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  • Improvements in the quality of meat from beef cattle fed natural additives
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Mariana Garcia Ornaghi; Ana Guerrero; Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital; Kennyson Alves de Souza; Rodrigo Augusto Cortez Passetti; Camila Mottin; Ricardo de Araújo Castilho; Carlos Sañudo; Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    Forty young bulls were fed with five different treatments (n = 8, 62 days): control, without the addition of natural additives (CON); NA15, a mixture of natural additives (1.5 g/animal/day); NA30, a mixture of natural additives (3.0 g/animal/day); NA45, a mixture of natural additives (4.5 g/animal/day); and NA60, a mixture of natural additives (6.0 g/animal/day). The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, fat thickness, Longissimus muscle area, marbling, pH, and carcass tissue composition were measured. In addition, the instrumental meat quality (colour, water holding capacity, texture and lipid oxidation) and consumer acceptability attributes, across display were evaluated. Diet had no effect (P > .05) on the carcass characteristics evaluated (except pH). The diets significantly influenced the pH, shear force, tenderness, lipid oxidation and overall acceptability evaluated by consumers (P < .05). Globally, natural additives have some potential use in animal feed to improve meat quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of gamma ray irradiation-induced protein hydrolysis and oxidation on tenderness change of fresh pork during storage
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Min Zhang; Lichao He; Chengliang Li; Fan Yang; Shiling Zhao; Yanhui Liang; Guofeng Jin

    This study investigated the effect of irradiation (0, 3, 5 or 7 kGy) on the tenderness changes of pork during storage at 4 °C for two weeks by determining the total carbonyl, sulfhydryl groups, peptidomic profiles, Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force value and by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) experiment. The results showed that, irradiation significantly increased total carbonyl content of pork but had no significant effect on sulfhydryl groups. Protein thiol loss induced by irradiation was greatly promoted after storage for 3 days. Increasing irradiation dose level could significantly decrease the WB shear force value of samples (P < .05) by provoking degradation of myofibrillar protein and collagen fragments. During refrigerated conditioning, however, the WB shear force values increased significantly despite irradiation (P < .05). This was attributed to increasing amount of collagen solubilized from muscle, protein aggregation induced by carbonylation of troponin T (at 7 days of storage) and further cross-linking of myosin heavy chain (MHC) (at 14 days of storage).

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Genetic parameters of muscle fatty acid profile in a purebred Large White heavy pig population
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Zappaterra Martina; Catillo Gennaro; Belmonte Anna Maria; Lo Fiego Domenico Pietro; Zambonelli Paolo; Steri Roberto; Buttazzoni Luca; Davoli Roberta

    Semimembranosus muscle samples from 795 Large White heavy pigs were used to determine their intramuscular fatty acid composition and to estimate the heritability and the genetic correlations of these traits. Muscle fatty acids showed heritability estimates of low-to-moderate magnitude, ranging from 0.157 for total fatty acids to 0.237 for docosahexaenoic acid. Only small differences in heritability appeared among fatty acids based on their chain length, saturation and double bond position. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids showed positive genetic correlations with carcass lean % (0.563 ± 0.005) and loin thickness (0.438 ± 0.005) while being negatively related to backfat thickness measured both by calibre (−0.225 ± 0.008) and Fat-O-Meat'er (FOM) apparatus (−0.603 ± 0.004). Interestingly, the monounsaturated fatty acid class was not correlated with carcass measures and presented only a weak positive genetic correlation with intramuscular fat (0.145 ± 0.002). This result suggests that in heavy pig breeds monounsaturated fatty acids in muscle could be selected for without interfering with carcass traits.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Understanding the development of color and color stability of dark cutting beef based on mitochondrial proteomics
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Shuang Wu; Xin Luo; Xiaoyin Yang; David L. Hopkins; Yanwei Mao; Yimin Zhang

    Label-free proteomics was applied to understand the color and color stability development of dark cutting beef (DC). The color traits of DC (pH = 6.86) and normal beef (pH = 5.49) were determined during 7 days of display. DC had a lower redness and greater color stability, which was attributed to its higher deoxy-myoglobin content, greater oxygen consumption, as well as higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower lipid oxidation. A total of 28 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins (fold change >1.8) between the two groups were identified, with 21 proteins overexpressed in DC mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation, generation of reducing equivalent, TCA cycle and chaperones. These enhance the level of mitochondrial respiration, the stability of reducing MetMb and myoglobin and mitochondria function, leading to color characteristics of DC. Moreover, Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase was for the first time reported to be significantly associated with color parameters and its direct relationship with meat color is worthy investigation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in GPAT1 locus and pork quality in pigs
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    I. Mitka; K. Ropka-Molik; M. Tyra

    GPAT1 gene is considered to be a genetic marker for intramuscular fat content. The GPAT enzymes catalyze the first step in triacylglycerol synthesis. In the present study, the search for polymorphisms within the pig GPAT1 gene locus as well as association analyses between SNPs and meat quality traits were performed. The association analysis demonstrated that g.133513422C > T polymorphism affected IMF content in LL, SEMI post-mortem pH and shear force of cooked LL (p ≤ .05). While the association of g.133476803 T > C polymorphism was shown concerning IMF content, meat color (L*), shear force and energy of raw meat as well as some meat texture parameters (hardness, springiness, chewiness) (p ≤ .05). The g.133476733C > T SNP was significantly associated with LL 24 h post-mortem pH, raw meat toughness and TPA hardness and chewiness (p ≤ .05). The obtained results are promising but to confirm if the GPAT1 gene can be considered to be a genetic marker for improving the quality of pork, further research is required.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Assessment of oxidative stability and physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of beef patties formulated with baobab seed (Adansonia digitata) extract
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    FahadY. Al-Juhaimi; Ibrahim A. Babtain; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Omer N. Alsawmahi; Kashif Ghafoor; Oladipupo Q. Adiamo; Elfadil E. Babiker

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stability and the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of beef patties formulated with different concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3%) of baobab seed extract (BSE) during storage at 4 °C. The BSE contained a considerable number of phenolic compounds and exhibited antioxidant and antimicrobial activities (both on gram-positive and negative bacteria). The chemical composition of the patties was not altered by BSE treatment. However, the addition of 2% and 3% BSE improved the lipid stability and enhanced the antioxidant activity of beef patties during storage. Furthermore, the shelf-life of patties formulated with 2% and 3% of BSE increased from 7 days (control group) to 21 days. Moreover, the patties formulated with BSE received overall acceptability in the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, the inclusion of 2% or 3% BSE could be recommended as a natural antioxidant additive in beef patties.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Effect of sodium alginate on physical-chemical, protein conformation and sensory of low-fat frankfurters
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Zhuang-Li Kang; Teng-teng Wang; Yan-ping Li; Ke Li; Han-jun Ma

    In order to study the potential of replacing pork back-fat by sodium alginate solution (sodium alginate/water = 1/29, W/W), the physico-chemical, protein conformation and sensory of frankfurters made with various amounts of pork back-fat and sodium alginate were evaluated. With the increase of sodium alginate solute, the fat and energy was decreased significantly (P < .05). Compared with the control, the cooking yield, emulsion stability, L⁎ and ΔE values were not different significantly (P > .05) when pork back-fat was replaced by 25% and 50%, meanwhile, a decrease of α-helix content accompanied by an increase of β-sheet, β-turn and random coil content, more hydrophobic and tyrosine residues became exposed, those implied the hardness was increased. The texture, juiciness and overall acceptance scores were decreased significantly (P < .05) when pork back-fat was replaced beyond 50%. From the above, the use of sodium alginate solution instead of pork back-fat could transform protein structure and lowered fat and energy of frankfurters.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Effects of iron-catalyzed and metmyoglobin oxidizing systems on biochemical properties of yak muscle myofibrillar protein
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Huihui Wang; Yanyan Song; Ziqi Liu; Minghua Li; Li Zhang; Qunli Yu; Zhaobin Guo; Jinmei Wei

