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  • Organic Analysis of Environmental Samples Using Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array and Fluorescence Detectors: An Overview
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-03-29
    Susana Garcia-Alonso; Rosa María Perez-Pastor

    This overview is focused to provide an useful guide of the families of organic pollutants that can be determined by liquid chromatography operating in reverse phase and ultraviolet/fluorescence detection. Eight families have been classified as the main groups to be considered: carbonyls, carboxyls, aromatics, phenols, phthalates, isocyanates, pesticides and emerging. The references have been selected based on analytical methods used in the environmental field, including both the well-established procedures and those more recently developed.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Review on Characteristics and Analytical Methods of Tazarotene: An Update
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-04-03
    Juilee Gaikwad; Sanjay Sharma; Ketan V. Hatware

    Tazarotene (TZR) is the first topical receptor-selective retinoid prodrug derived from vitamin A used for management of plaque psoriasis and efficacious in dealing of acne vulgaris, and photo aging. As per US food and drug administration (FDA), 0.1% strength of TZR is permitted for the treatment of acne. This article draws attention to various advanced and conventional analytical methods. The hyphenated and conventional chromatographic techniques such as LC–MS/MS and HPTLC, HPLC respectively. Moreover, spectrophotometric methods like UV/visible spectroscopy also used to quantify TZR as active pharmaceutical ingredient and its formulations, especially in topical preparations. Moreover, the TZR is required alternative methods for routine quality control and to estimate TZR in pharmaceutical dosage form especially in pharmacokinetic studies of topical preparation. This write up focus on critical review of characteristics, uses and the information about the physicochemical, pharmacokinetics properties, mechanisms of action and more emphasis on different analytical methods for estimation of TZR in pharmaceutical formulations.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Application of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler for Isolation of Environmental Micropollutants – A Review
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Klaudia Godlewska; Piotr Stepnowski; Monika Paszkiewicz

    Aquatic passive samplers have been extensively tested and deployed in the field over the past two decades. Among these devices is relatively recently developed the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) for isolation of hydrophilic organic micropollutants in aquatic environment. The use of POCIS allows the measurement of low and fluctuating trace concentrations of such micropollutants, which is often troublesome using classical sampling. In this review, POCIS applications based on numerous articles to assess the suitability of these devices for use in environmental analytics information were summarized. Additionally, the possibilities of using POCIS for the isolation of complex chemical mixtures in order to highlight the high potential of this devices were presented. The types of sorbents used in POCIS, exposure duration and sampling media are juxtapose in this review. Based on the existing literature, attention was paid to both promising opportunities but also to limitations of passive methods.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Current Standing and Technical Guidance on Intracellular Drug Quantification: A New Site Specific Bioavailability Prediction Approach
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-15
    Tarang Jadav; Sonali Jain; Kiran Kalia; Pinaki Sengupta

    Determination of intracellular concentration becomes essential for the drugs having target receptors or bioactivation site inside the cells. Majority of the antiviral drugs are nucleoside analogs and their intracellular phosphorylated metabolites are active. The anticancer drugs of the cellular enzyme and nucleoside analog category are also required to be undergone intracellular drug level analysis. In this review, we have sequentially described the cell isolation protocols, cell lysis techniques and sample preparation approach to be followed for quantification of intracellular levels of selected antiviral and anticancer drugs. Major limitations for intracellular analyte quantification and their possible way out has been discussed. Currently, no literature is available summarizing these important aspects including bioanalysis of intracellular quantification of either antiviral or anticancer drugs. This review, thus, can be considered to be first of its kind and will be highly useful in providing guidance for intracellular drug analysis aiming determination of the site-specific bioavailability.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Characteristics, Biological Properties and Analytical Methods of Piperine: A Review
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-27
    Christian Rafael Quijia; Marlus Chorilli

    Piperine (PIP) is a natural alkaloid isolated from Piper longum L. that presents antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, larvicidal, antiparasitic, anticancer effect and other pharmacological properties. However, the low aqueous solubility is the main barrier to its development from the laboratory to the clinic as a drug. Several strategies have been used to overcome this obstacle, like the incorporation of PIP into different drug delivery systems turned out to be highly efficient. In addition, several methods for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of PIP in various raw materials, including biological fluids (plasma, urine, metabolites, brain), plants and drug delivery systems, were investigated. Most recently high-performance liquid chromatography was used together with several detectors for this purpose. Therefore, this review presents a summary of characteristics chemical and biological properties of PIP as well as several techniques and analytical methods to optimize the analytical signal, increase sensitivity, selectivity and reduce the effects of interference for this drug.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Study on the Methods of Separation and Detection of Chelates
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Liyong Bai; Wenxuan Sun; Mingli Huang; Lingyu Li; Cunzhen Geng; Kezhong Liu; Dongyun Yan

    The separation and purification techniques of chelates can improve the accuracy of detecting results of the chelation rate. As a quantitative indicator of metal ion chelates, the chelation rate can not only reflect the completion of chelation but also determine the amount of metal ions in different forms. The determination of chelation rate can help to determine the suitable chelating reaction conditions, make theoretical basis for the fertilizer efficiency, analyze the stability of chelating fertilizers and study the action mechanism of trace elements. In our study, the methods of separation free metal ions from mixture were reviewed first, including gel filtration chromatography, organic solvent precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, membrane separation and high performance liquid chromatography. Then, the qualitative analysis methods of chelates were introduced briefly, including chemical identification, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy. A detailed overview of the quantitative determination methods of chelates were also shown, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration, chemical titration, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, spectrophotometric, chemical modified electrode. In addition, the merits and demerits of chelated rate determination methods of various determination methods were analyzed, and summarized the applicability of various methods, which provided a theoretical basis for optimizing chelating process, characterizing the structure of chelates and analyzing the mechanism of chelating fertilizer. The current methods of measuring chelation rate were also summarized and prospected.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Overview of Analytical Techniques Associated with Pattern Recognition Methods in Sugarcane Spirits Samples
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-04-04
    Sheila Oliveira, David Douglas de Sousa Fernandes, Germano Véras

    Sugarcane spirits and cachaça are distilled beverages derived from the fermentation of sugarcane juice. The production of these spirits has significant influence on the economy of several regions in Brazil, being the third most consumed distilled beverage in the world. To ensure the safety for human consumption and also to add value to these products, it is imperative to apply quality control techniques. The complexity of food matrices along with the fact that the currently used instrumental techniques have several disadvantages, such as being expensive, laborious and time-consuming, have turned research attention to multivariate analysis techniques. In consequence, chemometric techniques have been applied in laboratories around the world aiming at data reduction, pattern recognition, cluster analysis, classification and quantification of data. This article provides an overview of the application of analytical techniques with nonsupervised and supervised pattern recognition methods for the analysis of sugarcane spirits samples. Assessments discussed include promising results for the discrimination among samples, verification of adulteration, tendencies in sensorial characteristics as well as relationships between chemical information and the geographical origins.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Electrochemical Sensors Containing Schiff Bases and their Transition Metal Complexes to Detect Analytes of Forensic, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Interest. A Review
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-15
    Érica Naomi Oiye, Maria Fernanda Muzetti Ribeiro, Juliana Midori Toia Katayama, Maraine Catarina Tadini, Marco Antonio Balbino, Izabel Cristina Eleotério, Juliana Magalhães, Alex Soares Castro, Ricardo Soares Mota Silva, José Wilmo da Cruz Júnior, Edward Ralph Dockal, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira

