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  • Effect of Open-Ended Coaxial Probe-to-Tissue Contact Pressure on Dielectric Measurements
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Gertjan Maenhout; Tomislav Markovic; Ilja Ocket; Bart Nauwelaers

    Open-ended coaxial probes are widely used to gather dielectric properties of biological tissues. Due to the lack of an agreed data acquisition protocol, several environmental conditions can cause inaccuracies when comparing dielectric data. In this work, the effect of a different measurement probe-to-tissue contact pressure was monitored in the frequency range from 0.5 to 20 GHz. Therefore, we constructed

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A New Model for Predicting Rate of Penetration Using an Artificial Neural Network
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Salaheldin Elkatatny; Ahmed Al-AbdulJabbar; Khaled Abdelgawad

    The drilling rate of penetration (ROP) is defined as the speed of drilling through rock under the bit. ROP is affected by different interconnected factors, which makes it very difficult to infer the mutual effect of each individual parameter. A robust ROP is required to understand the complexity of the drilling process. Therefore, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to predict ROP and capture

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A 0.6-µW Chopper Amplifier Using a Noise-Efficient DC Servo Loop and Squeezed-Inverter Stage for Power-Efficient Biopotential Sensing
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Xuan Thanh Pham; Ngoc Tan Nguyen; Van Truong Nguyen; Jong-Wook Lee

    To realize an ultra-low-power and low-noise instrumentation amplifier (IA) for neural and biopotential signal sensing, we investigate two design techniques. The first technique uses a noise-efficient DC servo loop (DSL), which has been shown to be a high noise contributor. The proposed approach offers several advantages: (i) both the electrode offset and the input offset are rejected, (ii) a large

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A Trajectory Collaboration Based Map Matching Approach for Low-Sampling-Rate GPS Trajectories
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Wentao Bian; Ge Cui; Xin Wang

    GPS (Global Positioning System) trajectories with low sampling rates are prevalent in many applications. However, current map matching methods do not perform well for low-sampling-rate GPS trajectories due to the large uncertainty between consecutive GPS points. In this paper, a collaborative map matching method (CMM) is proposed for low-sampling-rate GPS trajectories. CMM processes GPS trajectories

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Feasibility Assessments Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology in Heritage Buildings: Rehabilitation-Restoration, Spatial Analysis and Tourism Potential Analysis
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Paul Sestras; Sanda Roșca; Ștefan Bilașco; Sanda Naș; Stefan M. Buru; Leontina Kovacs; Velibor Spalević; Adriana F. Sestras

    The Transylvanian region of Romania is a place of rich history since ancient times, where the original natural environment around architectural heritage sites or buildings has not been severely altered by urban development. Unfortunately, many such places are left by the authorities to degrade or totally collapse for lack of funds, vision or initiatives. The current paper addresses the potential of

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Optimizing Sensor Ontology Alignment through Compact co-Firefly Algorithm
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Xingsi Xue; Junfeng Chen

    Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) links the semantic web technique with the sensor network, which utilizes sensor ontology to describe sensor information. Annotating sensor data with different sensor ontologies can be of help to implement different sensor systems’ inter-operability, which requires that the sensor ontologies themselves are inter-operable. Therefore, it is necessary to match the sensor ontologies

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Game Theory in Mobile CrowdSensing:A Comprehensive Survey
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Venkat Surya Dasari; Burak Kantarci; Maryam Pouryazdan; Luca Foschini; Michele Girolami

    Mobile CrowdSensing (MCS) is an emerging paradigm in the distributed acquisition of smart city and Internet of Things (IoT) data. MCS requires large number of users to enable access to the built-in sensors in their mobile devices and share sensed data to ensure high value and high veracity of big sensed data. Improving user participation in MCS campaigns requires to boost users effectively, which is

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Application of Multi-Branch Cauer Circuits in the Analysis of Electromagnetic Transducers Used in Wireless Transfer Power Systems
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Milena Kurzawa; Cezary Jędryczka; Rafał M. Wojciechowski