    To compare the effects of the biochemical properties of yak muscle myofibrillar protein of two oxidizing systems under the same degree of oxidation. Myofibrils oxidized by iron-catalyzed (IOS) and metmyoglobin oxidizing system (MOS). The carbonyl content, disulfide bonds, dityrosine, and β-sheet content increased significantly with oxidant concentration in both systems, whereas the total sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity, and α-helices decreased significantly. However, the MOS carbonyl formation rate was significantly faster than the IOS, and the MOS significantly affected the formation of disulfide bonds and inhibited the exposure of hydrophobic amino acids. Both oxidative systems promoted degradation of myosin heavy chain and troponin-T. IOS and MOS produced mainly 20–25-kDa and 20–17-kDa myosin light chain degradation products; MOS also produced a 30-kDa troponin-T degradation product of 30 kDa troponin-T. In conclusion, both oxidizing systems had significant effects on the biochemical properties of yak muscle myofibrillar proteins.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Using oxidation kinetic models to predict the quality indices of rabbit meat under different storage temperatures
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Zefu Wang; Zhifei He; Dong Zhang; Hongjun Li; Zhaoming Wang

    This study explored the effects of temperature on the behavior of lipid and protein oxidation in rabbit meat, and also investigated the quality indices of rabbit meat under different storage temperatures. We developed kinetic models of select quality indices such as total aerobic count (TAC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N). Data on meat quality indices under non-isothermal conditions were used to validate the models. Lipid and protein oxidation increased with storage time and storage temperature within a certain temperature range. The changes in quality index were as follows: the lightness (L*) and redness (a*) of rabbit meat gradually decreased (P < .05), whereas the yellowness (b*) of the meat continuously increased for all samples. Results show that the color change slowed down as the temperature decreased. The pH levels of the meat samples stored at 4 °C increased gradually over time; the pH of the samples stored at −4 °C decreased after 0–5 days of storage time and then increased afterwards. By contrast, the pH levels of the samples stored at −12 °C and − 18 °C did not change significantly over time (p > .05). TAC, TVB-N, and TBARS increased with storage time and temperature within a certain temperature range. The dependence of rabbit meat quality on temperature was adequately modelled by the Arrhenius-type equation; the activation energy values were 84.39, 79.52, and 108.25 kJ/mol for TAC, TBARS, and TVB-N, respectively. The validation results showed that changes in the quality of rabbit meat can be predicted based on the prediction models of TAC, TVB-N, and TBARS within −18 °C to 4 °C.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Implications of the variation in bloom properties of red meat: A review
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Robin Jacob

    This review aimed to examine the literature about blooming to determine any practical implications for meat colour and colour stability. Blooming is critical to surface colour in addition to pigment and achromatic factors and causes meat to become lighter (higher L*) and redder (higher a*) due to the formation of oxymyoglobin (OMb). Bloom depth of red meat varies in the range of about 1-12 mm due to a range of extrinsic factors notably oxygen partial pressure, temperature and time post slicing. A range of intrinsic factors also affect bloom acting via the oxygen consumption rate of mitochondria and metmyoglobin (MMb) reductase activity post mortem, such as post mortem age, muscle type, rigor temperature, ultimate pH (pHu), genotype and vitamin E status. These sources of variation have implications for measurement protocols and commercial applications for colour and colour stability. Development of a rapid method to measure bloom depth would enable assessment of bloom independently of surface colour.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uniporter enhances postmortem proteolysis and tenderness in beef cattle
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    David S. Dang; Jared F. Buhler; Haden T. Davis; Kara J. Thornton; Tracy L. Scheffler; Sulaiman K. Matarneh

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of mitochondria in postmortem calcium homeostasis and its effect on proteolysis and tenderness. We hypothesized that mitochondria buffer cytosolic calcium levels and delay the activation of calpain-1 and subsequently the development of meat tenderness. To test this hypothesis, pre-rigor bovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle samples were injected with DS16570511 to inhibit mitochondrial calcium uptake. Free calcium, tenderness, texture profile analysis (TPA), calpain-1 activity, and proteolysis were evaluated over a 336 h aging period. Inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uptake increased (P < .0001) cytosolic calcium concentration and calpain-1 autolysis and activity at 24 h compared to control steaks. Further, tenderness and TPA at 168 and 336 h, calpastatin degradation at 24 h, and proteolysis at 168 h were all enhanced (P < .05) in the treated steaks. Collectively, these data indicate that inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uptake can enhance postmortem proteolysis and tenderization through an early activation of calpain-1.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Investigation of colour requirements of frozen beef rolls by Chinese consumers for hot pot
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Fangfang Wang; Benjamin W.B. Holman; Yimin Zhang; Xin Luo; Yanwei Mao; David L. Hopkins

    A study was undertaken to establish a consumer threshold for the colour of beef rolls used for hot pot cooking in China. This was achieved by using an internet-based online survey, in which Chinese respondents recorded their preferred meat colour from a selection of 12 different images that represented a range of objective colour measures (CIE colorimetrics). The results indicated that, of the 2021 respondents, 97.6% liked to eat hot pot. When colour preference was modelled against objective measures of colour, the a* value was identified as providing the most suitable insight into respondents' preferences for the colour of frozen beef rolls to be used in hot pot cooking. Based on the results an acceptance threshold of a* value ≥16.4 proposed.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Dietary pomegranate by-product improves oxidative stability of lamb meat
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Antonio Natalello; Alessandro Priolo; Bernardo Valenti; Michela Codini; Simona Mattioli; Mariano Pauselli; Mario Puccio; Massimiliano Lanza; Sokratis Stergiadis; Giuseppe Luciano

    This study investigated the effect of including whole pomegranate by-product in lamb diet on meat oxidative stability. Seventeen lambs were assigned to two experimental treatments and fed a cereal-based concentrate (CON) or the same concentrate where 200 g/kg DM of cereals were replaced by whole pomegranate by-product (WPB). Meat from WPB-fed lambs had a greater concentration of vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherols), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), highly peroxidizable PUFA and a higher peroxidability index (P < .05). Feeding WPB limited the formation of metmyoglobin (P = .05) and reduced lipid oxidation (TBARS values) after 7 days of storage for raw meat (P = .024) or 4 days for cooked meat (P = .006). Feeding WPB increased meat antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) in the lipophilic fraction (P = .017), but not in the hydrophilic. These results suggest that vitamin E in the pomegranate by-product contributed to the higher antioxidant capacity of meat from the WPB-fed lambs.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Alternative cutting methods and dry aging reduce the shear force of hot boned beef striploin in Bos indicus cattle
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Cameron G. Jose; Robin H. Jacob; Graham E. Gardner

    Hot boning (HB) is an economical processing technique often resulting in poorer meat quality and tenderness. This study tested a method of partial HB, where the short loin section was removed from the hot carcass and chilled, with the striploin remained in the skeletal system. Thirty six yearling Bos indicus steers carcasses were subjected to either low, high or no electrical stimulation and each side allocated to a cutting treatment of HB, partial HB and conventional (Achillies hung). Striploins were divided into 3 and aged for 5, 14 and 28 days. Warner Bratzler Shear force (WBSF) and sarcomere length were tested. Partial HB resulted in greater tenderization without aging compared to HB. However, optimized electrical stimulation was a requirement. Treatment did not influence sarcomere length. The study also tested the impact of Dry aging of HB striploins, which resulted in further increases in tenderness at 28 days of aging compared to wet aged product, reducing WBSF by 9 N.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Carnobacterium maltaromaticum as bioprotective culture in vitro and in cooked ham
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Gabriela Maia Danielski; Pedro Henrique Imazaki; Caroline Maria de Andrade Cavalari; Georges Daube; Antoine Clinquart; Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo

    The bioprotective effects of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum (CM) strains were assessed in vitro and in sliced cooked ham. CM strains were tested in vitro against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). In vitro effect was evaluated using co-culture (with and without EDTA) and cell-free supernatant (CFS). CFS was tested by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration. In cooked ham, the inhibitory effect of CM on L. innocua (LI) and on the physicochemical parameters were evaluated for 7 days at 4 °C. In co-cultures at −1 °C and 4 °C, all CM isolates inhibited LM. A slight inhibition was observed against the Gram-negative bacteria with the addition of EDTA. CFS did not show inhibitory effect under the studied conditions. In cooked ham, CM inhibited LI growth and did not affect the physicochemical parameters of the product during storage. CM strains show potential to be used as bioprotective cultures in cold-stored cooked ham and improve its safety.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Impacts of different altitudes and natural drying times on lipolysis, lipid oxidation and flavour profile of traditional Tibetan yak jerky
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Ge Han; Lang Zhang; Qixuan Li; Yan Wang; Qian Chen; Baohua Kong

