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  • Balance of catalytic activity and conductivity of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 /graphene counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells: using hydrothermal-synthesized kesterite Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and graphene obtained by product line
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Liguo Wei, Qinhang Wu, Wei Chen, Dong Wang, Bo Jiang, Gonglei Sun, Furong Yu, Jing Feng, Yulin Yang

    The catalytic activity and conductivity of Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was balanced using hydrothermal-synthesized kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and graphene obtained by product line. It was found that the electrocatalytic activity of Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene counter electrode was adjustable by balancing its catalytic activity and conductivity using varied weight ratio of graphene in the composited material of Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene. When the weight percent of graphene was 2% to Cu2ZnSnS4, the catalytic activity and conductivity of Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene counter electrode came to the balanced point, resulting in the best electrocatalytic activity. Under the balanced conditions, the dye-sensitized solar cell devices based on Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene counter electrode show a maximum solar-to-electrical power efficiency of 3.71% (with short-circuit photocurrent density Jsc of 13.24 mA cm−2, open-circuit photovoltage Voc of 0.63 V, and fill factor FF of 0.44), which is higher than that of unbalanced counter electrode. Although the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene counter electrode was a little lower than that of DSSCs based on platinum (Pt) counter electrode (4.95%), it is believed that Cu2ZnSnS4/graphene counter electrode would outperform Pt counter electrode by further balancing its catalytic activity and conductivity using higher-quality and more matched Cu2ZnSnS4 and graphene. This strategy to improve the electrocatalytic activity of counter electrode will be helpful for exploring facile synthesis, low-cost, and efficient Cu2ZnSnS4-based composited counter electrode materials.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Chemically modified electrode based on dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate and carbonaceous materials: improvement of analytical and electrochemical features applied to uranium determination
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Sabrine de Araujo Aquino, Juliana Villela Maciel, Daiane Dias

    Abstract This work deals about the evaluation and improvement of analytical and electrochemical features of chemically modified electrode based on dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate (DPH) and carbonaceous materials. The electrochemical features of films obtained were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Between the modifications evaluated, the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with CB and DPH (DHP-CB/GCE) showed lower resistance to charge transfer and higher electron transfer rate. Additionally, the highest current of U(VI) was obtained with DHP-CB/GCE in a very stable way, the process present quasi-reversible behavior and it is controlled by a mixture of diffusion and absorption. The best instrumental conditions for U(VI) determination were obtained applying frequency of 15 Hz, amplitude of 100 mV, and deposition potential of − 0.1 V (by square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry). Among the electrolyte compositions (acetate and citrate buffers), ionic strength (from 0.10, 0.15, to 0.20 mol L−1), and pH (from 3.6 to 5.6) evaluated, the highest current of U(VI) were obtained in 0.15 mol L−1 of acetate buffer, pH 5.6. The method was accurate, linear, and sensitive (detection limit of 0.088 μg L−1 using 300 s of deposition).

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Effective p -type photocurrent sensitization of n -Bi 2 O 3 with p -CuBi 2 O 4 and p -CuO: Z-scheme photoelectrochemical system
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Мikalai Malashchonak, Eugene Streltsov, Alexander Mazanik, Olga Korolik, Anatoly Kulak, Darya Puzikova, Margarita Dergacheva, Algirdas Selskis

    Abstract Nanostructured n-Bi2O3/p-CuBi2O4/p-CuO photocathodes with incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency IPCEmax = 70% (λ = 400 nm) have been prepared using electrochemical and chemical methods. Platelet-like BiOI nanocrystals electrochemically deposited on FTO substrate were used as precursors. CuI nanoparticles were deposited on the BiOI surface by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. Oxidative heat treatment of BiOI/CuI heterostructure in air leads to the formation of the Bi2O3/CuBi2O4/CuO composite. Binary oxide was formed as a result of solid-state interaction between bismuth and copper oxides at their interface. Spectral sensitization of wide-gap n-Bi2O3 (band gap Eg = 2.80 eV) with narrow-gap p-CuBi2O4 (Eg = 1.80 eV) and p-CuO (Eg = 1.45 eV) extends spectral sensitivity range up to 800 nm by Z-scheme implementation: cathodic photocurrent is associated with the transition of photoelectrons from p-CuBi2O4 and p-CuO to the solution, while photoholes recombine with electrons of n-Bi2O3 conduction band. High quantum efficiency of photocurrent was achieved due to band-edge correlation in a three-component oxide heterostructure, combined with an internal electric field in p-CuBi2O4 and effective photon absorption by two narrow-band-gap p-CuBi2O4 and p-CuO semiconductors.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Study on the performance of MnO 2 -MoO 3 composite as lithium-ion battery anode using spent Zn-Mn batteries as manganese source
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ningsheng Zhang, Guanghui Guo, Bowen He, Jiaxin Zhu, Jie Wu, Jianghua Qiu

    The recycling of Zn-Mn batteries was linked with the synthesis of MnO2-MoO3 composite in this paper. An intermediate product of MnSO4 was recycled from spent Zn-Mn batteries by hydrometallurgy recycling technology, and it was selected as manganese source to synthesize MnO2-MoO3 composite via a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The composition, morphology, and valence state of the final product MnO2-MoO3 are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the obtained composite of MnO2-MoO3 on copper foil presents outstanding electrochemical performance. The composite attains an initial specific capacity of 2333.1 mAh g−1 and stays 908.8 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles at a current rate of 100 mA g−1 in the voltage range of 0.01–3.0 V, much higher than that of pure MnO2. Even at a high current rate of 500 mA g−1, the capacity still remains at 371.1 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. Moreover, the lithiation and delithiation processes of MnO2-MoO3 anode material were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction characterization.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Inhibition of the oxygen evolution reaction during titanium passivation in aqueous phosphoric acid solution
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Renata Leal Saldanha, Bhetina Cunha Gomes, Gabriel da Rocha Torres, Brenda Raffaela de Lima, José Adilson de Castro, Ladário da Silva, Elivelton Alves Ferreira