    In this paper, the feasibility of applying a multi-branch equivalent model employing first- and second-order Cauer circuits for the analysis of electromagnetic transducers used in systems of wireless power transfer is discussed. A method of formulating an equivalent model (EqM) is presented, and an example is shown for a wireless power transfer system (WPTS) consisting of an air transformer with field

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A Poly Resistor Based Time Domain CMOS Temperature Sensor with 9b SAR and Fine Delay Line
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Zhiwei Xu; Sangjin Byun

    This paper presents a new type of time domain CMOS temperature sensor with a 9b successive approximation register (SAR) control logic and a fine delay line. We adopted an N-type poly resistor as the sensing element for temperature linearity. The chip was implemented in a standard 0.18 m 1P6M bulk CMOS process with general VTH transistors and the active die area was 0.432 mm2. The temperature resolution

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Output-Only Damage Detection of Shear Building Structures Using an Autoregressive Model-Enhanced Optimal Subpattern Assignment Metric
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Liu Mei; Huaguan Li; Yunlai Zhou; Dawang Li; Wujian Long; Feng Xing

    This paper proposes a novel output-only structural damage indicator by incorporating the pole-based optimal subpattern assignment distance with autoregressive models to localize and relatively assess the severity of damages for sheared structures. Autoregressive models can model dynamic systems well, while their model poles can represent the state of the dynamic systems. Structural damage generally

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Development of a Solar-Powered IoT-Based Instrument for Automatic Measurement of Water Clarity
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Tuan Ngoc Pham; Anh Pham Huy Ho; Tuong Van Nguyen; Ha Minh Nguyen; Nhu Huynh Truong; Nguyen Duc Huynh; Tung Huy Nguyen; Le The Dung

    Water clarity is the most common indicator of water quality. The purpose of the study was to develop an instrument which can automatically measure water clarity in place of manual measurement by Secchi disk. The instrument is suspended by buoys at the water surface and uses solar energy to measure the light intensity of LED bulbs after passing through a water column; the result is then converted to

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • An Efficient Key Management Technique for the Internet of Things
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Tamanna Tabassum; SK Alamgir Hossain; Md. Anisur Rahman; Mohammed F. Alhamid; M. Anwar Hossain

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has changed our lives drastically. Customers, regulatory bodies, and industrial partners are driving us to use IoT. Although IoT provides new opportunities, security remains a key concern while providing various services. It is especially challenging how the data generated from IoT devices can be protected from potential security attacks and how to safeguard the exchange

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Beamforming Optimization in Internet of Things Applications Using Robust Swarm Algorithm in Conjunction with Connectable and Collaborative Sensors
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Mohammed Zaki Hasan; Hussain Al-Rizzo

    The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) with Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) typically involves multihop relaying combined with sophisticated signal processing to serve as an information provider for several applications such as smart grids, industrial, and search-and-rescue operations. These applications entail deploying many sensors in environments that are often random which motivated the

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Microbial Nanocellulose Printed Circuit Boards for Medical Sensing
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Jonathan D. Yuen; Lisa C. Shriver-Lake; Scott A. Walper; Daniel Zabetakis; Joyce C. Breger; David A. Stenger

    We demonstrate the viability of using ultra-thin sheets of microbially grown nanocellulose to build functional medical sensors. Microbially grown nanocellulose is an interesting alternative to plastics, as it is hydrophilic, biocompatible, porous, and hydrogen bonding, thereby allowing the potential development of new application routes. Exploiting the distinguishing properties of this material enables

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Carbon Allotrope-Based Optical Fibers for Environmental and Biological Sensing: A Review
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Stephanie Hui Kit Yap; Kok Ken Chan; Swee Chuan Tjin; Ken-Tye Yong