    The impact of different altitudes on the physicochemical properties, lipolysis, lipid oxidation, volatile compound formation and sensory evaluation of traditional Tibetan dried yak jerky during natural drying was investigated. High altitude (HA) yak jerky showed higher percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances than low altitude (LA) yak jerky during natural drying (P < 0.05). The percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased during natural drying, whereas that of saturated fatty acids increased (P < 0.05). A total of 54 volatile compounds were identified and quantified, and there were higher contents of volatile compounds in HA yak jerky than in LA jerky, which were mainly derived from lipid oxidation. Principal component analysis showed that the volatile compounds associated with the highest overall acceptability in HA yak jerky were hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 1-hexanol, 2-heptanone, 2-methyl-3-octanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The volatile compounds associated with the highest overall acceptability for yak jerky with a longer natural drying time were hexane, 1-octanol, 2-ethylhexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol and 2,3-octanedione. According to the sensory evaluations, HA yak jerky with a natural drying time of 75 d tends to be more popular.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Meat quality in the Danish pig population anno 2018
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Margit Dall Aaslyng; Marchen Hviid

    The level of meat quality was assessed in a random sample of the Danish pig population. No PSE was found in m. semimembranosus, and, depending on the definition of PSE, no pigs or only 2% of the pigs were categorised as having PSE in the M. longissimus lumborum. The ultimate pH had a low variability in M. longissimus lumborum (2.5%), m. semimembranosus (2.7%) and m. semispinalis capitis (4.9%) indicating that the quality of the meat with respect to these attributes was uniform. The drip loss was as high as 7%, although on average (2.23%) its value was lower than that previously found in a sample of the Danish pig population. A gender difference between entire male pigs and castrates was seen for drip loss and tenderness (shear force), with loins from castrates being less exudative (P < .001) and more tender (P < .01) than those from entire males. In conclusion, the Danish pig population showed a uniform meat quality.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Evaluating the use of fish oil microcapsules as omega-3 vehicle in cooked and dry-cured sausages as affected by their processing, storage and cooking
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Juan Carlos Solomando; Teresa Antequera; Trinidad Perez-Palacios

    This work evaluated the use of monolayered (Mo) and multilayered (Mu) fish oil microcapsules as vehicles of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cooked and dry-cured meat products as affected by the storage and culinary heating or dry-cured processing. Proximate composition, oxidation, EPA and DHA quantity, acceptability and morphology were evaluated. Mo and Mu microcapsules increased the quantity of EPA and DHA, leading to cooked and dry-cured products susceptible to be labeled as “source of omega-3 fatty acids”, without influencing physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability, acceptability or usual changes that take place during the culinary heating or dry-cured processing. The storage at refrigeration influenced on usual modifications on lipid oxidation and hedonic scores, but overall quality of the meat products enriched seems not to be impaired after storing. Thus, it could be indicated the viability of Mo and Mu as vehicles to enrich meat products subjected to low and high temperature for manufacturing, storage at refrigeration and culinary heating.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Public opinion and perception of rosé veal in the UK
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    E.P.G. Skelhorn; A. Garcia-Ara; R.J. Nova; H. Kinston; W. Wapenaar

    Rosé veal is understood as meat from male purebred dairy calves. The UK veal market is limited, and calves are often killed at birth due to lack of purpose. A questionnaire, completed by 1002 respondents, investigated the UK public knowledge, perceptions and opinions of rosé veal, and whether raising awareness would sustain the rosé veal market. Most respondents (66%) did not eat rosé veal, mainly due to limited availability or exposure (31%) and animal welfare concerns (17%). A third of respondents knew the differences between rosé and white veal.. After defining this, 61% of respondents would eat rosé veal, compared to 23% of respondents who ate it beforehand. Most respondents (91%) were willing to pay more for rosé veal burgers than the proposed average price for beef burgers. Increasing availability is key to encourage the sustainability of rosé veal production in the UK. These findings are useful for dairy farmers to strategically promote the use of purebred dairy bull calves.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of longissimus lumborum of different altitude yaks
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Yayuan Yang; Ling Han; Qunli Yu; Yongfang Gao; Rende Song; Suonan Zhao

    Yaks in high altitude regions display good adaptability to hypoxic environment. However, the mechanism involved in regulating muscle protein expression in hypoxic environment is not completely clear yet. To explore the mechanisms modulating postmortem alterations, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was performed on muscles of yaks raised at two different altitudes. The results indicated that 475 differentially expressed proteins (DEPS) were identified in high-altitude yaks, among which, 439 DEPs were up-regulated and 36 DEPs were down-regulated. Of these, 26 phosphoproteins clustered into energy metabolism and hypoxic adaption were selected after bioinformatics analysis. In addition, some glycolytic enzymes were detected to be differentially phosphorylated. The difference in protein phosphorylation levels between the two groups may be the key factor involved in the regulation of muscle hypoxic adaption. The present results could provide proteomic insights into changes occurring in yak muscles at different altitudes and may be a valuable resource for future investigations.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Lipid oxidation inhibition capacity of plant extracts and powders in a processed meat model system
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Stina C.M. Burri; Anders Ekholm; Uko Bleive; Tõnu Püssa; Martin Jensen; Jarkko Hellström; Sari Mäkinen; Risto Korpinen; Pirjo H. Mattila; Vitalijs Radenkovs; Dalija Segliņa; Åsa Håkansson; Kimmo Rumpunen; Eva Tornberg

    A meat model system was used for screening lipid oxidation inhibiting capacity of diverse horticultural plant materials. In the model, heme-containing sarcoplasmic proteins from the meat water-phase were homogenized with linoleic acid and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) were measured. 23 Plant materials were investigated at three high (50, 100, and 200 ppm) concentrations and five plant extracts were tested at three low (5, 10, and 20 ppm) concentrations over time. In the high concentration sets, summer savory freeze-dried powder, beetroot leaves extracted with 50% ethanol, and an olive polyphenol powder extracted from wastewater, inhibited oxidation the most effectively. After two weeks and at 200 ppm concentration, oxidation was reduced to 17.2%, 16.6% and 13.5% of the blank sample with no added antioxidants respectively. In the low concentration set, spray dried rhubarb juice inhibited oxidation the most after two weeks at 5 ppm where oxidation was reduced to 68.3% of the blank sample with no added antioxidants.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Dietary citrus pulp and grape pomace as potential natural preservatives for extending beef shelf life
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Tawanda Tayengwa, Obert C. Chikwanha, Pieter Gouws, Michael E.R. Dugan, Timothy Mutsvangwa, Cletos Mapiye

    The shelf-life of beef was compared from 7-months old Angus steers (281 ± 15.4 kg initial body weight) fed 150 g/kg DM dried citrus pulp (DCP) or grape pomace (DGP) for 90 days. The antioxidant activity, bacterial load, and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on the longissimus lumborum subjected to air-permeable packaging at days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post-slaughter. Beef from steers fed DGP or DCP had higher L* values (P ≤ 0.05) and fewer (P ≤ 0.05) coliform counts than steers fed the control diet. Beef antioxidant activity was DGP > DCP > control (P ≤ 0.05). Beef TBARS and carbonyl contents were DGP < DCP < control (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, antioxidant activity decreased (P ≤ 0.05), while bacterial loads, TBARS and carbonyl contents increased (P ≤ 0.05) during retail display for all diets. Current findings indicate that DGP could be a better natural preservative than DCP when included in beef cattle finishing diets.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Effects of high pressure in combination with the type of aging on the eating quality and biochemical changes in pork loin
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Su-In Hwang, Geun-Pyo Hong

