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  • Wearable Sensors for Biochemical Sweat Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Amay J. Bandodkar, William J. Jeang, Roozbeh Ghaffari, John A. Rogers

    Sweat is a largely unexplored biofluid that contains many important biomarkers ranging from electrolytes and metabolites to proteins, cytokines, antigens, and exogenous drugs. The eccrine and apocrine glands produce and excrete sweat through microscale pores on the epidermal surface, offering a noninvasive means for capturing and probing biomarkers that reflect hydration state, fatigue, nutrition, and physiological changes. Recent advances in skin-interfaced wearable sensors capable of real-time in situ sweat collection and analytics provide capabilities for continuous biochemical monitoring in an ambulatory mode of operation. This review presents a broad overview of sweat-based biochemical sensor technologies with an emphasis on enabling materials, designs, and target analytes of interest. The article concludes with a summary of challenges and opportunities for researchers and clinicians in this swiftly growing field.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • E-Cigarette Chemistry and Analytical Detection
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Robert M. Strongin

    The study of e-cigarette aerosol properties can inform public health while longer-term epidemiological investigations are ongoing. The determination of aerosol levels of known toxins, as well as of molecules with unknown inhalation toxicity profiles, affords specific information for estimating the risks of e-cigarettes and for uncovering areas that should be prioritized for further investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Emerging Analytical Techniques for Rapid Pathogen Identification and Susceptibility Testing
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Dong Jin Shin, Nadya Andini, Kuangwen Hsieh, Samuel Yang, Tza-Huei Wang

    In the face of looming threats from multi-drug resistant microorganisms, there is a growing need for technologies that will enable rapid identification and drug susceptibility profiling of these pathogens in health care settings. In particular, recent progress in microfluidics and nucleic acid amplification is pushing the boundaries of timescale for diagnosing bacterial infections. With a diverse range of techniques and parallel developments in the field of analytical chemistry, an integrative perspective is needed to understand the significance of these developments. This review examines the scope of new developments in assay technologies grouped by key enabling domains of research. First, we examine recent development in nucleic acid amplification assays for rapid identification and drug susceptibility testing in bacterial infections. Next, we examine advances in microfluidics that facilitate acceleration of diagnostic assays via integration and scale. Lastly, recentdevelopments in biosensor technologies are reviewed. We conclude this review with perspectives on the use of emerging concepts to develop paradigm-changing assays.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Polyvalent Nanoobjects for Precision Diagnostics
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    David T. Omstead, Jenna Sjoerdsma, Basar Bilgicer

    As our ability to synthesize and modify nanoobjects has improved, efforts to explore nanotechnology for diagnostic purposes have gained momentum. The variety of nanoobjects, especially those with polyvalent properties, displays a wide range of practical and unique properties well suited for applications in various diagnostics. This review briefly covers the broad scope of multivalent nanoobjects and their use in diagnostics, ranging from ex vivo assays and biosensors to in vivo imaging. The nanoobjects discussed here include silica nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon dots, fullerenes, polymers, dendrimers, liposomes, nanowires, and nanotubes. In this review, we describe recent reports of novel applications of these various nanoobjects, particularly as polyvalent entities designed for diagnostics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Whole-Organism Analysis by Vibrational Spectroscopy
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Dale Christensen, Anja Rüther, Kamila Kochan, David Pérez-Guaita, Bayden Wood

    Vibrational spectroscopy has contributed to the understanding of biological materials for many years. As the technology has advanced, the technique has been brought to bear on the analysis of whole organisms. Here, we discuss advanced and recently developed infrared and Raman spectroscopic instrumentation to whole-organism analysis. We highlight many of the recent contributions made in this relatively new area of spectroscopy, particularly addressing organisms associated with disease with emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. The application of vibrational spectroscopic techniques to entire organisms is still in its infancy, but new developments in imaging and chemometric processing will likely expand in the field in the near future.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Recent Developments in Nanosensors for Imaging Applications in Biological Systems
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Guoxin Rong, Erin E. Tuttle, Ashlyn Neal Reilly, Heather A. Clark

    Sensors are key tools for monitoring the dynamic changes of biomolecules and biofunctions that encode valuable information that helps us understand underlying biological processes of fundamental importance. Because of their distinctive size-dependent physicochemical properties, materials with nanometer scales have recently emerged as promising candidates for biological sensing applications by offering unique insights into real-time changes of key physiological parameters. This review focuses on recent advances in imaging-based nanosensor developments and applications categorized by their signal transduction mechanisms, namely, fluorescence, plasmonics, MRI, and photoacoustics. We further discuss the synergy created by multimodal nanosensors in which sensor components work based on two or more signal transduction mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Development and Applications of Bioluminescent and Chemiluminescent Reporters and Biosensors
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Hsien-Wei Yeh, Hui-Wang Ai

    Although fluorescent reporters and biosensors have become indispensable tools in biological and biomedical fields, fluorescence measurements require external excitation light, thereby limiting their use in thick tissues and live animals. Bioluminescent reporters and biosensors may potentially overcome this hurdle because they use enzyme-catalyzed exothermic biochemical reactions to generate excited-state emitters. This review first introduces the development of bioluminescent reporters, and next, their applications in sensing biological changes in vitro and in vivo as biosensors. Lastly, we discuss chemiluminescent sensors that produce photons in the absence of luciferases. This review aims to explore fundamentals and experimental insights and to emphasize the yet-to-be-reached potential of next-generation luminescent reporters and biosensors.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging and Microscopy and Their Biological Applications
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Markéta Bocková, Jiří Slabý, Tomáš Špringer, Jiří Homola

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy and imaging are optical methods that enable observation and quantification of interactions of nano- and microscale objects near a metal surface in a temporally and spatially resolved manner. This review describes the principles of surface plasmon resonance microscopy and imaging and discusses recent advances in these methods, in particular, in optical platforms and functional coatings. In addition, the biological applications of these methods are reviewed. These include the detection of a broad variety of analytes (nucleic acids, proteins, bacteria), the investigation of biological systems (bacteria and cells), and biomolecular interactions (drug–receptor, protein–protein, protein–DNA, protein–cell).

