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  • Development and Validation of a GC-FID Method for the Analysis of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Rat and Human Faeces and in Fermentation Fluids
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Serena Scortichini; Maria Chiara Boarelli; Stefania Silvi; Dennis Fiorini

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbiota metabolites recognized for their beneficial effects on the host organism. In this study, a simple and rapid sample preparation method combined to SCFAs analysis by direct injection and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), for the determination and quantification of eight SCFAs (acetic, propionic, i-butyric, butyric, i-valeric, valeric, i-caproic and caproic acids) in rat, mice and human faeces and in fermentation fluids samples, has been developed and validated. The method consists of extraction of the SCFAs by ethyl ether after acidification of the samples. The effect of the number of extractions has been assessed in order to optimize the procedure and to obtain a satisfactory yield for all the analyzed SCFAs. The increase of the extracted analytes quantity was significant passing from 1 to 2 and from 2 to 3 extractions (P < 0.05), while no significant differences were found performing 3, 4 or 5 extractions (P > 0.05). The SCFAs extracted are directly analyzed by GC-FID without derivatization and separated on a polyethylene glycol nitroterephthalic acid modified coated capillary column, with a chromatographic run time of 13 min. The proposed method showed good sensitivity, with limits of quantifications in the range 0.14-0.48 µM for SCFAs from propionic to caproic acids and 2.12 µM for acetic acid; recovery was between 80.8 and 108.8% and intraday and interday repeatability in the range 0.6-5.0% of precision (RSD, %) The optimized method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCFAs in real samples of rat, mouse and human faeces and in fermentation fluids, and it can be applied also to very small amount of faecal sample (20 mg).

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of amphetamines in whole blood
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Henrique Silva Bombana; Marcelo Filonzi dos Santos; Daniel Romero Muñoz; Vilma Leyton

    Here, we present a fully validated method using a hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction technique for the determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), fenproporex (FEN), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in whole blood. The validation parameters presented successful values within those recommended by the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTox) in the Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 3 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification ranged from 2 to 5 ng/mL. The determination coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.990 to 0.997, and the method presented good intraday and interday accuracy (from 90.4% to 97.2%) and satisfactory recovery (from 68% to 110%). No carryover was observed. The heteroscedasticity was tested, and only AMP presented homoscedasticity. Weighting factors were applied to correct the linearity of MET (1/x2), MDA (1/x), FEN (1/x1/2), MDMA (1/x2) and MDEA (1/y). Dilution integrity was tested at ratios of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10, and all maintained intraday precision (from 94.9% to 99.3%) and interday precision (from 89.4% to 94.9%). The validated method was applied to six real whole blood samples from individuals suspected of consuming ecstasy, and MDMA, MDA and amphetamine were successfully identified and quantified.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Spectrum-Effect Relationship Study Between HPLC Fingerprints And Antioxidant Activity of Sabia parviflora
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Yinrui Chen; Guoji Pan; Wenfen Xu; Qingwen Sun; Bo Wang; Ye Zhang; Tianjin Yang

    Nowadays, the increased prevalence of sub-health significantly affects human health worldwide. Suppressed sub-healthy by dietotherapy/herbal remedy which showed excellent safety profile, low cost and effectiveness, is an effective way. In this research, the fingerprint and antioxidant activity of Sabia parviflora were obtained by HPLC instrument and DPPH, ABTS, FRAP heatmap assays. And the antioxidant active substances were selected by spectrum-effect relationship. The results showed that significant differences in chemical compositions of samples from different sources, and EW, EE extracts had strong antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of Sabia parviflora was mainly determined by the complex interaction of various flavonoids (promoting, competing or antagonizing). These findings revealed that the abundant flavonoids in Sabia parviflora had significant antioxidant activity and could be potential antioxidants. With therapeutic potential for sub-health, this special tea might provide dietotherapy/herbal to remedy sub-healthy population.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Identification of Metabolites and Potential Biomarkers of Kratom in Urine
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Stephanie Basiliere; Sarah Kerrigan

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a drug that is increasingly used recreationally and “therapeutically”, in the absence of medical supervision. The drug has been associated with a growing number of fatalities, and although its medicinal properties as an atypical opioid require further study, there are legitimate concerns regarding its unregulated use. Mitragynine is the most widely reported alkaloid within the plant, although more than forty other alkaloids have been identified. 7-Hydroxymitragynine is reported to have greater abuse liability due to its increased potency relative to mitragynine. In this report, biomarkers for mitragynine were investigated using liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS). Speciociliatine and speciogynine were identified as alternative biomarkers, often exceeding the concentration of mitragynine in unhydrolyzed urine. 9-O-Demethylmitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine were identified in unhydrolyzed urine in 75% and 63% of the cases. Deconjugation of phase II metabolites using chemical hydrolysis was not suitable due to degradation of the Mitragyna alkaloids. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated using three traditional glucuronidases, four sulfatases and four recombinant enzymes. Although enzymatic hydrolysis increased the concentration of 16-carboxymitragynine, it had nominal benefit for other metabolites. Deconjugation of urine was not necessary due to the abundance of parent drug (mitragynine), its diastereoisomers (speciociliatine and speciogynine) or metabolites (9-O-demethylmitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine).

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Label-free quantitative proteomics positions the effects and mechanisms of Herba Lysimachiae on synovial diseases based on biolabel-led research pattern
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xu-Zhao Li; Hua-Jin Huang; Shuai-Nan Zhang; Qi Liu; Yu-Mei Wang

    Some previous studies have demonstrated that Herba Lysimachiae (HL) has a certain protective effect on synovial lesion. But the synovial diseases HL is suitable for treating have remained unclear, as well as the mechanisms involved. To investigate the therapeutic potentials of HL in synovial diseases based on the biolabel-led research pattern. Label-free quantitative proteomics analysis was used to screen the potential biolabels responsible for the intervention of HL on synovium. The effects of HL on the joint swelling and synovial platelet aggregation in osteoarthritis model was applied to confirm the biolabels analysis results. Totally, 140 common proteins were differentially expressed after treatment with HL, out of which 23 were involved in 4 key pathways and considered as the potential biolabels responsible for the interventions of HL on synovium. Biolabels analysis showed that HL increased the levels of the proteins promoting platelet aggregation in physiological situations. The potential biolabels and their related pathways were mainly associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. In osteoarthritis model, HL inhibited the joint swelling and the overexpression of Itga2b and Itgb3 in synovium to some extent. This study reveals that HL is suitable to treat osteoarthritis. Additionally, HL may produce the dual effects on platelet aggregation in synovium.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A simple and rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to assay cabozantinib in plasma: Application to therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with renal cell carcinoma
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Florent Ferrer; Caroline Solas; Madeline Giocanti; Bruno Lacarelle; Jean-Laurent Deville; Gwenaelle Gravis; Joseph Ciccolini

    Cabozantinib is a novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor recently approved in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) leading to frequent severe toxicities requiring empirical dose reduction. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could help to predict the risk for severe toxicities by quickly detecting overexposed patients followed by prospective adaptive dosing strategy. To achieve this goal, a simple and rapid assay to monitor cabozantinib plasma concentration was developed and validated. After a single precipitation step with 87% recovery, cabozantinib was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization interface) over a 25- 5000 ng/ml range covering usual plasma levels in clinical setting. For cabozantinib and cabozantinib 2H4 used as internal standard, quantification was performed using the m/z 502 → m/z 323 and m/z 506 → m/z 323 transitions, respectively.Analytical runtime was 5 minutes. Both inter-days and intra-day accuracy and precision were <15%. When tested in routine clinical practice in a subset of mRCC patients treated with standard 60 mg quaque die (QD) dosing, the method proved to be fully adapted and neither analytical interferences nor matrix effect was observed. Results showed that cabozantinib trough levels were highly variable among patients (i.e., 973 ±501 ng/ml, CV = 52%), calling for implementing TDM in patients with mRCC to monitor exposure levels and evaluate concentration-response relationship.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Development and validation of a novel UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of delafloxacin in plasma and aqueous humour for pharmacokinetic analyses
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Muzaffar Iqbal; Essam Ezzeldin; Rasheed Naji Herqash; Md. Khalid Anwer; Faizul Azam
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Generic and rapid determination of low molecular weight organic chemical contaminants in protein powder by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jia Zhan; Xi-zhi Shi; Xu-wen Xu; Guo-zhou Cao; Xian-feng Chen

    A rapid, simple, and generic analytical method that could simultaneously determine 291 undesirable low molecular weight chemical contaminants from different drug families in protein powder, such as veterinary drugs and pesticides, etc, had been developed. This method comprised the extraction with acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), clean-up through dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) and low temperature filtration, and analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry at multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Acetonitrile-DMSO was more generic than acetonitrile or methanol for the extraction of large-scale organic chemical contaminants with different polarities in protein powder. Most interferences in the extract were eliminated by the combination of D-SPE and low temperature filtration, which simultaneously provided satisfactory recoveries of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic analytes. In particular, besides the purification function, the sorbent of D-SPE also played an important role in grinding samples to improve extraction efficiency during homogenization. This streamlined approach allowed the processes of extraction and the main purification were carried out in one-step, and dramatically reduced sample preparation turnaround times and solvent consumption. For quantification, matrix-fortified calibration curves showed competent linearity for most of the target compounds with linear regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9900, except for two analytes. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, which was usually sufficient to verify the compliance of products with legal tolerances. The average recoveries for spiked protein powder ranged from 65.6% to 142.2% with associated RSD values between 0.5% and 28.5%. For over 90% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 70% and 120% with RSD values in the range of 1%–15%. Applying this method in routine monitoring programs would drastically reduce both effort and time.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Fast LC-MS quantification of ptesculentoside, caudatoside, ptaquiloside and corresponding pterosins in bracken ferns
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Vaidotas Kisielius; Dan Nybro Lindqvist; Mikkel Boas Thygesen; Michael Rodamer; Hans Christian Bruun Hansen; Lars Holm Rasmussen
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Minor compounds and potential interferents in gas chromatographic analyses of human serum fatty acids
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Chen-Chen Lin; Amarjargal Sengee; Svein A. Mjøs