    Recently, carbon allotropes have received tremendous research interest and paved a new avenue for optical fiber sensing technology. Carbon allotropes exhibit unique sensing properties such as large surface to volume ratios, biocompatibility, and they can serve as molecule enrichers. Meanwhile, optical fibers possess a high degree of surface modification versatility that enables the incorporation of

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Scheduling of a Parcel Delivery System Consisting of an Aerial Drone Interacting with Public Transportation Vehicles
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Hailong Huang; Andrey V. Savkin; Chao Huang

    This paper proposes a novel parcel delivery system which consists of a drone and public transportation vehicles such as trains, trams, etc. This system involves two delivery schemes: drone-direct scheme referring to delivering to a customer by a drone directly and drone–vehicle collaborating scheme referring to delivering a customer based on the collaboration of a drone and public transportation vehicles

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Testing Sensitivity of A-Type Residual Current Devices to Earth Fault Currents with Harmonics
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Stanislaw Czapp

    In many applications, modern current-using equipment utilizes power electronic converters to control the consumed power and to adjust the motor speed. Such equipment is used both in industrial and domestic installations. A characteristic feature of the converters is producing distorted earth fault currents, which contain a wide spectrum of harmonics, including high-order harmonics. Nowadays, protection

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Battery Draining Attack and Defense against Power Saving Wireless LAN Devices
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Il-Gu Lee; Kyungmin Go; Jung Hoon Lee

    Wi-Fi technology connects sensor-based things that operate with small batteries, and allows them to access the Internet from anywhere at any time and perform networking. It has become a critical element in many areas of daily life and industry, including smart homes, smart factories, smart grids, and smart cities. The Wi-Fi-based Internet of things is gradually expanding its range of uses from new

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Silicon Photomultiplier Sensor Interface Based on a Discrete Second Generation Voltage Conveyor
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Vincenzo Stornelli; Leonardo Pantoli; Gianluca Barile; Alfiero Leoni; Emanuele D’Amico

    This work presents the design of a discrete second-generation voltage conveyor (VCII) and its capability to be used as electronic interface for silicon photomultipliers. The design addressed here exploits directly at the transistor level, with commercial components, the proposed interface; the obtained performance is valuable considering both the discrete elements and the application. The architecture

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Guided Electromagnetic Wave Technique for IC Authentication
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Mosabbah Mushir Ahmed; Etienne Perret; David Hely; Romain Siragusa; Nicolas Barbot

    Counterfeiting of an Integrated Circuit (IC) has become a significant concern for electronics manufacturers, system integrators, and end users. It is necessary to find a robust implementation that is efficient, low cost, and noninvasive in detection and avoidance of ICs counterfeiting. In this paper, we introduce the concept of using a guided radiofrequency (RF) wave technique to authenticate ICs.

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Vulnerability Mining Method for the Modbus TCP Using an Anti-Sample Fuzzer
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Yingxu Lai; Huijuan Gao; Jing Liu

    Vulnerability mining technology is used for protecting the security of industrial control systems and their network protocols. Traditionally, vulnerability mining methods have the shortcomings of poor vulnerability mining ability and low reception rate. In this study, a test case generation model for vulnerability mining of the Modbus TCP based on an anti-sample algorithm is proposed. Firstly, a recurrent

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Fast Number Theoretic Transform for Ring-LWE on 8-bit AVR Embedded Processor
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Hwajeong Seo; Hyeokdong Kwon; Yongbeen Kwon; Kyungho Kim; Seungju Choi; Hyunjun Kim; Kyoungbae Jang

    In this paper, we optimized Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) and random sampling operations on low-end 8-bit AVR microcontrollers. We focused on the optimized modular multiplication with secure countermeasure (i.e., constant timing), which ensures high performance and prevents timing attack and simple power analysis. In particular, we presented combined Look-Up Table (LUT)-based fast reduction techniques

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Analysis of Passive RFID Applicability in a Retail Store: What Can We Expect?
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Maja Škiljo; Petar Šolić; Zoran Blažević; Toni Perković

