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  • A review of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Wanting Li; Xiangyou Li; Xin Li; Zhongqi Hao; Yongfeng Lu; Xiaoyan Zeng

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is well known for its feature of remote detection. In this review, the development of remote detection based on LIBS is presented. Three kinds of remote LIBS configurations and their characteristics have been illustrated. Owing to an inferior efficiency and intensity of spectral signals collected in a remote distance, different methods have been studied to enhance signals. This review briefly summarized the advanced enhancement approaches for remote LIBS, which further improves the capabilities of LIBS for real-time and in situ measurement. Furthermore, the recent development and application of remote LIBS in a variety of fields have been presented. The potential of LIBS in remote detection and its existing problems have also been discussed.

  • Recent application of spectroscopy for the detection of microalgae life information: A review
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-01-15
    Jing-Yan Liu; Li-Hua Zeng; Zhen-Hui Ren

    Monitoring the growth status of microalgae is very important. Traditional techniques for the detection and evaluation of life information during the growth of microalgae are tedious, laborious, destructive and time-consuming. Objective quality assessments and efficacious safety surveillance for microalgal growth information are inseparable from innovative techniques. This review focuses on the applications of several valuable spectroscopic techniques, including visible and near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, for the rapid and nondestructive detection of microalgae growth information, such as pigment content, oil content, biomass content and identification of algae species. The fundamentals of Spectroscopic Techniques are presented and discussed. Then, we illustrate the most typically and commonly used chemometric analysis, such as spectral preprocessing and modeling methods. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are discussed, and the applications of these technologies are summarized.

  • Recent advances in the determination of calcium and its use as an internal standard in environmental samples: fundamentals and applications
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    David J. Butcher

    Calcium is a major component of the human body and has many important functions in the environment. This review considers major developments in atomic spectrometry for the determination of calcium in environmental samples, focusing upon inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The use of calcium as an internal standard is also discussed. Major developments in instrumentation, methodology, calibration routines, and data processing are critically reviewed. Significant applications are discussed, including aerosol/atmospheric, animal, astronomical, biomonitoring, and plant samples. The focus of future work is projected to be on LIBS to achieve the goals of more rapid, stand-off (remote), and combined spectroscopic analysis with minimal sample preparation, as well as ICP-MS for high-resolution isotopic measurements and LA-ICP-MS for elemental imaging of solid samples.

  • Characteristics of the transient signal from pulsed glow discharge plasma for atomic emission analysis
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-04-25
    Kazuaki Wagatsuma

    This review described a noticeable feature of pulsed radio-frequency-driven glow discharge plasma for atomic emission spectrometry. The temporal response of the emission signal, generated by the pulsed discharge, comprised a sharp pre-peak and the subsequent plateau portion having smaller emission intensities each for the discharge pulse, in which the intensity of the pre-peak was 10–20 times as large as the plateau-stage intensity, depending on the discharge parameters. Suggested mechanisms for this phenomenon were introduced from several published papers, which were based on a temporal variation in a degree of self-absorption during a pulse duration, on generation of gas pressure wave, or on a transient increase of the discharge current at the initial edge of a pulse which thus elevated the gas temperature. It was also mentioned that such emission characteristics could be utilized to obtain better analytical performance in the optical emission spectrometry. A detection method, associated with the introduction of pulsed bias current, was effective for controlling the emission response from the pulsed plasma, because it totally elevated the emission intensity of the plateau portion rather than the pre-peak with little change in the background level.

  • Spectroscopic interrogation and charge transport properties of molecular transistors
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Inho Jeong, Hyunwook Song

    Molecular transistors have been extensively investigated as the building blocks for the ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices. They are assembled from single molecules and molecular monolayers serving as a current-carrying channel in a conventional field-effect transistor configuration, in which gate electrodes have been electrically or electrochemically implemented in several types of test beds such as electromigration junctions, mechanically controllable break junctions, and devices with carbon-based electrodes. The energy level alignments of the component molecules incorporated into the transistor can be tuned using molecular orbital gating and it can ultimately control the flow of charge carriers. Herein, we review recent progress in studying spectroscopic characterization techniques and charge transport properties of molecular transistors.