    Abstract The anodic oxide on titanium can be thickened by anodization, with the consequent corrosion properties of this oxide depending on many variables, including the electrochemical perturbation, the final growth potential, and the nature of the electrolyte. During this anodization, an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is frequently observed, contributing to reduction of the current efficiency of anodic oxide formation. Based on these factors, evaluation was made of the effect of the electrolyte on oxide film formation and inhibition of the OER during Ti anodization in aqueous H3PO4 and H2SO4 solutions with pH 1. The oxide films were grown by voltammetry and were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the Mott-Schottky method. Interpretation of the electrochemical results indicated that inhibition of the OER was due to the adsorption of PO43− ions and their incorporation during growth of the oxide film. The EIS results showed that the oxide films formed in H3PO4 solution were also the most corrosion resistant.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Ultrathin Cu x O nanoflakes anchored Cu 2 O nanoarray for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensor
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Zhipeng Yu, Chuncai Kong, Jian Lv, Bo Ma, Xiaojing Zhang, Zhimao Yang

    Designing highly active material to fabricate high-performance glucose sensor was great importance for diabetes treatment. In this work, we develop a novel nanocomposite composed of multilevel nanostructure with ultrathin CuxO nanoflakes anchored on Cu2O nanowires, directly on Cu foil and its application as non-enzymatic glucose sensor. Due to more active sites endowed by the ultrathin CuxO nanoflakes, the as-prepared CuxO nanoflakes/Cu2O nanowires@Cu nanoarray exhibit high sensitivity (3.59 mA mM−1 cm−2), low detection limit (0.69 μM), high selectivity, fast amperometric response (~ 2 s) and excellent reliability in human serum. And the sensitivity of ultrathin CuxO nanoflakes/Cu2O nanowires@Cu nanoarray was 1.9-fold than that of Cu2O nanowires@Cu nanoarray. Such novel multilevel nanoarray synthesized by convenient method provides a facile way to design metal oxide nanomaterial for promising non-enzymatic glucose sensor.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Electrochemical and theoretical study of novel functional porous graphene aerogel-supported Sm 2 O 3 nanoparticles for supercapacitor applications
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Mohammad Mazloum-Ardakani, Fariba Sabaghian, Hamidreza Naderi, Azra Ebadi, Hamideh Mohammadian-Sarcheshmeh

    Abstract A graphene aerogel cross-linked by p-phenylenediamine (PPDA) composite with Sm2O3 nanoparticles (AP.Sm) was synthesized as a novel nanocomposite via a one-step hydrothermal method. PPDA, as a spacer, provided a large surface area by reducing the adhesion of graphene ultrathin sheets. It also functioned as a source of nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed for structural characterization. The resulting nanocomposite was then investigated for its supercapacitive behavior using electrochemical techniques. As the results confirmed, the cross-linked structure of the nanocomposite effectively promoted its supercapacitive function at 6 M KOH. The specific capacitance of the nanocomposite electrode reached 591 F/g at 5 mV/s, and decreased by only 7.3% after 4000 cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles. The AP.Sm electrode increased the energy density to as high as 55 Wh/Kg. Owing to its unique structure, the fabricated aerogel can be recommended for broad use in numerous applications. In addition, theoretical calculations for the graphene oxide (GO) and modified GO structure and frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis was carried out using the Austin Model 1 (AM1) method and density functional of theory (DFT). The calculated HOMO–LUMO energy gap and thermochemical energies indicated good agreement with the experimentally investigated data for compounds.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Theoretical and experimental study on the size- and morphology-dependent electrochemical thermodynamics of nano-silver electrode
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Qingshan Fu, Hongxu Gao, Wengang Qu, Fengqi Zhao, Yongqiang Xue, Zixiang Cui, Libai Xiao, Xiaoning Ren, Shiyao Niu

    Abstract Nanometer-sized electrodes differ greatly from the corresponding bulk electrodes in electrochemical thermodynamics, which is determined by the size and morphology of nanoparticles that constructing the electrodes. However, the influence of size and morphology on the electrochemical thermodynamics remains vague. Herein, the relations of the electrode potential; the temperature coefficient of electrode potential; and the equilibrium constant, thermodynamic properties, and reversible heat of reaction of nanoelectrodes to size and morphology of nanoparticles were systematically deduced. Experimentally, different sizes of nano-silver with morphologies of sphere, wire, and cube were prepared, characterized, and made into nanoelectrodes. And then, the size and morphology-dependent electrochemical thermodynamics of the nanoelectrodes were obtained. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions, indicating that with the decrease of particle size, the electrode potential and the reaction equilibrium constant decrease, but the temperature coefficient, the thermodynamic properties, and reversible heat of reaction increase. Furthermore, linear dependences of these electrochemical properties on inverse particle size were confirmed within the experimental size range. At the same equivalent size, the order of size of the electrode potential is E(wire) > E(sphere) > E(cube), while the temperature coefficient and the thermodynamic properties of reaction are opposite. These findings provide important guidance and basis for the design and preparation of highly sensitive electrochemical sensors and chemical cells with high electromotive force and large capacity, and for the electrochemical catalysis and electrochemical corrosion protection.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Preparation and characterization of Ti/SnO 2 -Sb 2 O 3 /α-PbO 2 /Ce-Nd-β-PbO 2 composite electrode for methyl orange degradation
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yufu Pan, Yanfang Luo, Chengcheng Li, Rongjing Wang, Yihao Yuan, Meng Li, Ping Na

    Abstract The present study focused on the preparation, characterization, and application of cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) co-doped lead (PbO2) electrode, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3/α-PbO2/Ce-Nd-β-PbO2. The electrochemical activities of the modified electrode were investigated and compared with those of Ce-PbO2, Nd-PbO2, and pure PbO2 electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface morphology, crystal structure, and elemental states of the modified electrode. The Ce and Nd co-doped PbO2 electrode had smaller crystal particles, more compact structure, and higher activity of electrocatalysis compared with the single-doped and undoped PbO2 electrodes. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were also utilized to study the electrochemical response of the modified electrodes. The results show that the prepared Ce-Nd-PbO2 electrode has the highest O2 evolution potential (OEP) and lowest charge transfer resistance, suggesting that it has the lower energy consumption than the other three kinds of electrodes. Electrochemical oxidation methyl orange (MO) as a model dye wastewater was studied to evaluate the potential applications of this modified electrode in environmental science. It was found that the Ce-Nd-PbO2 electrode exhibited higher MO and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency than single-doped and pure PbO2 electrodes.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • High-performance flexible freestanding polypyrrole-coated CNF film electrodes for all-solid-state supercapacitors
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Qingjin Fu, Yanyun Wang, Shuaibo Liang, Qian Liu, Chunli Yao