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Challenges in Identifying the Dark Molecules of Life
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    María Eugenia Monge, James N. Dodds, Erin S. Baker, Arthur S. Edison, Facundo M. Fernández

    Metabolomics is the study of the metabolome, the collection of small molecules in living organisms, cells, tissues, and biofluids. Technological advances in mass spectrometry, liquid- and gas-phase separations, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and big data analytics have now made it possible to study metabolism at an omics or systems level. The significance of this burgeoning scientific field cannot be overstated: It impacts disciplines ranging from biomedicine to plant science. Despite these advances, the central bottleneck in metabolomics remains the identification of key metabolites that play a class-discriminant role. Because metabolites do not follow a molecular alphabet as proteins and nucleic acids do, their identification is much more time consuming, with a high failure rate. In this review, we critically discuss the state-of-the-art in metabolite identification with specific applications in metabolomics and how technologies such as mass spectrometry, ion mobility, chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance currently contribute to this challenging task.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Metabolic Imaging at the Single-Cell Scale: Recent Advances in Mass Spectrometry Imaging
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Ian S. Gilmore, Sven Heiles, Cornelius L. Pieterse

    There is an increasing appreciation that every cell, even of the same type, is different. This complexity, when additionally combined with the variety of different cell types in tissue, is driving the need for spatially resolved omics at the single-cell scale. Rapid advances are being made in genomics and transcriptomics, but progress in metabolomics lags. This is partly because amplification and tagging strategies are not suited to dynamically created metabolite molecules. Mass spectrometry imaging has excellent potential for metabolic imaging. This review summarizes the recent advances in two of these techniques: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and their convergence in subcellular spatial resolution and molecular information. The barriers that have held back progress such as lack of sensitivity and the breakthroughs that have been made including laser-postionization are highlighted as well as the future challenges and opportunities for metabolic imaging at the single-cell scale.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Laser Desorption Combined with Laser Postionization for Mass Spectrometry
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Luke Hanley, Raveendra Wickramasinghe, Yeni P. Yung

    Lasers with pulse lengths from nanoseconds to femtoseconds and wavelengths from the mid-infrared to extreme ultraviolet (UV) have been used for desorption or ablation in mass spectrometry. Such laser sampling can often benefit from the addition of a second laser for postionization of neutrals. The advantages offered by laser postionization include the ability to forego matrix application, high lateral resolution, decoupling of ionization from desorption, improved analysis of electrically insulating samples, and potential for high sensitivity and depth profiling while minimizing differential detection. A description of postionization by vacuum UV radiation is followed by a consideration of multiphoton, short pulse, and other postionization strategies. The impacts of laser pulse length and wavelength are considered for laser desorption or laser ablation at low pressures. Atomic and molecular analysis via direct laser desorption/ionization using near-infrared ultrashort pulses is described. Finally, the postionization of clusters, the role of gaseous collisions, sampling at ambient pressure, atmospheric pressure photoionization, and the addition of UV postionization to MALDI are considered.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular Characterization of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol by Mass Spectrometry
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Murray V. Johnston, Devan E. Kerecman

    Atmospheric aerosol, particulate matter suspended in the air we breathe, exerts a strong impact on our health and the environment. Controlling the amount of particulate matter in air is difficult, as there are many ways particles can form by both natural and anthropogenic processes. We gain insight into the sources of particulate matter through chemical composition measurements. A substantial portion of atmospheric aerosol is organic, and this organic matter is exceedingly complex on a molecular scale, encompassing hundreds to thousands of individual compounds that distribute between the gas and particle phases. Because of this complexity, no single analytical technique is sufficient. However, mass spectrometry plays a crucial role owing to its combination of high sensitivity and molecular specificity. This review surveys the various ways mass spectrometry is used to characterize atmospheric organic aerosol at a molecular level, tracing these methods from inception to current practice, with emphasis on current and emerging areas of research. Both offline and online approaches are covered, and molecular measurements with them are discussed in the context of identifying sources and elucidating the underlying chemical mechanisms of particle formation. There is an ongoing need to improve existing techniques and develop new ones if we are to further advance our knowledge of how to mitigate the unwanted health and environmental impacts of particles.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Electrochemiluminescence Imaging for Bioanalysis
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Jingjing Zhang, Stéphane Arbault, Neso Sojic, Dechen Jiang

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is a widely used analytical technique with the advantages of high sensitivity and low background signal. The recent and rapid development of electrochemical materials, luminophores, and optical elements significantly increases the ECL signals and, thus, ECL imaging with enhanced spatial and temporal resolutions is realized. Currently, ECL imaging is successfully applied to high-throughput bioanalysis and to visualize the distribution of molecules at single cells. Compared with other optical bioassays, no optical excitation is involved in imaging, so the approach avoids a background signal from illumination and increases the detection sensitivity. This review highlights some of the most exciting developments in this field, including the mechanisms, electrode designs, and the applications of ECL imaging in bioanalysis and at single cells and particles.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Electrochemistry at the Synapse
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Mimi Shin, Ying Wang, Jason R. Borgus, B. Jill Venton

    Electrochemical measurements of neurotransmitters provide insight into the dynamics of neurotransmission. In this review, we describe the development of electrochemical measurements of neurotransmitters and how they started with extrasynaptic measurements but now are pushing toward synaptic measurements. Traditionally, biosensors or fast-scan cyclic voltammetry have monitored extrasynaptic levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, adenosine, glutamate, and acetylcholine. Amperometry and electrochemical cytometry techniques have revealed mechanisms of exocytosis, suggesting partial release. Advances in nanoelectrodes now allow spatially resolved, electrochemical measurements in a synapse, which is only 20–100 nm wide. Synaptic measurements of dopamine and acetylcholine have been made. In this article, electrochemical measurements are also compared to optical imaging and mass spectrometry measurements, and while these other techniques provide enhanced spatial or chemical information, electrochemistry is best at monitoring real-time neurotransmission. Future challenges include combining electrochemistry with these other techniques in order to facilitate multisite and multianalyte monitoring.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Advanced Spectroelectrochemical Techniques to Study Electrode Interfaces Within Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Oxygen Batteries
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Alexander J. Cowan, Laurence J. Hardwick

    Lithium battery technologies have revolutionized mobile energy storage, but improvements in the technology are still needed. Critical to delivering new light weight, high capacity, safe devices is an improved understanding of the dynamic processes occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. Therefore, alongside advances in materials there has been a parallel progression in advanced characterization methods. Herein, recent developments for operando spectro-electrochemical techniques centered on Raman, infrared, and sum frequency generation are described within the context of lithium-ion and non-aqueous lithium-oxygen battery research. In particular, shell-isolated nanoparticles for enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS), surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS), and near-field infrared are explained and critically evaluated, and future opportunities discussed. The aim is to introduce the wider community to the developing range of methodologies and tools now available in the hope that it encourages greater usage across the sector.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Single Nanoparticle Electrochemistry
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Fato Tano Patrice, Kaipei Qiu, Yi-Lun Ying, Yi-Tao Long