  • Emerging spectroscopic techniques for prostate cancer diagnosis
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2018-06-21
    Mirkomil Sharipov, Shavkatjon Azizov, Sarvar Kakhkhorov, Akhmadkhodja Yunuskhodjaev, Yong-Ill Lee

    Over the past several decades, large efforts have been made to diagnose and overcome prostate cancer. Among all screening methods, the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold has been stood out and contributed to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) in a large number of men. Nevertheless, the early detection of prostate carcinoma and its focal imaging is remaining crucial to diminish the elevated number of PCa-related deaths. Because of the multifocal behavior of PCa development, a whole gland ablation has been practiced during previous years. Furthermore, there is an evidence of the likelihood of high-risk PCa that proves once again the importance of early diagnosis and accurate staging of the disease. So far, numerous advanced spectroscopic methods with different approaches have been reported as the alternative tools to conventional techniques of PCa diagnosis and imaging. In this review, we introduce innovative emerging techniques utilizing spectroscopic methods such as photoluminescence, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and surface plasmon resonance to measure the ultralow level of PSA. In addition, we review novel and alternative approaches of diagnosis such as imaging methods through photoluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography.

  • Disease-related proteins determination based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-01-12
    Bo Yang, Sila Jin, Ye Wang, Huiwei Bao, Jingmeng Sun, Lei Chen, Hoeil Chung, Young Mee Jung

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a promising platform for simple, rapid, and economical protein quantitation and analysis and can achieve much lower detection limits for the ultrasensitive detection of proteins and a much wider linear concentration range for quantitative analysis than other methods can. In addition, SERS can provide a large amount of fingerprint information for the individual components of a mixture through SERS effects, which are sensitive and selective for different types of proteins and protein mixtures. In general, the occurrence and development of diseases are accompanied by changes in the content or structure of biomarkers (disease-related proteins). Here, we provide an overview of the SERS technique and its applications to disease-related protein determination. Different diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cardiac muscle tissue injury, and multicancer, are discussed and exhibit potential utility in biomarker detection and diagnosis. SERS opens a new path to the early diagnosis of critical diseases, which will effectively reduce human suffering and mortality.

  • Acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography for elasticity assessment of soft tissues.
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Jiang Zhu,Xingdao He,Zhongping Chen

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissues are important indicators of tissue functions which can be used for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Elastography, incorporating the principles of elasticity measurements into imaging modalities, provides quantitative assessment of elastic properties of biological tissues. Benefiting from high-resolution, noninvasive and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging optical imaging modality to characterize and map biomechanical properties of soft tissues. Recently, acoustic radiation force (ARF) OCE has been developed for elasticity measurements of ocular tissues, detection of vascular lesions and monitoring of blood coagulation based on remote and noninvasive ARF excitation to both internal and superficial tissues. Here, we describe the advantages of the ARF-OCE technique, the measurement methods in ARF-OCE, the applications in biomedical detection, current challenges and advances. ARF-OCE technology has the potential to become a powerful tool for in vivo elasticity assessment of biological samples in a non-contact, non-invasive and high-resolution nature.

  • New insights into plant cell walls by vibrational microspectroscopy.
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Notburga Gierlinger

    Vibrational spectroscopy provides non-destructively the molecular fingerprint of plant cells in the native state. In combination with microscopy, the chemical composition can be followed in context with the microstructure, and due to the non-destructive application, in-situ studies of changes during, e.g., degradation or mechanical load are possible. The two complementary vibrational microspectroscopic approaches, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Microspectroscopy and Confocal Raman spectroscopy, are based on different physical principles and the resulting different drawbacks and advantages in plant applications are reviewed. Examples for FT-IR and Raman microscopy applications on plant cell walls, including imaging as well as in-situ studies, are shown to have high potential to get a deeper understanding of structure-function relationships as well as biological processes and technical treatments. Both probe numerous different molecular vibrations of all components at once and thus result in spectra with many overlapping bands, a challenge for assignment and interpretation. With the help of multivariate unmixing methods (e.g., vertex components analysis), the most pure components can be revealed and their distribution mapped, even tiny layers and structures (250 nm). Instrumental as well as data analysis progresses make both microspectroscopic methods more and more promising tools in plant cell wall research.

  • Optical spectroscopic imaging for cell therapy and tissue engineering.
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2018-03-23
    G Kate Park,Hoseok,Gaon Sandy Kim,Nathaniel S Hwang,Hak Soo Choi

    Cell-based therapies hold great potential to treat a wide range of human diseases, yet the mechanisms responsible for cell migration and homing are not fully understood. Emerging molecular imaging technology enables in vivo tracking of transplanted cells and their therapeutic efficacy, which together will improve the clinical outcome of cell-based therapy. Particularly, optical imaging provides highly sensitive, safe (non-radioactive), cost-effective, and fast solutions for real-time cellular trafficking compared to other conventional molecular imaging modalities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of current advances in optical imaging for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. We discuss different types of fluorescent probes and their labeling methods with a special focus on cardiovascular disease, cancer immunotherapy, and tissue regeneration. In addition, advantages and limitations of optical imaging-based cell tracking strategies along with the future perspectives to translate this imaging technique for a clinical realm are discussed.