    Abstract Nowadays, supercapacitors based on cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films have attracted extensive interest due to their excellent flexibility, light weight, and unique structure. Herein, we report that highly conductive films are prepared through polypyrrole (PPy) coating on CNF films by a simple and low-cost “soak and polymerization” method. The optimized flexible film features a high electrical conductivity of 23.77 S cm−1, a superior tensile strength of 71.4 MPa, outstanding conductance stability, and a good thermal stability. Additionally, the hybrid film as a freestanding and binder-free supercapacitor electrode can provide a high areal capacitance (2.26 F cm−2 at 2 mA cm−2) and good cyclic stability (a capacitance retention of 70.5% after 5000 cycles). Remarkably, an all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor assembled by two pieces of the optimized PPy-coated CNF (PPy/CNF) film electrodes delivers an excellent areal capacitance of 1.39 F cm−2 at 0.1 mA cm−2, revealing an ultrahigh energy density of 16.95 mWh cm−3 at a power density of 1.2 mW cm−3. Graphical abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Electric breath figure: mechanism and application
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Qing Shen

    Electric breath figures, EBF, is a novel method for producing ordered porous structure. This work reviewed the EBF process from its design, mechanism, to application. In general, the EBF is developed from the conventional BF by using the electrostatic generator to assist the BF process. Comparing to the normal BF process request of controlling a lot of factors, the EBF showed advances in only using the voltage variety to control the process for fabrication of micro- and nanostructured porous materials. With the help of the electricity, the EBF process was performed under low surface tension condition that leads the moist air blown over a solution stabilized and the formed water droplets array on the liquid surface with opposite charges. In this work, the normal EBF process and two furthermore developed surfactant and nanomaterial-assisted EBF processes were reviewed in relation to the mechanisms and application.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Highly [010]-oriented, gradient Co-doped LiMnPO 4 with enhanced cycling stability as cathode for Li-ion batteries
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Ruijie Wang, Jinyun Zheng, Xiangming Feng, Ge Yao, Huiting Niu, Qingyi Liu, Weihua Chen

    Abstract LiMnPO4 has been attracting attention for high energy density (701 Wh kg−1) and excellent safety. However, LiMnPO4 suffers from the cycling instability coming from the fragile solid electrolyte interface, besides the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn3+, the poor electrical conductivity and the sluggish ionic conductivity. The substitution of cation with less ionic radius for Mn2+ is conducive to stabilize the solid-electrolyte interface and retard the erosion from electrolyte; therefore, the gradient Co-doped LiMn0.98Co0.02PO4 was synthesized with 25.93 (mol) % Co on the surface by the secondary solvothermal method, and the permeated depth reaches more than 20 nm because of the coprecipitation and cation exchange of Co2+ and Mn2+. LiMn0.98Co0.02PO4/Li cell that demonstrates the cycling performance is remarkably enhanced with 87% capacity retention after 380 cycles at room temperature, even 87% after 100 cycles at 60 °C. Meanwhile, the preferential growth along the a–c plane results in the highly [010]-oriented LiMnPO4 by the solvothermal, which afford more channels for Li+ migration by exposing more reaction sites, and the infrared spectrum also reflects the less Mn2+-Li+ antisite defects in the crystal. So the samples show the superior rate performance as well.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Sodium ion conducting nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membrane for sodium ion batteries
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Harshlata Verma, Kuldeep Mishra, D. K. Rai

    Abstract The paper reports effect of dispersion of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofiller on the sodium ion conducting nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes consisting of TiO2 dispersed membranes of poly(vinylidenedifluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) soaked in a liquid electrolyte of sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) in ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC). The TiO2 dispersed membranes have been prepared by phase inversion technique. The structural and morphological properties of the polymer electrolyte membranes have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The membranes have been found to be highly porous with maximum porosity ~ 72% and liquid electrolyte uptake ~ 270%. Ionic conductivity of the electrolyte membranes containing different concentrations of TiO2 has been measured by complex impedance spectroscopy. The maximum room temperature ionic conductivity has been found to be ~ 1.3 × 10−3 S cm−1. The ionic conductivity measured with temperature has been found to follow VTF behavior. The ion transport numbers of the membranes have been studied using dc polarization, complex impedance, and cyclic voltammetry. The membranes have been found to be predominantly ionically conducting with Na+ transport number ~ 0.31. The electrochemical stability window of the membranes has also been measured using cyclic voltammetry and found to be 3.5 V.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Enhanced energy storage performance of nanocrystalline Sm-doped CoFe 2 O 4 as an effective anode material for Li-ion battery applications
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    D. Narsimulu, B. Nageswara Rao, Goli Nagaraju, Jae Su Yu, N. Satyanarayana

    Abstract A simple modified combustion method was demonstrated in the development of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and samarium (Sm)-doped CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 can significantly affect their crystallite size, lattice parameter, and electrical and electrochemical properties. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the formation of cubic spinel CoFe2O4. The structural coordination of pristine and Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 samples was confirmed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses and also peak positions of Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 sample shifted toward lower wavenumber, which may be due to the cell expansion resulting from Sm3+ doping in CoFe2O4 structure. In addition to above, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results clearly demonstrated the doping of Sm3+ into CoFe2O4 crystal lattice. The electrical conductivity of Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 is one order of magnitude higher than that of pristine CoF2O4. The prepared pristine and Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 samples were investigated as an anode material for lithium (Li)-ion batteries. The Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 anode showed a better reversibility and rate performance than the pristine CoFe2O4 anode. Also, the Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 electrode exhibited a stable cycling performance with a discharge capacity of 800 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles at 0.1 C and delivered a discharge capacity of 778 mAh g−1 after 400 cycles at 200 mA g−1. The observed high electrochemical performance of Sm3+-doped CoFe2O4 electrode may be attributed to its improved structural stability and enhanced oxidation reaction which maintain the number of Li ions involved in the charge-discharge process.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Phase pure CuSbS 2 thin films by heat treatment of electrodeposited Sb 2 S 3 /Cu layers
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    R.G. Avilez García, Andrea Cerdán-Pasarán, E. A. Rueda Perez, Mou Pal, M. Miranda Hernández, N.R. Mathews