    Experimental techniques to monitor and visualize the behaviors of single nanoparticles have not only revealed the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity of those individuals, which are hidden in ensemble methods, but more importantly, they have also enabled researchers to elucidate the origin of such heterogeneity. In pursuing the intrinsic structure-function relations of single nanoparticles, the recently developed stochastic collision approach demonstrated some early promise. However, it was later realized that the appropriate sizing of a single nanoparticle by an electrochemical method could be far more challenging than initially expected owing to the dynamic motion of nanoparticles in electrolytes and complex charge-transfer characteristics at electrode surfaces. This clearly indicates a strong necessity to integrate single nanoparticle electrochemistry with high-resolution optical microscopy. Hence, this review aims to give a timely update of the latest progress for both electrochemically sensing and seeing single nanoparticles. A major focus is on collision-based measurements, where nanoparticles or single entities in solution impact on a collector electrode and the electrochemical response is recorded. These measurements are further enhanced with optical measurements in parallel. For completeness, advances in other related methods for single nanoparticle electrochemistry are also included.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Single-Molecule Analysis with Solid-State Nanopores
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Tim Albrecht

    Solid-state nanopores and nanopipettes are an exciting class of single-molecule sensors that has grown enormously over the last two decades. They offer a platform for testing fundamental concepts of stochasticity and transport at the nanoscale, for studying single-molecule biophysics and, increasingly, also for new analytical applications and in biomedical sensing. This review covers some fundamental aspects underpinning sensor operation and transport and, at the same time, it aims to put these into context as an analytical technique. It highlights new and recent developments and discusses some of the challenges lying ahead.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Flow Cytometric Analysis of Nanoscale Biological Particles and Organelles
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Hong Lian, Shengbin He, Chaoxiang Chen, Xiaomei Yan

    Analysis of nanoscale biological particles and organelles (BPOs) at the single-particle level is fundamental to the in-depth study of biosciences. Flow cytometry is a versatile technique that has been well-established for the analysis of eukaryotic cells, yet conventional flow cytometry can hardly meet the sensitivity requirement for nanoscale BPOs. Recent advances in high-sensitivity flow cytometry have made it possible to conduct precise, sensitive, and specific analyses of nanoscale BPOs, with exceptional benefits for bacteria, mitochondria, viruses, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this article, we discuss the significance, challenges, and efforts toward sensitivity enhancement, followed by the introduction of flow cytometric analysis of nanoscale BPOs. With the development of the nano-flow cytometer that can detect single viruses and EVs as small as 27 nm and 40 nm, respectively, more exciting applications in nanoscale BPO analysis can be envisioned.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • High-Parameter Single-Cell Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Pratip K. Chattopadhyay, Aidan F. Winters, Woodrow E. Lomas III, Andressa S. Laino, David M. Woods

    Thousands of transcripts and proteins confer function and discriminate cell types in the body. Using high-parameter technologies, we can now measure many of these markers at once, and multiple platforms are now capable of analysis on a cell-by-cell basis. Three high-parameter single-cell technologies have particular potential for discovering new biomarkers, revealing disease mechanisms, and increasing our fundamental understanding of cell biology. We review these three platforms (high-parameter flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and a new class of technologies called integrated molecular cytometry platforms) in this article. We describe the underlying hardware and instrumentation, the reagents involved, and the limitations and advantages of each platform. We also highlight the emerging field of high-parameter single-cell data analysis, providing an accessible overview of the data analysis process and choice of tools.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Single-Cell Protein Secretion Detection and Profiling
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Zhuo Chen, Jonathan J. Chen, Rong Fan

    Secreted proteins play important roles in mediating various biological processes such as cell–cell communication, differentiation, migration, and homeostasis at the population or tissue level. Here, we review bioanalytical technologies and devices for detecting protein secretions from single cells. We begin by discussing conventional approaches followed by detailing the latest advances in microengineered systems for detecting single-cell protein secretions with an emphasis on multiplex measurement. These platforms include droplet microfluidics, micro-/nanowell-based assays, and microchamber-based assays, among which the advantages and limitations are compared. Microscale systems also enable the tracking of protein secretion dynamics in single cells, further empowering the study of the cell–cell communication network. Looking forward, we discuss the remaining challenges and future opportunities that will transform basic research of cellular secretion functions at the systems level and the clinical applications for immune monitoring and cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Well-Defined Materials for High-Performance Chromatographic Separation
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Yu Liang, Lihua Zhang, Yukui Zhang

    Chromatographic separation has been widely applied in various fields, such as chemical engineering, precision medicine, energy, and biology. Because chromatographic separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile phase and stationary phase and affected by band dispersion and mass transfer resistance from these two phases, the materials used as the stationary phase play a decisive role in separation performance. In this review, we discuss the design of separation materials to achieve the separation with high efficiency and high resolution and highlight the well-defined materials with uniform pore structure and unique properties. The achievements, recent developments, challenges, and future trends of such materials are discussed. Furthermore, the surface functionalization of separation ma-terials for further improvement of separation performance is reviewed. Finally, future research directions and the challenges of chromatographic separation are presented.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Separation Phenomena in Tailored Micro- and Nanofluidic Environments
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Mukul Sonker, Daihyun Kim, Ana Egatz-Gomez, Alexandra Ros

    Separations of bioanalytes require robust, effective, and selective migration phenomena. However, due to the complexity of biological matrices such as body fluids or tissue, these requirements are difficult to achieve. The separations field is thus constantly evolving to develop suitable methods to separate biomarkers and fractionate biospecimens for further interrogation of biomolecular content. Advances in the field of microfabrication allow the tailored generation of micro- and nanofluidic environments. These can be exploited to induce interactions and dynamics of biological species with the corresponding geometrical features, which in turn can be capitalized for novel separation approaches. This review provides an overview of several unique separation applications demonstrated in recent years in tailored micro- and nanofluidic environments. These include electrokinetic methods such as dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis, but also rather nonintuitive ratchet separation mechanisms, continuous flow separations, and fractionations such as deterministic lateral displacement, as well as methods employing entropic forces for separation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Solving the Structure and Dynamics of Metal Nanoparticles by Combining X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Atomistic Structure Simulations
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    J. Timoshenko, Z. Duan, G. Henkelman, R.M. Crooks, A.I. Frenkel