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure (0.1, 150 and 400 MPa) and the aging method (wet- and dry-aging) on the quality characteristics of pork loin. Pork pressurized at the target pressure levels was aged at 1 °C for 3 weeks in vacuum packaging (wet-aging) or a moisture/vapor permeable bag (dry-aging). The water binding properties, shear force, color, volatile compounds and microbial counts were estimated as the quality characteristics of aged pork. Despite dry-aged pork having distinctive flavor characteristics, high moisture loss during aging was estimated as the most important factor that affected the quality of aged pork. Alternately, wet aging showed advantages of producing tender and juicy pork, and moderate pressurization (150 MPa) modified or improved the qualities of wet-aged pork. Consequently, this study indicated that pressurization followed by wet-aging had potential application as a meat tenderizing technique.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Production of a safe cured meat with low residual nitrite using nitrite substitutes
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Ling Huang, Xiaoqun Zeng, Zhen Sun, Aijuan Wu, Jun He, Yali Dang, Daodong Pan

    This work provided a new no-added-nitrite cured meat and an innovative method for substituting nitrite with Lactobacillus fermentum RC4 and Lactobacillus plantarum B6 as starters, beet red and Monascus color as coloring agents, and nisin as antibiotic. Three groups of cured meat were prepared: a no-added-nitrite experimental group (EG), a control group to which only salt was added (CG-S) and a control group to which both salt and nitrite were added (CG-N). After 20 days storage period at 18–20 °C, EG exhibited lower nitrite contents, better sensory characteristics, a greater content of free fatty acids, more volatile compounds, and more plate counts but without pathogenic bacteria compared to EG-S and CG-N. 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-butanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 2, 4-heptadienal, heptanal, octanal and nonanal were the main flavor substances and palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid were main FFAs of EG. The no-added nitrite cured meat prepared by this novel method can improve the quality of cured meat and ensure low nitrite content.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Evaluating the performance of a miniaturized NIR spectrophotometer for predicting intramuscular fat in lamb: A comparison with benchtop and hand-held Vis-NIR spectrophotometers
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Y. Dixit, H.Q. Pham, C.E. Realini, M. Agnew, C.R. Craigie, M.M. Reis

    This study compares a miniaturized spectrophotometer to benchtop and hand-held Vis-NIR instruments in the spectral range of 900–1700 nm for prediction of intramuscular fat (IMF) content of freeze-dried ground lamb meat; and their ability to differentiate fresh lamb meat based on animal age (4 vs 12 months). The performance of the miniaturized spectrophotometer was not affected by sample temperature equilibration time. Partial Least Square regression models for IMF showed Rcv2 = 0.86–0.89 and RMSECV = 0.36–0.40 values for all instruments. Day-to-day instrumental variation adversely affected performance of the miniaturized spectrophotometer (R2p = 0.27, RMSEP = 1.28). This negative effect was overcome by representing day-to-day variation in the model. The benchtop spectrophotometer and miniaturized spectrophotometer differentiated lamb meat by animal age. The miniaturized spectrophotometer has potential to be a fast, ultra-compact and cost-effective device for predicting IMF in freeze-dried ground lamb meat and for age classification of fresh lamb meat.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Effects of heat stress on animal physiology, metabolism, and meat quality: A review
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Paula A. Gonzalez-Rivas, Surinder S. Chauhan, Minh Ha, Narelle Fegan, Frank R. Dunshea, Robyn D. Warner

    Heat stress is one of the most stressful events in the life of livestock with harmful consequences for animal health, productivity and product quality. Ruminants, pigs and poultry are susceptible to heat stress due to their rapid metabolic rate and growth, high level of production, and species-specific characteristics such as rumen fermentation, sweating impairment, and skin insulation. Acute heat stress immediately before slaughter stimulates muscle glycogenolysis and can result in pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat characterized by low water holding capacity (WHC). By contrast, animals subjected to chronic heat stress, have reduced muscle glycogen stores resulting in dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat with high ultimate pH and high WHC. Furthermore, heat stress leads to oxidative stress, lipid and protein oxidation, and reduced shelf life and food safety due to bacterial growth and shedding. This review discusses the scientific evidence about the effects of heat stress on livestock physiology and metabolism, and their consequences on meat quality and safety.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Non-destructive assessment of the myoglobin content of Tan sheep using hyperspectral imaging
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Lijuan Cheng, Guishan Liu, Jianguo He, Guoling Wan, Chao Ma, Jingjing Ban, Limin Ma

    This study aimed to develop simplified models for rapid and nondestructive monitoring myoglobin contents (DeoMb, MbO2 and MetMb) during refrigerated storage of Tan sheep based on a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system in the spectral range of 400–1000 nm. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LSSVM) were applied to correlate the spectral data with the reference values of myoglobin contents measured by a traditional method. In order to simplify the LSSVM models, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and Interval variable iterative space shrinkage approach (iVISSA) were used to select key wavelengths. The new CARS-LSSVM models of DeoMb and MbO2 yielded good results, with R2p of 0.810 and 0.914, RMSEP of 1.127 and 2.598, respectively. The best model of MetMb was new iVISSA-CARS-LSSVM, with an R2p of 0.915 and RMSEP of 2.777. The overall results from this study indicated that it was feasible to predict myoglobin contents in Tan sheep using HSI.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Why don't consumers buy organic lamb meat? A Spanish case study
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    A. Rabadán, M. Díaz, M. Brugarolas, R. Bernabéu

    The fall in lamb meat consumption makes it necessary to determine strategies to increase its consumption and the viability of livestock farms. Given this scenario, organic lamb meat emerges as a product with major growth potential. Using crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA), this study analyses the profile of lamb meat consumers who decide against consuming organic lamb meat, identifying the main reasons they give for this decision. The findings reveal two majority segments of non-consumers of organic lamb meat, corresponding to 44.2% and 32.8% of conventional lamb meat consumers. In these segments, the main reasons given for non-consumption of lamb meat are, in the following order, supply, higher price and the lack of guarantees that the meat is actually organic. Thus, increasing organic lamb meat consumption necessarily involves greater efforts in the supply chain and greater promotion of information about the controls that guarantee the quality of certified organic lamb.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Efficacy of bacteriophage and organic acids in decreasing STEC O157:H7 populations in beef kept under vacuum and aerobic conditions: A simulated High Event Period scenario
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    E.L. Shebs, M.J. Lukov, F.M. Giotto, E.S. Torres, A.S. de Mello

    After High Event Periods, beef subprimals are usually removed from vacuum and treated with antimicrobials. After re-packaging, subprimals are tested to verify the presence of STEC. In this study, bacteriophage and organic acids were applied on beef contaminated with STEC O157:H7 to evaluate the efficiency of industry practices. Beef samples inoculated with STEC were treated with bacteriophage, lactic acid, and peroxyacetic acid and kept under vacuum or aerobic conditions. STEC loads were evaluated 30 min and 6 h after antimicrobial applications. Under aerobic conditions for 30 min and 6 h, phage reduced STEC in beef by approximately 1.4 log whereas organic acids led to a 0.5 log reduction. Under vacuum for 30 min, bacteriophage significantly reduced STEC by 1 log. No effects were observed when samples were treated with organic acids. Under vacuum after 6 h, bacteriophage reduced STEC loads by 1.4 log, lactic acid reduced by 0.6 log, and no effects were observed when peroxyacetic acid was applied.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Theoretical basis of nitrosomyoglobin formation in a dry sausage model by coagulase-negative staphylococci: Behavior and expression of nitric oxide synthase
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Pan Huang, Baocai Xu, Xuefei Shao, Conggui Chen, Wu Wang, Peijun Li

    Three coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species were investigated for gene expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the ability of nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb) formation in a dry sausage model without nitrite addition. The expression of nos gene was systematically proven from DNA to RNA to protein, and nitric oxide (NO) generation was also directly detected. In the dry sausage model system, the redness (a*-values) of samples inoculated with the three CNS species were higher than those inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and the control (P < 0.05). The results from UV–vis and electron spin resonance spectroscopies revealed that pentacoordinate NO-Mb was formed in the sausages with either CNS or nitrite added. The sausage inoculated with Staphylococcus vitulinus had the highest NO-Mb content among the CNS-treated sausages. Dimer interface residues and phosphorylation sites of NOS in . itulinus differ from the other two CNS species as revealed by amino acid sequences, which may be responsible for the different catalytic activities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nutritional, antioxidant and sensory properties of functional beef burgers formulated with chia seeds and goji puree, before and after in vitro digestion
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Elena Antonini, Luisa Torri, Maria Piochi, Giorgia Cabrino, Maria Assunta Meli, Roberta De Bellis