    Schiff bases and their transition metal complexes are inexpensive and easy to synthesize. These compounds display several structural and electronic features that allow their application in numerous research fields. Over the last three decades, electroanalytical scientists of various areas have developed electrochemical sensors from many compounds. The present review discusses the applicability of Schiff bases, their transition metal complexes and new materials containing these compounds as electrode modifiers in sensors to detect analytes of forensic, pharmaceutical and environmental interest. In forensic sciences, Schiff bases are mainly used to analyze illicit drugs: chemical reactions involving Schiff bases can help to elucidate illicit drug production and to determine analytes in seized samples. In the environmental area, given that most methodologies provide Limit of Detection (LOD) values below the values recommended by regulatory agencies, Schiff bases constitute a promising strategy. As for pharmaceutical applications, Schiff bases represent an approach for analysis of complex biological samples containing low levels of the target analytes in the presence of a large quantity of interfering compounds. This review will show that new highly specific materials can be synthesized based on Schiff bases and applied in the pharmaceutical industry, toxicological studies, electrocatalysis and biosensors. Most literature papers have reported on Schiff bases combined with carbon paste to give a chemically modified electrode that is easy and inexpensive to produce and which displays specific and selective sensing capacity for different applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Foodborne Bacterial Detection
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-16
    Shalini Muniandy, Swe Jyan Teh, Kwai Lin Thong, Aung Thiha, Ignatius Julian Dinshaw, Chin Wei Lai, Fatimah Ibrahim, Bey Fen Leo

    The development of easy to use, rapid and sensitive methods for direct detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens has become significantly important due to their impact on human health. In recent years, carbon nanomaterials have been adapted in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors due to their exceptional combination of intrinsic properties such as high conductivity, stability and biocompatibility that render them as a promising candidate for bio-sensing material. The scope of this review is to provide a brief history of the current methods and different types of electrochemical biosensors used for the detection of bacterial pathogens. We primarily focus on the recent progress and applications of graphene, carbon nanotubes and their derivatives in electrochemical biosensors for foodborne bacterial pathogens detection. Finally, the status and future prospects of carbon-based electrochemical biosensors are also reviewed and discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Innovative Seizure of Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Water Purification: A Critical Review of Potential Risks
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Muhammad Imran Din, Amna Ghulam Nabi, Zaib Hussain, Muhammad Arshad, Azeem Intisar, Ahsan Sharif, Ejaz Ahmed, Hafiz Arslan Mehmood, Muhammad Latif Mirza

    Water contamination is a worldwide critical issue for the present society to avoid competition and maintain an environmentally friendly scenario. Removal of various pollutants including inorganic and organic compounds from water is a big challenge nowadays. Worldwide attention to promote polluted water and technologies related to its treatment has been adversely increased. The utilization of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for this purpose has gained much attention due to its exceptional properties imparted by reduced size and effective surface area. Moreover, metal/metal oxide NPs-based innovation for improved expulsion productivity is an ingenious area for research and development but the use of such NPs presents some serious risks. Herein, the advanced requisition of NPs for polluted water treatment is highlighted along with the difficulties related to them and their toxic impacts when used as water purifiers. Additionally, the plausible fate of metal/metal oxide NPs incorporated in the water for purification and salient future challenges are deliberated.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Glucose Sensing by Fluorescent Nanomaterials
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Guilherme P. C. Mello, Eliana F. C. Simões, Diana M. A. Crista, João M. M. Leitão, Luís Pinto da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves da Silva

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and leading cause of death worldwide, affecting more than 420 million people. High blood glucose levels are a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes, which can cause serious health damage. Diabetic individuals must measure their blood glucose levels regularly in order to control glycemic levels and minimize the effects of the disease. Glucose sensors have been used in the management of diabetes for more than 50 years, when Clark and Ann Lyons developed the first glucose enzyme electrode in 1962. Electrochemical sensors have become the leading technology for glucose concentration measuring with most of the commercially available devices being based on amperometric detection. However, the detection of glucose in the blood is still an object of intense research. The development of new fluorescent nanomaterials begins to constitute an alternative for glucose blood quantification. These sensors include carbon dots, quantum dots, graphene quantum dots, gold, silver and upconversion nanoparticles. This paper reviews the last 10 year fluorescent nanoparticles based technologies proposed for glucose monitoring and provide an insight into emerging optical fluorescence glucose biosensors.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Chiral Recognition Methods in Analytical Chemistry: Role of the Chiral Ionic Liquids
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-05-05
    Avtar Singh, Nirmaljeet Kaur, Harish Kumar Chopra

    The increasing demand of the chiral compounds in drug and food industries has stimulated the considerable attention towards the chiral recognition and separation methods. For this, a number of chiral selectors have been employed for the recognition of enantiomers. In this context, chiral ionic liquids (CILs) have appeared as cheap and lucrative chiral selectors. The present report enlightens the role of CILs in chiral recognition of the enantiomers using various analytical techniques such as NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Due to plethora of reports published in this direction, we have tried to limit our discussion about the literature published in the last decade only.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Recent Advances in Microwave Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Complex Herbal Samples: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Shashikant B Bagade,Mayur Patil

    Microwaves are utilized for extraction of Phytoconstituents from complex herbal sample as a result of incredible research. Conventional extraction strategies are tedious and need more solvents and are no more relevant for thermal sensitive plant components. This review emphasize on the working and significance of microwave extraction technology in herbal research and medical field. The extraction step must be more yielding; quick, particular, not more solvent consuming, ensuring stability of thermolabile components and these features are available with microwave extraction method. In this nonconventional technology heat is created utilizing microwave energy. The important parameters that influence extraction efficiency are solvent properties, volume, duration of exposure, microwave control, system attributes, temperature and application were discussed in this article. The microwave assisted extraction, as green technology is contrasted with other extraction technique. This review is intended to discuss this green extraction technique along with its critical parameters for extracting bioactive compounds from complex plant matrices.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Applications of Graphene and Its Derivatives in Chemical Analysis.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    H Grajek,J Jonik,Z Witkiewicz,T Wawer,M Purchała

    In this review, the applications of graphene and its derivatives in the chemical analysis have been described. The properties of graphene materials which are essential for their use in chemical and biochemical analysis are characterized. The materials are used in sensors and biosensors, in electrochemistry, in chromatography and in the sample preparation techniques. Chemical and electrochemical sensors containing graphene materials are useful devices for detecting some chemical and biochemical compounds. Chromatographic columns for HPLC with graphene containing stationary phases may be used for separation of polar and nonpolar components of some specific mixtures. Graphene materials could be successfully employed during sample preparation for analysis with SPE, magnetic SPE, and SPME techniques. HighlightsThe review of the applications of graphene (G) and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), in chemical and biochemical analysis is proposed.The electron donor-acceptor and proton donor-acceptor interactions for the graphene based materials - analytes systems and their impact on the analysis results are discussed, particularly:    i) in electrochemistry,ii) in chromatography,iii) in modern sample preparation techniquesiv) in sensors of different types.The essence of the thermal stability and the nomenclature of the graphene based materials in their different applications in chemical systems of different classes was discussed (and suggested).The benefits of using SPME fibers with immobilized graphene materials have been presented in detail.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Micro Solid Phase Extraction Using Novel Adsorbents.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Samin Hamidi,Arezou Taghvimi,Negin Mazouchi