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is a premiere method for analysis of the structure and structural transformation of nanoparticles. Extraction of analytical information about the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of metal–metal bonds from EXAFS spectra requires special care due to their markedly non-bulk-like character. In recent decades, significant progress has been made in the first-principles modeling of structure and properties of nanoparticles. In this review, we summarize new approaches for EXAFS data analysis that incorporate particle structure modeling into the process of structural refinement.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Imaging and Analytics on the Helium Ion Microscope
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Tom Wirtz, Olivier De Castro, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Patrick Philipp

    The helium ion microscope (HIM) has emerged as an instrument of choice for patterning, imaging and, more recently, analytics at the nanoscale. Here, we review secondary electron imaging on the HIM and the various methodologies and hardware components that have been developed to confer analytical capabilities to the HIM. Secondary electron–based imaging can be performed at resolutions down to 0.5 nm with high contrast, with high depth of field, and directly on insulating samples. Analytical methods include secondary electron hyperspectral imaging (SEHI), scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), backscattering spectrometry and, in particular, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The SIMS system that was specifically designed for the HIM allows the detection of all elements, the differentiation between isotopes, and the detection of trace elements. It provides mass spectra, depth profiles, and 2D or 3D images with lateral resolutions down to 10 nm.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Mass Spectrometry for Synthesis and Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    R. Graham Cooks, Xin Yan

    Mass spectrometry is the science and technology of ions. As such, it is concerned with generating ions, measuring their properties, following their reactions, isolating them, and using them to build and transform materials. Instrumentation is an essential element of these activities, and analytical applications are one driving force. Work from the Aston Laboratories at Purdue University's Department of Chemistry is described here, with an emphasis on accelerated reactions of ions in solution and small-scale synthesis; ion/surface collision processes, including surface-induced dissociation (SID) and ion soft landing; and applications to tissue imaging. Our special interest in chirality and the chemistry behind the origins of life is also featured together with the exciting area of tissue diagnostics.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Gas Cluster Ion Beams for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Nicholas Winograd

    Gas cluster ion beams (GCIBs) provide new opportunities for bioimaging and molecular depth profiling with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). These beams, consisting of clusters containing thousands of particles, initiate desorption of target molecules with high yield and minimal fragmentation. This review emphasizes the unique opportunities for implementing these sources, especially for bioimaging applications. Theoretical aspects of the cluster ion/solid interaction are developed to maximize conditions for successful mass spectrometry. In addition, the history of how GCIBs have become practical laboratory tools is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the versatility of these sources, as size, kinetic energy, and chemical composition can be varied easily to maximize lateral resolution, hopefully to less than 1 micron, and to maximize ionization efficiency. Recent examples of bioimaging applications are also presented.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Relative and Absolute Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry–Based Proteomics
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2016-06-24
    J. Astor Ankney, Adil Muneer, Xian Chen

    Mass spectrometry–based quantitative proteomics is a powerful tool for gaining insights into function and dynamics of biological systems. However, peptides with different sequences have different ionization efficiencies, and their intensities in a mass spectrum are not correlated with their abundances. Therefore, various label-free or stable isotope label–based quantitation methods have emerged to assist mass spectrometry to perform comparative proteomic experiments, thus enabling nonbiased identification of thousands of proteins differentially expressed in healthy versus diseased cells. Here, we discuss the most widely used label-free and metabolic-, enzymatic-, and chemical labeling–based proteomic strategies for relative and absolute quantitation. We summarize the specific strengths and weaknesses of each technique in terms of quantification accuracy, proteome coverage, multiplexing capability, and robustness. Applications of each strategy for solving specific biological complexities are also presented.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Technologies for Measuring Pharmacokinetic Profiles
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    A.A. Heller, S.Y. Lockwood, T.M. Janes, D.M. Spence

    The creation of a pharmacokinetic (PK) curve, which follows the plasma concentration of an administered drug as a function of time, is a critical aspect of the drug development process and includes such information as the drug's bioavailability, clearance, and elimination half-life. Prior to a drug of interest gaining clearance for use in human clinical trials, research is performed during the preclinical stages to establish drug safety and dosing metrics from data obtained from the PK studies. Both in vivo animal models and in vitro platforms have limitations in predicting human reaction to a drug due to differences in species and associated simplifications, respectively. As a result, in silico experiments using computer simulation have been implemented to accurately predict PK parameters in human studies. This review assesses these three approaches (in vitro, in vivo, and in silico) when establishing PK parameters and evaluates the potential for in silico studies to be the future gold standard of PK preclinical studies.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Interfacing Cells with Vertical Nanoscale Devices: Applications and Characterization
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Allister F. McGuire, Francesca Santoro, Bianxiao Cui

    Measurements of the intracellular state of mammalian cells often require probes or molecules to breach the tightly regulated cell membrane. Mammalian cells have been shown to grow well on vertical nanoscale structures in vitro, going out of their way to reach and tightly wrap the structures. A great deal of research has taken advantage of this interaction to bring probes close to the interface or deliver molecules with increased efficiency or ease. In turn, techniques have been developed to characterize this interface. Here, we endeavor to survey this research with an emphasis on the interface as driven by cellular mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Wearable and Implantable Sensors for Biomedical Applications
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Hatice Ceylan Koydemir, Aydogan Ozcan

    Mobile health technologies offer great promise for reducing healthcare costs and improving patient care. Wearable and implantable technologies are contributing to a transformation in the mobile health era in terms of improving healthcare and health outcomes and providing real-time guidance on improved health management and tracking. In this article, we review the biomedical applications of wearable and implantable medical devices and sensors, ranging from monitoring to prevention of diseases, as well as the materials used in the fabrication of these devices and the standards for wireless medical devices and mobile applications. We conclude by discussing some of the technical challenges in wearable and implantable technology and possible solutions for overcoming these difficulties.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • SERS Sensors: Recent Developments and a Generalized Classification Scheme Based on the Signal Origin
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Xin Gu, Michael J. Trujillo, Jacob E. Olson, Jon P. Camden