    Fatty acids from 100 randomly selected human serum samples were esterified to fatty acid methyl esters and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. A subset of the 20 samples that spans the variation in the original set of 100 samples were thereafter analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS data was acquired using capillary columns with two different stationary phases, BP20 (polyethylene glycol) and BPX70 (cyanopropyl polysilphenylene-siloxane). Equivalent chain lengths on the two columns are reported for 69 compounds that constituted more than 0.1% of the chromatographic area in at least one sample. Of these, 39 compounds were identified as regular fatty acid methyl esters. The remaining 30 compounds were decomposition products from cholesterol, dimethylacetals, three compounds that have been linked to poor kidney function, and 13 compounds that are currently unidentified. The retention index patterns showed that on both columns there were 16 compounds that were separated by less than 0.05 equivalent chain length units from the nearest neighbor, meaning that they were overlapping or poorly resolved. The relationship between the peak threshold level and the number of peaks found above the level predicts a dramatic increase in the number of peaks that have to be resolved if the threshold is lowered below 0.1%.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • A systematic and methodical approach for the efficient purification of recombinant protein from silkworm larval hemolymph
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Robert Minkner; Jian Xu; Holger Zagst; Hermann Wätzig; Tatsuya Kato; Imke Oltmann-Norden; Enoch Y. Park

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a promising expression system for the production of recombinant proteins, but the purification of these proteins is not easy because of the large amount of host proteins present. To investigate purity, recovery and scale-up ability of the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in silkworm larval hemolymph without any affinity tags, we used mCherry, a red fluorescence protein, as a model. The host cell proteins could be greatly reduced using a three-step chromatography protocol consisting of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and heparin chromatography after heat pretreatment. The thermal treatment had the greatest impact on the removal of host cell extracellular proteins and increasing purity. There were still some minor traces of host cell proteins in the purified sample, which showed that the purification of recombinant proteins from the silkworm hemolymph was still challenging. The proposed protocol and affinity tag purification reduced the overall protein content by 99.84% and 99.95%, respectively, while the amount of DNA was reduced by 98.41% and 99.53%, respectively. Purities of our proposed protocol based on SDS-PAGE and capillary electrophoresis (CE) analyses were 85.45% and 43.60%, respectively, while those of Strep-tag affinity purification were 100% or 63.69%, respectively. Using densitometry, the overall recovery was calculated was 5.78%, which was higher than 4.09% using Strep-tag affinity purification. This proposed protocol, mainly based on thermal treatment, HIC, SEC and HiTrap Heparin HP column chromatography, is applicable to an upscalable purification for the silkworm expression system without employing affinity tag chromatography process.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Proteomic profiling of salmon skin mucus for the comparison of sampling methods
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    C.K. Fæste; H. Tartor; A. Moen; A.B. Kristoffersen; A.K.S. Dhanasiri; J.H. Anonsen; T. Furmanek; S. Grove

    The epidermal mucus protects fish against harmful environmental factors and the loss of physiological metabolites and water. It is an efficient barrier between the fish and the biosphere. The integrity of the skin mucus is thus of vital importance for the welfare and survival of the fish. Since excreted proteins and small molecules in the mucus can mirror the health status of the fish, it is a valuable matrix for monitoring stress, pathogen exposure, and nutritional effects. Several methods for sampling epidermal mucus from different fish species have previously been described, but information about their efficiency or the comparability of mucus analyses is lacking. In the present study, skin mucus from farmed Atlantic salmon was therefore sampled by three methods, including absorption with tissue, wiping, and scraping with a blunt blade, and the mucus proteome was analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatograph high-resolution mass spectrometry. The measured protein content, numbers, compositions and the observed data quality were compared between sampling methods. Furthermore, functional annotation and classification of the identified proteins was performed. The results showed that the three skin mucus sample types differed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The absorbed mucus was the least tainted by proteins resulting from damage inflicted to the fish epidermis by the sampling procedure. Wiped mucus showed a better protein yield than absorbed and delivered a larger proteome of identifiable proteins, with less contamination from epithelial proteins than observed for scraped mucus. We recommend that future research of mucus should use the absorption method in cases, where it is important that the mucus is devoid of proteins from the underlying epithelium, and the wiping method, when protein yield is crucial or when the proteome of the outer epithelium is of interest.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Quantitative bio-analysis of pitavastatin and candesartan in rat plasma by HPLC-UV: Assessment of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Misari Patel; Charmy Kothari

    A novel, precise, accurate and rapid HPLC-UV method was developed, optimised and fully validated for simultaneous estimation of pitavastatin (PIT) and candesartan (CAN) in rat plasma using telmisartan as an internal standard. Following liquid-liquid extraction of the analytes from plasma, chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Waters Reliant C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) using ACN-5 mM Sodium acetate buffer (80:20, v/v; pH adjusted to 3.5 with acetic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and wavelength of 234 nm. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 2-400 ng/mL and 3-400 ng/mL for pitavastatin and candesartan respectively. The method when validated as per US-FDA guidelines was found to be precise as well as accurate. Extraction recovery observed for both analytes was above 90% as well as reproducible and consistent. Stability studies showed the samples to be stable over a long period covering from sample collection to final analysis. The method was successfully applied to investigate pharmacokinetic interaction between PIT and CAN in wistar rats. The mean plasma concentration-time curves of PIT and CAN showed that single PIT as well as CAN show similar pharmacokinetic properties to those obtained when co-administrated with each other (P value > 0.05). Hence, there is no evidence for a potential drug-drug interaction between PIT and CAN. This information provides evidence for clinical rational use of CAN and PIT in cardiovascular patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Efficient enrichment of total flavonoids from Pteris ensiformis Burm. extracts by macroporous adsorption resins and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Mengyang Hou; Wenzhong Hu; Zhilong Xiu; Yusheng Shi; Kexin Hao; Duo Cao; Yuge Guan; Hanlin Yin

    The aim of this work is to develop an efficient and economical method for the enrichment of total flavonoids from Pteris ensiformis Burm. extracts. Resin screening, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics were successively researched prior to the dynamic adsorption and desorption tests. NKA-II resin was chosen as the best adsorbent, and the adsorption data were best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model. The optimum enrichment conditions were as follows: for adsorption the total flavonoids concentration, flow rate and volume of sample were 1.84 mg/mL, 2 BV/h and 5 BV, respectively, and for desorption the flavonoids-loaded NKA-II resin column was desorbed by 7 BV of 50% ethanol at a rate of 2 BV/h. The product had a 6.63-fold higher total flavonoids content than crude extracts, and the recovery yield of total flavonoids was 80.65%. Furthermore, flavonoids-enriched extracts exhibited higher in vitro scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical than crude extracts. In addition, higher antiproliferative activity of flavonoids-enriched extracts against MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines was also found as compared to the crude extracts. The developed method is appropriate for large-scale enrichment of total flavonoids from Pteris ensiformis Burm. extracts in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Quantification of metronidazole in human bile fluid and plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Jimin Yoon; Sung Wook Kang; Wang-Seob Shim; Jun Kyu Lee; Dong Kee Jang; Namyi Gu; Sae Kyul Kim; Kyung-Tae Lee; Eun Kyoung Chung

    This study was conducted to develop a highly selective, sensitive, and validated method for quantifying metronidazole in human plasma and bile fluid. Metronidazole and metronidazole-d4 (internal standard) were extracted from 100 μL of plasma and bile fluid by liquid-liquid extraction. Liquid chromatography with a Hydrosphere C18 column (50 × 2.0 mm) was performed using 10 mM ammonium formate (pH 4.0) and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) as the mobile phase. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was operated with an electrospray ionization interface in multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion modes. The calibration curves were linear for bile and plasma samples over the range of 50 to 20000 ng/mL (r2 > 0.999). The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (CVs) for plasma ranged from 2.50% to 7.85% and 3.11% to 16.9%, respectively; for bile, the intra-and inter-run precision (CVs) ranged from 2.76% to 13.2% and 3.16% to 11.5%, respectively. The mean extraction recovery for metronidazole ranged from 76.5% to 82.1% in plasma and from 78.8% to 87.8% in bile, respectively. Our proposed analytical method was successfully applied to determine metronidazole concentrations in bile as well as in plasma at multiple time points in a patient with acute cholangitis.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Potential Urinary Extracellular Vesicle Protein Biomarkers of Chronic Active Antibody-mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Hee-Yeon Jung; Chan-Hyeong Lee; Ji-Young Choi; Jang-Hee Cho; Sun-Hee Park; Yong-Lim Kim; Pyong-Gon Moon; Moon-Chang Baek; Jae Berm Park; Yeong Hoon Kim; Byung Ha Chung; Sang-Ho Lee; Chan-Duck Kim

    The aim of this study was to identify potential proteomic biomarkers for chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Among 385 KTRs enrolled in a cross-sectional multicenter study, 26 KTRs with biopsy-proven CAMR, 57 KTRs with long-term graft survival (LGS), and 10 rejection-free matched KTRs were included. A proteomic approach was employed to measure urinary extracellular vesicle (EV) changes in the KTRs. The urinary EVs were trypsin-digested using a gel-assisted protocol and quantified by label-free liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, using a data-dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the protein levels for each candidate biomarker. Analysis of the isolated EV proteins revealed 93 and 97 proteins in the CAMR and LGS patients, respectively. Proteins that were identical in both groups were excluded and only high-significance proteins with a fold change of at least 1.5 were selected as candidate biomarkers. Six proteins (APOA1, TTR, PIGR, HPX, AZGP1, and CP) that were distinguishable between CAMR and LGS were selected. The proteins were confirmed by immunoblot analyses using independently acquired urinary EV samples. AZGP1 in particular was found to be a CAMR-specific proteomic biomarker that was distinguishable from the rejection-free control group with matching kidney function, duration of transplantation, and age. We identified and validated six proteomic biomarkers for CAMR and clarified one CAMR-specific proteomic biomarker in KTRs. Further clinical trials are needed before these rejection-specific biomarkers can be applied for the early prediction, diagnosis, and monitoring of the clinical response of KTRs to the treatment of CAMR.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Quantification of aromatic amines derived from azo colorants in textile by ion-pairing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ádám Tölgyesi; Virender K. Sharma