    The addition of chia seeds and goji puree (2.5 and/or 5%) was evaluated in terms of their effects on the fatty acid profile, lipid peroxidation, total phenols and antioxidant capacity of cooked beef burgers. In comparison to control burgers, polyunsaturated fatty acids doubled or tripled in samples containing chia seeds; polyphenols and antioxidant capacities (ORAC, ABTS, DPPH) increased up to 70% and malondialdehyde values were reduced up to 50% in burgers formulated with both ingredients. Polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were also assessed after in vitro digestion. A marked increase of polyphenol bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity was observed for all samples, but also malondialdehyde values were increased after digestion, especially in samples containing 5% chia seeds. Finally, hedonistic tests were conducted on young (18–30 years), adult (31–60 years) and elderly (>60 years) subjects and the burgers resulted acceptable by all groups, appointing to their potential application as functional burgers.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Fatty acid profile as a discriminatory tool for the origin of lamb muscle and adipose tissue from different pastoral grazing areas in North Macedonia – A short communication
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Dragan Vasilev, Nina Dimovska, Zehra Hajrulai-Musliu, Vlado Teodorović, Aleksandra Nikolić, Nedjeljko Karabasil, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Milorad Mirilović

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of lamb muscle and adipose tissue originating from ten different grazing areas in North Macedonia and an assessment of whether the meat origin could be distinguished on the basis of FA profile are presented. Muscle and adipose tissues of three-month-old male lambs (crossbreds of autochthonous Ovcepolian and Württemberg) reared on spring pastures were studied. Statistically significant differences in the individual FA contents, FA groups and FA ratios were observed between lamb tissues from the different geographic regions. Canonical discriminant analysis showed there was a significant linear divergence between tissues from almost all examined regions. The greatest weight in the differentiation of the different areas showed fatty acid ratios, C18:3n3, C18:1n9c and C20:5n3 for the muscle tissue, as well as C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, C16:1 and C17:1 for the adipose tissue. This showed that the FA composition of muscle and adipose tissue obtained from lambs reared on pasture could serve as a useful indicator to aid differentiation of its geographic origin but it should be confirmed through further replicated studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Effects of 17 performance, carcass and raw ham quality parameters on ham weight loss at first salting in heavy pigs, a meat quality indicator for the production of high quality dry-cured hams
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Stefania Dall'Olio, Gizella Aboagye, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Maurizio Gallo, Luca Fontanesi

    Ham weight loss at first salting (HWLFS) is a meat quality parameter used to assess the suitability of the hams for salting and seasoning. The relationships between HWLFS and 17 performance, carcass and raw ham quality parameters were investigated in 260 performance tested Italian Large White heavy pigs. HWLFS was affected by slaughter day and visible intermuscular fat of trimmed hams whereas sex did not affect its variability. Residual correlations of HWLFS with backfat thickness (BFT; r = −0.51) and lean cuts (LC; r = +0.51) were stronger than with ham weight at trimming (r = +0.40) and after first salting (r = +0.37). Significant correlations of HWLFS with fresh ham quality traits ranged from +0.16 to −0.25. BFT, LC and pH24h were the main predictors of HWLFS in the regression model. Results from this study indicated that higher ham fat coverage and pH24h and lower LC could reduce HWLFS of green hams for Protected Designation of Origin products.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • The effect of Goji berries (Lycium barbarum) dietary supplementation on rabbit meat quality
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Laura Menchetti, Gabriele Brecchia, Raffaella Branciari, Olimpia Barbato, Bernard Fioretti, Michela Codini, Enrico Bellezza, Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci, Dino Miraglia

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary concentrations of Goji berries (GB) on the meat quality of rabbit. At weaning, 60 New Zealand male rabbits were assigned to three groups and fed with a commercial standard diet (C), C supplemented with 1% (LG) or 3% Goji berries (HG) until slaughter. Supplementation did not affect colour, water holding capacity, and tenderness but regression analyses showed linear relationships between pH (P < .05), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS; P < .001), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC; P < .001), Redox Index (RI; P < .001), and phenolic content (P < .001) of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle and the rate of GB in the feed. However, by pairwise comparisons emerged that acidification (pH: P < .05), antioxidant/oxidant status (TBARS, ORAC, RI; P < .001), and phenolic content (P < .01) of muscle significantly improved only in HG compared with C group. Then, a dose-dependent relation was found but only the higher dose of GB guaranteed an increase in protection against oxidative phenomena of meat.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Volatile and non-volatile metabolite changes in 140-day stored vacuum packaged chilled beef and potential shelf life markers
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Damian Frank, Joanne Hughes, Udayasika Piyasiri, Yimin Zhang, Mandeep Kaur, Yutao Li, Glen Mellor, Janet Stark

    During storage of vacuum packaged chilled beef (VPCB), lactic acid bacteria become the dominant microflora, facilitating an extended shelf life. However, at some point, (bio)chemical and organoleptic changes render the meat unacceptable. In this investigation we evaluated volatile and non-volatile metabolite changes in VPCB after 84-, 98-, 120- and 140-days storage at ~ − 1 °C. After 140-days storage, the sensory, volatile and non-volatile data did not indicate spoilage. Minimal changes in volatile signatures of collected weep and on raw and grilled steaks were measured. Changes in selected non–volatile components indicated increased proteolysis (free amino acids, carnosine) and changes in organic acids (lactic, succinic) and nucleotide metabolism. Rapid volatile profiling using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry showed a clear progression of changes in selected compounds over the storage period. An increased concentration of ethanol and other compounds between 120 and 140 days, suggested that volatile changes may be a useful objective indicator of extended storage VPCB quality.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Comparison of selected parameters related to food safety of fallow deer and beef uncured fermented sausages with freeze-dried acid whey addition
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Anna D. Kononiuk, Małgorzata Karwowska

    This study determines the possibility of using freeze-dried acid whey as an alternative to nitrate/nitrite in fermented sausages made from fallow deer meat. The study compared the parameters related to food safety as well as the content of biogenic amines (BAs) in the sausages made from beef meat and fallow deer meat. The results showed slight differences in the physicochemical parameters between these two types of sausages. Stuffings as well as sausages made from fallow deer meat had a significantly (P ≤ .05) higher content of lactic acid bacteria than the beef variants. In addition, depending on the type of meat and additives used, differences were noted in the tested BAs and total BAs. In the case of fallow deer stuffings worse results were observed for food safety-related parameters. Addition of acid whey had a similar effect on the tested parameters as nitrate/nitrite, besides limiting the formation of BAs.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Prediction of meat quality traits in the abattoir using portable and hand-held near-infrared spectrometers
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Simone Savoia, Andrea Albera, Alberto Brugiapaglia, Liliana Di Stasio, Alessandro Ferragina, Alessio Cecchinato, Giovanni Bittante

    The use of near-infrared spectrometers (NIRS) for predicting meat quality traits directly in the abattoir was tested with three trials. For the calibration trial, spectra were acquired from the cross-cut surface of the Longissimus thoracis muscle on 1166 carcasses of Piemontese young bulls with a portable visible-near-infrared spectrometer (Vis-NIRS) and with a small hand-held instrument (Micro-NIRS). A sample of the same muscle was analyzed to provide the reference. Validation statistics of the two instruments were similar. Predictabilities of meat color and purge loss were good, whereas for the other traits they were less promising. The repeatability trial showed that post-slaughter factors, not predictable by NIR spectra collected in the abattoir, affect reference meat quality values. A trial under operative conditions showed that both spectrometers were able to capture the major sources of variation in most of the meat quality traits. Overall, NIRS could be used to predict the animals' “native” characteristics exploitable for genetic improvement of meat quality traits.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Combination of dietary glycaemic index and fasting time prior to slaughter as strategy to modify quality of pork
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    A.I. Rey, D. Menoyo, J. Segura, C.J. López-Bote, L. Calvo