    Abstract In this work, we report the fabrication of CuSbS2 (CAS) thin films from Sb2S3/Cu multilayer developed by using electrodeposition. Sb2S3 thin films of approximately 250 nm were deposited by pulse electrodeposition from a bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3 precursors onto which Cu was electrodeposited. In order to optimize the formation of pure chalcostibite phase of CuSbS2, the thickness of Cu layer was varied from 55 to 130 nm. The Sb2S3/Cu multilayer was heat treated at 250 °C under N2/S atmosphere for 30 min for its conversion into CuSbS2 and to enhance the crystallinity. XRD spectra showed orthorhombic phase for all CAS samples. Raman analysis confirmed that the sample with 100 nm of Cu thickness has the highest phase purity. SEM image demonstrated a homogeneous thin film with spherical grains. The chemical states of the elements in the phase pure CuSbS2 film were obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evidencing the oxidation states as Cu+Sb3+S2−. The optical characterization demonstrated a band gap of 1.45 eV. Furthermore, the results showed that the CuSbS2 thin film is photosensitive and p-type. The energy level band diagram reaffirms its potential as a good absorber layer in thin film solar cells with suitable charge transport pathways. Graphical abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effect of crystallinity on capacity and cyclic stability of Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 nanoplates as lithium-ion cathode materials
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Huifeng Zhuang, Yue Xu, Ping Zhao

    High-crystalline Na1.1V3O7.9 nanoplates were synthesized by a facile sol-gel reaction followed by calcination. The microstructure and crystallinity of the nanoplates were primarily determined by calcination temperature. The maximum crystallinity Na1.1V3O7.9 sample was calcined at 500 °C was calculated by XRD, and the DSC demonstrated that the amorphous transformation temperature begins at 550 °C. The XPS spectrum confirmed the presence of Na1.1V3O7.9 and consistent with the XRD test results. The SEM/TEM test illustrated the crystal particle growth of the Na1.1V3O7.9 nanoplates. Electrochemical results showed that the maximum crystallinity Na1.1V3O7.9 sample prepared at 500 °C exhibited the optimum performance when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries: the discharge capacity was maintained at 195 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles at a current of 100 mA g−1.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Preparation of self-nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofibers and their supported PtPd alloy catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Zhenqin Li, Xiaoting Deng, Haikun Zhou, Wei Xuan, Zhiyong Xie, Feng Liu

    There are many types of cathodic oxygen reduction catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among them, Pt-based catalysts are most likely to be industrialized because of their incomparable high activity. However, most of the Pt-based catalysts have not reached the maximum activity and stability. Herein, porous carbon nanofibers (p-CNF) with self-nitrogen-doped as catalyst supports were successfully prepared by the method of electrospinning. After functionalization, the functionalized porous carbon nanofibers (f-p-CNF) were loaded with PtPd alloy nanoparticles to obtain the catalyst (Pt0.66Pd0.33/f-p-CNF), which has excellent electrochemical performance. Its specific activities (SA) and Pt mass activities (Pt MA) are 1.73 and 1.86 times of the commercial JM 20% Pt/C (JM20), respectively. The results can be attributed to the porous structure of nanofibers, which not only facilitate the transmission of gas-liquid and electron but also increase the exposure of active sites. And the doped nitrogen of fibers may regulate the electronic structure of the metal active substance to increase the activity. This work provides catalyst with novel structure which could enable PEMFCs to be more efficient in operation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Quantitative detection of anodic oxygen evolution on solid state sintered silicon carbide under near ECM conditions
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    M. Schneider, L. Šimůnková, N. Junker, A. Michaelis

    Abstract The present work examined the gas evolution on a solid-state sintered silicon carbide material (EKasic®D) at high anodic potentials (up to 120 V vs Ag/AgCl). By using the amperometric detection as well as the method of oxygen quenching, the part of anodic evolved oxygen could be determined for 75–95% of the total amount of consumed charge. The minor part of the total charge is consumed by oxide film formation (passive range) or material dissolution (transpassive range).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Facile synthesis of hollow urchin-like Nb 2 O 5 nanostructures and their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Neeta Mohite, Manish Shinde, Arun Kumar Gupta, Yogesh Waghadkar, Suresh W. Gosavi, K. C. Mohite, Ratna Chauhan, Sunit Rane

    In present study, hollow urchin-like nanostructures of Nb2O5 with elongated nanofilaments as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are successfully synthesized at different reaction times (viz. 12, 24, and 40 h, respectively, named as samples NB-1, NB-2, and NB-3) using facile hydrothermal route. We have studied the significant influence of hydrothermal reaction time on the structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties. The photovoltaic performance of different samples is understood from response of current-potential (J-V) curve and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) while charge recombination behavior and resistance of the cells are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows the orthorhombic crystalline form for the synthesized samples. Electron microscopy studies confirm the formation of porous spherical morphology with hairy filaments protruding outward. Size of urchin-like particle is found to be in the range of about 1 μm diameter, and the filaments emerging out from the surface of hollow spheres are seen to be 30–70 nm long and 5–20 nm in diameter. The DSSCs fabricated from the resultant nanostructures show the better photovoltaic performance with Nb2O5 sample synthesized at 24-h reaction time. The Jsc and efficiency for NB-2 are 8.24 mAcm−2 and 3.58% respectively, which are better than corresponding samples synthesized at the reaction time of 12 h and 40 h, respectively. These photovoltaic results obtained from the DSSCs fabricated using Nb2O5 nanostructures are comparatively exciting with TiO2 spheres. By further optimizing reaction conditions, it is expected that niobium pentoxide can emerge as better semiconductor oxide for photovoltaic and optical devices.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Promoting lithium-ion battery performance by application of crystalline cathodes Li x Mn 1−z Fe z PO 4
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Amirmasoud Lanjan, Behnam Ghalami Choobar, Sepideh Amjad-Iranagh

    Abstract LiMnPO4 (LMP) is known as a typical cathode for application in lithium-ion-batteries (LIB), since this cathode produces higher voltage. However, the diffusivity of Li+ into LMP crystalline structure is not sufficiently high and its application accompanies a large energy waste due to hysteresis loss in the charge-discharge cycle. Therefore, in this work, it is intended to show that partial substitution of Mn with Fe, as a dopant to obtain a crystal with a general formula of LixMn1−zFezPO4 for application as a cathode in LIB, not only can increase the diffusivity of Li+ but also can improve other electrochemical properties of the resulting crystal, as a cathode, compared with pristine LMP or with similar cathodes such as LiFePO4 (LFP). To study the properties of this cathode, a multiscale procedure consisting of quantum mechanical (QM) approach at picoscale level and by recourse to density functional theory (DFT) calculations along with molecular dynamics(MD) simulation at the nanoscale level as well as pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D) electrochemical model at the macroscale level, the parameters affecting the performance of LIBs due to employing the cathodes LMP, LFP, and LixMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 (LMFP) are investigated and the obtained results, in comparison with the available experimental data are validated, justified, and interpreted. It is found that the cathode LMFP, if used as a cathode in a LIB, would results in higher efficiency and lower voltage drop compared with the commonly used cathode LMP as well as producing higher voltage power in comparison to LFP.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Semiconducting and photoelectrochemical properties of the ilmenite CoTiO 3 prepared by wet method and its application for O 2 evolution under visible light
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Loubna Boudjellal, Akila Belhadi, Razika Brahimi, Souhila Boumaza, Mouhamed Trari