    Azo dyes can metabolize back to precursor aromatic amines (arylamines), which are potentially carcinogenic. The ISO 14362-1:2017 standard requires the determination of the arylamines, produced from textile samples, preferably by using the gas chromatography mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method. This paper presents an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for determining aromatic amines, derived from azo colorants, in both natural and synthetic textiles. The separation enables adequate apparent retention factor (k’ > 2.1 for the most hydrophilic compounds) and has appropriate sensitivity without sample clean-up procedure. The background matrix constituents influence the quantification in even a 100-fold diluted sample, therefore, calibration requires background compensation. The method allows fast confirmation and quantification of twenty-five arylamines in complex matrices of textiles. The method was validated with success and used to both natural and synthetic textile proficiency test (PT) samples.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Selective isolation of sesquiterpene coumarins from asafoetida using dummy molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction method
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Shima Eidi; Mehrdad Iranshahi; Arash Mohammadinejad; Mahdieh Sadat Mohsenzadeh; Faegheh Farhadi; Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri

    Due to the biological features of sesquiterpene coumarins and incomparable interest in therapeutics application of natural products, extraction of sesquiterpene coumarins from asafoetida have gained highly attention. One of the most important problems is removal of sulfur containing compounds which are co-existed with sesquiterpene coumarins. So employment of new methods for selective extraction and cleanup of sesquiterpene coumarins is very substantial. In this study using dummy molecularly imprinting technique, 7-hydroxycoumarin-imprited polymer was synthesized and after evaluation of binding properties of polymers, the optimum one was used as sorbent in solid phase extraction. Afterwards dummy molecularly imprinting solid phase extraction (DMISPE) method was calibrated for simultaneous extraction of galbanic acid, 7-isopentenyloxy coumarin and auraptene from aqueous media before high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC-UV) analysis. The recovery was in the range of 68.32%-84.69%, which were in the acceptable range compared to previous works. Finally, the calibrated DMISPE method was used for extraction and cleanup of sesquiterpene coumarins from asafetida plant. The concentration of isosamarcandin, kellerin and farnesiferol in asafoetida extract was obtained 0.8, 2.7, and 5 µg/mL, respectively, using standard addition method.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Simultaneous determination of deuterated vortioxetine and its major metabolite in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Yingyue Yi; Guanghui Ren; Ming Zheng; Di Zhao; Ning Li; Xijng Chen; Yang Lu

    JJH201501, a deuterated modification for multi-target antidepressant vortioxetine, is currently in phase I clinical trial. This study aimed to establish a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method that was capable of simultaneously detecting JJH201501 and its major metabolite JJH201501-01 quantitatively in human plasma. The pretreatment was achieved by protein precipitation using 4-fold(v:v) acetonitrile with 0.05 ng/mL fluoxetine as internal standard precipitant. For method validation, the method was investigated in terms of the selectivity, inter- and intra-run precision and accuracy, matrix effect, extraction recovery and stability. The total running time was 3 min, and the retention time of JJH201501 and JJH201501-01 was 1.17 min and 1.05 min, respectively. The linear concentration range for JJH201501 and JJH201501-01 was 0.2 to 50 ng/mL and 0.4 to 100 ng/mL, respectively. The results showed that this method was in line with the guidelines for bioanalytical method proposed by FDA. In addition, the method was successfully applied to a plasma pharmacokinetic study of JJH201501 tablets in healthy volunteers which was part of the phase I trial.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Rapid sample preparation for ganglioside analysis by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Spiro Khoury; Elodie Masson; Estelle Sibille; Stéphanie Cabaret; Olivier Berdeaux

    Gangliosides (GG) are glycosphingolipids, composed of a ceramide moiety (fatty acid and long chain base) linked to an oligosaccharide chain containing one (or more) molecule of sialic acid. After lipid extraction from biological matrices, quantification of GG by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) can be impacted by ion suppression effects due to co-elution with more abundant lipids in the matrix. In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient method to purify GG from biological samples by Phree columns is proposed. This approach proved to be useful in eliminating phospholipids (PL) from the matrix and thus increasing the signal of GG classes and molecular species in rat brain samples during LC-ESI/MS analysis.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • HPLC-MS/MS measurement of lidocaine in rat skin and plasma. Application to study the release from medicated plaster
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    C. Matteo; G. Dovrtelova; A. Di Clemente; R. Frapolli; A. Passoni; T. Ceruti; G. Marsella; L. Cervo; M. Zucchetti

    A simple, sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of lidocaine in skin and plasma of rats. The methods were established and validated assessing lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), linearity, intra and inter-day precision and accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. Chromatography was done on a Gemini column embedded with C18 stationary phase (50 mm x 2.0 mm, 5 µm particle size), using a gradient with mobile phases consisting of 0.1% HCOOH in bidistilled water and 0.1% HCOOH in acetonitrile. The mass spectrometer worked with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring, using target ions m/z 235.10 for lidocaine and m/z 245.10 for lidocaine-d10, used as internal standard. Results the linearity of the method was in the ranges of lidocaine concentrations 10.0-200.0 ng/mL for skin homogenate (accuracy 94.1-105.5%; R2 ≥0.998) and 0.025–2 ng/mL for plasma (accuracy 96.2-104.8%; R2 ≥0.996). The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy determined on three quality control samples (20, 75 and 170 ng/mL for skin and 0.075, 0.4 and 1.5 ng/mL for plasma) were ≤ 4.2% and 103.8-108.2% for skin and ≤12.4% and 95.5-101.4% for plasma. The LLOQ was 10 ng/mL in skin homogenate and 0.025 ng/mL in plasma. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by measuring lidocaine in skin and plasma after exposure to medicated patches containing 5% lidocaine.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for impurity analysis of dye-conjugated oligonucleotides
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Brooke Koshel; Robert Birdsall; Weibin Chen

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (2D-LC/MS) has been successfully implemented for several biopharmaceutical applications, but applications for oligonucleotide analysis have been relatively unexplored. When analyzing oligonucleotides in one-dimension, selecting an ion-pairing agent often requires a balance between acceptable chromatographic and mass spectrometric performance. When oligonucleotides are modified or conjugated to include extremely hydrophobic groups, such as fluorophores, the separation mechanism is further complicated by the impact the fluorophore has on retention. Triethylamine (TEA) buffered in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is the most commonly used ion-pairing agent for analyses requiring mass spectrometry, but the elution order of dye-conjugated failed sequences relative to the main peak is not length-based compared to what would be predicted for unconjugated oligonucleotides having the same sequence. Hexylammonium acetate (HAA) offers more efficient ion-pairing for a length-based separation, but MS response is compromised due to ion suppression. In this study, 2D-LC/MS is used to show that dye-conjugated oligonucleotide failed sequences can be resolved from the parent oligonucleotide using a strong ion-pairing agent in the first-dimension and further identified using a weaker but MS compatible ion-pairing agent in the second-dimension, results that are not achievable in a one-dimensional analysis. More specifically, a heart-cut configuration using ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography in both the first and second dimension (IP-RP – IP-RP) is used to transfer the n-1 impurity from a length-based separation in the first-dimension to a second-dimension analysis for identity confirmation using a single quadrupole detector. Identical C18 column chemistry is used in both the first and second dimension to exploit changes in selectivity that are due to mobile phase selection. The n-1 impurity from the two-dimensional analysis can be detected at low nanogram levels, comparable to results achieved in a one-dimensional dilution series, which approaches the limit of detection of the instrumentation. This work has future applicability to more complex impurity profiling using high-resolution instrumentation, where a more extensive set of impurities could not be evaluated using one-dimensional techniques.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Multiple Classes of Steroid Hormone Isomers in a Mixture
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Alana L. Rister; Eric D. Dodds

    Methods for the analysis of steroids have long been of interest due to the multiple uses for such methods in medical applications, sports monitoring, and environmental science. The analysis of steroids involves inherent analytical hurdles due to their low biological concentrations, poor ionization efficiencies, and frequent occurrence of isomerism. One analytical technique that has been recently applied to steroid analysis is ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). While previous work has focused on the use of metal adduction and multimer formation to enhance separation through IMS analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), this work furthers this approach by coupling IMS-MS with liquid chromatography (LC). Three different LC methods with varying tradeoffs between chromatographic resolution and run time were developed, with one of these achieving a resolution above 1.5 for all steroid isomers. These results also indicate that the coupling of LC to IMS-MS can increase the overall resolution of steroid isomers relative to what can be achieved by either LC or IMS alone. Furthermore, the use of LC and IMS in concert can allow for a more rapid analysis of steroid isomers than can be achieved by LC-MS alone. Finally, the IMS dimension provided for measurements of ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCSs), which were found to be in good agreement with previously reported measurements. Thus, this approach provides three complementary quantitative parameters (retention time, CCS, and mass-to-charge ratio) that can contribute the identification of analytes. Overall, the work presented here demonstrates the potential of coupling LC, IMS, and MS for the analysis of isomeric steroid hormones.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Simultaneous determination of eight arginine-related metabolites in cellular extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-15
    Sarmila Amatya; Yumi Shin; Jeong Yeop Ha; Su-Jun Lee; Sang Wook Kang; Byungsuk Kwon; Dong Hyun Kim