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a lot to offer and contribute to the retail industry, from the innovations in retail store experience to the increased efficiency in the store management and supply chain optimization. On its way to real-world applications, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) became the main enabler for the final IoT deployment. However, to improve the technology performance even

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A Hybrid SAR/ISAR Approach for Refocusing Maritime Moving Targets with the GF-3 SAR Satellite
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Zhishuo Yan; Yi Zhang; Heng Zhang

    Due to self-motion and sea waves, moving ships are typically defocused in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. To focus non-cooperative targets, the inverse SAR (ISAR) technique is commonly used with motion compensation. The hybrid SAR/ISAR approach allows a long coherent processing interval (CPI), in which SAR targets are processed with ISAR processing, and exploits the advantages of both SAR and

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Robust Outlier-Adaptive Filtering for Vision-Aided Inertial Navigation
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Kyuman Lee; Eric N. Johnson

    With the advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), a major area of interest in the research field of UAVs has been vision-aided inertial navigation systems (V-INS). In the front-end of V-INS, image processing extracts information about the surrounding environment and determines features or points of interest. With the extracted vision data and inertial measurement unit (IMU) dead reckoning, the most

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Investigating the Use of Pretrained Convolutional Neural Network on Cross-Subject and Cross-Dataset EEG Emotion Recognition
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Yucel Cimtay; Erhan Ekmekcioglu

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) has great attraction in emotion recognition studies due to its resistance to deceptive actions of humans. This is one of the most significant advantages of brain signals in comparison to visual or speech signals in the emotion recognition context. A major challenge in EEG-based emotion recognition is that EEG recordings exhibit varying distributions for different people

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Ultrahigh Resolution Thickness Measurement Technique Based on a Hollow Core Optical Fiber Structure
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Zheyu Wu; Bin Liu; Jiangfeng Zhu; Juan Liu; Shengpeng Wan; Tao Wu; Jinghua Sun

    An ultrahigh resolution thickness measurement sensor was proposed based on a single mode–hollow core–single mode (SMF–HCF–SMF) fiber structure by coating a thin layer of material on the HCF surface. Theoretical analysis shows that the SMF–HCF–SMF fiber structure can measure coating thickness down to sub-nanometers. An experimental study was carried out by coating a thin layer of graphene oxide (GO)

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Wearable Cardiorespiratory Monitoring Employing a Multimodal Digital Patch Stethoscope: Estimation of ECG, PEP, LVETand Respiration Using a 55 mm Single-Lead ECG and Phonocardiogram
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Michael Klum; Mike Urban; Timo Tigges; Alexandru-Gabriel Pielmus; Aarne Feldheiser; Theresa Schmitt; Reinhold Orglmeister

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide, with sleep disordered breathing being a further aggravating factor. Respiratory illnesses are the third leading cause of death amongst the noncommunicable diseases. The current COVID-19 pandemic, however, also highlights the impact of communicable respiratory syndromes. In the clinical routine, prolonged postanesthetic respiratory instability

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Effect of Deep-Level Defects on the Performance of CdZnTe Photon Counting Detectors
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Yingrui Li; Gangqiang Zha; Dengke Wei; Fan Yang; Jiangpeng Dong; Shouzhi Xi; Lingyan Xu; Wanqi Jie

    The effect of deep-level defects is a key issue for the applications of CdZnTe high-flux photon counting devices of X-ray irradiations. However, the major trap energy levels and their quantitive relationship with the device’s performance are not yet clearly understood. In this study, a 16-pixel CdZnTe X-ray photon counting detector with a non-uniform counting performance is investigated. The deep-level

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Simulations and Design of a Single-Photon CMOS Imaging Pixel Using Multiple Non-Destructive Signal Sampling
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Konstantin D. Stefanov; Martin J. Prest; Mark Downing; Elizabeth George; Naidu Bezawada; Andrew D. Holland