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are classified as metal clusters with high surface area, commutable structure and pore size, chemical and thermal stability with wide applications in different scientific subjects. Designing of novel adsorbents for sample preparation methods attends high attention towards MOFs and they are good candidates for this purpose. In the present review, recently applied MOF-based materials as micro solid phase extraction technique adsorbents for extraction of environmental, food, and biological samples are comprehensively overviewed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Potentiometric Sensors for the Determination of Anionic Surfactants - A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Marija Jozanović,Nikola Sakač,Maja Karnaš,Martina Medvidović-Kosanović

    Anionic surfactants are important components of many products used in everyday life in all households. They are also applied in various industrial fields at a very large scale. Since they have a negative influence on the environment, it is an imperative to monitor their concentration in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new methods for the determination of a wide spectra of anionic surfactants in complex environmental samples in a short time. A comprehensive review of potentiometric sensors for the determination of anionic surfactants in the last 50 years is given with special concern to papers published since 2000, but noting some earlier published important papers. The latest development in use of new ionophores, polymer formulations, and nanomaterials is presented. Additionally, the application of new potentiometric sensors in batch mode or in miniaturized microfluidic methods is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The toxicological effects of lead and its analytical trends: an update from 2000 to 2018.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Eswar Sairam Ravipati,Nikhil Nitin Mahajan,Sanjay Sharma,Ketan V Hatware,Kiran Patil

    In every developed and developing country, the major facing problem is heavy metals toxicity. Due to there is an increase in the heavy metals anthropogenic in day to day life by various factors, which are causing serious issues or harmful health hazardous for all types of living organisms. Moreover, they are present everywhere in the universe it causes the contamination of the food, dietary, and processed materials. Accordingly, the present review article further summarizes the studies related to the determination of lead as a toxic impurity with a total of 134 references in the period 2000 to 2018. In this write-up, emphasize the one of the highly toxic heavy metal element Lead (Pb) and it's toxicity in the animals, humans, plants, and aquatic systems. In addition, the purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of established analytical techniques and trends in analytical methods like AAS; ICP-OES; ICP-MS; ASV; X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, these techniques significantly applicable for the quantitative analysis of Pb in various sources. The various regulatory authorities for Pb throughout the globe like IOSH, EPA, EMA, and CDCSO. This reveals the need and scope of further research in the field of heavy metal toxicity and development of new analytical techniques in meeting the needs of the life scientists. The present comprehensive review is an attempt to transform the state of knowledge into the findings that may act as a guideline for all the interested groups at different levels.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Progress in Pretreatment and Analysis of Cephalosporins: An Update Since 2005.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Xiao-Yi Duan,Yuan Zhang,Jia-Qing Yan,Yu Zhou,Guo-Hui Li,Xue-Song Feng

    Cephalosporins, one of the classic β-lactam antibiotics, has been widely concerned by global population as the most commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic. Serious health hazards are possible to be posed by quality control problems caused by its unstable structure, as well as food and environmental pollution introduced by improper use. Given the reasons above, the sensitive and valid methods for monitor and determination of cephalosporins in different matrices are urgently required. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the current status of the pretreatment and analysis methods of cephalosporins in bulk drug, pharmaceutics, animal-derived foodstuffs including eggs, milk, meat, environment samples, and biological samples. Pretreatment methods including simple steps (protein precipitation, centrifugation, filtration), liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, QuECHERS, and detection methods covering LC, LC-MS/MS, voltammetric sensor, capillary electrophoresis spectroscopy, biological methods from January 2005 to October 2018 are updated, elaborated and compared here. Moreover, advanced materials and prospects for development are discussed. Highlights Determination of cephalosporins in different newly found matrix are represented. Comparisons between different mass analyzers and progress in HRMS methods are in detailed. Optimization of experimental conditions are discussed. Newly emerged eco-friendly methods are introduced.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In situ Analysis of Cancer Cells Based on DNA Signal Amplification and DNA Nanodevices.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Xiaohao Liu,Sinuo Yu,Chang Feng,Dongsheng Mao,Jinlong Li,Xiaoli Zhu

    Cancer is a global disease which has been disturbing researchers in medicine and seriously threatens patients' health and lifetime around the world in the past several decades. Due to the characteristics of cancer cells, such as uncontrollable cell proliferation, cell invasion and metastasis to surrounding tissues, lower grade of differentiation, higher telomerase activity and others, it has been one of the most usual lethal factors, next to heart disease in incidence. Cancer mortality can be decreased by early diagnosis, and the people who with treatment at an early stage have an obvious improved survival rate. Consequently, early detection is significant for better understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and improving the prognosis of patients. In situ detection technique is a vital tool for imaging and cellular pathology research, which can provide effective information about tumor markers in the early cancer detection. In view of low expression of most tumor markers in the early stage of cancers, detection techniques based on DNA signal amplification and DNA nanodevices can provide a strong support for the diagnosis and detection of cancers. In this review, we summarize the research progress of different analytical techniques for detecting various tumor markers that have been reported in recent years. We compare different DNA amplification and nanodevices, then provide guidance and suggestions for better understanding in situ analysis of cancer cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Applications for Passive Sampling of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Water-A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Adam C Taylor,Gary R Fones,Branislav Vrana,Graham A Mills

    We comprehensively review the current state-of-the-art of environmental monitoring for hydrophobic organic contaminants in aqueous matrices using passive sampling devices. Principles of the theory of passive sampling are presented. Strategies for passive sampler design and operation, limitations in performance and data quality-assurance and quality-control are reviewed. Advances in applications of available passive sampling devices are extensively critiqued. Future trends and current challenges facing practitioners and barriers to further adoption of the devices are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Enantiomeric Determination of Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Samples by Electrokinetic Chromatography.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Natalia Casado,Jesús Valimaña-Traverso,María Ángeles García,María Luisa Marina

    Chirality is a relevant issue in the pharmaceutical field due to the different biological activity that enantiomers of a chiral drug can show. In fact, the desired biological or pharmaceutical activity might be present in only one of the enantiomers, while the other enantiomer(s) may have different biological activity, be inactive or even toxic. This has motivated in recent years the development of drugs marketed as pure enantiomers to avoid exposing the organism to the action of enantiomers that may not be active or even harmful to health. Thus, it is of high interest to develop enantioselective analytical methodologies to control the presence of enantiomeric impurities and to understand the enantioselective metabolism of chiral drugs. This review gives an overview about the analytical strategies developed by electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) from 2010 to June 2019 for the enantiomeric determination of drugs in both pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. The types of chiral selectors used, the migration order of enantiomers, their resolution, the detection technique employed and the sensitivity achieved are revised and compared. Also, applications to assess the enantiomeric purity control of pharmaceutical formulations and to determine chiral drugs in biological samples to study their metabolism are included. Advantages and limitations of the chiral methods developed by EKC are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Combination of Efficiency with Easiness, Speed, and Cheapness in Development of Sensitive Electrochemical Sensors.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Masoumeh Ghalkhani,Nurgul K Bakirhan,Sibel A Ozkan