    Owing to its extreme sensitivity and easy execution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) now finds application for a wide variety of problems requiring sensitive and targeted analyte detection. This widespread application has prompted a proliferation of different SERS-based sensors, suggesting the need for a framework to classify existing methods and guide the development of new techniques. After a brief discussion of the general SERS modalities, we classify SERS-based sensors according the origin of the signal. Three major categories emerge from this analysis: surface-affinity strategy, SERS-tag strategy, and probe-mediated strategy. For each case, we describe the mechanism of action, give selected examples, and point out general misconceptions to aid the construction of new devices. We hope this review serves as a useful tutorial guide and helps readers to better classify and design practical and effective SERS-based sensors.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Interfacial Engineering for Biosensor Development
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Dekai Ye, Xiaolei Zuo, Chunhai Fan

    Biosensors represent biomimetic analytical tools for addressing increasing needs in medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, security, and biodefense. Nevertheless, widespread real-world applications of biosensors remain challenging due to limitations of performance, including sensitivity, specificity, speed, and reproducibility. In this review, we present a DNA nanotechnology-enabled interfacial engineering approach for improving the performance of biosensors. We first introduce the main challenges of the biosensing interfaces, especially under the context of controlling the DNA interfacial assembly. We then summarize recent progress in DNA nanotechnology and efforts to harness DNA nanostructures to engineer various biological interfaces, with a particular focus on the use of framework nucleic acids. We also discuss the implementation of biosensors to detect physiologically relevant nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, ions, and other biomarkers. This review highlights promising applications of DNA nanotechnology in interfacial engineering for biosensors and related areas.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • DNA Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Sensors for Nucleic Acids
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Elena E. Ferapontova

    Sensitive, specific, and fast analysis of nucleic acids (NAs) is strongly needed in medicine, environmental science, biodefence, and agriculture for the study of bacterial contamination of food and beverages and genetically modified organisms. Electrochemistry offers accurate, simple, inexpensive, and robust tools for the development of such analytical platforms that can successfully compete with other approaches for NA detection. Here, electrode reactions of DNA, basic principles of electrochemical NA analysis, and their relevance for practical applications are reviewed and critically discussed.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Improving Lateral Flow Assay Performance Using Computational Modeling
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    David Gasperino, Ted Baughman, Helen V. Hsieh, David Bell, Bernhard H. Weigl

    The performance, field utility, and low cost of lateral flow assays (LFAs) have driven a tremendous shift in global health care practices by enabling diagnostic testing in previously unserved settings. This success has motivated the continued improvement of LFAs through increasingly sophisticated materials and reagents. However, our mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes that drive the informed design of these systems has not received commensurate attention. Here, we review the principles underpinning LFAs and the historical evolution of theory to predict their performance. As this theory is integrated into computational models and becomes testable, the criteria for quantifying performance and validating predictive power are critical. The integration of computational design with LFA development offers a promising and coherent framework to choose from an increasing number of novel materials, techniques, and reagents to deliver the low-cost, high-fidelity assays of the future.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Recent Advances and Trends in Microfluidic Platforms for C. elegans Biological Assays
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Farhan Kamili, Hang Lu

    Microfluidics has proven to be a key tool in quantitative biological research. The C. elegans research community in particular has developed a variety of microfluidic platforms to investigate sensory systems, development, aging, and physiology of the nematode. Critical for the growth of this field, however, has been the implementation of concurrent advanced microscopy, hardware, and software technologies that enable the discovery of novel biology. In this review, we highlight recent innovations in microfluidic platforms used for assaying C. elegans and discuss the novel technological approaches and analytic strategies required for these systems. We conclude that platforms that provide analytical frameworks for assaying specific biological mechanisms and those that take full advantage of integrated technologies to extract high-value quantitative information from worm assays are most likely to move the field forward.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Fabrication and Use of Nanopipettes in Chemical Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Shudong Zhang, Mingzhi Li, Bin Su, Yuanhua Shao

    This review summarizes progress in the fabrication, modification, characterization, and applications of nanopipettes since 2010. A brief history of nanopipettes is introduced, and the details of fabrication, modification, and characterization of nanopipettes are provided. Applications of nanopipettes in chemical analysis are the focus in several cases, including recent progress in imaging; in the study of single molecules, single nanoparticles, and single cells; in fundamental investigations of charge transfer (ion and electron) reactions at liquid/liquid interfaces; and as hyphenated techniques combined with other methods to study the mechanisms of complicated electrochemical reactions and to conduct bioanalysis.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • 3D Printed Organ Models for Surgical Applications
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Kaiyan Qiu, Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Michael C. McAlpine

    Medical errors are a major concern in clinical practice, suggesting the need for advanced surgical aids for preoperative planning and rehearsal. Conventionally, CT and MRI scans, as well as 3D visualization techniques, have been utilized as the primary tools for surgical planning. While effective, it would be useful if additional aids could be developed and utilized in particularly complex procedures involving unusual anatomical abnormalities that could benefit from tangible objects providing spatial sense, anatomical accuracy, and tactile feedback. Recent advancements in 3D printing technologies have facilitated the creation of patient-specific organ models with the purpose of providing an effective solution for preoperative planning, rehearsal, and spatiotemporal mapping. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in 3D printed, patient-specific organ models with an emphasis on 3D printing material systems, integrated functionalities, and their corresponding surgical applications and implications. Prior limitations, current progress, and future perspectives in this important area are also broadly discussed.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Analytical Chemistry in the Regulatory Science of Medical Devices
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Yi Wang, Allan Guan, Samanthi Wickramasekara, K. Scott Phillips

    In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration–regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e.g., diagnostic devices), and it can be used to support medical device development throughout the TPLC. In this review, we focus on analytical chemistry as a tool for the regulatory science of medical devices. We highlight recent progress in companion diagnostics, medical devices on chips for preclinical testing, mass spectrometry for postmarket monitoring, and detection/characterization of bacterial biofilm to prevent infections.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • (Multi)functional Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Anisha N. Patel, Christine Kranz

    Incorporating functionality to atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain physical and chemical information has always been a strong focus in AFM research. Modifying AFM probes with specific molecules permits accessibility of chemical information via specific reactions and interactions. Fundamental understanding of molecular processes at the solid/liquid interface with high spatial resolution is essential to many emerging research areas. Nanoscale electrochemical imaging has emerged as a complementary technique to advanced AFM techniques, providing information on electrochemical interfacial processes. While this review presents a brief introduction to advanced AFM imaging modes, such as multiparametric AFM and topography recognition imaging, the main focus herein is on electrochemical imaging via hybrid AFM-scanning electrochemical microscopy. Recent applications and the challenges associated with such nanoelectrochemical imaging strategies are presented.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Nano-Enabled Approaches to Chemical Imaging in Biosystems
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Scott T. Retterer, Jennifer L. Morrell-Falvey, Mitchel J. Doktycz