    This study evaluates the effect of the dietary glycaemic index (low: L-GI vs. high: H-GI), pre-slaughter fasting times (17 h: f17 vs. 19 h: f19 vs. 22 h: f22), and their interaction, on certain meat quality characteristics. Greater duration of fasting resulted in lesser drip loss of muscle, greater LIPE expression (lipolysis) and 10% greater TBARS, with PUFA being the main source of free-fatty acid production. L-GI diets produced a greater drip loss, lipolytic activity and lesser C18:1n-9 relative mobilization, suggesting this group had greater glycolytic potential than H-GI. An interaction was found in meat characteristics related to fat metabolism. The IRS2 gene expression was greater in pigs fed L-GI diets, but only in a low fasting period. LIPE gene expression was greater for L-GI-f17 group than for L-GI-f22. Lesser n-6 PUFA but greater MUFA were found in the free fatty acid fraction of L-GI- f17 group thus resulting in a faster lipolysis initiation in this group.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Electrical impedance estimation for pork tissues during chilled storage
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Yue Leng, Yonghai Sun, Xiaodan Wang, Jumin Hou, Xutong Zhao, Yuxia Zhang

    The impedance and physicochemistry of pork loins at five chilled storage periods (0, 1, 3, 7, 15 days) were characterized in order to explore the effects of chilling on the cell physiological status of pork tissues. The impedance spectra were analyzed by an equivalent circuit model with needle and bar electrodes. Meat traits including cooking loss, color, pH, texture properties and electrical conductivity were measured. The conductivity and pH of pork increased, and the color and texture parameters all significantly differed. The measured impedance of pork tissues can be described well by a modified Hayden model. The impedance characteristics of samples revealed that the structures and integrity of cell membranes in pork tissues were damaged with the prolonged storage time. The findings prove the potential of electrical impedance spectroscopy in evaluating the physiological status of pork tissues during chilled storage.

    更新日期:2019-11-19
  • Comparison of the decision tree, artificial neural network and multiple regression methods for prediction of carcass tissues composition of goat kids
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Bulent Ekiz, Oguzhan Baygul, Hulya Yalcintan, Mustafa Ozcan

    The aim of this study was to predict carcass tissue composition of goat kids using the decision tree with CHAID algorithm (DT) and artificial neural network (ANN) method in comparison with classical step-wise regression (SWR) analyse. Data were obtained from 57 goat kids of Gokceada breed. Predictor variables were pre-slaughter weight, several carcass measurements and indices, weights of different carcass joints and dressing percentage. R2 values ranging from 0.212 to 0.371 indicating low to moderate accuracy were obtained for predicting muscle proportion. DT and ANN yielded similar R2 values for predicting bone proportion. DT was the best prediction method for estimating proportions of subcutaneous fat (R2 = 0.828) and intermuscular fat (R2 = 0.789). According to DT analyses, cold carcass weight was the most important factor influencing bone proportion, while kidney knob and channel fat weight was the predominant factor influencing subcutaneous, intermuscular and total fat proportions. Consequently, the use of DT method can be considered to predict carcass fat proportions.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Consumer acceptance of cultured meat in Germany
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Ramona Weinrich, Micha Strack, Felix Neugebauer

    Current meat production places high costs on the environment. However, only a small portion of consumers are willing to opt for meat substitutes or a vegetarian diet. Cultured meat may contribute to solve this dilemma. In this journal, Bryant and Barnett recently reviewed current attitude research and summarized objections perceived by consumers concerning cultured meat. However, no research from Germany was available. Thus, we conducted a survey of German participants, including attitudes previously found to be important in the literature. With a panel sample of 713 consumers, attitudes were found to structure in three dimensions: ethics (e.g., animal welfare, ecological) was the strongest positive driver and depended on pre-knowledge available for 38% of participants; emotional objections (e.g., unnatural) were the second strongest predictor but unrelated to pre-knowledge and demographics; and the third attitudinal dimension expresses concern over the global diffusion of cultured meat. A path model summarizes the results. In conclusion, Germany shows itself to be only moderately prepared to accept cultured meat.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Prediction of marbling score and carcass traits in Korean Hanwoo beef cattle using machine learning methods and synthetic minority oversampling technique
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Saleh Shahinfar, Hawlader A. Al-Mamun, Byoungho Park, Sidong Kim, Cedric Gondro

    Pricing of Hanwoo beef in the Korean market is primarily based on meat quality, and particularly on marbling score. The ability to accurately predict marbling score early in the life of an animal is extremely valuable for producers to meet the requirements of their target market, and for genetic selection. A total of 3989 Korean Hanwoo cattle (2108 with 50 k SNP genotypes) and 45 phenotypic features were available for this study. Four machine learning (ML) algorithms were applied to predict six carcass traits and compared against linear regression prediction models. In most scenarios, SMO was the best performing algorithm. The most and least accurately predicted traits were carcass weight and marbling score with correlation of 0.95 and 0.64 respectively. Additionally, the value of using a synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) was evaluated and results showed a slight improvement in the prediction error of marbling score. Machine Learning approaches can be useful tools to predict important carcass traits in beef cattle.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Evidence of marbling as a single connected entity
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Murk J. Bottema, Zbigniew A. Kruk, Amelia Gontar, Wayne S. Pitchford, Cynthia D.K. Bottema

    Serial sections of Angus striploins that varied in marbling were analysed in three dimensions to assess potential differences in intramuscular fat structure. Surprisingly, the majority of the intramuscular fat appeared to be connected along the 100 mm of muscle in both the highly marbled and less marbled striploins. Thus, rather than having dispersed individual flecks of marbling, the intramuscular fat was a single entity within the striploin. The local shape patterns of this entity varied with marbling level in that the structure had an increased diameter in the highly marbled striploins. However, the amount of branching in the intramuscular fat did not vary with the level of marbling. The results suggest that marbling may occur along an internal structure, such as the vascular system or interstitium in the muscle. It is postulated that when beef marbling increases, additional intramuscular fat is not deposited in isolated sites but along this internal structure, widening the existing entity rather than changing the shape.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Effects of freezing and thawing on microbiological and physical-chemical properties of dry-aged beef
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Ana Paula da Silva Bernardo, Astrid Caroline Muniz da Silva, Vanessa Cristina Francisco, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Renata Tieko Nassu, Chris R. Calkins, Maristela da Silva do Nascimento, Sérgio Bertelli Pflanzer

    This study evaluated the effects of freezing, prior to and after dry aging, on the microbiological and physical-chemical quality of beef. Strip loins (n = 24) from 12 carcasses were assigned to four treatments: non-frozen dry aging (Dry); dry aging, steak fabrication, freezing and slow thawing (Dry + ST); freezing, fast thawing (FT; 20 °C/15 h) and dry aging (FT + Dry); freezing, slow thawing (ST; 4 °C/48 h) and dry aging (ST + Dry). Freezing conditions were − 20 °C/28 days and dry aging conditions were 2 °C/70% relative humidity, for 28 days. Freezing prior to dry aging did not affect the microbial counts compared to Dry. However, FT + Dry and ST + Dry increased (16%) total process loss (P < .05) compared to Dry and Dry+ST. Moreover, freezing changed volatile compounds profile. Thus, freezing prior to dry aging was not a feasible process due to increased process loss, while freezing after dry aging was considered a viable alternative to preserve the steaks without compromising beef physical-chemical traits.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Carcass chilling method effects on color and tenderness of bison meat
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Maggie A. Mickelson, James R. Claus

    Carcasses were conventionally (C, n = 9) or vascularly chilled using the Rinse & Chill® process (RC; n = 9). Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Triceps brachii, TB) were processed (LL, steaks; TB, ground), packaged (polyvinyl chloride, PVC; vacuum, VAC), and displayed or stored dark. Measurements included color, purge, pH, sarcomere length, shear force, and cooking loss. Data were analyzed as a split plot design with carcass chilling treatment as whole plot and display day as split plot. Data were analyzed separately by packaging method. RC increased (P < .05) cooking loss 1.7% but decreased shear force 24% (C, 42.5 N; P < .05) in steaks. RC ground bison packaged in PVC and VAC had greater (P < .05) CIE L*, a*, and b* values than C. RC VAC bison steaks had greater (P < .05) oxymyoglobin, deoxymyoglobin and decreased (P < .05) metmyoglobin than C VAC steaks. RC positively impacted bison steak tenderness and color in ground bison and steaks.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • The effect of chitosan coating and vacuum packaging on the microbiological and chemical properties of beef
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Ayhan Duran, Halil Ibrahim Kahve