    Nowadays, electrochemical techniques can be considered as a suitable alternative technique besides UV/Vis spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectroscopy, NMR for evaluation and determination of different electroactive compounds. Solid electrodes such as carbon and metal-based substrates are common for electrochemical applications. Especially, during two past decades, different types of modified electrodes with these solid electrodes have been developed for fast, sensitive, and selective analysis of various important analyses (biomolecules, enzymes, and drugs) in a wide range of real samples. These applications are highly efficient, cost effective and facile fabrication procedures of the electrode modification can be employed. In the present review, at first, some recently developed high performance bare and modified electrodes are evaluated based on their outstanding properties. In the next step, developed new procedures or fabricated modified electrodes with good sensitivity based on simple and cheap protocols are introduced and discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hybrid Microgels for Catalytic and Photocatalytic Removal of Nitroarenes and Organic Dyes From Aqueous Medium: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Muhammad Shahid,Zahoor H Farooqi,Robina Begum,Muhammad Arif,Weitai Wu,Ahmad Irfan

    Polymer microgels loaded with inorganic nanoparticles have gained much attention as catalytic systems for reduction of toxic chemicals. Enhanced catalytic properties of hybrid microgels are related to the stimuli responsive nature of microgels and extraordinary stability of nanoparticles within network of polymer microgels. Catalytic properties of hybrid microgels can be tuned very easily by slight variation in environmental conditions. Herein we have reviewed catalytic reduction of toxic chemicals such as nitroarenes and organic dyes in the presence of appropriate hybrid microgel catalytic systems under different operating conditions of reaction. Recent advancements in catalytic behavior of hybrid microgels with special emphasis on their ability to catalytically degrade various toxic chemicals has been presented in this review.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analytics and Application of Biologically Active Pentacoordinate Electrostatically Stabilized Silanates.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Mariusz Kluska,Joanna Jabłońska,Nikolai Erchak

    The objective of this study was to synthesize information on the analytics, using two separation techniques, and the application of electrostatically stabilized silanate derivatives. They are biologically active, water-soluble, hydrolytically stable and biodegradable. Some of these compounds are used as plant growth regulators, while others, with higher molecular mass and lower electrophoretic mobility, are used in the form of terminating electrolytes in isotachophoresis, which is regarded as one of the green chemistry techniques. Two compounds were successfully used in the form of terminating electrolyte solutions, i.e. 4,4'-bis{1-(perhydroazepiniomethyl)[spirobi(1-sila-2,5-dioxacyclopentane-3-on)]at}, and 4,4'-bis{1-[(N,N-dimethyl)aminiomethyl]spirobi(1-sila-2,5-dioxacyclopentane-3-on)at} to isolate organic ionic substances with high molecular mass, e.g. derivatives of quinoline, stilbene and electrostatically stabilized silanates (ES-silanates). Establishing the best conditions for the analysis of these derivatives extends the possibilities of conducting research on their biological activity and miscellaneous applications. Furthermore, the terminating electrolytes used in the form of solutions of electrostatically stabilized silanates allow the analysis of both cationic and anionic forms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An Optimistic Vision of Future: Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections by Sensing Their Associated Volatile Organic Compounds.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Ileana-Andreea Ratiu,Victor Bocos-Bintintan,Fernanda Monedeiro,Maciej Milanowski,Tomasz Ligor,Bogusław Buszewski

    Simple tests using sniff analysis that have the ability of diagnosing and rapidly distinguishing between infections due to different bacteria are urgently required by medical community worldwide. Professionals interested in this topic wish for these tests to be simultaneously cheap, fast, easily applicable, non-invasive, robust, reliable, and sensitive. Current analytical instrumentation has already the ability for performing real time (minutes or a few dozens of minutes) analysis of volatile bacterial biomarkers (the VOCs emitted by bacteria). Although many articles are available, a review displaying an objective evaluation of the current status in the field is still needed. This review tries to present an overview regarding the bacterial biomarkers released from in vitro cultivation of various bacterial strains and also from different biological matrices investigated, over the last 10 years. We have described results of relevant studies, which used modern analytical techniques to evaluate specific biomarker profiles associated with bacterial infections. Our purpose was to present a comprehensive view of available possibilities for detection of emitted bacterial VOCs from different matrices. We intend that this review to be of general interest for both medical doctors and for all researchers preoccupied with bacterial infectious diseases and their rapid diagnosis using analytical instrumentation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biogenic Amines Formation Mechanism and Determination Strategies: Future Challenges and Limitations.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Waqas Ahmad,G I Mohammed,D A Al-Eryani,Z M Saigl,A O Alyoubi,H Alwael,A S Bashammakh,C K O'Sullivan,M S El-Shahawi

    The evolution in foodstuff-monitoring processes has increased the number of studies on biogenic amines (BAs), in recent years. This trend with future perspective needs to be assembled to address the associated health risks. Thus, this study aims to cover three main aspects of BAs: (i) occurrence, physiology, and toxicological effects, most probable formation mechanisms and factors controlling their growth; (ii) recent advances, strategies for determination, preconcentration steps, model technique, and nature of the matrix; and (iii) milestone, limitations with existing methodologies, future trends, and detailed expected developments for clinical use and on-site ultra-trace determination. The core of the ongoing review will discuss recent trends in pre-concentration toward miniaturization, automation, and possible coupling with electrochemical techniques, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, spectrofluorimetry, and lateral flow protocols to be exploited for the development of rapid, facile, and sensitive on-site determination strategies for BAs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Advances in the Determination of Nonprotein Amino Acids in Foods and Biological Samples by Capillary Electrophoresis.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Raquel Pérez-Míguez,Sandra Salido-Fortuna,María Castro-Puyana,María Luisa Marina

    There are hundreds of nonprotein amino acids whose importance in food and biological matrices is still unknown. Many of these compounds can be found in food as products formed during the processing, as metabolic intermediates or because they are added to increase functional and nutritional properties of food. Moreover, this kind of amino acids have also demonstrated to play relevant roles in the pharmaceutical and clinical fields since they may be used therapeutically in the treatment of some pathologies and their levels may be related with some diseases. These facts imply that the analysis of nonprotein amino acids can be useful to obtain relevant information in the food and biological fields. This article reviews the most recent advances in the development of analytical methodologies employing capillary electrophoresis for the achiral and chiral analysis of nonprotein amino acids in food and biological samples. With this aim, the most relevant information concerning the separation and detection of these compounds by capillary electrophoresis is discussed and detailed experimental conditions under which their determination was achieved in food and biological samples are given covering the period of time from 2015 to 2018.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Host-Guest Recognition of Pesticides by Calixarenes.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-02-13
    Edilma Sanabria Español,Mauricio Maldonado

    This article is based on a review of the literature and our own experience with toxicological molecules. We explain the nature of calix[n]arenes and as their recognized properties are used to detect compounds of toxicological interest, mainly the most important pesticide families such as organophosphorated, organochlorine compounds, pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate fungicides, and herbicides, using different techniques. In addition, we show the role of the macrocycle and its interactions, and the advantage of using this type of compound for improving conventional techniques, where the phenomenon of recognition is very important, such as chromatography, solid-phased extraction, and the development of specific sensors, among others and Even we also show the use of this macrocycle for detoxication procedures in vivo. In this way, we display as the multiple possibilities of functionalization of the calix[n]arenes makes these versatile molecules in the phenomena of specific recognition. Finally, This review highlights the main analytical methods reported in the literature for determination of plaguicides by host-guest interaction with calixarenes. In this way, among the available analytical tools, chromatographic, and electrochemical-based methods are the most used techniques for the detection and to quantify plaguicides using calixarenes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analytical Methods for Stability Assessment of Nitrate Esters-Based Propellants.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-24
    Djalal Trache,Ahmed Fouzi Tarchoun