    A simple, sensitive, and rapid liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arginine and its pathway-related metabolites (ornithine, proline, citrulline, glutamate, agmatine, spermidine, and spermine) in cellular extracts. Cells were lysed and cellular proteins precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile followed by ultra-sonication. Supernatants were analyzed using a Chromolith High Resolution RP-18 endcapped column (100 × 4.6 mm, 1.15 μm, 150 Å), with mobile phases of 0.1% formic acid solution and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. Detection was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Calibration curves showed linearity (r2 > 0.99) for all metabolites over the calibration ranges used. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 13.5%, and the accuracy was between 91.3 and 114.7%. The method developed in this study was successfully applied to measure arginine and its pathway-related metabolites, which are related to nitric oxide synthase/arginase pathways in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The ability to simultaneously measure arginine and its pathway-related metabolites is valuable for better understanding local and systemic inflammatory processes.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry bioanalytical method for the determination of kavain in mice plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Juliana Veloso Ferreira; Alysson Vinícius Braga; Renes de Resende Machado; Deborah Michel; Gerson Antônio Pianetti; Anas El-Aneed; Isabela Costa César

    A simple and fast bioanalytical method for the quantification of kavain in mice plasma was developed using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A full method validation was performed, according to regulatory guidelines, employing isotopically labeled kavain as the internal standard (racemic-kavain-d3). For the quantification, [M+H]+ was formed using an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was employed using a quadrupole-linear ion trap (4000 QTRAP®) instrument. The monitored MRM transitions were 231.0→115.1 and 231.0→152.8 for kavain; and 234.2→199.2 for the internal standard. A linear response was obtained at the concentration range of 10 to 200 ng/mL with intra- and inter-day variations within the acceptable criteria for all quality control samples. After validation, the method was successfully applied for the quantification of kavain in mice plasma after oral administration of the kavain standard and Kava-kava extract. The plasma concentration over time results were applied for a pharmacokinetics study. The obtained pharmacokinetic parameters indicated a considerably higher bioavailability for kavain when Kava-kava extract was administered due to a pharmacokinetic synergism between the analyte and the other compounds present in the extract.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Metabolic Study of Vardenafil analogues: Pseudovardenafil and Hydroxyvardenafil
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Dayoung Heo; Jae Seon Kang; Sanggil Choe; Sooyeun Lee; Kang Min Kim; Jaesung Pyo

    Vardenafil, a remedy for erectile dysfunction, is easily modified, facilitating the creation of analogues that have been illegally added to functional foods and counterfeit medications. However, the medical profile of these analogues, including their safety, efficacy, safe drug combinations, metabolism and excretion, has not been completely evaluated, which could cause serious health problems. In this study, two representative vardenafil analogues, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyvardenafil, were metabolized with in-vitro model (human liver microsome) and in-vivo model (rats). The metabolized samples were extracted and characterized, using liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Some imprecise interpretations were evaluated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) for mass fragmentation analysis. A total of 11 metabolites of pseudovardenafil and 13 metabolites of hydroxyvardenafil that were identified have never been reported. These new metabolites could be usefully applied to forensic science and other metabolic fields. Furthermore, they could serve as principal references for the toxicity, danger, and side effects of unlawful vardenafil counterfeits.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Quantification of anidulafungin and micafungin in human body fluids by high performance-liquid chromatography with UV-detection
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    René Welte; Herbert Oberacher; Bernhard Schwärzler; Michael Joannidis; Romuald Bellmann

    The echinocandins anidulafungin (ANID) and micafungin (MICA) are recommended for treatment of invasive Candida infections. As target-site concentrations of antimicrobial agents are crucial for eradication of pathogens, we established and validated high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection (HPLC-UV) assays for quantification of ANID and MICA in human plasma, ascites fluid, pleural effusion, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Sample pre-purification was performed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by solid phase extraction. For both assays, intra- and interday precision, and accuracy fulfilled the requirements for bioanalytical methods issued by the European Medicine Agency (EMA). The lower limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/L for both drugs. At 25 °C, ANID and MICA concentrations declined by up to 70 % within 24 h. Concentrations remained stable over 24 hours at 4 °C and over four weeks at -80°C. In conclusion, the developed methods are fit for the assessment of target-site pharmacokinetics of ANID and MICA in clinical studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Determination of bisphenol A in canned food by microwave assisted extraction, molecularly imprinted polymer-solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Niki C. Maragou; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Georgios A. Theodoridis; Eugenia N. Lampi; Michael A. Koupparis

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a known potential endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) is expected to be present in low quantities in canned food due to its migration from the inner surface coating of cans made of epoxy resins. A selective and confirmatory analytical method, based on microwave assisted extraction (MAE), molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) using a polymer prepared by a non-covalent molecular imprinting technique and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) was developed for the determination of BPA in canned pineapple, tuna and mushrooms. First, the effect of the loading medium of hydro- organic solutions on the binding of BPA and its deuterated analogue on the MISPE sorbent was investigated. Subsequently, the effects of the experimental conditions of the microwave assisted extraction (solvent, sample mass/solvent volume, time and temperature) on the obtained recovery of BPA from canned food were assessed and the parameters were optimized to provide maximum recovery and selectivity. It was demonstrated that the combination of MAE with MISPE permits the use of a selective extraction solvent (methanol/water, 4/6, v/v), simplifying the sample preparation steps and enhancing sample clean-up of complex food matrices. The method was validated in different food matrices, using BPA-d16 as internal standard and quantitative relative recoveries were determined. The precision (RSD %) of the method ranged from 7% to 10% and the limit of detection was at low ng/g level for all food matrices. The determined concentration of BPA in commercial canned samples ranged between 7.3 – 42.3 ng/g.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Comparative analysis of the human serum N-glycome in lung cancer, COPD and their comorbidity using capillary electrophoresis
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Brigitta Mészáros; Gábor Járvás; Anna Farkas; Márton Szigeti; Zsuzsanna Kovács; Renáta Kun; Miklós Szabó; Eszter Csánky; András Guttman

    Lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent ailments with a great challenge to distinguish them based on symptoms only. Since they require different treatments, it is important to find non-invasive methods capable to readily diagnose them. Moreover, COPD increases the risk of lung cancer development, leading to their comorbidity. In this pilot study the N-glycosylation profile of pooled human serum samples (90 patients each) from lung cancer, COPD and comorbidity (LC with COPD) patients were investigated in comparison to healthy individuals (control) by capillary gel electrophoresis with high sensitivity laser-induced fluorescence detection. Sample preparation was optimized for human serum samples introducing a new temperature adjusted denaturation protocol to prevent precipitation and increased endoglycosidase digestion time to assure complete removal of the N-linked carbohydrates. The reproducibility of the optimized method was <3.5%. Sixty-one N-glycan structures were identified in the pooled control human serum sample and the profile was compared to pooled lung cancer, COPD and comorbidity of COPD with lung cancer patient samples. One important findings was that no other sugar structures were detected in any of the patient groups, only quantitative differences were observed. Based on this comparative exercise, a panel of 13 N-glycan structures were identified as potential glycobiomarkers to reveal significant changes (>33% in relative peak areas) between the pathological and control samples. In addition to N-glycan profile changes, alterations in the individual N-glycan subclasses, such as total fucosylation, degree of sialylation and branching may also hold important glycobiomarker values.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Vancomycin and creatinine determination in dried blood spots: analytical validation and clinical assessment
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Letícia Scribel, Alexandre P. Zavascki, Douglas Matos, Francine Silveira, Talitha Peralta, Natalia Gonçalves Landgraf, Priscila Lamb Wink, Anne Caroline Cezimbra da Silva, Nadine Bordin Andriguetti, Letícia Loss Lisboa, Marina Venzon Antunes, Rafael Linden

    This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for vancomycin and creatinine measurement in dried blood spots (DBS) and to evaluate its clinical application. The analytes were extracted from DBS and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Vancomycin and creatinine DBS and plasma concentrations were compared in 54 and 35 samples, respectively, from 29 patients. Accuracy was 94.4-102.6%, intra-assay precision was 2.1-5.6%, and inter-assay precision was 3.5-7.0%. Patients vancomycin plasma to DBS concentration ratios were highly variable (1.148 to 5.022), differently from creatinine (0.800 to 1.283). The assay has adequate analytical performance. Plasma concentrations can be satisfactorily predicted from DBS measurements for creatinine, but not for vancomycin, which limits its clinical application.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • 更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Determination and Validation of Mycophenolic Acid by a UPLC-MS/MS Method: Applications to Pharmacokinetics and Tongue Tissue Distribution Studies in Rats
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Xiuqing Gao, Robert Y.L. Tsai, Jing Ma, Parnit K. Bhupal, Xiaohua Liu, Dong Liang, Huan Xie

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) has being used clinically for organ rejection prophylaxis. Recent studies have revealed that MPA can also act as a chemo-sensitizing agent when used in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents in a cancer type-specific manner, including with oxaliplatin on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. To prepare for the analysis of a novel drug delivery route for MPA absorption via oral mucosa as a potential therapeutic product, it is essential to develop and validate a highly sensitive analytical method for the quantification of MPA in biological samples for pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies. Herein, we report a sensitive, specific and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to do so. Blank rat plasma or tongue tissue homogenates coupled with griseofulvin, as internal standard, was used for generating standard curves ranging from 0.5 – 1000 ng/mL (r > 0.9990) for both plasma and tongue tissue homogenates. The chromatographic separation was achieved by a reverse phase ACE Excel 2 Super C18 column with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min under gradient elution. Mass detection was performed under positive ionization electrospray. Inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision of the assay were ≤15% in both plasma and tongue tissue homogenates. The matrix effect was non-significant and extraction recovery rates were within 87.99% and 109.69% in plasma and tongue homogenates, respectively. The validity of this assay has been confirmed by measuring MPA in rat plasma for pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg of mycophenolate sodium, as well as monitoring MPA in rat tongues for tissue distribution and detecting MPA that diffused into systemic circulation following a 4-hr transmucosal delivery of 357 μg/cm2 of mycophenolate sodium.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Determination of acrylamide in gingerbread and other food samples by HILIC-MS/MS: A dilute-and-shoot method
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Ádám Tölgyesi, Virender K. Sharma