    Beef is an animal food sensitive to deterioration due to its rich nutrient content. Therefore, some preservation techniques are applied. These include vacuum packaging, a modified atmosphere, a controlled atmosphere and an edible film coating. In this study, it was aimed to extend the shelf life of beef using vacuum packaging (VP) and chitosan coating with vacuum packaging (CC + VP). For this purpose, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), Stapylococcus aureus, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content were analyzed in beef obtained from local markets. As a result, it was found that the chitosan coating reduced the TMAB, LAB and TVB-N values and inhibited all S. aureus up to day 15 of storage. In addition, it was seen that the application of CC + VP was significantly more effective (p˂0.05) on the reduction of the TBA value, compared to the VP application over a long period of storage (45 days). The combined use of the two technologies is more effective on TVB-N. According to the data obtained from this study, because of the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of chitosan, it has been concluded that it can be used as a bio-preservative in the meat industry.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Effect of salt reduction and inclusion of 1% edible seaweeds on the chemical, sensory and volatile component profile of reformulated frankfurters
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Elena Garicano Vilar, Hao Ouyang, Maurice G. O'Sullivan, Joseph P. Kerry, Ruth M. Hamill, Michael O'Grady, Halimah O. Mohammed, Kieran N. Kilcawley

    The optimization of processed meats through salt replacement using edible seaweeds may reduce the risk of chronic disease through reduction in dietary sodium. We investigated the impact of the inclusion of four selected seaweeds (1% w/w) in reformulated frankfurters in which salt addition and pork fat content was reduced by 50% and 21%, respectively, and where pork loin (longissimus dorsi muscle) was increased by 6%, compared to aControl. Two different types of red (Porphyra umbilicalis and Palmaria palmata) and brown (Himanthalia elongata and Undaria pinnatifida) edible seaweeds were evaluated. The reformulated frankfurters containing added seaweed were lower in ash, higher in moisture, protein and darker in colour and had altered textural properties in comparison to the Control; mainly less hard and less chewy. The volatile and sensory profiles of the reformulated frankfurters differed from the Control. However, the reformulated frankfurters with the inclusion of H.elongata were the most promising, although further work is required to optimise the formulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Muscle from grass- and grain-fed cattle differs energetically
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    A. Apaoblaza, S.D. Gerrard, S.K. Matarneh, J.C. Wicks, L. Kirkpatrick, E.M. England, T.L. Scheffler, S.K. Duckett, S. Hao, S. de Silva, A.L. Grant, D.E. Gerrard

    Insufficient acidification results in dark, firm, and dry beef. While this defect is often indicative of a stress event antemortem, muscle tissue may change in response to feeding regime. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples from 10 grain-fed and 10 grass-fed market weight, angus-crossbred beef cattle were collected postmortem. Lower (P < .05) L* and a* values were recorded for steaks from grass-fed cattle. Higher (P < .05) ultimate pH values were noted in lean of grass-fed cattle compared to grain-fed cattle, yet differences in lactate, glycogen and glucose were not detected. Further, increased (P < .05) ultimate pH values and lower (P < .05) lactate accumulations were noted when samples from grass-fed cattle were subjected to an in vitro glycolysis system. Muscle from grass-fed beef possessed nearly two-fold more (P < .05) succinate dehydrogenase and (P < .001) myoglobin than that of grain-fed cattle. These data show lean from grass-fed beef has greater enzymes reflective of oxidative metabolism and suggest dark lean from grass-fed cattle may be a function of more oxidative metabolism rather than a stress-related event antemortem.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Effects of dietary levels of brown seaweeds and plant polyphenols on growth and meat quality parameters in growing rabbit
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Raffaella Rossi, Francesco Vizzarri, Sara Chiapparini, Sabrina Ratti, Donato Casamassima, Marisa Palazzo, Carlo Corino

    Growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters from growing rabbit fed with two levels of dietary brown seaweed (Laminaria spp) and plant polyphenols were investigated. One hundred and forty-four New Zealand White rabbits were allotted into three dietary treatments containing 0 (C), 0.3% (T1), and 0.6% (T2) of brown seaweed and plant polyphenols mixture for 42 days. Growth performances and carcass weight were improved in T1 group. Vitamin A and E content in Longissimus thoracis and lumborum (LTL) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscle were enhanced in the treated groups. In the SM muscle, the oxidative stability was improved in rabbit fed with both dosages of dietary supplement, and the cholesterol content tended to be lower in T1 than in T2 and C groups. The LTL and SM muscle sensory characteristics were improved. In conclusion, dietary integration with a low dosage of brown seaweed and plant polyphenols is a valid strategy for enhance growth performance and produce healthier rabbit meat.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Q Methodology: An interesting strategy for concept profile and sensory description of low sodium salted meat
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Vitor A.S. Vidal, Camila S. Paglarini, Mônica Q. Freitas, Lorena O. Coimbra, Erick A. Esmerino, Marise A.R. Pollonio, Adriano G. Cruz

    The conceptual representation and sensory profiling of low sodium salted meat containing different flavor enhancers (n = 9) were investigated using the Q methodology. Seventy consumers performed a Q-sorting task having in mind the health concept, using a hedonic test and sensory description of the samples. Regular sodium salted meats were associated to the health concept and were characterized by as too much salt, fatty, salty taste, strange taste, and high blood pressure, while the low-sodium samples were associated with good appearance, metallic taste, and healthy. The Health questionnaire showed it is a valorization of food with improved sensory characteristics in addition and the importance of physical and emotional health. Our findings suggested the Q methodology can be an interesting tool for meat processors, together with the traditional sensory test with consumers, to obtain more consistent and complementary information about meat products.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • The effect of dietary garcinol supplementation on oxidative stability, muscle postmortem glycolysis and meat quality in pigs
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Tongxin Wang, Juan Li, Yafei Shao, Weilei Yao, Jun Xia, Qiongyu He, Feiruo Huang

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary garcinol (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) on the growth performance, meat quality, postmortem glycolysis and antioxidative capacity of finishing pigs. Dietary garcinol increased pigs' average daily gain, pH 24h, a* and myoglobin content of longissimus dorsi (LM) (P < 0.05), and decreased feed/gain ratio, the L*24h, glycolytic potential, drip loss, shear force, and backfat depth (P < 0.05). The glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were significantly increased by garcinol (P < 0.05), while the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content were decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, garcinol decreased the p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) activity, the acetylation level and activities of glycolysis enzymes phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3) (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that garcinol decreased postmortem glycolysis, and this may be due to the mechanism of decreasing glycolytic enzyme acetylation induced by PCAF. The present study indicates that garcinol can facilitate the growth performance of pigs and improve pork quality by changing postmortem glycolysis and antioxidative capacity.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Effect of oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaging on color changes of the M. longissimus thoraces et lumborum from dark cutting beef carcasses
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Xiao Lu, Daren P. Cornforth, Charles E. Carpenter, Lixian Zhu, Xin Luo

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with different oxygen concentrations on color changes of dark-cutting beef steaks from M. longissimus thoraces et lumborum. Four normal-pH (mean pH = 5.52) and four dark-cutting beef carcasses (mean pH = 6.36) were obtained from a commercial abattoir at 48 h post-mortem. The gas compositions in MAP were as follows: (i) 20% O2/20% CO2/60% N2, (ii) 40% O2/20% CO2/40% N2, (iii) 60% O2/20% CO2/20% N2 and (iv) 80% O2/20% CO2. Steaks were stored in the dark at 2 °C for 14 days. Surface color of dark-cutting beef steaks was improved (P < .05) by 60%O2-MAP and 80%O2-MAP after 4 days storage, to a level similar to the initial normal-pH steaks. Steaks in 60%O2-MAP and 80%O2-MAP had lower metmyoglobin reducing activity and higher TBARS values (P < .05), but deeper oxygen penetration depth (P < .05) that may have masked discoloration resulting from metmyoglobin formation under the surface. While both 60%O2-MAP and 80%O2-MAP improved the appearance of dark-cutting beef, 60%O2-MAP may be preferred owing to the lower level of lipid oxidation.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Influence of feeding fruit by-products as alternative dietary fibre sources to wheat bran on beef production and quality of Angus steers
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Tawanda Tayengwa, Obert C. Chikwanha, Michael E.R. Dugan, Timothy Mutsvangwa, Cletos Mapiye