    Nitrate esters-based propellant (NEBP) belongs to the main classes of energetic materials being used in civilian and military applications. These NEBPs are not highly stable, and during aging, some of their functional characteristics may change, what can lead to serious safety problems. A thorough analytical characterization of NEBP is of fundamental importance to provide an adequate support for their stability and safe life assessment. Moreover, in order to safely store and fully exploit these energetic materials, accurate analytical techniques and strategies are indispensable to efficiently judge their properties during aging. Although various methodologies have been developed worldwide to evaluate the aging behavior of NEBP, the characterization is not a simple task and often involves the combination of several techniques, whose results have to be evaluated together. This review sought to evaluate existing analytical techniques which can be utilized for a suitable analysis of NEBP stability and aging, evidencing their respective advantages and shortcomings. The employment of each examined technique is described and discussed by relevant examples from the literature.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New Applications and Analysis of (E)-Azastilbenes in Environmental Samples.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Mariusz Kluska,Ewa Krajewska,Joanna Jabłońska,Wiesław Prukała

    The paper collates and summarizes information on stilbene derivatives, i.e. (E)-azastilbenes, taking into account the new possibilities of their applications, inter alia, in the natural environment. (E)-azastilbenes are biologically active, which is of great importance to humans and the whole ecosystem. As evidenced by a number of studies, they show fungistatic, fungitoxic and, depending on the concentration, estrogenic properties. Due to their properties, (E)-azastilbenes are still of great interest to researchers, who have high hopes for their pharmacological use or the possibility of using them as antiseptics, disinfectants, or preservatives in various products, including the environmental ones. Because of the difficulties with their determination, the study assumes optimal conditions of (E)-azastilbenes extraction from environmental samples and the technique of isotachophoresis is employed for the first time in this type of analysis. The highest recovery values ranging from 83 to 97% were obtained on the aryl extraction columns. The range of linearity of the developed method on the naphthylpropyl column ranged from 5 to 300 µg/mL.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Electroanalytical Approaches for Determination of Prostate Cancer Drugs in Biological Samples and Dosage Forms.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Cafer Saka

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignant type of cancer in men and fifth among fatal types of cancer. Because drugs used in prostate cancer, such as in many other drugs, are also present in low concentrations in body fluids, it is important to develop highly sensitive and sensitive methods that allow the correct amount of prostate cancer drugs to be determined at low concentrations in biological specimens. Electrochemical approaches for the quantitation of prostate cancer drugs have several advantages over other common techniques, including sensitive, selective, fast, broad linear concentration range. Over the years, various modified working electrodes such as graphite, glassy carbon, carbon paste electrode, carbon composites, and nanotubes have been developed and used in various forms for electroanalytical determinations of prostate cancer drugs. One of the important developments in the electroanalytical chemistry is the surface modification of electrodes. The various sensing strategies for the electrochemical detection techniques such as voltammetry, polarography, amperometry, potentiometry have been used for prostate cancer drugs. This review focuses on studies published over the past years on sensitive and selective detection of prostate cancer drugs in biological fluids and dosage forms using electrochemical methods.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recent Applications of Carbonaceous Nanosorbents in Solid Phase Extraction for the Determination of Pesticides in Food Samples.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Ingars Reinholds,Martins Jansons,Iveta Pugajeva,Vadims Bartkevics

    This article covers recent trends of carbonaceous nanomaterial supported solid phase extraction for the liquid and gas chromatography analysis of pesticides in food samples. Several advanced carbonaceous nanosorbents have been reported over the previous decade for pesticide extraction, such as graphene derivatives modified by combination with silica, amines, polymers, and/or magnetic nanoparticles. The advances in this field have opened possibilities for using neat or modified carbon nanotubes or graphene-type sorbents for the pre-concentration of polar or nonpolar pesticides by solid phase extraction (SPE) or micro-SPE methods or to apply such nanomaterials for the removal of matrix components by dispersive SPE during sample clean-up. The applications of such nanosorbents should increase in the next few years, considering the expected improvements of their properties, including time and resource economy, selectivity, and reusability.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recent Advances and Applications of Magnetic Metal-Organic Frameworks in Adsorption and Enrichment Removal of Food and Environmental Pollutants.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Yuhang Gao,Guangyang Liu,Mingkun Gao,Xiaodong Huang,Donghui Xu

    Developing a rapid sample pretreatment method with high enrichment capability and selectivity is important for developing novel analytical techniques in food and environmental safety monitoring. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are multifunctional three-dimensional materials that can be self-assembly prepared from organic ligands and inorganic metal ions or a metal cluster. MOFs have high specific surface areas, good adsorption performance, tunable porosity, and modifiable structures that can be deliberately modulated. They have been widely applied in photoelectrocatalysis, adsorption/separation, drug delivery, sensor detection, and more, because of their superparamagnetism, rapid adsorption/separation, and reusability. As effective adsorbents, magnetic MOFs (MMOFs) have attracted enomous attentions in analytical chemistry and have been used in sample collection and pre-enrichment, solid-phase extraction, and solid-phase microextraction in recent years. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the preparation of MMOFs, understanding of their structural characteristics and adsorption mechanisms, and their applications in food quality/safety and pretreatment. Future prospects in research and development are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Application of Authentication Evaluation Techniques of Ethnobotanical Medicinal Plant Genus Paris: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Yifei Pei,Qingzhi Zhang,Yuanzhong Wang

    Genus Paris mainly distributed in Asia and served as traditional ethnobotanical medicine in China, India, and Nepal. The main aim of this study was to review ethnic minorities medicinal records for Paris in China, the Chinese patent medicines based on Paris materials and the authentication and quality evaluation of Paris based on two parts of analytical technologies and data analysis. This article reviews approximately 100 articles from 1980 to 2019 published on the research of genus Paris materials and their Chinese patent medicines. Additionally, local books were also searched. Five major kinds of chemical techniques have been applied to authentication and quality assessment of Paris and among them, chromatography was the most widely used one, and DNA barcoding technique was the most worth further study. Additionally, more than 70% of the research studies were analyzed by unsupervised pattern-recognition techniques combined with analytical technologies such as spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the data fusion strategy with higher classification ability combined multiple supervised pattern-recognition techniques have been gradually applied to authentication assessment. The optimal analytical technologies and methods applied to Paris qualities for authentication and quality evaluation are greatly important, which could promote the development and utilization for ethnomedicines of Paris.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Characteristics, Biological Properties and Analytical Methods of Trans-Resveratrol: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Bruno Vincenzo Fiod Riccio,Bruno Fonseca-Santos,Priscileila Colerato Ferrari,Marlus Chorilli

    Trans-resveratrol (TR) is the biological active isomer of resveratrol and the one responsible for therapeutic effects; both molecules are non-flavonoid phenolics of the stilbenes class found mainly in berries and red grapes. TR biological properties lie in modulation of various enzymatic classes. It is a promising candidate to novel drugs due its applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, such as anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antiacne, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and photoprotector agent. It has effects on bone metabolism, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, kidneys, and in obesity treatment as well. Nevertheless, its low solubility in water and other polar solvents may be a hindrance to its therapeutic effects. Various strategies been developed to overcome these issues, such as the drug delivery systems. The present study performed a research about methods to identify TR and RESV in several samples (raw materials, wines, food supplements, drug delivery systems, and blood plasma). Most of the studies tend to analyze TR and RESV by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors, even so, there are reports of the use of capillary electrophoresis, electron spin resonance, gas chromatography, near-infrared luminescence, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and vibrational spectrophotometry, for this purpose. Thus, the review evaluates the biological activity of TR and demonstrates the currently used analytical methods for its quantification in different matrices.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Research Progress on Metal-Organic Framework Composites in Chemical Sensors.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Peihong Tong,Junyu Liang,Xinxin Jiang,Jianping Li

