoa pods.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Assessing the Vacuum Spray Drying Effects on the Properties of Orange Essential Oil Microparticles
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Fernanda de Melo Ramos, Vivaldo Silveira Júnior, Ana Silvia Prata

    The effect of using reduced pressure and absence of oxygen during the spray drying process for processing sensitive compound was investigated. Orange essential oil emulsion was atomized in the same equipment (nozzle and drying chamber) and dried under two different conditions: (a) conventional spray drying settings (airflow at ambient pressure with inlet/outlet temperatures of 190 °C/90 °C); (b) reduced-pressure conditions (10–15 kPa) for allowing water evaporation at 25–30 °C. Emulsion phase was preliminarily characterized regarding droplet size distribution, kinetic stability, microstructure, and rheological behavior in order to ensure that the formulation is able to stabilize the oil droplets. The particles recovered in both process conditions were characterized with respect to the moisture content, water activity, particle size distribution, powder morphology, encapsulation efficiency, wettability, and solubility. The particles produced by vacuum spray drying presented lower mean diameter (14.38 μm) and wettability (94 s) besides higher encapsulation efficiency (99.89%) and moisture content (6.27%) than particles resulting from the conventional process. The vacuum process employed did not affect the solubility of the samples. For both processes, most of the particles presented no apparent fissures or cracks in the structure, but some morphological changes were caused by the vacuum. The process seems to be a promising technique to produce thermo-sensitive powder and can improve technological properties.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Unfolding and Inhibition of Polyphenoloxidase Induced by Acidic pH and Mild Thermal Treatment
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Lei Zhou, Tao Liao, Junping Liu, Liqiang Zou, Chengmei Liu, Wei Liu

    The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) treated by acidic pH and mild thermal processing was found to be closely related to the conformational changes. Weakly acidic environment (pH 4.0–6.0) resulted in reversible inhibition of activity and slight changes in the conformation, and refolding of PPO was observed after readjusting pH to 6.8. At pH lower than 4.0, PPO activity was strongly inhibited with great unfolding in conformation and all changes were irreversible. Acidic environment increased the susceptibility of PPO to thermal treatment, and greater changes in activity and conformation of PPO were observed under the combined treatment of acidic pH and mild thermal treatment. Besides, the inactivation of PPO induced by thermal treatment followed a biphasic kinetic model, and acidic pH increased the inactivation rate of labile and stable PPO. The combination of acidic pH and mild thermal processing expected to avoid the nutritional loss and sensory damage in fruits and vegetables caused by severe acid or temperature.

    更新日期:2019-10-23
  • Quality of Fresh Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar ) Under Hyperbaric Storage at Low Temperature by Evaluation of Microbial and Physicochemical Quality Indicators
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Liliana G. Fidalgo, Rodolfo Castro, Marcos Trigo, Santiago P. Aubourg, Ivonne Delgadillo, Jorge A. Saraiva

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) quality was evaluated by hyperbaric storage at low temperature (HS/LT; 40–60 MPa, 5–15 °C) and compared with control samples stored at the same storage temperatures (5–15 °C) and atmospheric pressure (AP). Results showed that HS/LT was efficient to slowdown spoilage microbial growth, with additional inactivation at 60 MPa/10 °C after 50 days. Contrarily, AP-5/10 °C samples exceeded the established limit after 15 days. Furthermore, the established limit of total volatile base-nitrogen was surpassed at 60 MPa/10 °C only after 30 days (contrarily to 6 days at AP/10 °C), but with stable trimethylamine-nitrogen content in the former. Formaldehyde and dimethylamine-nitrogen contents increased after 6 days of HS/LT, but only the former progressively increased until the 10th day, indicating a possible formation by the action of enzymatic activity, but also by other chemical reactions. Additionally, HS/LT slightly increased secondary product content from the lipid oxidation, although to a lower extent compared with AP (at the different storage temperatures). Concluding, HS/LT may represent an interesting methodology to control microbial activity and important physicochemical parameters (such as volatile amines, colour, and lipid oxidation) of Atlantic salmon muscle portions for 15–30 days, compared with 6 days for AP/5 °C (conventional refrigeration).

    更新日期:2019-10-21
  • Physical Properties of Fish Oil Microcapsules Prepared with Octenyl Succinic Anhydride–Linked Starch and Maltodextrin
    Food Bioproc. Tech. (IF 3.032) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Caihua Jia, Shanjun Huang, Junjie Li, Shanbai Xiong, Juan You, Yang Hu, Ru Liu

    The microcapsules of fish oil were prepared through spray drying with octenyl succinic anhydride–linked starch (OSA-S) and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials. The physical properties of microcapsules were evaluated, such as microstructure, hygroscopicity, dissolution, the average particle size, and rheological properties. It was found that the microcapsules were spherical with some wrinkle on the surface as observed by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, the holes in the shell of microcapsules were fish oil droplets as shown in a laser confocal microscope, indicating that the fish oil microcapsules were a typically multinucleated system. In addition, there was no significant change in average particle size (0.2–0.9 μm) after 1-month storage at room temperature, and there was no chemical reaction between the wall materials and fish oil as was proven by infrared spectra. Finally, reconstituted emulsions (RCE) of microcapsule exhibited shear-thinning behavior at low shear rate, which was helpful to the processing, transportation, and storage of emulsion.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
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