    The current study compared the growth performance, carcass and meat quality effects of feeding 150 g/kg DM of dried citrus pulp (DCP) or grape pomace (DGP) as alternative dietary fibre sources to 7 months-old Angus steers for 90d. Twenty-four steers were assigned to three dietary treatments (8 steers/treatment) in completely randomised design. Each steer was treated as an experimental unit. Feeding the DGP and DCP diets resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.05) average daily gain and live weight compared to the control diet. Steers fed the DGP diet had higher (P ≤ 0.05) dry matter intake, warm and cold carcass weights than those fed the DCP and control diets. Shear force and income over feed costs were greatest for the DGP diet followed by the DCP and control diets (P ≤ 0.05). Current findings suggest DGP is a better fibre source than DCP resulting in enhanced growth performance, carcass attributes and economic viability of feedlot steers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of replacing fat with Perilla seed on the characteristics of meatballs
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Miao Ran, Changyong Chen, Cuiqin Li, Laping He, Xuefeng Zeng

    A portion of the fat used in the preparation of meatballs was replaced with different amounts of Perilla seeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Five treatments with mass percentages of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, including a set of blank treatment and four groups treated with different Perilla seed contents, were performed. The effects of Perilla seed content on the proximate composition, pH, color, cooking yield, emulsion stability, texture, fatty acid composition, and sensory properties of meatballs were analyzed. The meatballs with Perilla seeds showed remarkably better properties than those without seeds. The addition of 10% (w/w) Perilla seeds significantly (P < 0.05) improved the texture, composition, and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), dietary fiber, and protein in meatballs. Moreover, the characteristic flavor components were rich and varied, which enhanced the taste, flavor, and satiety of the meatballs. This work provided theoretical and data support for the preparation of Perilla meatballs rich in PUFAs and dietary fiber.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of feed withdrawal times prior to slaughter on some animal welfare indicators and meat quality traits in commercial pigs
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    J.D. Acevedo-Giraldo, J.A. Sánchez, M.H. Romero

    The aim of this study was to determinate the effects of on-farm fasting periods and lairage times on the physiological behavioral indicators, and on the killing-out and meat quality traits in commercial pigs. Two-hundred and forty pigs were submitted to a 2X4X3 experimental design, with two on-farm periods (0 or 8 h), four lairage times (1, 8, 12, 24 h) of fasting and three replicates. The blood values of cortisol, urea, and non-esterified fatty acids were above the baseline values for the species Fasting on the farm, lairage time, and total fasting (on farm plus lairage time) had a significant effect on carcass yield and on the hot and cold carcass yields (P < 0.01), but not on live weight losses (P > 0.01). The total fast had significant effects on the pH values, color L * and on water-holding capacity of the meat (P < 0.01). Therefore, in favor of animal welfare and better meat quality we suggest a total fast no >12 h.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Banana inflorescences: A cheap raw material with great potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Angela Souza Rodrigues, Ernesto Hashime Kubota, Camila Giacomelli da Silva, Jamila dos Santos Alves, Tiffany Prokopp Hautrive, Geangela Souza Rodrigues, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol

    The bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts made with various parts of banana inflorescences (bracts, male flowers, rachis, and whole inflorescence) were evaluated in the first part of this study. The extract made with male flowers (EMF) had a higher content of phenolics and flavonoids, lower IC50 value, and higher FRAP value. Thus, EMF was selected to be used in sausage formulations at the concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%. The effect of this reformulation on the physicochemical, oxidative, and sensory characteristics of the sausages was evaluated during the refrigerated storage (28 days). EMF presented an effective antioxidant activity, with no major changes on pH, aw, and color parameters. In addition, the sensory quality of the product was not affected by the addition of up to 2% EMF. Therefore, EMF has great potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Revision of the cold processing phases to obtain a targeted salt reduction in typical Italian dry-cured ham
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    A. Pinna, G. Saccani, C. Schivazappa, N. Simoncini, R. Virgili

    The objective of the study was to reduce the salt content of typical Italian dry-cured ham by at least 25%, to meet the “reduced salt” claim. Salt reduction needs process adjustments to maintain product safety and quality in the absence of nitrites. A way was to reduce the salt input and to shorten the salting period compared to the conventional process. The cold drying period of reduced salt (RS) hams was extended, to decrease aw below 0.97 in inner parts and obtain the same safety conditions of control hams (CS). In RS dry-cured hams the salt reduction was accomplished, the generation of biogenic amines was lower than the threshold values generating toxic effects, and color was the same as in the CS ones. However, in RS proteolysis increased, contributing to texture softening. A strengthened salt diffusion from backside rind could contribute to counteract the rise in proteolysis of biceps femoris muscle, depleted of salt during the process of RS hams.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effect of salting time and sex on chemical and textural properties of dry cured ham
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Urška Tomažin, Martin Škrlep, Maja Prevolnik Povše, Nina Batorek Lukač, Danijel Karolyi, Matjaž Červek, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar

    Effect of reduced salting and pig sex on the quality of Slovenian dry-cured ham Kraški pršut was studied. A total of 48 hams from 24 crossbred pigs (12 gilts, 12 castrates) were submitted to two different salting regimes; standard salting for 18 days (HS hams, n = 24) and shortened salting (LS hams, n = 24) for 10 days. Reduced salting time effectively reduced salt content but resulted also in higher extent of proteolysis of LS hams which was associated with differences in texture and colour of biceps femoris muscle. Lower fat oxidative stability was observed in HS hams. With regard to sex effect, the hams originating from gilts were more proteolysed which was associated with differences in texture and colour. Lipid oxidation was similar in gilts and castrates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Utilization of pea starch and fibre fractions for replacement of wheat crumb in beef burgers
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Z. Pietrasik, M. Sigvaldson, O.P. Soladoye, N.J. Gaudette

    Beef burgers (22% fat) were formulated to contain 5% of pea starch (PS), pea fibre (PF) or their combinations (PS:PF; 75:25, 50:50, 25:75). Wheat crumb treatment served as control. Incorporation of pea fractions into burgers did not affect (P > .05) the colour of fresh burgers or the colour stability over 5 days of storage. All burger treatments containing pea fibre had lower (P < .05) cook loss than those formulated with wheat crumb or pea starch. Wheat crumb burgers were significantly (P < .05) softer, less cohesive and chewy than treatments with pea starch and fibre fractions. While panelist feedback suggest that 50:50 blend resulted in optimal firmness and juiciness characteristics, the acceptability mean scores of all pea starch and pea fibre blends were equivalent to wheat crumb control for all attributes which suggests that all combinations of pea starch and fibre can be utilized as gluten free alternatives to wheat crumb for meat binder applications without any detrimental impact on consumer acceptability.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impact of the content and size of NaCl on dynamic sensory profile and instrumental texture of beef burgers
    Meat Sci. (IF 3.483) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Juan D. Rios-Mera, Erick Saldaña, Melina L.M. Cruzado-Bravo, Mariana M. Martins, Iliani Patinho, Miriam M. Selani, Dominique Valentin, Carmen J. Contreras-Castillo

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of reducing the content and size of NaCl on the instrumental texture and dynamic sensory profile, and to determine the temporal drivers of liking (TDL). The reduction of the NaCl content decreased the hardness and chewiness parameters, and affected the dynamic sensory profile of the product. The NaCl reduction (<1.0% NaCl) was related to a higher incidence of the attributes off-flavor and dry. In general, the overall liking was driven by the juicy and tasty attributes, the latter being associated with the presence of the sensory attributes salty and seasoned and the texture parameters hardness and chewiness. According to the results, among the treatments with NaCl reduction, the beef burger added with 1.0% micronized salt stood out, since it did not affect considerably the texture parameters, the dynamic sensory profile during chewing and the consumers' liking.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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