    A single-photon CMOS image sensor (CIS) design based on pinned photodiode (PPD) with multiple charge transfers and sampling is described. In the proposed pixel architecture, the photogenerated signal is sampled non-destructively multiple times and the results are averaged. Each signal measurement is statistically independent and by averaging, the electronic readout noise is reduced to a level where

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • High-Resolution Neural Network for Driver Visual Attention Prediction
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Byeongkeun Kang; Yeejin Lee

    Driving is a task that puts heavy demands on visual information, thereby the human visual system plays a critical role in making proper decisions for safe driving. Understanding a driver’s visual attention and relevant behavior information is a challenging but essential task in advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) and efficient autonomous vehicles (AV). Specifically, robust prediction of a driver’s

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Development of a 3D Anthropomorphic Phantom Generator for Microwave Imaging Applications of the Head and Neck Region
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Ana Catarina Pelicano; Raquel C. Conceição

    The development of 3D anthropomorphic head and neck phantoms is of crucial and timely importance to explore novel imaging techniques, such as radar-based MicroWave Imaging (MWI), which have the potential to accurately diagnose Cervical Lymph Nodes (CLNs) in a neoadjuvant and non-invasive manner. We are motivated by a significant diagnostic blind-spot regarding mass screening of LNs in the case of head

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • LoRaFarM: A LoRaWAN-Based Smart Farming Modular IoT Architecture
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Gaia Codeluppi; Antonio Cilfone; Luca Davoli; Gianluigi Ferrari

    Presently, the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies in the Smart Farming domain is rapidly emerging. The ultimate goal is to collect, monitor, and effectively employ relevant data for agricultural processes, with the purpose of achieving an optimized and more environmentally sustainable agriculture. In this paper, a low-cost, modular, and Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN)-based

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Wireless Sensors System for Stress Detection by Means of ECG and EDA Acquisition
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Antonio Affanni

    This paper describes the design of a two channels electrodermal activity (EDA) sensor and two channels electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor. The EDA sensors acquire data on the hands and transmit them to the ECG sensor with wireless WiFi communication for increased wearability. The sensors system acquires two EDA channels to improve the removal of motion artifacts that take place if EDA is measured on individuals

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Investigation of Machine Learning Approaches for Traumatic Brain Injury Classification via EEG Assessment in Mice
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Manoj Vishwanath; Salar Jafarlou; Ikhwan Shin; Miranda M. Lim; Nikil Dutt; Amir M. Rahmani; Hung Cao

    Due to the difficulties and complications in the quantitative assessment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its increasing relevance in today’s world, robust detection of TBI has become more significant than ever. In this work, we investigate several machine learning approaches to assess their performance in classifying electroencephalogram (EEG) data of TBI in a mouse model. Algorithms such as decision

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • 3D Object Reconstruction from Imperfect Depth Data Using Extended YOLOv3 Network
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Audrius Kulikajevas; Rytis Maskeliūnas; Robertas Damaševičius; Edmond S.L. Ho

    State-of-the-art intelligent versatile applications provoke the usage of full 3D, depth-based streams, especially in the scenarios of intelligent remote control and communications, where virtual and augmented reality will soon become outdated and are forecasted to be replaced by point cloud streams providing explorable 3D environments of communication and industrial data. One of the most novel approaches

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Save Muscle Information–Unfiltered EEG Signal Helps Distinguish Sleep Stages
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Gi-Ren Liu; Caroline Lustenberger; Yu-Lun Lo; Wen-Te Liu; Yuan-Chung Sheu; Hau-Tieng Wu

    Based on the well-established biopotential theory, we hypothesize that the high frequency spectral information, like that higher than 100Hz, of the EEG signal recorded in the off-the-shelf EEG sensor contains muscle tone information. We show that an existing automatic sleep stage annotation algorithm can be improved by taking this information into account. This result suggests that if possible, we

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Spectral Filter Selection for Increasing Chromatic Diversity in CVD Subjects
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Miguel Ángel Martínez-Domingo; Eva M. Valero; Luis Gómez-Robledo; Rafael Huertas; Javier Hernández-Andrés