    This paper describes a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (HILIC-MS/MS) method for determining acrylamide in food. The method primary optimised for gingerbread samples that have high sugar contents. A new sample preparation process was optimized using an experiment design based on a central composition design (CCD). A mixture of acidified aqueous acetonitrile was established as a suitable extraction medium. The extracts were further diluted and separation of acrylamide on TSKgel Amide-80 HILIC column was carried out within 8 min. The method was validated using naturally contaminated quality check (QC) as well as spiked samples. The developed method showed acceptable accuracy (101% - 105%) and precision (2.9% - 7.6%). The limit of quantification was 20 µg/kg. The method was also tested by analysing acrylamide in other food samples (bread, roasted coffee, instant coffee, cappuccino powder and fried potato). The acrylamide concentrations found in samples were between 20 µg/kg and 667 µg/kg, which were lower than the benchmark levels set by the European Union (EU). The main advantage of the newly developed method over the standard methods included the easier sample preparation and faster analysis with reduced ion suppression.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Steroid profile analysis by LC-HRMS in human seminal fluid
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Eulalia Olesti, Arnaud Garcia, Rita Rahban, Michel F. Rossier, Julien Boccard, Serge Nef, Víctor González-Ruiz, Serge Rudaz

    Steroids are essential hormones that play a crucial role in homeostasis of many biological processes including sexual development, spermatogenesis, sperm physiology and fertility. Although steroids have been largely studied in many biological matrices (such as urine and plasma), there is very limited information of the steroid content and their study as potential indicators of the quality of the seminal fluid. In this study, a LC-HRMS strategy has been developed in order to obtain the extended steroid profile of human seminal fluid. A comparison between supported liquid extraction (SLE) and solid liquid extraction (SPE) was carried out and the chosen SPE method was further optimized to evidence the largest possible number of compounds. Steroids were automatically annotated by using DynaStI, a publicly available retention time prediction tool developed in our lab, to match the experimental data (i.e. accurate mass and tR). Altogether, these resources allowed us to develop a post-targeted approach able to consistently detect 41 steroids in seminal fluid (with half of them being androgens). Such steroid pattern was found stable across different extraction times and injection days. In addition to accurate mass and retention time, the identity of 70% of the steroids contained in such steroid profile was confirmed by comparing their fragmentation patterns in real samples to those of pure commercial standards. Finally, the workflow was applied to compare and distinguish the steroid profile in seminal fluid from healthy volunteers (n=7, with one of them being a vasectomized subject). In all, the developed steroidomics strategy allows to reliably monitor an extended panel of 41 steroids in human seminal fluid.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Synergistic effect of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata water-soluble alkaloids and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma total ginsenosides compatibility on acute heart failure rats
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Meichen Liu, Yunxia Li, Yunqiu Tang, Li Zheng, Cheng Peng

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect and underlying mechanism of compatibility of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata water-soluble alkaloids (FWA) and Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma total ginsenosides (RTG) on propafenone hydrochloride induced acute heart failure (AHF) rats. Firstly, hemodynamics and serum biochemical indexes were measured to observe the therapeutic effect of FWA, RTG and their compatibility on AHF rats. Non-target serum metabolomics and multicomponent pharmacokinetic experiments were then performed to reveal the mechanism from the two aspects of body reaction and drug behavior in vivo. Data showed the haemodynamics indexes (maximum change rate of left ventricular pressure, heart rate) and neuroendocrine cytokines (TNF-α and Nt-proBNP) levels in rats treated by compatibility of FWA and RTG were improved more significantly than that treated by single drug. Through metabolomics analysis, six metabolites, including L-pipecolic acid, L-arginine, uric acid, N-benzoylglycine, sphingosine-1-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol lyso 16:0, were selected and identified as the potential biomarkers of the synergistic effect. Furthermore, lysine degradation, arginine and proline metabolism, purine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, etc. were the differential pathways involved. The results of pharmacokinetics showed Cmax, AUClast and t1/2 of the four components (uracil, salsolinol, guanosine, higenamine) of FWA in compatibility group were obviously higher than that in single drug group, which indicated the absorption and bioavailability of these alkaloids were increased, and the residence time was prolonged after FWA combined with RTG. In conclusion, the therapeutic effect of FWA-RTG on AHF rats was enhanced and that might because the compatibility of FWA-RTG affected the process of some metabolites in AHF rats, and pharmacokinetic behavior of components in FWA was obviously influenced after co-administered with RTG.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • 8-Hydroxyguanosine as a possible RNA oxidative modification marker in urine from colorectal cancer patients: evaluation by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Cheng Guo, Qin Chen, Jiani Chen, Jiekai Yu, Yiqiu Hu, Suzhan Zhang, Shu Zheng

    Oxidative RNA damage has been found to be associated with a variety of diseases, and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG) is a typical marker of oxidative modification of RNA. This guanosine modification is an emerging biomarker for disease detection and determination of 8-OHG in human urine is favored because it is noninvasive to patients. However, due to its poor ionization efficiency in mass spectrometry and trace amount in urine, accurate quantification of this modified nucleoside is still challenging. Herein, a rapid, accurate, sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with isotope dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for detection of this oxidative RNA modification in human urine. The limit of detection can reach 1.5 fmol and the method exhibits good precision on intra-day (1.8-3.3%) and inter-day (0.6-1.2%) analyses. Satisfactory recovery (87.5-107.2%) at three spiked levels was achieved by using HLB cartridge for urine pretreatment. Using this method, we quantified 8-OHG in urine from 65 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 76 healthy volunteers. The measured level of urinary 8-OHG for CRC patients and healthy controls is 1.91 ± 0.63 nmol/mmol creatinine and 1.33 ± 0.35 nmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. We found the content of 8-OHG in urine was raised in CRC patients patients, implying this oxidative RNA modification marker could act as a potential noninvasive indicator for early screening of CRC. In addition, this study will make contributions to the investigations of the influences of oxidative stress on the formation and development of CRC.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Novel high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of BCR-ABL and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their three active metabolites in human plasma
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Yuji Mukai, Tatsunari Yoshida, Takeshi Kondo, Nobuo Inotsume, Takaki Toda

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is important in patients taking BCR-ABL and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Some TKI active metabolites with long elimination half-lives, such as dihydrodiol ibrutinib (DHI), N-desmethyl imatinib (N-DI), and N-desmethyl ponatinib (N-DP), have been characterized, indicating that these active metabolites should be monitored along with the parent compounds. However, there are currently no methods for the simultaneous quantification of BCR-ABL and Bruton’s TKIs and their three active metabolites. The present study aimed to develop and validate a method for the simultaneous quantification of nine pharmacologically active compounds (bosutinib, dasatinib, DHI, ibrutinib, imatinib, N-DI, N-DP, nilotinib, and ponatinib) using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A 150-μL sample of plasma was analyzed after purification with supported liquid extraction. The method has a run time of 7 min and was successfully validated over the following calibration ranges: 0.25-75 ng/mL for N-DP, 0.5-150 ng/mL for dasatinib and ponatinib, 10-3000 ng/mL for imatinib and nilotinib, and 1-300 ng/mL for the other analytes. Stability of the analytes after short- and long-term storage in the presence of plasma matrix was examined, and all analytes were found to be stable under all tested conditions. The recovery was ≥83%, and the relative standard deviation of internal-standard normalized matrix effects ranged from 3.9 to 13.9%. Dilution integrity up to 4-fold was ensured. The applicability of the method for all analytes was demonstrated using patient samples.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for determination of three gliflozins in human plasma by HPLC/DAD
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Mokhtar M. Mabrouk, Suzan M. Soliman, Heba M. El-Agizy, Fotouh R. Mansou

    A novel, highly sensitive ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) method was developed for the determination of empagliflozin, dapagliflozin and canagliflozin in human plasma using methanol as protein precipitating agent/disperser and 1-dodecanol as extracting solvent. The analytes were eluted with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:aqueous 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid pH 2.5, (40:60, v/v), at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 210 nm. The microextraction conditions were optimized regarding type and volume of extractant, type of disperser, sample pH, extraction time and centrifugation time. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors were 19 for empagliflozin, 27 for dapagliflozin and 50 for canagliflozin. Linearity ranges were 2-2500 ng/mL, 3.5-2500 ng/mL and 1.1-2500 ng/mL for empagliflozin, dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, respectively. The developed method employs very small volumes of organic solvents in sample extraction and allows determination of small concetrations of gliflozins in human plasma.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Rapid screening and characterization of natural antioxidants in Polygonum viviparum by an on-line system integrating the pressurised liquid micro-extraction, HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS analysis and antioxidant assay
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Zheng-ming Qian, Ling Chen, Meng-qi Wu, De-qiang Li

    Rapid discovery of active ingredients from complex matrices is one of great challenges for modern drug development. Traditional methods often require many sample treatment steps, including an extraction step with exclusively dedicated solvents followed by repeated separation and activities assessment. This present work described an integrated analytical setup for natural antioxidants discovery in which the online extraction (OLE) of a solid sample is directly coupled to its analysis by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) antioxidant assay (OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS-ABTS). This developed approach makes sample extraction, chromatographic separation and chemical detection, and antioxidant assay integrated into a single HPLC injection and was successfully applied for the rapid discovery of natural antioxidant bioactives from Polygonum viviparum. A total of 21 secondary metabolites were characterized according to their retention times, ultraviolet (UV) spectra, exact mass and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and 18 of them displayed antioxidant activity (response as negative peaks in antioxidant assay). This work describes a simple, green and efficient approach to minimize the sample consumption (only 0.4 mg was required) and eliminate complex sample treatment procedures. The developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS-ABTS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products and their antioxidants discovery.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Chromatographic assay to probe the binding energy and mechanisms of homologous proteins to surface-bound ligands
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Hannah R. Reese, Calvin C. Shanahan, Jacopo Lembo, Latchezar Tsonev, Allen Hirsh, Stefano Menegatti