    Understanding and predicting how biosystems function require knowledge about the dynamic physicochemical environments with which they interact and alter by their presence. Yet, identifying specific components, tracking the dynamics of the system, and monitoring local environmental conditions without disrupting biosystem function present significant challenges for analytical measurements. Nanomaterials, by their very size and nature, can act as probes and interfaces to biosystems and offer solutions to some of these challenges. At the nanoscale, material properties emerge that can be exploited for localizing biomolecules and making chemical measurements at cellular and subcellular scales. Here, we review advances in chemical imaging enabled by nanoscale structures, in the use of nanoparticles as chemical and environmental probes, and in the development of micro- and nanoscale fluidic devices to define and manipulate local environments and facilitate chemical measurements of complex biosystems. Integration of these nano-enabled methods will lead to an unprecedented understanding of biosystem function.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy of Transmembrane β-Barrel Proteins
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Johannes Thoma, K. Tanuj Sapra, Daniel J. Müller

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) has been widely applied to study the mechanical unfolding and folding of transmembrane proteins. Here, we review the recent progress in characterizing bacterial and human transmembrane β-barrel proteins by SMFS. First, we describe the mechanical unfolding of transmembrane β-barrels, which follows a general mechanism dictated by the sequential unfolding and extraction of individual β-strands and β-hairpins from membranes. Upon force relaxation, the unfolded polypeptide can insert stepwise into the membrane as single β-strands or β-hairpins to fold as the native β-barrel. The refolding can be followed at a high spatial and temporal resolution, showing that small β-barrels are able to fold without assistance, whereas large and complex β-barrels require chaperone cofactors. Applied in the dynamic mode, SMFS can quantify the kinetic and mechanical properties of single β-hairpins and reveal complementary insight into the membrane protein structure and function relationship. We further outline the challenges that SMFS experiments must overcome for a comprehensive understanding of the folding and function of transmembrane β-barrel proteins.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Voltammetric Perspectives on the Acidity Scale and H+/H2 Process in Ionic Liquid Media
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Cameron L. Bentley, Alan M. Bond, Jie Zhang

    Nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids (ILs) have received considerable attention as alternatives to molecular solvents in diverse applications spanning the fields of physical, chemical, and biological science. One important and often overlooked aspect of the implementation of these designer solvents is how the properties of the IL formulation affect (electro)chemical reactivity. This aspect is emphasized herein, where recent (voltammetric) studies on the energetics of proton (H+) transfer and electrode reaction mechanisms of the H+/H2 process in IL media are highlighted and discussed. The energetics of proton transfer, quantified using the pKa (minus logarithm of acidity equilibrium constant, Ka) formalism, is strongly governed by the constituent IL anion, and to a lesser extent, the IL cation. The H+/H2 process, a model inner-sphere reaction, also displays electrochemical characteristics that are strongly IL-dependent. Overall, these studies highlight the need to carry out systematic investigations to resolve IL structure and function relationships in order to realize the potential of these diverse and versatile solvents.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensing and Processing in Microreactors
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Mathieu Odijk, Albert van den Berg

    In this review, we summarize recent advances in nanoscale electrochemistry, including the use of nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanowires. Exciting developments are reported for nanoscale redox cycling devices, which can chemically amplify signal readout. We also discuss promising high-frequency techniques such as nanocapacitive CMOS sensor arrays or heterodyning. In addition, we review electrochemical microreactors for use in (drug) synthesis, biocatalysis, water treatment, or to electrochemically degrade urea for use in a portable artificial kidney. Electrochemical microreactors are also used in combination with mass spectrometry, e.g., to study the mimicry of drug metabolism or to allow electrochemical protein digestion. The review concludes with an outlook on future perspectives in both nanoscale electrochemical sensing and electrochemical microreactors. For sensors, we see a future in wearables and the Internet of Things. In microreactors, a future goal is to monitor the electrochemical conversions more precisely or ultimately in situ by combining other spectroscopic techniques.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Electrochemical Probes of Microbial Community Behavior
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Hunter J. Sismaet, Edgar D. Goluch

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technology along with decreasing costs now allow the microbial population, or microbiome, of a location to be determined relatively quickly. This research reveals that microbial communities are more diverse and complex than ever imagined. New and specialized instrumentation is required to investigate, with high spatial and temporal resolution, the dynamic biochemical environment that is created by microbes, which allows them to exist in every corner of the Earth. This review describes how electrochemical probes and techniques are being used and optimized to learn about microbial communities. Described approaches include voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electrochemical microscopy, separation techniques coupled with electrochemical detection, and arrays of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Microbial communities also interact with and influence their surroundings; therefore, the review also includes a discussion of how electrochemical probes optimized for microbial analysis are utilized in healthcare diagnostics and environmental monitoring applications.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Boron Doped Diamond: A Designer Electrode Material for the Twenty-First Century
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Samuel J. Cobb, Zoe J. Ayres, Julie V. Macpherson

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) is continuing to find numerous electrochemical applications across a diverse range of fields due to its unique properties, such as having a wide solvent window, low capacitance, and reduced resistance to fouling and mechanical robustness. In this review, we showcase the latest developments in the BDD electrochemical field. These are driven by a greater understanding of the relationship between material (surface) properties, required electrochemical performance, and improvements in synthetic growth/fabrication procedures, including material postprocessing. This has resulted in the production of BDD structures with the required function and geometry for the application of interest, making BDD a truly designer material. Current research areas range from in vivo bioelectrochemistry and neuronal/retinal stimulation to improved electroanalysis, advanced oxidation processes, supercapacitors, and the development of hybrid electrochemical-spectroscopic- and temperature-based technology aimed at enhancing electrochemical performance and understanding.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Recent Advances in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Sharon E. Ashbrook, John M. Griffin, Karen E. Johnston