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) is a new generation of crystalline porous materials that are characterized by simple synthesis conditions, diverse structure, and modified pore surface. MOFs suffer from low mechanical strength and poor chemical stability, limiting their development and application. The construction of MOF composites can effectively compensate for these defects while introducing new properties and functions. Compared with single materials, MOF composites exhibit greater specific surface area and porosity, stability, and catalytic performance and other functions. This review summarizes the synthesis methods and different types of MOF composites. Recent developments on the function and application of MOF composites in chemical sensors are presented. Finally, the prospects for the future development of MOF composite-based sensors are emphasized in many cases.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Silica Nanochannel Membranes for Electrochemical Analysis and Molecular Sieving: A Comprehensive Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Ping Zhou,Lina Yao,Kexin Chen,Bin Su

    Silica nanochannel membranes, particularly those consisting of highly ordered and vertically aligned channels (designated as SNM for simplicity in this review), have recently emerged as a class of attractive nanomaterials, because of their controllable and tunable pore structure, large surface area, high selectivity, and permeability, as well as diverse promising applications. This review describes recent developments in the field of SNM and their applications in electrochemical analysis and molecular separation. We summarize and highlight (i) the synthesis and functionalization strategies; (ii) the basic properties with emphasis on the selectivity and permeability, and factors affecting them; (iii) electrochemical analysis based on the electrode-supported SNM in terms of electrostatic, hydrophobic extraction, size-exclusion, and anti-fouling effects; (iv) molecular separation using the flow-through SNM according to molecular properties (size, charge, and lipophilicity) and gated, rectified molecular transport. Finally, we present an outlook and perspective on the further applications of SNM in the relevant fields.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Current Innovations of Metal Hexacyanoferrates-Based Nanocomposites toward Electrochemical Sensing: Materials Selection and Synthesis Methods.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Pui Kee Lee,Pei Meng Woi

    Mixed valence transition metal hexacyanoferrates (MeHCF)-Prussian blue and its analogs receive enormous research interest in the electrochemical sensing field. In recent years, conducting materials such as conducting polymer, carbon nanomaterial, and noble metals have been used to form nanocomposites with MeHCF. The scope of this review offers the reasons behind the preparation of various MeHCF based nanocomposite toward electrochemical detection. We primarily focus on the current progress of the development of MEHCF-based nanocomposites. The synthesis methods for these nanocomposites are also reviewed and discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecularly imprinted polymers as receptors for assays of antibiotics.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Nazia Tarannum,Olga D Hendrickson,Shahjadi Khatoon,Anatoly V Zherdev,Boris B Dzantiev

    The use of excessive antibiotics in medical treatment and animal breeding has led to their prevalence in the environment and foods. Thereby, rapid, cheap, and sustainable techniques are required to detect and control the potential risk related to antibiotics. Actually, immunoassays have wide applications for this purpose, and improved assay formats with enzymatic, fluorescent, nanodispersed, and other tracers have enhanced the efficiency of the technique. However, there are several shortcomings of immunoassay due to the protein nature of antibodies. Thereby, molecular imprinting technology has evolved as growing artificial analytical receptor for molecular recognition with binding properties similar to natural antibodies. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are defined as "plastibodies" or substitutes for antibodies in immunoassays. This review gives a general overview of the application of molecular imprinting to analytical systems, its state of art, and perspective. The application of MIP-based assays in the detection of antibiotics in food and environmental samples is explored herein.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nanocatalytic Assemblies for Catalytic Reduction of Nitrophenols: A Critical Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Muhammad Imran Din,Rida Khalid,Zaib Hussain,Tajamal Hussain,Adnan Mujahid,Jawayria Najeeb,Fatima Izhar

    Nitrophenol is common carcinogenic pollutant known for its adverse effects on human beings and aquatic life. During the last few decades, the chemical reduction of nitrophenol compounds has been widely reported as the advanced removal methodology for such hazardous dyes from aqueous reservoirs. Many researchers have utilized different nanocatalytic systems using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reducing agent for acquiring industrially useful reduction product of aminophenol by carrying out the chemical reduction of nitrophenols. Polymeric material supported monometallic nanoparticles are widely reported catalyst for the degradation of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). This review critically discusses the pros and cons of numerous supporting mediums of nanocatalytic assemblies used for the immobilization of nanomaterials. Mechanism and kinetic analysis of the reduction reaction of 2-NP and 4-NP have also been explained in this study. In addition, recent literature has also been effectively summarized in the tabular form for developing a better understanding of the reader. Pictorial representation of key nanocatalytic assemblies and catalytic reduction mechanism has also been narrated in this study.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recent Progress on Uric Acid Detection: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Qiangwei Wang,Xu Wen,Jinming Kong

    Uric acid (UA), scavenger of oxygen radical, is a very important antioxidant that help maintains the stability of blood pressure and antioxidant stress. However, an abnormal UA concentration may be connected with many diseases: a higher UA concentration, comings from improper lifestyle such as purine excessive intake and excessive drinking, may reveal hyperuricemia, gout and some cardiovascular diseases; meanwhile, some genetic diseases can result in a low level UA relatively for a long time. Therefore, to develop a rapid and accurate detection method of UA is urgent and important. Recently many detection methods have been developed to measure the level of UA in human serum and urine sample even saliva and nails and tears. This review outlines the importance of UA detection and the history of the development of UA detection methods. UA detection include spectral (ultraviolet absorption, fluorescence), electrochemical (voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, surface plasmon resonance), chromatography (liquid and gas phase), capillary electrophoresis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry, etc. Most of the above detection methods contain both enzymatic and nonenzymatic strategies. The materials used in mentioned methods above tend to be diversified, hence an overview of materials used in UA detection are also reported.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Corrigendum.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-05-31

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comprehensive Gas Chromatography: Food and Metabolomocs Applications.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Grzegorz Strączyński,Tomasz Ligor

    Since the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) technique is becoming more and more available for scientists as well as for laboratories performing routine analyses, the most successful field of applications are petrochemical, food and essential oil analysis. However, this technique coupled with TOF-MS (P.1, l. 27) could be even more successfully used in the field of metabolomics. The review presents briefly the concept of comprehensive 2D GC and the principles of the technique. Certain specific applications are discussed to show the usefulness of GC × GC combined with different detectors for determination of compounds not always easy to measure with other techniques.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Application of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Bisphenols Extraction from Food Samples - A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Anna Kubiak,Magdalena Biesaga

    Bisphenols are the most-known endocrine disrupting compounds. Due to the possible migration of these compounds from plastics used as food packaging, the food may become contaminated. During past years, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were excessively being used as sorbents for bisphenols preconcentration from food samples. This review intended to comprehensively discuss and evaluate the recent applications of MIPs in determination of bisphenols in food samples. The fundamentals of MIPs devoted to preconcentration of bisphenols are outlined. Recent studies were discussed in terms of food sample preparation, determination methods, MIP synthesis, and extraction procedure aspects. The significant aspects of applications of the molecular imprinting polymers in food chemistry are evaluated focusing majorly on literature appeared in the last years.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Advancements in the Analytical Quantification of Nitroxidative Stress Biomarker 3-Nitrotyrosine in Biological Matrices.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Maria Bandookwala,Disha Thakkar,Pinaki Sengupta