    Probing the affinity of a ligand for homologous protein targets currently relies on laborious assays that need special equipment and high amounts of isolated, highly pure proteins. Herein we present the use of pISep, an integrated buffer system and modeling package, as an analytical method to rapidly and accurately probe the binding strength and mechanisms of homologous proteins to surface-bound ligands. To demonstrate our method, we utilized the four subclasses of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as model homologous protein targets and the IgG-binding peptide HWRGWV as model ligand. Following IgG adsorption on a HWRGWV-Toyopearl adsorbent, the pISep buffer system was used to run uncoupled dual elution gradients of pH (from pH 8.5 to 2.5) and either isocratic or time dependent salt concentration. Both the sequence and partial overlap of elution times (IgG4 > IgG3 ≥ IgG1 > IgG2) was found to match closely the values of binding strength (KD) determined with both in silico docking simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. pISep gradients performed at different values of ionic strengths provided a means to compare the contribution of hydrophobic vs. electrostatic interactions to the IgG-peptide affinity. The shifts in retention times indicated that, among the various components of the binding energy, the hydrophobic interaction dominates in the binding of IgG2 and IgG4, whereas the binding of IgG1 and IgG3 features a balance of electrostatic and hydrophobic modes. These findings were also confirmed by the in silico analysis of the complexes formed by HWRGWV and the Fc fragment of the IgG subclasses. Collectively, these results indicate that the retention times on pISep elution gradients – in particular peak max, overlap, and shift under different conditions – directly correlate to the strength and nature of protein-ligand interactions. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the pISep toolbox for probing the differential binding of homologous proteins to a reference ligand and informing the optimization of platform processes for the purification and fractionation of biotherapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Development and validation of an integrated LC-MS/MS assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of five PARP-inhibitors
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    M.A.C. Bruin, N. de Vries, L. Lucas, H. Rosing, A.D.R. Huitema, J.H. Beijnen

    An liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the combined analysis of the five poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors niraparib, olaparib, rucaparib talazoparib and veliparib. A simple and fast sample pre-treatment method was used by protein precipitating of plasma samples with acetonitrile and dilution of the supernatant with formic acid (0.1% v/v in water). This was followed by chromatographic separation on a reversed-phase UPLC BEH C18 column and detection with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive mode. A simplified validation procedure specifically designed for bioanalytical methods for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) purposes, was applied. This included assessment of the calibration model, accuracy and precision, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), specificity and selectivity, carry-over and stability. The validated range was 30-3,000 ng/mL for niraparib, 100-10,000 ng/mL for olaparib, 50-5,000 ng/mL for rucaparib, 0.5-50 ng/mL for talazoparib and 50-5,000 for veliparib. All results were within the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance and European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines on method validation. The assay has been successfully implemented in our laboratory.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Spectrum-effect relationship for anti-tumor activity of shikonins and shikonofurans in medicinal Zicao by UHPLC-MS/MS and chemometric approaches
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Mei Liao, Pan Yan, Xuechen Liu, Zhifeng Du, Shuailong Jia, Rahmetulla Aybek, Aiqian Li, Sulaiman Kaisa, Hongliang Jiang

    Shikonin, shikonofuran and their derivatives are the main bioactive components of Zicao, a traditional Chinese medicine prepared with the dried roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Arnebia euchroma or Arnebia guttata. To establish an efficient and sensitive method for studying material basis of Zicao, different scan modes of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) and UHPLC triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QTRAP-MS/MS) were incorporated to make full use of the sensitivity of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and overcome its disadvantages. A total of 73 shikonins and shikonofurans compounds were detected in Zicao utilizing various scanning modes. Thereafter the characteristic chemical profile for shikonins and shikonofurans was established based on UHPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS, which was subsequently used to study the spectrum-effect relationship by correlating the relative quantity of compounds and the anti-tumor activity. As a result, 27 compounds were screened as the main active components inhibiting HeLa cells by othogonal partial least square (OPLS). Among them, shikonin, acetylshikonin have been reported to inhibit HeLa cells previously, and β, β-dimethylacrylshikonin has been reported to be active component by other method. Those results showed that chemical characteristic profile combined with chemometric methods was efficient and reliable for discovery of material basis in TCM, especially trace active compounds.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Chemical profiling of spermidines in Goji Berry by strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (SCX-SPE) combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS/MS)
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Hasanjan Ahad, Hongli Jin, Yanfang Liu, Jixia Wang, Guangying Sun, Xinmiao Liang, Haji Akber Aisa

    Lycium barbarum fruit (Goji berry) have been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with its outstanding biological and pharmacological activities. Spermidine alkaloids are a major class of bioactive constituents in goji berry, nevertheless, detailed information related to its identification remains scarce. In this study, chemical profiling of spermidines in goji berry was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Four structure types of standards were used to study the comprehensive fragmentation rules of spermidines. Different types of spermidines were identified by distinctive MS/MS fragment ions. Noticeably, it was first proposed that the co-existence of fragment ions at m/z 220 and 222 was the key characteristic for distinguishing spermidine isomers. According to the structural feature of spermidines, a quick, convenient, highly selective strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction (SCX-SPE) combined with RP-LC procedure was developed for selective enrichment and the MS detection compatibility. A total of 41 out of 58 spermidines were tentatively characterized using the established method, of which 26 were reported for the first time from goji berry. This study provides guidelines and references for the identification of spermidines in natural products.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Development and validation of a bio-analytical method for simultaneous quantification of nebivolol and labetalol in aqueous humor and plasma using LC-MS/MS and its application to ocular pharmacokinetic studies
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Pradeep Singh Rawat, Punna Rao Ravi, Laxman Kaswan, Rajeev Singh Raghuvanshi

    Beta blockers is the class of choice of drugs in treatment of open angle Glaucoma. However, many of these drugs suffer from systemic side effects due to their absorption into systemic circulation via nasolachrymal duct. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nebivolol and labetalol for the treatment of open angle glaucoma, it is important to have a bioanalytical method for measuring the drug concentrations both in aqueous humor and plasma. A simple, sensitive and high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with protein precipitation technique was developed for simultaneous quantification of nebivolol and labetalol using nebivolol-d4 and metoprolol, respectively, as internal standards in aqueous humor and plasma. Nebivolol and labetalol were monitored in electrospray positive ionization (ESI) mode at transition 406.2/151.1 and 329.1/162.0, respectively. Mobile phase comprised of mixture of aqueous buffer (solvent A) and organic phase (solvent B) (mixture of A:B in the ratio of 30:70, v/v). The aqueous buffer was 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer adjusted to pH 3.5 ± 0.05 with formic acid while the organic phase was a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 25:75, v/v. Chromatographic separation was achieved using reverse phase Zorbax SB-C18 column (4.6×100 mm, 3.5 µm). Method was linear in both the matrices in the concentration range of 0.43-750 ng/mL for nebivolol and 0.39-668 ng/mL for labetalol with r2 > 0.99. Accuracy values, expressed in terms of bias (%), for nebivolol in aqueous humor and plasma were ≤ 9.6% and ≤ 11.4% and for labetalol were ≤ 8.6% and ≤ 5.6%, respectively. Inter-day and intra-day precision values, expressed in terms of RSD (%), for both the drugs were within 11.4%. No interference was obtained due to matrix components. Mean recovery (%) values in aqueous humor and plasma were 72.4% and 73.0% for nebivolol and 56.7% and 54.4% for labetalol, respectively. No significant degradation was observed in both the drugs in both the matrices when stored at -20 °C for 1 month. Aqueous humor and plasma samples of nebivolol and labetalol on bench top were stable for 18 h and 8 h, respectively. The developed method was applied for determining pharmacokinetic parameters of both drugs in aqueous humor following single dose ocular administration in rabbits.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • A novel analytical methodology for the determination of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in breast and cow milk samples
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    E. Martin-Tornero, A. Luque-Uría, I. Durán-Merás, A. Espinosa-Mansilla

    Hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs) in biological fluids, such as milk, are considered as biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in organism. The presence of OHPAHs in milk samples indicates a potential contamination on human organisms and milk producing animals. In this way, infants can be contaminated by lactation through the consumption of milk of both, human and animal origins. In this paper, eight OHPAHs have been analyzed in commercial cow milks and in human breast milk using HPLC and fast scanning fluorimetric detection (FSFD). Extraction and cleaning procedures of OHPAHs from milk samples have been investigated, and the experimental results using two bibliographic protocols and a new proposed protocol have been compared. The new protocol using enzymatic hydrolysis, proteins precipitation and, solvent extraction using acetonitrile, was proposed as the most adequate for the determination of 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-/9-, 2-/3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene. The method recoveries ranged from 80-102% and 75-91% for fresh cow milk and for human breast milk, respectively, for all components except for 3-OHBz[a] Py. Low recovery values were calculated for 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in all cases. No statistical difference in the method performance was observed between fresh cow milk and human breast milk.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Novel peptoid-based adsorbents for purifying IgM and IgG from polyclonal and recombinant sources
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Hannah Reese, Tee Bordelon, Calvin Shanahan, Michael Crapanzano, Jae Sly, Stefano Menegatti

    Polyclonal immunoglobulin therapeutics comprising dosed IgG and IgM combinations are powerful tools in fighting cancer and severe infections. The inability of protein ligands to produce polyclonal IgG- and IgM-enriched formulations and recover monoclonal IgM calls for novel ligands with superior biorecognition activity. In this study, a peptoid ligand discovered by our group, and integrated into affinity adsorbents LigaTrap “Human IgG” and “Human IgM”, is utilized to purify IgG and IgM from complex fluids. IgG purification from human serum using LigaTrap IgG afforded 94.6% purity and 62.9% yield, on par with Protein A/G resins. When challenged with CHO and HEK cell culture harvests with low IgG titer (< 1 mg/mL), LigaTrap IgG returned values of yield and purity well above 60% and 90%. LigaTrap IgM was evaluated for purifying IgM in comparison with commercial adsorbents , and afforded a product purity of 93% from a CHO harvest (IgM titer of 1 mg/mL) and 75.1% yield from a HEK harvest (0.5 mg/mL). LigaTrap-M provided IgM enrichment up to 11-fold higher than HiTrap resin. The peptoid adsorbents separated IgG-depleted human serum into IgM- and IgA-enriched fractions. These results demonstrate the potential of the peptoid ligand for manufacturing polyclonal Ig formulations and monoclonal IgM therapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Identification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) cooking juice released in simulated gastrointestinal digestion by UPLC-MS/MS and in silico analysis
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Jin Zhang, Hongying Du, Gaonan Zhang, Fanbin Kong, Yang Hu, Shanbai Xiong, Siming Zhao