    The sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to the local atomic-scale environment offers great potential for the characterization of a diverse range of solid materials. Despite offering more information than its solution-state counterpart, solid-state NMR has not yet achieved a similar level of recognition, owing to the anisotropic interactions that broaden the spectral lines and hinder the extraction of structural information. Here, we describe the methods available to improve the resolution of solid-state NMR spectra and the continuing research in this area. We also highlight areas of exciting new and future development, including recent interest in combining experiment with theoretical calculations, the rise of a range of polarization transfer techniques that provide significant sensitivity enhancements, and the progress of in situ measurements. We demonstrate the detailed information available when studying dynamic and disordered solids and discuss the future applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy across the chemical sciences.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Methods of Measuring Enzyme Activity Ex Vivo and In Vivo
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Yangguang Ou, Rachael E. Wilson, Stephen G. Weber

    Enzymes catalyze a variety of biochemical reactions in the body and, in conjunction with transporters and receptors, control virtually all physiological processes. There is great value in measuring enzyme activity ex vivo and in vivo. Spatial and temporal differences or changes in enzyme activity can be related to a variety of natural and pathological processes. Several analytical approaches have been developed to meet this need. They can be classified broadly as methods either based on artificial substrates, with the goal of creating images of diseased tissue, or based on natural substrates, with the goal of understanding natural processes. This review covers a selection of these methods, including optical, magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and physical sampling approaches, with a focus on creative chemistry and method development that make ex vivo and in vivo measurements of enzyme activity possible.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Chemical and Biological Dynamics Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Oliver J. Dressler, Xavier Casadevall i Solvas, Andrew J. deMello

    Recent years have witnessed an increased use of droplet-based microfluidic techniques in a wide variety of chemical and biological assays. Nevertheless, obtaining dynamic data from these platforms has remained challenging, as this often requires reading the same droplets (possibly thousands of them) multiple times over a wide range of intervals (from milliseconds to hours). In this review, we introduce the elemental techniques for the formation and manipulation of microfluidic droplets, together with the most recent developments in these areas. We then discuss a wide range of analytical methods that have been successfully adapted for analyte detection in droplets. Finally, we highlight a diversity of studies where droplet-based microfluidic strategies have enabled the characterization of dynamic systems that would otherwise have remained unexplorable.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Sizing Up Protein–Ligand Complexes: The Rise of Structural Mass Spectrometry Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Joseph D. Eschweiler, Richard Kerr, Jessica Rabuck-Gibbons, Brandon T. Ruotolo

    Capturing the dynamic interplay between proteins and their myriad interaction partners is critically important for advancing our understanding of almost every biochemical process and human disease. The importance of this general area has spawned many measurement methods capable of assaying such protein complexes, and the mass spectrometry–based structural biology methods described in this review form an important part of that analytical arsenal. Here, we survey the basic principles of such measurements, cover recent applications of the technology that have focused on protein–small-molecule complexes, and discuss the bright future awaiting this group of technologies.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Applications of the New Family of Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopies for Analytical Chemistry
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    John C. Wright

    A new family of vibrational and electronic spectroscopies has emerged, comprising the coherent analogs of traditional analytical methods. These methods are also analogs of coherent multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This new family is based on creating the same quantum mechanical superposition states called multiple quantum coherences (MQCs). NMR MQCs are mixtures of nuclear spin states that retain their quantum mechanical phase information for milliseconds. The MQCs in this new family are mixtures of vibrational and electronic states that retain their phases for picoseconds or shorter times. Ultrafast, high-intensity coherent beams rapidly excite multiple states. The excited MQCs then emit bright beams while they retain their phases. Time-domain methods measure the frequencies of the MQCs by resolving their phase oscillations, whereas frequency-domain methods measure the resonance enhancements of the output beam while scanning the excitation frequencies. The resulting spectra provide multidimensional spectral signatures that increase the spectroscopic selectivity required for analyzing complex samples.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Coupling Front-End Separations, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, and Mass Spectrometry For Enhanced Multidimensional Biological and Environmental Analyses
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Xueyun Zheng, Roza Wojcik, Xing Zhang, Yehia M. Ibrahim, Kristin E. Burnum-Johnson, Daniel J. Orton, Matthew E. Monroe, Ronald J. Moore, Richard D. Smith, Erin S. Baker

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a widely used analytical technique for rapid molecular separations in the gas phase. Though IMS alone is useful, its coupling with mass spectrometry (MS) and front-end separations is extremely beneficial for increasing measurement sensitivity, peak capacity of complex mixtures, and the scope of molecular information available from biological and environmental sample analyses. In fact, multiple disease screening and environmental evaluations have illustrated that the IMS-based multidimensional separations extract information that cannot be acquired with each technique individually. This review highlights three-dimensional separations using IMS-MS in conjunction with a range of front-endtechniques, such as gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, liquid chromatography, solid-phase extractions, capillary electrophoresis, field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry, and microfluidic devices. The origination, current state, various applications, and future capabilities of these multidimensional approaches are described in detail to provide insight into their uses and benefits.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Multianalyte Physiological Microanalytical Devices
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Anna Nix Davis, Adam R. Travis, Dusty R. Miller, David E. Cliffel

    Advances in scientific instrumentation have allowed experimentalists to evaluate well-known systems in new ways and to gain insight into previously unexplored or poorly understood phenomena. Within the growing field of multianalyte physiometry (MAP), microphysiometers are being developed that are capable of electrochemically measuring changes in the concentration of various metabolites in real time. By simultaneously quantifying multiple analytes, these devices have begun to unravel the complex pathways that govern biological responses to ischemia and oxidative stress while contributing to basic scientific discoveries in bioenergetics and neurology. Patients and clinicians have also benefited from the highly translational nature of MAP, and the continued expansion of the repertoire of analytes that can be measured with multianalyte microphysiometers will undoubtedly play a role in the automation and personalization of medicine. This is perhaps most evident with the recent advent of fully integrated noninvasive sensor arrays that can continuously monitor changes in analytes linked to specific disease states and deliver a therapeutic agent as required without the need for patient action.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Nanosensor Technology Applied to Living Plant Systems
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Seon-Yeong Kwak, Min Hao Wong, Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew, Gili Bisker, Michael A. Lee, Amir Kaplan, Juyao Dong, Albert Tianxiang Liu, Volodymyr B. Koman, Rosalie Sinclair, Catherine Hamann, Michael S. Strano