    This paper analyzes, through computational simulations, which spectral filters increase the number of discernible colors (NODC) of subjects with normal color vision, as well as red–green anomalous trichromats and dichromats. The filters are selected from a set of filters in which we have modeled spectral transmittances. With the selected filters we have carried out simulations performed using the spectral

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Single Channel Source Separation with ICA-Based Time-Frequency Decomposition
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Dariusz Mika; Grzegorz Budzik; Jerzy Józwik

    This paper relates to the separation of single channel source signals from a single mixed signal by means of independent component analysis (ICA). The proposed idea lies in a time-frequency representation of the mixed signal and the use of ICA on spectral rows corresponding to different time intervals. In our approach, in order to reconstruct true sources, we proposed a novelty idea of grouping statistically

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Fast Implementation of Approximated Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation for Frequency Agile Radar under Jamming Environment
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Yang Zhao; Jianxin Wu; Zhiyong Suo; Xiaoyu Liu

    A computationally efficient target parameter estimation algorithm for frequency agile radar (FAR) under jamming environment is developed. First, the barrage noise jamming and the deceptive jamming are suppressed by using adaptive beamforming and frequency agility. Second, the analytical solution of the parameter estimation is obtained by a low-order approximation to the multi-dimensional maximum likelihood

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Enhanced Intelligent Identification of Concrete Cracks Using Multi-Layered Image Preprocessing-Aided Convolutional Neural Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Ronghua Fu; Hao Xu; Zijian Wang; Lei Shen; Maosen Cao; Tongwei Liu; Drahomír Novák

    Crack identification plays an essential role in the health diagnosis of various concrete structures. Among different intelligent algorithms, the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has been demonstrated as a promising tool capable of efficiently identifying the existence and evolution of concrete cracks by adaptively recognizing crack features from a large amount of concrete surface images. However

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Improved Depth-of-Field Photoacoustic Microscopy with a Multifocal Point Transducer for Biomedical Imaging
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Thanh Phuoc Nguyen; Van Tu Nguyen; Sudip Mondal; Van Hiep Pham; Dinh Dat Vu; Byung-Gak Kim; Junghwan Oh

    In this study, a photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system based on a multifocal point (MFP) transducer was fabricated to produce a large depth-of-field tissue image. The customized MFP transducer has seven focal points, distributed along with the transducer’s axis, fabricated by separate spherically-focused surfaces. These surfaces generate distinct focal zones that are overlapped to extend the depth-of-field

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • DNAzyme-Based Target-Triggered Rolling-Circle Amplification for High Sensitivity Detection of microRNAs
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Chen Liu; Jialun Han; Lujian Zhou; Jingjing Zhang; Jie Du

    MicroRNAs regulate and control the growth and development of cells and can play the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which are involved in the occurrence and development of cancers. In this study, DNA fragments obtained by target-induced rolling-circle amplification were constructed to complement with self-cleaving deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) and release fluorescence biomolecules. This sensing

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • A Video-Based DT–SVM School Violence Detecting Algorithm
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Liang Ye; Le Wang; Hany Ferdinando; Tapio Seppänen; Esko Alasaarela

    School bullying is a serious problem among teenagers. School violence is one type of school bullying and considered to be the most harmful. As AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques develop, there are now new methods to detect school violence. This paper proposes a video-based school violence detecting algorithm. This algorithm first detects foreground moving targets via the KNN (K-Nearest Neighbor)

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • An Automatic Baseline Correction Method Based on the Penalized Least Squares Method
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Feng Zhang; Xiaojun Tang; Angxin Tong; Bin Wang; Jingwei Wang

    Baseline drift spectra are used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, which can easily lead to inaccurate or even wrong results. Although there are several baseline correction methods based on penalized least squares, they all have one or more parameters that must be optimized by users. For this purpose, an automatic baseline correction method based on penalized least squares is proposed in this