    The ilmenite CoTiO3 was synthesized by chemical route, and the decomposition of nitrates was followed by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The intermediate products and single-phase were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). CoTiO3 was characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum. The BET measurements indicated a small specific surface area (~ 2 m2 g−1). The microstructure, visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showed medium grains (200–300 nm diameter), and the crystallite size (~ 10 nm) was evaluated from the broadening of XRD peaks. The UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy gave a direct optical transition at 1.88 eV, due to the crystal field splitting of Co3+ octahedrally coordinated. The electrical properties of CoTiO3 are characteristics of a semiconducting behavior with activation energy of 0.02 eV. The electrochemical characterization was undertaken to build the energy diagram of CoTiO3 which predicted the photocatalytic performance for the O2-evolution (~ 205 mmol h−1) upon visible light (27 mW cm−2). Indeed, the valence band (1.67 VREH) is more anodic than the O2 level, yielding spontaneous O2 evolution.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • An effective electrochemical destruction of non-ionic surfactants on bismuth-modified lead dioxide anodes for wastewater pretreatment
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    V. V. Kuznetsov, E. S. Kapustin, A. V. Pirogov, K. A. Kurdin, E. A. Filatova, V. A. Kolesnikov

    Non-ionic surfactants are permanent components of wastewater of various origins, and their removal is necessary for sewage treatment. A new method of electrochemical treatment of wastewater for non-ionic surfactant destruction has been proposed. Effective destruction of both alkoxylated and phenoxylated non-ionic surfactants was performed using β-Pb1–xBixO2–0.5x anodes prepared by electrodeposition. The method proposed is based on the generation of active oxygen-containing species (e.g., OH•, HO2•) at the anode followed by chemical interaction between these radicals and organic molecules, which results in the destruction of pollutants. Oxide materials obtained by electrodeposition contained ~ 4.5 % of bismuth and have the β–PbO2 lattice. The insertion of bismuth into the composition of lead dioxide prepared by electrodeposition resulted in an increase in their specific surface area from 0.66 to 2.5 m2 g−1. Modification of β–PbO2 by bismuth led to the shift of oxygen evolution potentials toward more positive values. Effective electrooxidation of non-ionic surfactants was achieved in the solutions exposed to electrochemical treatment. There were no accumulations of metabolites in the solutions during electrolysis. Chemical oxygen demand decreased from 80 to 5 mg O2 dm−3, and total organic carbon (TOC) decreased from 24 to 1.5 ppm during 1 h of the electrochemical treatment. The electrode material was stable under electrolysis conditions. No accumulation of both lead and bismuth species in the solution under electrochemical treatment was found.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Kinetics of methane electrooxidation in pure and composite anodes of La 0.3 Y 0.1 Sr 0.4 TiO 3−δ
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Mohamed Shahid, Vijay Ramani, Suddhasatwa Basu

    The electrochemical characteristics of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells containing pure perovskite anode of La0.3Y0.1Sr0.4TiO3−δ, (LYSTA-) and composite anodes with varying fractions (30 and 50 wt%) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), LYSTA- (30)YSZ and LYSTA- (50)YSZ, were studied in humidified methane. The 8 wt% CeO2 and 4 wt% NiO, denoted as (84), were impregnated into the pure and composite anodes for efficient electrooxidation of methane. The studies were carried out to qualitatively estimate the kinetic parameter, exchange current density (io), for methane electrooxidation. Evaluation in a 3-electrode configuration with an asymmetric reference electrode yielded the following activity trend: (84)LYSTA- > (84)LYSTA- (30)YSZ > (84)LYSTA- (50)YSZ in the high-overpotential region, with io values of 133.2 ± 32.5, 40.8 ± 16.6, and 47.9 ± 16.3 mA cm−2 at 900 °C, respectively. The presence of YSZ in the composite anodes leads to decrease in io and degrading performance. Impedance studies clubbed with equivalent circuit modeling along with physical characterization were used to account for decreased io values in composite anodes. Metal support interactions arising between Ni and CeO2 are studied using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) studies with (84)LYSTA- anode yielded a maximum power density of 591 mW cm−2 in hydrogen and 429 mW cm−2 in methane.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Evaluation of a biosensor based on reduced graphene oxide and glucose oxidase enzyme on the monitoring of second-generation ethanol production
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Caruane A. Donini, Martin K. L. Silva, Giovana R. Bronzato, Alcides L. Leão, Ivana Cesarino

    An easily prepared biosensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was developed to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis process of the second-generation (2G) ethanol process from green coconut biomass. The rGO-GOx biocomposite that modified a glassy carbon (GC) electrode was characterized by morphological, electrochemical and spectrophotometric techniques showing that the GOx enzyme was immobilized on the rGO. The parameters for glucose determination were optimized by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The developed biosensor was applied for the determination of glucose during the enzymatic hydrolysis step, showing that the process can be stopped with 12 h of reaction. Thus, an important achievement of this analysis is the reduced time to get a valuable result for the test, saving time and reducing the cost of the 2G ethanol process.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • A simple microwave process for the preparation of cobalt oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes for electrocatalytic applications
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Abu Bakr Ahmed Amine Nassr, Tintula Kottakkat, Michael Bron

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticles supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CoOx/CNTs) were prepared by a facile and rapid solid-state synthesis using microwave irradiation. Thermal decomposition of a cobalt precursor under microwave irradiation leads to the formation of oxides of cobalt in the nanoparticle range (mainly 10–15 nm). X-ray diffraction reveals the existence of crystalline CoO and Co3O4. CoOx/CNTs show superior electrochemical activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media with a near 4-electron transfer. Initial electrochemical stability tests of the CoOx/CNTs for ORR in alkaline solution under potentiostatic conditions show ~ 88% retention in performance after continuous operation for 6 h. The results on activity and stability of CoOx/CNT catalysts demonstrate that this facile and rapid synthesis might pave the way to a quick and cheap preparation of catalysts for applications in electrochemical energy conversion.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene on carbon nanotube modified electrode: Effect of acid functionalization
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Jéssica S. Stefano, Ana P. Lima, Clésia C. Nascentes, Sindy R. Krzyzaniak, Paola A. Mello, Josué M. Gonçalves, Eduardo M. Richter, Edson Nossol, Rodrigo A. A. Munoz