    Dysfunction of the antioxidant system or mutations in the gene may result in the elevated production of certain biomarkers. 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) is one such promising biomarker of oxidative stress formed due to nitration of protein bound and free tyrosine residues. It has a significant potential to be exploited for the early diagnosis of diseases. There are a plethora of studies in which 3-NT has been utilized from the pharmacological perspective. However, there is a lack of studies in which the absolute concentration of 3-NT has been reported. Recent breakthrough technologies and modified analytical techniques have been reported to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of 3-NT detection. In this review, we have summarized the modifications to current analytical strategies and advancements in different approaches for 3-NT analysis. For the first time, pre-fabricated biosensors available for 3-NT have been reviewed in this article. A complete discussion on other advanced approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electron-vibration-vibration two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy for 3-NT analysis has been made. We have summarized the widest array of conventional and modern analytical techniques reported till date including the recent advancement in the field for the quantification of 3-NT in various types of biological samples.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular Imprinting Prevents Environmental Contamination and Body Toxicity from Anticancer Drugs: An Update.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-03
    Shabi Abbas Zaidi

    Cancer has been responsible for high morbidity and mortality globally. The treatment of cancer is possible using different kinds of therapies using anticancer drugs if it is diagnosed at the right time. Nevertheless, their appropriate administration for maximum therapeutic effect and their elimination from the patient's body causing environmental problems are two big issues which could be successfully abated using molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) owing to their unique features. In this review, we have compiled and discussed the works on the determination and controlled release of anticancer drugs based on MIPs. We also highlighted the current challenges and remedies, and the future direction of MIPs in this area.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fabrications and Applications of ZnO Nanomaterials in Flexible Functional Devices-A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Ping Rong,Shuai Ren,Qi Yu

    The present review focuses on the preparations, properties, and applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials in flexible functional devices. An overview is given on several methods for the growth of ZnO nanomaterials, including sputtering, sol-gel method, atomic layer deposition, all-inkjet-printing approach, electrochemical deposition, hydrothermal method. The broad applications of ZnO nanomaterials in solar cell, supercapacitors, flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators, ultraviolet photodetectors, photodiodes, porous three-dimensional (3-D) ceramics, functional surface coating, and sensors are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modern Assay Techniques for Cancer Drugs: Electroanalytical and Liquid Chromatography Methods.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Sevinc Kurbanoglu,Nurgul K Bakirhan,Mehmet Gumustas,Sibel A Ozkan

    In the past decades, patients who have chemotherapy treatment have considerably increased number. At this point, the development of rapid precise, and reliable methods are very important to analyze cancer drugs from their dosage forms, animals or human biological samples. Among all the analytical methods, electrochemical methods hold an important position with their unique properties such as specificity in the biological recognition process, fast response, and their reliability and do not need a pretreatment process. Chromatographic methods are also used in a wide range of analytical applications for the analyses of anticancer drugs. The power of chromatography comes from its ability to separate a mixture of analytes and determination of their concentrations. Chromatographic techniques can mainly be divided into gas, liquid, and supercritical fluid chromatography. In the frame of this information, this review is aimed to provide basic principles of electroanalytical and high-performance liquid chromatography methods for the analysis of cancer drugs. In addition, some selected applications for electrochemistry-related techniques and high-performance liquid chromatography, for the determination of anti-cancer pharmaceuticals published in the last five years are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Human Ultraweak Photon Emission: Key Analytical Aspects, Results and Future Trends - A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-12-26
    M Calcerrada,C Garcia-Ruiz

    Living systems emit what is called ultraweak photon emission (UPE). This visually undetectable phenomenon has only been studied in humans for the last 30 years, finding that UPE is a complex process depending on multitude factors. Considering previous literature, this review discusses the current trends in the analysis of in vivo UPE from human beings. To this aim, Analytical Approaches Employed for UPE Measurement section focuses on the analytical techniques employed (photomultipliers and charged coupled device cameras), summarizing analytical conditions and reporting figures of merit reached to date. Then, Human UPE Depending on External Factors and Human UPE Depending on Internal Factors sections address external and internal factors, which have proved to affect UPE, pointing out the important influence on oxidative processes outside and inside the body, and also highlighting some personal states of the individuals affecting UPE. Last section is devoted to give a general view on the goals and achieved up to date regarding UPE measurement, emphasizing some potential applications as well as recommendations which include: use of UPE spectra information together with UPE intensity, larger populations (≈50-100 subjects), further studies on internal states of individuals, and use of statistical tools.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Methods and Current Trends in Determination of Neuraminidase Activity and Evaluation of Neuraminidase Inhibitors.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-12-26
    Zuzana Hľasová,Ivan Košík,Miroslav Ondrejovič,Stanislav Miertuš,Jaroslav Katrlík

    This review focuses on the methods and current trends in determination of neuraminidases (NAs) activity and evaluation of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) by means of biochemical assays. These methods can be used, in principle, for any type of sialidase, with regard to substrate specificity and optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction. Considering the range of organisms producing sialidases, this review omits cell-based assays (plaque assays and study of cytopathic effect) and animal model studies, which are reviewed elsewhere concerning specific organisms. The present review also provides the brief introductory survey of role of sialic acids and neuraminidases, but main focus is on the methods of determining neuraminidase activity and evaluating neuraminidase inhibitors. The future prospect of improvement in analytical techniques regarding the enzymatic activity of sialidases is briefly outlined.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Future of Ionic Liquids for Chiral Separations in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-12-26
    Afzal Hussain,Mohamed F AlAjmi,Iqbal Hussain,Imran Ali

    The ionic liquids have special features and, hence, called as liquid electrolytes, ionic melts, ionic glasses, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic fluids, designer solvents, green, and future solvents. Achiral and chiral ionic liquids have been used in enantioseparations of a variety of racemates in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Chiral ionic liquids have received a good reputation in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis because of their astonishing properties. This review discusses the applications of achiral and chiral ionic liquids in enantioseparations in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. In addition, the attempts were also made to emphasize the toxicity and future prospective of these ionic liquids. Additionally, the attempts were made to discuss the chiral recognition mechanism.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determination of Iron Chelating Agents by Analytical Methods: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Aamir Malik,Sandip D Firke,Ravindra R Patil,Atul A Shirkhedkar,Sanjay J Surana

    Acute iron poisoning and chronic iron overload consequences in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment of acute iron poisoning and chronic iron overload can be challenging and care providers are often tackled with management dilemmas. Iron chelating agents are commonly prescribed for patients with iron deficiency anemia. In this review article, different analytical techniques are reported used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of iron chelating agents like, deferiprone, deferoxamine, and deferasirox. Efforts are taken to collect all related articles published till October 2018. This review discusses all analytical methods, its advantages and disadvantages as well as its applications. This article will help you to know about basic analytical techniques as well as advanced hyphenated techniques practiced for determination of iron chelating agents in different matrices. The techniques discussed in this review follow the ICH guidelines for method validation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Liquid Chromatography Based Methods for Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) in Biological Matrices.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-24
    Ashish Dogra,Anjna Sharma,Uttam Kumar Mandal,Pankul Kotwal,Shipra Bhatt,Utpal Nandi