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • A Self-Calibrating IoT Portable Electrochemical Immunosensor for Serum Human Epididymis Protein 4 as a Tumor Biomarker for Ovarian Cancer
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Valentina Bianchi; Monica Mattarozzi; Marco Giannetto; Andrea Boni; Ilaria De Munari; Maria Careri

    Nowadays, analytical techniques are moving towards the development of smart biosensing strategies for the point-of-care accurate screening of disease biomarkers, such as human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), a recently discovered serum marker for early ovarian cancer diagnosis. In this context, the present work represents the first implementation of a competitive enzyme-labelled magneto-immunoassay exploiting

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Antibody-Electroactive Probe Conjugates Based Electrochemical Immunosensors
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Mateusz Kondzior; Iwona Grabowska

    Suitable immobilization of a biorecognition element, such as an antigen or antibody, on a transducer surface is essential for development of sensitive and analytically reliable immunosensors. In this review, we report on (1) methods of antibody prefunctionalization using electroactive probes, (2) methods for immobilization of such conjugates on the surfaces of electrodes in electrochemical immunosensor

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Observation of CO Detection Using Aluminum-Doped ZnO Nanorods on Microcantilever
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Ratno Nuryadi; Lia Aprilia; Makoto Hosoda; Mohamad Abdul Barique; Arief Udhiarto; Djoko Hartanto; Muhammad Budi Setiawan; Yoichiro Neo; Hidenori Mimura

    An oscillating piezoresistive microcantilever (MC) coated with an aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was used to detect carbon monoxide (CO) in air at room temperature. Al-doped ZnO nanorods were grown on the MC surface using the hydrothermal method, and a response to CO gas was observed by measuring a resonant frequency shift of vibrated MC. CO gas response showed a significant increase

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Healthy Operator 4.0: A Human Cyber–Physical System Architecture for Smart Workplaces
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Shengjing Sun; Xiaochen Zheng; Bing Gong; Jorge García Paredes; Joaquín Ordieres-Meré

    Recent advances in technology have empowered the widespread application of cyber–physical systems in manufacturing and fostered the Industry 4.0 paradigm. In the factories of the future, it is possible that all items, including operators, will be equipped with integrated communication and data processing capabilities. Operators can become part of the smart manufacturing systems, and this fosters a

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Application of A Precision Apiculture System to Monitor Honey Daily Production
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Pietro Catania; Mariangela Vallone

    Precision beekeeping or precision apiculture is an apiary management strategy based on the monitoring of individual bee colonies to minimize resource consumption and maximize the productivity of bees. Bees play a fundamental role in ensuring pollination; they can also be considered as indicators of the state of pollution and are used as bio monitors. Beekeeping needs continuous monitoring of the animals

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Wavelength-Resolution SAR Ground Scene Prediction Based on Image Stack
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Bruna G. Palm; Dimas I. Alves; Mats I. Pettersson; Viet T. Vu; Renato Machado; Renato J. Cintra; Fábio M. Bayer; Patrik Dammert; Hans Hellsten

    This paper presents five different statistical methods for ground scene prediction (GSP) in wavelength-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The GSP image can be used as a reference image in a change detection algorithm yielding a high probability of detection and low false alarm rate. The predictions are based on image stacks, which are composed of images from the same scene acquired at

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Nanostructured MOS Sensor for the Detection, Follow up, and Threshold Pursuing of Campylobacter Jejuni Development in Milk Samples
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Estefanía Núñez-Carmona; Marco Abbatangelo; Dario Zappa; Elisabetta Comini; Giorgio Sberveglieri; Veronica Sberveglieri

    Food poisoning is still the first cause of hospitalization worldwide and the most common microbial agent, Campylobacter jejuni, is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in humans in the EU (European Union) as is reported by the European Union One Health 2018 Zoonoses Report styled by the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control)