    This work presents new insights on the electrocatalytic reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-modified electrodes (multi-walled carbon nanotubes and double-walled carbon nanotubes). Cyclic voltammetry showed at least 5-fold current increase in the electrochemical reduction of TNT on GCE modified with pristine (“as received”) CNTs. The improved performance was also verified after 60 s of accumulation and scanning using adsorptive stripping voltammetry, with slope values 20-fold higher. Acid functionalization removed residual metals from CNTs and reduced their surface area. Hence, the improved electrochemical response of TNT on pristine CNTs seems to be not only due to surface roughness (electroactive area) but mainly originating from residual metallic catalysts on CNTs. The modified electrode with pristine CNTs was applied for the determination of TNT residues on different surfaces contaminated with the explosive, showing its applicability for forensic investigations.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Correction to: Electronic transfer mechanism in self-assembled monolayers of silicon
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Carolina Garín, Alejandro León, Mónica Pacheco, Gonzalo Riveros

    The authors correct the affiliation and address of the following author in this article (p. 3099)

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Na 4 Mn 9 O 18 nanowires wrapped by reduced graphene oxide as efficient sulfur host material for lithium/sulfur batteries
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Xingbo Wang, Zhenghao Sun, Yan Zhao, Jingde Li, Yuecheng Zhang, Zisheng Zhang

    In this work, we fabricated a sulfur-infiltrated three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide wrapped Na4Mn9O18 nanorods microsphere (NMO/RGO/S) as efficient cathode material lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The NMO/RGO/S microsphere was developed by spray drying the NMO, GO, and S suspension followed by a hydrazine reduction process. The resulting hierarchical microsphere, constructed by cross-linked NMO nanorods and RGO sheet, shortens the electron/ion diffusion pathway. It also provides adequate void space to accommodate S and mitigate the volume variation during cycling. Additionally, the polar NMO nanorods offer strong chemical adsorption to lithium polysulfides, which was confirmed by adsorption experiment. Owing these features, the NMO/RGO/S electrode exhibited a high specific capacity and good cyclability as well. The initial discharge capacity is 952.8 mAh g−1 at 1 C, and after 500 cycles, a discharge capacity of 520 mAh g−1 is maintained, which corresponds to a capacity fading of 0.09% per cycle. The simple preparation method for the construction of NMO/RGO/S microsphere reported in the study advances the development of efficient cathode materials for Li/S battery.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Photocurrent switching effect on BiVO 4 electrodes and its application in development of photoelectrochemical glucose sensor
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Li Chen, Yu Chen, Lili Miao, Yiming Gao, Junwei Di

    In this work, we reported the photocurrent switching effect on BiVO4 semiconductor as well as its application for construction of a new cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor. Specifically, the photocurrent switching effect of BiVO4 upon fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was greatly dependent on its treatment temperature and composition of solution in the cell. The photocurrent transition potential from anode to cathode is ~ 0.38 V (vs SCE) in the presence of O2. H2O2 can act as electron acceptor to improve cathodic PEC current at electrode treated under 500 °C. A cathodic PEC biosensor of glucose was designed based on glucose oxidase (GOD). The GOD/BiVO4/FTO photoelectrode exhibited high sensitivity towards the enzyme reaction production of H2O2. This PEC biosensor shows a good response on the concentration of glucose and exhibits a dynamic range of 1~400 μM with a detection limit of 0.73 μM. Interference from oxygen fluctuation was negligible. The present work provides a promising approach to develop other oxidase-based PEC biosensors.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Polymerization of aniline in perfluorinated membranes under conditions of electrodiffusion of monomer and oxidizer
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Marina Andreeva, Natalia Loza, Natalia Kutenko, Natalia Kononenko

    A series of composites based on the perfluorinated MF-4SK membrane and polyaniline was obtained under electrodiffusion of monomer and oxidizer. Aniline was used as monomer and potassium dichromate as oxidizer. Chronopotentiometry was proposed as the method of monitoring the formation of polyaniline in the near-surface layer of the membrane. The electronic absorption spectra of the composites and optical microphotographs of the surfaces were obtained right after membrane modification. A combined interpretation of results revealed the following stages: the accumulation of monomer in the reaction space accompanied by the onset of polymerization, the polymerization with a subsequent increase in rate, and the formation of modifier layer on the membrane surface. The polarization behavior of composite membranes was studied using voltammetry. It was shown that the presence of two limiting currents (pseudo-limiting and limiting) on the current-voltage curves when the composite was oriented with a polyaniline layer to the counterion flow but only for membranes obtained at synthesis times more than 35 min. Also for these composite membranes, no plateau of the limiting current on the current-voltage curve was observed in the case of reverse membrane orientation. But at the same time, the fluctuations of potential drop on the current-voltage curve indicated the overlimiting state of electromembrane system. A correlation between the shape of the chronopotentiogram recorded during membrane modification and the polarization behavior of the obtained composites was found.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Photoelectrochemical study of La 2 NiO 4 synthesized using citrate sol gel method—application for hydrogen photo-production
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    S. Boumaza, R. Brahimi, L. Boudjellal, A. Belhadi, M. Trari

    The semi conducting properties of La2NiO4 synthesized through sol gel method are studied for the first time using photoelectrochemistry. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the phase is formed at 900 °C in agreement with the thermal analysis (TG-TDA/DSC). The SEM micrographs exhibit spherical and uniform grains with agglomerated nature, confirmed through laser granulometry. The direct optical gap (1.31 eV) comes from the crystal field splitting of Ni2+ octahedrally coordinated. La2NiO4 is chemically stable in the pH range (5–14) and anodic potentials at pH ~ 12 give rise to surface oxidation of La2NiO4 in the diffusion plateau (0.35–0.6 V). The electrochemical oxygen insertion, studied using chrono-amperometry, is slow with a diffusion coefficient of ~ 2.5 × 10−18 cm2 s−1 at 500 mV. The Mott–Schottky characteristic plotted in alkaline solution (NaOH 0.1 M) indicates p-type conductivity due to oxygen over-stoichiometry well-known in this class of compound. A flat band potential of 0.1 VSCE and hole concentration of 1019 cm−3 were determined from the capacitance measurement. Therefore, the oxide has been successfully tested for the H2 evolution under visible light irradiation. The best activity occurs at pH ~ 13 in presence of S2O32− as reducing agent with H2 liberation rate of 23.6 μmol mn−1 (g catalyst)−1 under visible light flux of 29 mW cm−2.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • A rotating disk electrode study on catalytic activity of iron(II) phthalocyanine-modified electrodes for oxygen reduction in acidic media
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Tatsuya Toyama, Shino Sato, Kenta Motobayashi, Kohei Uosaki, Katsuyoshi Ikeda