  • Raman spectroscopy detects melanoma and the tissue surrounding melanoma using tissue-engineered melanoma models.
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2016-05-10
    Ceyla Yorucu,Katherine Lau,Shweta Mittar,Nicola H Green,Ahtasham Raza,Ihtesham Ur Rehman,Sheila MacNeil

    Invasion of melanoma cells from the primary tumor involves interaction with adjacent tissues and extracellular matrix. The extent of this interaction is not fully understood. In this study Raman spectroscopy was applied to cryo-sections of established 3D models of melanoma in human skin. Principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between the tumor and normal tissue and between the peri-tumor area and the normal skin. Two human melanoma cells lines A375SM and C8161 were investigated and compared in 3D melanoma models. Changes were found in protein conformations and tryptophan configurations across the entire melanoma samples, in tyrosine orientation and in more fluid lipid packing only in tumor dense areas, and in increased glycogen content in the peri-tumor areas of melanoma. Raman spectroscopy revealed changes around the perimeter of a melanoma tumor as well as detecting differences between the tumor and the normal tissue.

  • A review on the fabrication and applications of sub-wavelength anti-reflective surfaces based on biomimetics
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Hak-Jong Choi, Daihong Huh, Junho Jun, Heon Lee

    In order to improve the performance of optical and optoelectronic devices, reduced light reflection at wide incidence angles, broadband wavelength, and polarization-insensitivity are crucial. Inspired by nature, surfaces of sub-wavelength structures have been developed as effective anti-reflective (AR) surfaces, which present promising broadband and quasi-omnidirectional AR properties. This review summarizes fabrication methods and applications of sub-wavelength anti-reflective surfaces, including various conventional techniques. The applications of sub-wavelength structure-based AR surfaces in solar cells, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and other applications are highlighted.

  • Dynamic Spectrum for noninvasive blood component analysis and its advances
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2018-12-07
    Yuyu Wang, Gang Li, Huiquan Wang, Mei Zhou, Ling Lin

    Noninvasive blood component analysis by spectroscopy has broad prospects that based on Dynamic Spectrum (DS) can effectively suppress the influences of individual differences (such as skin, muscle, fat) and the variations of measurement conditions, which shows its potential in the clinical applications. The purpose of this article is to review the starting point and the advances of DS, to assess the current situation of the field and to explore future directions. The principle of DS and the error sources of noninvasive blood component analysis were introduced. An overview of the six stages of noninvasive blood component analysis, including sensing principle, acquisition methods of spectral photoplethysmography (photoplethysmography signal at multiple wavelengths) signals, spectral photoplethysmography (SPPG) preprocessing, DS extraction methods from SPPG, the quality evaluation for DS and modeling methods, was presented. Finally, the existing issues of DS are discussed and the future directions are predicted.

  • Non-exponential decay kinetics: correct assessment and description illustrated by slow luminescence of Si nanostructures
    Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (IF 2.888) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Michael Greben, Petro Khoroshyy, Ilya Sychugov, Jan Valenta

    The treatment of time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) decay kinetics is analysed in details and illustrated by experiments on semiconductor quantum dots, namely silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs). We consider the mono-, stretch- and multi-exponential as well as lognormal (LN) and some complex decay models for continuous and discrete distribution of rates (lifetimes). A particular attention is devoted to the thorough analysis of non-exponential decay kinetics. We explicitly show that a LN distribution of emitter sizes may results in LN distribution of decay rates. On the other hand, the distribution of rates cannot be, strictly speaking, Levy stable distribution (that results in the stretched-exponential decay). We introduce theoretical background and derive expressions to calculate the average decay lifetimes for some common decays with practical examples of their applications. Experimental aspects are discussed with special attention devoted to the major problems of the accurate TR PL data treatment, including background uncertainty, pulse duration, system response function etc. Finally, a thorough literature survey of TR PL in Si NCs is given. The methods and definitions outlined in this systematic review are applicable to various other material systems with slow decay like rare-earth and transition metal-doped materials, amorphous semiconductors, type-II heterostructures, singlet oxygen phosphorescence etc.

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
上海纽约大学William Glover