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Mass Sensors Based on Capacitive and Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers—CMUT and PMUT
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    H. Nazemi; J. Antony Balasingam; S. Swaminathan; K. Ambrose; M. U. Nathani; T. Ahmadi; Y. B. Lopez; A. Emadi

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based mass sensors are proposed as potential candidates for highly sensitive chemical and gas detection applications owing to their miniaturized structure, low power consumption, and ease of integration with readout circuits. This paper presents a new approach in developing micromachined mass sensors based on capacitive and piezoelectric transducer configurations

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Massive MIMO-Based Distributed Signal Detection in Multi-Antenna Wireless Sensor Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Guofeng Wei; Bangning Zhang; Guoru Ding; Bing Zhao; Yimin Wei; Daoxing Guo

    For massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) distributed wireless sensor networks, this paper investigates the role of multi-antenna sensors in improving network perception performance. First, we construct a distributed multi-antenna sensor network based on massive MIMO. By using the anti-fading characteristics of multi-antennas, it is better to achieve accurate detection than the single-antenna

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Fast Anchor Point Matching for Emergency UAV Image Stitching Using Position and Pose Information
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Ruizhe Shao; Chun Du; Hao Chen; Jun Li

    With the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) techniques, UAV images are becoming more widely used. However, as an essential step of UAV image application, the computation of stitching remains time intensive, especially for emergency applications. Addressing this issue, we propose a novel approach to use the position and pose information of UAV images to speed up the process of image stitching

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Gait Rhythm Dynamics for Neuro-Degenerative Disease Classification via Persistence Landscape- Based Topological Representation
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Yan Yan; Kamen Ivanov; Olatunji Mumini Omisore; Tobore Igbe; Qiuhua Liu; Zedong Nie; Lei Wang

    Neuro-degenerative disease is a common progressive nervous system disorder that leads to serious clinical consequences. Gait rhythm dynamics analysis is essential for evaluating clinical states and improving quality of life for neuro-degenerative patients. The magnitude of stride-to-stride fluctuations and corresponding changes over time—gait dynamics—reflects the physiology of gait, in quantifying

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Intraretinal Fluid Pattern Characterization in Optical Coherence Tomography Images
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Joaquim de Moura; Plácido L. Vidal; Jorge Novo; José Rouco; Manuel G. Penedo; Marcos Ortega

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has become a relevant image modality in the ophthalmological clinical practice, as it offers a detailed representation of the eye fundus. This medical imaging modality is currently one of the main means of identification and characterization of intraretinal cystoid regions, a crucial task in the diagnosis of exudative macular disease or macular edema, among the main

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Remote Sensing Systems
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Aleksander Olejnik; Łukasz Kiszkowiak; Robert Rogólski; Grzegorz Chmaj; Michał Radomski; Maciej Majcher; Łukasz Omen

    This paper describes the possibility of using a small autonomous helicopter to perform tasks using a remote sensing system. This article further shows the most effective way to properly set up autopilot and to process its validation during flight tests. The most important components of the remote sensing system are described and the possibilities of using this system to monitor gas transmission and

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Securing MQTT by Blockchain-Based OTP Authentication
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Francesco Buccafurri; Vincenzo De Angelis; Roberto Nardone

    The Internet of Things is constantly capturing interest from modern applications, changing our everyday life and empowering industrial applications. Interaction and the collaboration among smart devices offer new challenges to security since they conflict with economic and energy consumption requirement constraints. On the other hand, the lack of security measures could negatively impact the concrete

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • Doppler-Spectrum Feature-Based Human–Vehicle Classification Scheme Using Machine Learning for an FMCW Radar Sensor
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Eugin Hyun; YoungSeok Jin

    In this paper, we propose a Doppler-spectrum feature-based human–vehicle classification scheme for an FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous wave) radar sensor. We introduce three novel features referred to as the scattering point count, scattering point difference, and magnitude difference rate features based on the characteristics of the Doppler spectrum in two successive frames. We also use an SVM

    更新日期:2020-04-03
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