    Catalytic activity of monometric metal macrocycles for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated using rotating disk electrode voltammetry in acidic media. Iron(II) phthalocyanines (FePc) and cobalt(II) tetraphenylporphyrins (CoTPP) were immobilized on Au surfaces through molecular wires with different terminal groups of pyridine and isocyanide. The measured ORR behavior of FePc was largely influenced by the axial ligand while CoTPP promoted only the two-electron reaction regardless of the axial ligand. The FePc immobilized with pyridine was easily detached from the surface under the ORR condition, and was able to promote the four-electron reaction only under the high overpotential application. The FePc with isocyanide was more stable with the activity for the four-electron reaction, due to stronger electron donation to Fe central ions.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Pd-doped perovskite-based SOFC anodes for biogas
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Andrea Marcucci, Igor Luisetto, Francesca Zurlo, Silvia Licoccia, Elisabetta Di Bartolomeo

    Highly performing perovskite-based anodes for methane mixtures-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are proposed. Catalytic activities of La0.6Sr0.4Fe1-xPdxO3-δ (LSFPd) with x = 0.05, 0.1 toward dry reforming of methane (DMR) and partial oxidation of methane (POM) reactions are investigated. The addition of (30 wt%) Ce0.85Gd0.15O2-δ (GDC) and of (30 wt%) Ni(5 wt%)-GDC to the perovskite compounds was evaluated to enhance both electrocatalytic and electrochemical properties. Electrolyte-supported cells based on La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) pellets and LSFPd perovskite oxides at both electrodes are fabricated and tested using CH4, CH4/Ar and CH4/CO2 mixtures in the 750–850 °C temperature range. Fuel cell tests using anodic mixtures such as LSFPd/GDC and LSFPd/Ni-GDC are also performed. A discussion based on the comparison between catalytic and electrochemical results and on the possible reforming and/or oxidation reactions taking place at the anode is detailed.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Unassisted solar water splitting using a Cu 2 O/Ni(OH) 2 -ZnO/Au tandem photoelectrochemical cell
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Zhiming Bai, Jia Liu, Yinghua Zhang, Zhian Huang, Yukun Gao, Xiaotong Li, Yan Du

    A tandem photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell consisting of a Cu2O/Ni(OH)2 photocathode and a ZnO/Au photoanode was investigated for unassisted solar water splitting. It was found that the two photoelectrodes were optically matched in UV and visible range, according to the absorbed luminous flux. Compared with the bare Cu2O photocathode, the Cu2O/Ni(OH)2 photocathode had larger photocurrent and smaller onset potential, because the Ni(OH)2 electrocatalysts reduced charge recombination and the overpotential for hydrogen evolution. The tandem PEC cell achieved a photoconversion efficiency of about 0.20% under 1 sun illumination. The results indicate that metal oxide semiconductors synthesized via facile and scalable solution methods are promising photoelectrode materials for unassisted solar water splitting.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Correction to: Synergic Effect of catalyst/binder in passivation side-products of Li-Oxygen cells
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Paulina Márquez, Julia Amici, María Jesús Aguirre, Francisco Herrera, Carlotta Francia, Silvia Bodoardo

    The Authors regret that, in the published version, Figure 2 was substituted by Figure 1.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Polypyrrole modified hierarchical porous CoS 2 @RGO aerogel electrode for ultrafast sodium storage
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Xue Liu, Hua Ma, Heng Xu, Ziqi Tan, Qiongzhen Liu, Yuedan Wang, Hongbo Shu, Dong Wang

    CoS2 nanooctahedrons homogeneously encapsulated by hierarchical porous-reduced graphene oxide and polypyrrole thin film are constructed via a simple hydrothermal route, followed by vapor polymerization reaction. Owing to the porous conductive network and robust structural integrity characteristics, the optimal CoS2@RGO@PPy aerogel can not only facilitate electron and ion transfer but also shorten diffusion length and alleviate strain stress, ensuring superior sodium storage in terms of high capacity, excellent rate capability, and cycling stability. With a CoS2 content of 54.9%, CoS2@RGO@PPy electrode delivers a discharge capacity of 744 mAh g−1 at the current density of 0.1 A g−1. Moreover, it yields a reversible capacity of 554 mAh g−1 at 2.0 A g−1, higher than that of 495 mAh g−1 for CoS2@RGO electrode. The superior rate capability can be attributed to the favored surface capacitive behavior. And a combined contribution of diffusion-controlled and capacitive-induced process are derived. Furthermore, CoS2@RGO@PPy electrode maintains 348 mAh g−1 over a long period of 700 cycles at a high current density of 3 A g−1 and a capacity retention of 65.8%. The strategy can be extended to tailor the electrode structures for high-performance sodium-ion batteries.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Graphene oxide/copper terephthalate composite as a sensing platform for nitrite quantification and its application to environmental samples
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Suma B P, Pandurangappa M

    A robust electrochemical sensing platform based on graphene oxide-copper terephthalate (GO/Cu-tpa) composite has been fabricated. The prepared composite was characterized through FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The electrochemical characterization of the composite was studied after immobilizing the composite material as a thin film on the glassy carbon electrode through voltammetry techniques. The fabricated electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity in the oxidation of nitrite. The sensor showed a linear response in the concentration range 5 – 625 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM and sensitivity of 0.86 ± 0.06 μA μM−1 cm−2. The electrochemical sensor was validated by measuring the trace level nitrite from water samples, and the results are in good agreement with the standard protocol.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Remarkable facets for selective monitoring of biomolecules by morphologically tailored CuO nanostructures
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Mohamed Khairy, Mohamed Ismael

    Remarkable selective analysis of biomolecules i.e., glucose and ascorbic acid on copper oxide facets was reported for the first time. The copper oxide nanostructures were synthesized using different Cu-ions sources i.e., CuCl2 and CuSO4 by utilizing the hydrothermal method, which congregates in flower and hollow sphere morphologies, respectively. Interestingly, the results showed a comparable sensitivity and selectivity of CuO nanostructures toward glucose and ascorbic acid. To provide a deep understanding of the key factors that predominate the efficiency and selectivity of nanostructured CuO toward these biomolecules, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were accomplished. Five different crystal facets including (002), (200), (202), (111), and (110) were considered and their binding energies with the biomolecules were investigated. It was found that the facets with rich Cu or O atoms might control the selectivity toward glucose and ascorbic acid. This approach will be helpful for designing sensitive and selective targeted nanomaterial-based sensors.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A study of the electrochemical kinetics of sodium intercalation in P2/O1/O3-NaNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Hoang Van Nguyen, Hanh Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Nguyen Le Thanh Huynh, An Le Bao Phan, Man Van Tran, Phung My Loan Le