    The objective of this work was to separate, identify and assess antioxidant peptides from the simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) cooking juice (CCCJ), which has been previously found with this activity. The CCCJ after simulated GI digestion treatment was separated gradually by ultrafiltration and RP-HPLC. Five novel antioxidant peptides with 10-13 amino acid residues were identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Their in silico assessments showed amphiphilic nature, good sensory quality and different target sites in the human body. Meanwhile, their three-dimensional structure predictions exhibited at least one β-turn, β-sheet and/or α-helix with partial hydrophobic and/or net-charged residues exposed to the external medium, which was good evidence for higher antioxidant activity. Ultimately, four novel peptides with high antioxidant activity were found, among which IREADIDGDGQVN (1401 Da), PEILPDGDHD (1107 Da) and ASDEQDSVRL (1119 Da) exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 1.78, 1.18 and 1.45 mM, respectively, while APLEEPSSPH (1063 Da) showed the highest Fe2+ chelating ability with IC50 of 0.09 mM. This work could help understand the mechanism of CCCJ on human health promotion and improve the economic value of the crucian carp processing industry.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Development of an Efficient LC-MS Peptide Mapping Method Using Accelerated Sample Preparation for Monoclonal Antibodies
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Ping Jiang, Fumin Li, Jie Ding

    Peptide mapping by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a common method for characterizing primary sequences of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their post-translational modifications (PTMs). Most methods prepare digests by incubating samples with proteases from several hours to overnight. This often induces artifacts of some modifications such as deamidation and isomerization, resulting in overestimated product-related modifications levels. Hour-long-digestion can generate complicate chromatographic profiles due to semi-cleavages or other unnecessary reactions, interfering with the quantitation of peaks of interest. On the other hand, shortening digestion-time can cause incomplete peptide cleavages, thus low sequence coverage and poor repeatability. This study applied pressure cycling technology (PCT) to tryptic digestion and PNGase F deglycosyaltion. A 0.5-hour PCT assistant tryptic digestion, by alternating cycles of 10-second atmospheric pressure and 50-second high pressure (30 kpsi) at 37 °C, was evaluated and compared with two conventional digestions, 4-hour and 18-hour (i.e., overnight) incubations at 37 °C under atmospheric pressure. The 0.5-hour PCT assistant deglycosylation was also assessed using the same conditions as those by PCT tryptic digestion. The results demonstrated the application of a 0.5-hour PCT to tryptic digestion minimized modification artifacts and reduced interference with quantitation by providing a clean chromatographic profile. The 0.5-hour PCT assistant deglycosylation completely removed the N-glycans from the Asn301 in the heavy chains of monoclonal antibody with no impact on the chromatographic profile of the tryptic digests.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Determination of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in bovine milk by dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on the magnetic three-dimensional graphene-sporopollenin sorbent
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Hassan Sereshti, Amirarshia Toloutehrani, Hamid Rashidi Nodeh

    In this research, a new magnetic sorbent material composed of three-dimensional graphene aerogel decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles attached to hollow sporopollenin exine capsules was synthesized and applied for extraction of vitamin D3 before HPLC-UV analysis. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, VSM, and zeta potential techniques. The important parameters of the extraction process, including adsorbent dosage, desorption conditions, adsorption time, pH, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the optimized condition, the method analytical figures of merit were evaluated as follows: linear dynamic range, 10-500 μg L-1; limit of detection, 3.01 μg L-1; determination coefficient (R2), 0.9960; intra-day RSD, 5.28%; and inter-day RSD, 8.17%. The applicability of the method was assessed for the determination of vitamin D3 in different unfortified and fortified bovine milk samples, and the recoveries in the 71.8-113.3% range with the RSDs within 1.4-7.0% were obtained.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Development and validation of solid-phase extraction coupled with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of olanzapine in saliva
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Ewelina Dziurkowska, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Marek Wesolowski

    Olanzapine is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and depression of various origins. Its levels are usually measured in the blood, but the collection of this diagnostic material poses many problems. Therefore, we aimed to develop a fast and sensitive method to determine olanzapine levels in saliva, an easily available diagnostic material. To reduce the consumption of toxic solvents during analyte extraction from saliva, olanzapine was isolated by solid-phase extraction using Oasis® MCX cartridges. Chromatographic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS, with C18 resin in Atlantis® T3 column as the stationary phase and 2 mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile as the mobile phase (flow rate of 0.25 mL/min, with elution gradient). The specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and stability of the optimized method were validated. The relative standard deviation for intra-day precision for three tested olanzapine concentrations did not exceed 12.7%; the highest accuracy value was 113.9%. The recoveries from spiked saliva samples were greater than 87.3% for the two olanzapine concentrations studied. The developed method was then used to determine olanzapine levels in human saliva obtained from 15 patients treated with different doses of olanzapine.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Development of an On-line Immunoextraction/Entrapment System for Protein Capture and Use in Drug Binding Studies by High-Performance Affinity Chromatography
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Elliott L. Rodriguez, Saumen Poddar, Meera Choksi, David S. Hage

    An on-line purification and entrapment system was developed that could extract a protein from a sample such as serum and entrap this protein within a small column for use in high-performance affinity chromatography. Human serum albumin (HSA) was employed as a model protein for this work. Immunoextraction columns containing polyclonal anti-HSA antibodies were developed to capture and isolate HSA from applied samples. This was followed by the use of a strong cation-exchange column to recapture and focus HSA as it eluted from the immunoextraction columns. The recaptured HSA was entrapped within 1.0 cm × 2.1 mm I.D. columns containing hydrazide-activated silica and in the presence of oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. The binding and elution properties of HSA on the various components of this system were examined and optimized. The entrapped columns produced by this system were then evaluated for their use in binding studies with several sulfonylurea drugs. The HSA columns created by this approach typically contained 0.3-0.6 nmol HSA and were stable over several weeks and more than 50-60 sample injections. Drug binding constants could be determined with these columns in 8 min or less by zonal elution and gave good agreement with literature values. The same system could be used for the capture and entrapment of other proteins by utilizing antibodies against the given target for immunoextraction.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Instantaneous Monitoring of Free Sarin in Whole Blood by Dry Blood Spot–Thermal Desorption–GC–FPD/MS Analysis
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Dana Marder, Shai Dagan, Lilach Yishai-Aviram, Dan Loewenthal, Shira Chapman, Relli Adani, Shlomi Lazar, Avi Weissberg, Sigalit Gura

    Dry blood spot (DBS), a micro whole-blood sampling technique, enables rapid and self-blood collection; it is stable and economical. Currently, DBS filters require various sample preparation procedures specifically tailored for the target compounds, which are followed by GC–MS or LC–MS analysis. However, the small amounts of blood make the approach analytically challenging, mostly in terms of sensitivity and quantification. Herein, we introduce a new DBS concept for GC-compatible volatile to semi-volatile compounds in which DBS is directly coupled with thermal desorption analysis, thus eliminating time consuming treatments. Furthermore, to stabilize the target compound over the sampling DBS substrate, a commercial filter based on an extremely efficient trapping adsorption phase, styrene-divinylbenzene (SDVB), is first used. The performance of the new SDVB–DBS concept was demonstrated herein for monitoring the most volatile chemical warfare agent, sarin, which might be present in blood and the detection of which is usually challenging due to its rapid metabolism. This study encompasses adequate sampling and analysis method parametrization and validation, leading to a detection sensitivity of 100 pg sarin per 30 µL whole blood in 5-day-old samples, with a linear dynamic range of two orders of magnitude, adequate precision, and acceptable accuracy. Applying the method to an in-vivo mouse intranasal exposure experiment (3LD50 GB) enabled the successful detection of 25–90 ng mL−1 free sarin in blood samples drawn 2 min after exposure. The method’s performance clearly emphasizes the potential of the new concept in “freezing the clock” for reactive whole blood media in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies, as well as in applications in which informative and reliable monitoring of unstable target compounds and biomarkers is desired.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Preclinical pharmacokinetics of M10 after intragastrical administration of M10-H and M10-Na in Wistar rats
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Jiarui Gao, Guifang Dou, Xiaoxia Zhu, Hui Gan, Ruolan Gu, Zhuona Wu, Taoyun Liu, Suxiang Feng, Zhiyun Meng

    As a myricetin derivative, M10 is a potent agent of anti-chronic colonic inflammation. It has better activity than myricetin in preventing azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium - induced ulcerative colitis. Here, we introduce a sensitive quantification method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of M10-H and M10-Na in Wistar rat plasma. Samples were treated with L - ascorbic acid and phosphate buffer solution to maintain stability and with acetonitrile to remove the proteins in the plasma. The supernatant was separated with BEH C18 column and eluted with ultrapure water and acetonitrile both containing 0.1% formic acid. The detection was performed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization mode in multiple reactive monitoring. This method was validated for the carryover effect, selectivity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, stability, and recovery. A linear correlation was established between concentration and response by the calibration curves over 10–2000 ng·mL-1 (r > 0.99). This method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of intragastrical administration of M10-H and M10-Na in Wistar rats. In addition, the relative bioavailability of M10-H to M10-Na in Wistar rats was 60±19%, calculated by the ratio of area under concentration (AUC) of M10-H to M10-Na after intragastrical administration of a single dose (100 mg·kg-1 for M10-H and M10-Na, respectively) in Wistar rats.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a fluorescence detector for the analysis of epirubicin in human urine and plasma, and its application in drug monitoring
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Natalia Treder, Olga Maliszewska, Ilona Olędzka, Piotr Kowalski, Natalia Miękus, Tomasz Bączek, Ewa Bień, Małgorzata Anna Krawczyk, Elżbieta Adamkiewicz-Drożynska, Alina Plenis