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic disease with inflammatory and immunological background where treatments can only improve the symptoms and slow down the progress of the disease. Although there are several drugs with different therapeutic targets available in the market for the treatment of RA, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the most effective option to date. Methotrexate, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, minocycline are commonly prescribed DMARDs by rheumatologists but they have the limitations of severe toxicity for which therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary. Many chromatographic methods are available for analysis of these drugs including their metabolites. However, they have not been critically reviewed for pre-chromatographic sample preparation, chromatographic separation and sensitive detection. This review article can be handy for quantitation of DMARDs in diverse biological matrices as it provides comprehensive information on the reported liquid chromatographic methods for last three decades covering all the aspects required for preclinical and clinical studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • ELISA and Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Food Colorants: State of the Art.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-22
    Anna N Berlina,Anatoly V Zherdev,Boris B Dzantiev

    Food colorants are inalienable part of human life. Since ancient times, they have become firmly established and have undergone a number of changes. During this time, the attitude towards them has changed. The desire to color the food now raises questions about the various side effects of their use. With the development of methods of toxicology and obtaining data on the toxicity of food coloring, restrictions and standards for their content in food have emerged. The development of methods for the analysis of dyes in various food products is becoming increasingly in demand. Development of screening immunoanalytical methods such as enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunochromatographic one suitable for simultaneous analysis of a large number of samples at the same time allows to avoid serious costs when operating the chromatographic equipment. Reduction of the analysis time and simple sample preparation is what unites immunoassay techniques. This review shows the possibilities of modern immunoanalytical methods for analyzing samples and determining food dyes belonging to different classes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of Antisense Oligonucleotides and Their Metabolites with the Use of Ion Pair Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2019-01-08
    Anna Kaczmarkiewicz,Łukasz Nuckowski,Sylwia Studzińska,Bogusław Buszewski

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have been widely investigated as a potential drugs because of their ability to bind with the target DNA or RNA strands, which may lead to inhibition of translational processes. This review presents currently approved oligonucleotide (OGN) drugs and summarizes their modification types, mechanisms of action, and application of ion pair reversed phase liquid chromatography for the analysis. Special attention was paid to the stationary phases selection for the separation of OGNs and the impact of different compositions of mobile phases on retention and signal intensity in mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the application of ion pair liquid chromatography coupled with MS for the separation and determination of metabolites of ASOs was described. The type of matrix, time of analysis, lower limits of quantification and detection, as well as precision, accuracy, and linearity of developed methods have been included as part of this contribution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Solid Phase Microextraction: Apparatus, Sorbent Materials, and Application.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-12-26
    Muhammad Sajid,Mazen Khaled Nazal,Małgorzata Rutkowska,Natalia Szczepańska,Jacek Namieśnik,Justyna Płotka-Wasylka

    The primary objective of this review article is to strategically screen and highlight the advancements in the area of solid phase microextraction (SPME). The plenty of review articles have been written on different aspects of SPME, this review is dedicated to provide the brief but clear overview of the research footprints so produced from SPME. Some of the key advancements in types and designs, coating materials, coating strategies, in vivo sampling and direct coupling of SPME with MS have been critically discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Liquid Crystals in Analytical Chemistry: A Review.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Mona Sargazi,Matthew R Linford,Massoud Kaykhaii

    Nearing 130 years since their introduction, liquid crystals (LCs) have found diverse applications in different fields of science, including chemical analysis. This review encompasses the history of LCs, reviews various types of them, and presents their current applications in analytical chemistry. Since most applications of LCs in analytical chemistry are for the fabrication of biosensors, these applications are discussed first. The high sensitivity of LCs to changes in their environment makes them ideal for such sensors. Using them, analyte concentrations as low as 1 pM have been detected. Another major application of LCs is in gas chromatography (GC) as stationary phases, which is described in the second part of this review. Using LCs in GC leads to better separations, higher sensitivity, and improved selectivity. Such phases provide higher stability in elevated temperatures and increased column life times. Finally, applications of LCs in electro-analytical chemistry will be described briefly.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Electrochromic Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers, Metal Oxides, and Coordination Complexes.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Raimonda Celiesiute,Almira Ramanaviciene,Mindaugas Gicevicius,Arunas Ramanavicius

    Electrochromic sensors offer multi-mode registration of analytical signal based on combination of electrochemical and optical techniques. This emerging direction of analytical chemistry is relatively new; therefore, it has very high potential for various applications in chemical and biochemical analysis. Properties of sensors based on various electrochromic materials such as polymers, polymer derivatives, polymer composites, metal oxides, metal oxide complexes, phthalocyanines, porphyrins, and dyes are critically overviewed, evaluated, and compared. The most promising directions in analytical application of electrochromic polymers are highlighted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quinquennial Review of Progress in Degradation Studies and Impurity Profiling: An Instrumental Perspective Statistics.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Madhav Shelke,Shirish Shriram Deshpande,Sanjay Sharma

    Degradation studies of drug give insightful information about the intrinsic stability of the molecule, the possible degradents formed during shelf life and thus, aid in the subsequent development of its stable formulation. For identification and characterization of degradents and impurities formed during stress studies, various analytical techniques are required including hyphenated techniques. Chromatographic methods play a crucial role in the field of degradation and impurity profiling. Many of these methods have been introduced for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs and their formulations. This article encompasses current trends in analytical methods used for degradents, foreign matter, genotoxic impurity, and impurity profiling studies of the last five years (2013-2017). It further provides an insight into the development of various analytical methods such as hyphenated and non-hyphenated techniques those used in the analysis of pharmaceuticals. Various components used in chromatographic development such as mobile phase, buffer solutions, elution modes, columns, column temperature, and detectors are emphasized. Techniques developed by systematic Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach are also discussed. Additionally, the in silico toxicity prediction studies and the methods developed for genotoxic impurity analysis are briefly explained.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Review: New Trends in Electrode Systems for Sensitive Drug and Biomolecule Analysis.
    Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. (IF 4.325) Pub Date : null
    Goksu Ozcelikay,Leyla Karadurmus,S Irem Kaya,Nurgul K Bakirhan,Sibel A Ozkan

    Drug and biomolecule analysis with high precision, fast response, not expensive, and user-friendly methods have been very important for developing technology and clinical applications. Electrochemical methods are highly capable for assaying the concentration of electroactive drug or biomolecule and supply excellent knowledge concerning its physical and chemical properties such as electron transfer rates, diffusion coefficients, electron transfer number, and oxidation potential. Electrochemical methods have been widely applied because of their accuracy, sensitivity, cheapness, and can applied on-site determinations of various substances. The progress on electronics has allowed developing reliable, more sensitive and less expensive instrumentations, which have significant contribution in the area of drug development, drug and biomolecule analysis. The developing new sensors for electrochemical analysis of these compounds have growing interest in recent years. Screen-printed based electrodes have a great interest in electrochemical analysis of various drugs and biomolecules due to their easy manufacturing procedure of the electrode allow the transfer of electrochemical laboratory experiments for disposable on-site analysis of some compounds. Paper based electrodes are also fabricated by new technology. They can be preferred due to their easy, cheap, portable, disposable, and offering high sensitivity properties for many application field such as environmental monitoring, food quality control, clinical diagnosis, drug, and biomolecules analysis. In this review, the recent electrochemical drug and biomolecule (DNA, RNA, µRNA, Biomarkers, etc.) studies will be presented that involve new trend disposable electrodes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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