    An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathways and metabolism that are nondestructive, minimally invasive, and capable of real-time analysis. This review outlines the recent advances in nanotechnology that enable these platforms, including the measurement of chemical fluxes even at the single-molecule level. Applications of nanosensors to plant biology are discussed in the context of nutrient management, disease assessment, food production, detection of DNA proteins, and the regulation of plant hormones. Current trends and future needs are discussed with respect to the emerging trends of precision agriculture, urban farming, and plant nanobionics.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Coded Apertures in Mass Spectrometry
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Jason J. Amsden, Michael E. Gehm, Zachary E. Russell, Evan X. Chen, Shane T. Di Dona, Scott D. Wolter, Ryan M. Danell, Gottfried Kibelka, Charles B. Parker, Brian R. Stoner, David J. Brady, Jeffrey T. Glass

    The use of coded apertures in mass spectrometry can break the trade-off between throughput and resolution that has historically plagued conventional instruments. Despite their very early stage of development, coded apertures have been shown to increase throughput by more than one order of magnitude, with no loss in resolution in a simple 90-degree magnetic sector. This enhanced throughput can increase the signal level with respect to the underlying noise, thereby significantly improving sensitivity to low concentrations of analyte. Simultaneous resolution can be maintained, preventing any decrease in selectivity. Both one- and two-dimensional (2D) codes have been demonstrated. A 2D code can provide increased measurement diversity and therefore improved numerical conditioning of the mass spectrum that is reconstructed from the coded signal. This review discusses the state of development, the applications where coding is expected to provide added value, and the various instrument modifications necessary to implement coded apertures in mass spectrometers.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for Assessing Macromolecular Structure and Function in Living Cells
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Conggang Li, Jiajing Zhao, Kai Cheng, Yuwei Ge, Qiong Wu, Yansheng Ye, Guohua Xu, Zeting Zhang, Wenwen Zheng, Xu Zhang, Xin Zhou, Gary Pielak, Maili Liu

    Investigating the structure, modification, interaction, and function of biomolecules in their native cellular environment leads to physiologically relevant knowledge about their mechanisms, which will benefit drug discovery and design. In recent years, nuclear and electron magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a useful tool for elucidating the structure and function of biomacromolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates in living cells at atomic resolution. In this review, we summarize the progress and future of in-cell NMR as it is applied to proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Plasmonic Imaging of Electrochemical Impedance
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Liang Yuan, Nongjian Tao, Wei Wang

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measures the frequency spectrum of an electrochemical interface to resist an alternating current. This method allows label-free and noninvasive studies on interfacial adsorption and molecular interactions and has applications in biosensing and drug screening. Although powerful, traditional EIS lacks spatial resolution or imaging capability, hindering the study of heterogeneous electrochemical processes on electrodes. We have recently developed a plasmonics-based electrochemical impedance technique to image local electrochemical impedance with a submicron spatial resolution and a submillisecond temporal resolution. In this review, we provide a systematic description of the theory, instrumentation, and data analysis of this technique. To illustrate its present and future applications, we further describe several selected samples analyzed with this method, including protein microarrays, two-dimensional materials, and single cells. We conclude by summarizing the technique's unique features and discussing the remaining challenges and new directions of its application.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Tailored Surfaces/Assemblies for Molecular Plasmonics and Plasmonic Molecular Electronics
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Jean-Christophe Lacroix, Pascal Martin, Pierre-Camille Lacaze

    Molecular plasmonics uses and explores molecule–plasmon interactions on metal nanostructures for spectroscopic, nanophotonic, and nanoelectronic devices. This review focuses on tailored surfaces/assemblies for molecular plasmonics and describes active molecular plasmonic devices in which functional molecules and polymers change their structural, electrical, and/or optical properties in response to external stimuli and that can dynamically tune the plasmonic properties. We also explore an emerging research field combining molecular plasmonics and molecular electronics.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors for Quantitative Spatial Imaging of Chemical Species
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Tatsuo Yoshinobu, Ko-ichiro Miyamoto, Carl Frederik Werner, Arshak Poghossian, Torsten Wagner, Michael J. Schöning

    A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a semiconductor-based chemical sensor, in which a measurement site on the sensing surface is defined by illumination. This light addressability can be applied to visualize the spatial distribution of pH or the concentration of a specific chemical species, with potential applications in the fields of chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. In this review, the features of this chemical imaging sensor technology are compared with those of other technologies. Instrumentation, principles of operation, and various measurement modes of chemical imaging sensor systems are described. The review discusses and summarizes state-of-the-art technologies, especially with regard to the spatial resolution and measurement speed; for example, a high spatial resolution in a submicron range and a readout speed in the range of several tens of thousands of pixels per second have been achieved with the LAPS. The possibility of combining this technology with microfluidic devices and other potential future developments are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Analyzing the Heterogeneous Hierarchy of Cultural Heritage Materials: Analytical Imaging
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Karen Trentelman

    Objects of cultural heritage significance are created using a wide variety of materials, or mixtures of materials, and often exhibit heterogeneity on multiple length scales. The effective study of these complex constructions thus requires the use of a suite of complementary analytical technologies. Moreover, because of the importance and irreplaceability of most cultural heritage objects, researchers favor analytical techniques that can be employed noninvasively, i.e., without having to remove any material for analysis. As such, analytical imaging has emerged as an important approach for the study of cultural heritage. Imaging technologies commonly employed, from the macroscale through the micro- to nanoscale, are discussed with respect to how the information obtained helps us understand artists’ materials and methods, the cultures in which the objects were created, how the objects may have changed over time, and importantly, how we may develop strategies for their preservation.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Raman Imaging in Cell Membranes, Lipid-Rich Organelles, and Lipid Bilayers
    Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 8.721) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Aleem Syed, Emily A. Smith

    Raman-based optical imaging is a promising analytical tool for noninvasive, label-free chemical imaging of lipid bilayers and cellular membranes. Imaging using spontaneous Raman scattering suffers from a low intensity that hinders its use in some cellular applications. However, developments in coherent Raman imaging, surface-enhanced Raman imaging, and tip-enhanced Raman imaging have enabled video-rate imaging, excellent detection limits, and nanometer spatial resolution, respectively. After a brief introduction to these commonly used Raman imaging techniques for cell membrane studies, this review discusses selected applications of these modalities for chemical imaging of membrane proteins and lipids. Finally, recent developments in chemical tags for Raman imaging and their applications in the analysis of selected cell membrane components are summarized. Ongoing developments toward improving the temporal and spatial resolution of Raman imaging and small-molecule tags with strong Raman scattering cross sections continue to expand the utility of Raman imaging for diverse cell membrane studies.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
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