    The aim of the work was to develop a simple, sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) method for the determination of epirubicin in human urine and plasma. Solid phase extraction with HLB cartridges and mixture of dichloromethane:2-propanol:methanol (2:1:1, v/v/v) as the eluent, was used to prepare the samples. The chromatographic analysis was carried out on a Synergi Hydro-RP column with a mobile phase consisting of 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH 4.1) and acetonitrile (69:31, v/v). Epirubicin was monitored at 497 nm and 557 nm for excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. Validation data confirmed that the limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.25 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL in both matrices. Next, the optimized LC-FL method was applied to determine the level of epirubicin in real samples taken from a 19-year-old patient with metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMA) to create a drug profile. Plasma and urine samples were collected for 24 h after the end of a 6-hour infusion of epirubicin. The obtained results confirmed that the optimized and validated LC-FL method can be successfully used in drug monitoring therapy, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies. Moreover, the current work is also drawing attention to the relatively high level of epirubicin in the patient urine, which requires compliance with the safety rules in contact with this biological fluid by both medical staff and others, e.g. family members.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • An efficient procedure for preparing high-purity pingyangmycin and boanmycin from Streptomyces verticillus var. pingyangensis fermentation broth via macroporous cation-exchange resin and subsequent reversed-phase preparative chromatography
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Yajun Li, Huimin Lin, Jianbin Zhang, Xu Deng, Ji'an Li

    Pingyangmycin (PYM) and boanmycin (BAM), two individual components of bleomycin (bleomycin A5 and bleomycin A6), are glycopeptide antitumor antibiotics. An efficient procedure for the preparation of PYM and BAM from Streptomyces verticillus var. pingyangensis fermentation broth using macroporous cation-exchange (MCE) resin followed by medium-pressure preparative liquid chromatography (MPLC) based on monodisperse poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (p(st-dvb)) microspheres was investigated in this paper. Nine frequently used MCE resins were screened by static adsorption and desorption to enrich PYM and BAM from the fermentation broth, and D157 resin was found to be the most effective. After one run of column-based dynamic adsorption and desorption, the contents of PYM and BAM were increased by factors of 13.8 and 12.1 with recovery yields of 84.21% and 81.47%, respectively. The enriched samples were subjected to MPLC with columns prepacked with the polyRP 10-300 microspheres. The operational parameters of the MPLC, including the stationary phase and mobile phase compositions, sample/stationary phase ratio, sample loading scale and flow rate, were screened and optimized. The results showed that the separation and purification for PYM and BAM by MPLC were dramatically improved with a mobile phase modifier of 0.15 mol/L ammonium chloride aqueous solution, a flow rate of 10 mL/min and a sample/stationary phase ratio of 1.0:100 (m/v, g/mL), and PYM and BAM with purities of more than 98.65% and 99.12% were obtained, respectively. The total recoveries of PYM and BAM reached 75.38% and 70.31%. The separation and purification method is simple, efficient, energy-saving, environmentally friendly and suitable for the large-scale preparation of high-purity PYM and BAM from Streptomyces verticillus var. pingyangensis fermentation broth.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Establishment of Thrombin Affinity Column (TAC)-HPLC-MS/MS Method for Screening Direct Thrombin Inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Yingdi Shi, Wei Sun, Xiaoyan Pan, Xiaofang Hou, Sicen Wang, Junbo Zhang

    In order to develop an affinity HPLC method for screening direct thrombin inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), thrombin was immobilized on the glutaraldehyde-modified amino silica gel and was used as thrombin stationary phase. A thrombin affinity column (TAC) was made by packing the thrombin stationary phase into a bare column (2.0*1.0 mm, i.d.). The direct thrombin inhibitors could be screened through this TAC column. For the purpose of improvement of the discovery efficiency, a TAC-HPLC-MS/MS system was used to screen thrombin inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae (RSM), a famous traditional Chinese medicine. After optimization of all the conditions, cryptotanshinone (Cry), dihydrotanshinone I (Dih-I) and tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) were screened out and identified as potential active components. The anticoagulant effects of these three compounds were tested by anticoagulant experiments in vitro. Furthermore, the interaction of three compounds with thrombin was studied by molecular docking. The result shows they have the potential to be used as preventive drugs. In short, this method can be used to screen anticoagulant drugs from traditional Chinese medicine, which provides convenience for screening anticoagulant drugs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Development and validation of a mass spectrometric method to determine the identity of rituximab based on its microheterogeneity profile
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Francisco C. Perdomo-Abúndez, Luis Vallejo-Castillo, Said Vázquez-Leyva, Carlos A. López-Morales, Marco Velasco-Velázquez, Lenin Pavón, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Emilio Medina-Rivero

    Analytical methods have been considered the “eyes” for development, characterization and batch releasing of biotherapeutics over the past 40 years. One of the most powerful analytical platform for biotherapeutic analysis is mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS). Due to its wide flexibility and instrumental configurations, LC-MS can determine different physicochemical attributes of proteins, e.g. molecular mass, primary sequence, and posttranslational modifications. Intact molecular mass analysis of therapeutic proteins is essential to confirm their identity. Analytical methods must be validated to support drug quality information during its approval process. Although there are international guidelines that provide general information on validation of analytical methods, practical examples about the design, selection of validation attributes and acceptance criteria of identity LC-MS methods are scarce. Here, according to the recommendations of Q2R1 ICH guideline, we showcase the validation of an LC-MS-TOF method to identity rituximab by determining its intact and deglycosylated molecular mass profiles. The proposed method specifically identified the m/z profile and deconvoluted mass profile of rituximab from deglycosylated rituximab and from excipient blank (specificity) with a maximum error of 76.63 ppm (accuracy) and a maximum Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 0.00315% (precision). Besides, the system suitability test, which was based on the expected mass value of the mass calibrator, confirmed the reliability of the analytical results. In summary, validation showed that the proposed method is suitable for identifying rituximab based on its glycosylated (intact) and deglycosylated mass profile.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of B vitamins and related compounds in the mammalian liver
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Juan Xu, Constance E. Clare, Amey H. Brassington, Kevin D. Sinclair, David A. Barrett

    A method for the simultaneous quantification of B vitamins and related amines in one-carbon (1C) metabolism would benefit the study of diet and genetic/epigenetic regulation of mammalian development and health. We present a validated method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of 13 B vitamers and four related 1C-pathway amine intermediates in liver using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Frozen sheep liver samples (50 mg) were homogenized in cold 50% acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid with the addition of two isotope labelled internal standards. Hot acid hydrolysis was applied to release the protein-bound forms. The separation of 17 analytes was achieved using a pHILIC column with a total run time of 13 min. Detection was achieved in electrospray positive ionisation mode. Limits of detection for the majority of analytes were within the range of 0.4-3.2 pmol/g. The method was applied to 266 sheep liver samples and revealed that adenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, pyridoxic acid, flavin adenine dinucleotide and thiamine were the major forms of the B vitamers present with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate and thiamine pyrophosphate being detected at lower concentrations. Trimethylglycine and methylglycine were the predominant 1C-related amines measured. As anticipated, the B vitamin status of individuals varied considerably, reflecting dietary and genetic variation in our chosen outbred model species. This method offers a simple sample extraction procedure and provides comprehensive coverage of B vitamins coupled with good sensitivity and reliability.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Study of the pharmacokinetics of eriodictyol-6-C-β-d-glucoside, a flavonoid of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract, after its oral administration in mice
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Kanako Yuyama, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Riho Tateyama, Rieko Arakaki, Takuya Tsutsui, Naozumi Ishimaru

    Systemic dry syndrome affects quality of life, and various effective methods are being developed for its treatment. We recently found that rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract activates muscarinic M3 receptor and improves dryness in mice and humans. We identified eriodictyol-6-C-β-D-glucoside (E6CG) as the active component affecting the secretory functions of exocrine glands; however, the pharmacokinetics and distribution of E6CG in exocrine glands have not been elucidated in mice receiving rooibos extract. We have developed a quantification method using LC–MS/MS to detect E6CG without an internal standard. Experiments on C57BL/6 mice administered rooibos extract showed that E6CG was transferred into blood plasma, with its concentration levels peaking 19.3 min after treatment. Substantial levels of E6CG were detected in the submandibular, sublingual, parotid, and lacrimal glands and in the sweat glands in palm skin. This study reports that rooibos extracts containing E6CG can be used as functional foods for improving systemic dryness.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Fabrication of benzenesulfonic acid groups modified magnetic microspheres as an MSPE adsorbent for fast determination of paraquat and diquat in human urine combined with UPLC-HRMS
    J. Chromatogr. B (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Shengdong Pan, Jiabin Zhang, Qian He, Xiaohong Chen, Micong Jin

    In this study, novel benzenesulfonic acid groups modified magnetic microspheres (Fe3O4@SiO2@poly(4-VB)) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@poly(4-VB) was employed as a magnetic-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for rapid determination of paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) in human urine samples coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). Moreover, this paper had expounded systematically the mass spectrum cracking mechanisms of PQ and DQ. And a zwitterionic functionalized SIELC Obelisc R column was employed for separation and retention of the above two polar herbicides using 50 mmol/L ammonium formate (pH=3.7)-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Besides, the adsorption and desorption conditions of Fe3O4@SiO2@poly(4-VB) toward PQ and DQ were optimized in spiking urine samples to obtain the best adsorption and desorption efficiencies. And the adsorption mechanisms of Fe3O4@SiO2@poly(4-VB) toward PQ and DQ referred to synergetic effect of electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction. Under the optimal conditions, the inter-day and intra-day spiking recoveries of the proposed method were in the range of 86.7%-109.9% with RSDs less than 10%. The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained by spiking in blank urine samples at a series of low concentrations and were found to be 0.12 μg/L and 0.14 μg/L for PQ and DQ, respectively, which were lower than the comparing literatures. The developed analytical method was proven to be simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate for clinical poisoning analysis.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
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