    Sodium ternary layered oxides, typically NaNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC), are layered structures analogous to LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, and have been utilized extensively in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The cathode material was successfully synthesized by a sol-gel process followed by a calcination step at 900 °C for 12 h. The triple-phase integration denoted as P2, O1 and O3 in the NMC sample was evidently revealed on XRD diagrams. The composite cathode material acted as an O3 purity phase that exhibited relatively good performance that delivered an initial capacity of 140 mAh g−1 and sustained reversible capacities of nearly 110 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. The kinetics of sodium intercalation of sol-gel NMC upon reversible Na+ insertion/de-insertion was evaluated via galvanostatic intermittence titration technique (GITT) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The diffusion coefficients of Na+ deduced from the GITT curve were found to lie within a wide range, 10−9–10−12 cm2 s−1 for the charge process and 10−13–10−17 cm2 s−1 for the discharge process. This implies that the kinetics of Na+ extraction out of the NaxNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 host could be much more favored than Na+ insertion. Additionally, the evolution of diffusion coefficient and charge transfer resistance are consistent with the complex phase transition generally observed in sodium layered oxides.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Non-enzymatic multispecies sensing of key wine attributes with nickel nanoparticles on N-doped graphene composite
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Luba Shabnam, Shaikh N. Faisal, Alessandro Martucci, Vincent G. Gomes

    A non-enzymatic sensor was developed for simultaneous detection of glucose, ethanol, and glycerol concentrations in wine using nickel nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene, Ni-NGr. The sensor was fabricated from nickel nitrate, graphene oxide, and uric acid via facile thermal annealing process. The Ni-NGr sensor exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity compared with glassy carbon, NGr, and Ni-Gr electrodes. The anodic outputs from cyclic voltammetry for the target analyte sensing were confirmed with square wave voltammetry measurements. The Ni-NGr composite presented outstanding limit of detection (LOD = 1 μM, S/N = 3) and sensitivity for glucose with comparable performance for ethanol and glycerol. The sensor was tested for simultaneous multispecies analysis of commercial wine samples with excellent results in terms of accuracy, stability, and recovery.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Solid-state supercapacitor with impressive performance characteristics, assembled using redox-mediated gel polymer electrolyte
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    B. Jinisha, K. M. Anilkumar, M. Manoj, C. Muhamed Ashraf, V. S. Pradeep, S. Jayalekshmi

    A solid-state supercapacitor is assembled using redox-mediated gel polymer as the electrolyte and separator and coconut shell–derived, steam-activated carbon as the electrodes. The gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) is based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH)-hydroquinone (HQ), and is obtained using solution casting technique. Amorphous nature of the GPE is confirmed from XRD studies and the complex formation in the GPE is confirmed from FTIR spectral analysis. The GPE films are electrochemically characterized using impedance analysis, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Self-discharge studies of the assembled supercapacitor are also carried out. Higher ionic conductivity around 53 mS cm−1 and superior flexibility serve as the main advantages of this redox-mediated GPE. The electrode-specific capacitance of the supercapacitor is found to be as high as 326.53 F g−1 with a capacity retention of 84.2% after being subjected 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 0.8 A g−1. The assembled supercapacitors are found to offer quite high energy density and power density around 33.15 Wh kg−1 and 689.58 W kg−1, respectively. These types of redox-mediated, flexible, gel polymer electrolytes are desirable for designing high power solid-state supercapacitors for energy storage applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Physical properties of metal-doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Hayet Mahdhi, Z. Ben Ayadi, K. Djessas

    Transparent thin films of pure ZnO, Ca-doped ZnO (CZO), and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) were deposited on glass by RF magnetron sputtering. The influence of calcium and gallium concentrations in zinc oxide (ZnO) films on structural, morphology, electrical, and optical properties of thin films were studied. XRD results show that the obtained films were with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) evidenced that the type of doping modifies the microstructure of thin films. The as-deposited films show a high transmittance in the visible range over 85%. The shift of the optical band gap of ZnO films with increasing Ca and Ga content suggests the enhancement of carrier concentration. At Ga-doped ZnO, the film has lowest resistivity of 3.8 × 10−3 cm, while the carrier concentration is highest (2.2 × 1020 cm−3).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Synthesis of polyaniline/graphene composite and its application in zinc-rechargeable batteries
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Zhen Wang, Jia-Jun Han, Ning Zhang, Dan-Dan Sun, Tao Han

    Polyaniline, polyaniline/graphene composites were synthesized by a novel in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method including two oxidants. The morphology and structure of the material were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical performance of polyaniline (PANI)-based composites was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) testing, and constant current charge and discharge (GCD) tests. At 0.2 C of constant current, the discharge specific capacities of PANI/graphene oxide (PANI/GO) and PANI/GO-sodium borohydride (graphene oxide is reduced by sodium borohydride, named PANI/GO-NaBH4) were as high as 183 mAh/g and 192 mAh/g, respectively, which was nearly twice as high as that of PANI (100 mAh/g). After 100 charge and discharge cycles, the capacity retention rates of PANI, PANI/GO, and PANI/GO-NaBH4 were 80.4%, 89.4%, and 95.05%, respectively; the cycle performance was greatly improved before the modification. These results indicate that the composite has exciting potentials for the cathode material of zinc-rechargeable battery.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Hybrid material of polyaniline incorporated industrial waste of fly ash to enhance the electrode performance of polyaniline in supercapacitor application
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Sangam Naidu Karri, Sai Prasad Ega, Palaniappan Srinivasan

    The existing high market potential for supercapacitors in electric vehicles created enthusiasm for the development of safer and high-performance supercapacitor gadgets. The ongoing examination endeavors on electrochemical power sources are composed toward achieving high-explicit energy, high-explicit power, long-cycle life, and so forth, at a realistic cost. In this work, low-cost hybrid material of polyaniline-sulfate salt and ash from the bituminous coal is synthesized via in situ polymerization of aniline. The formation of hybrid in this polymerization process was confirmed from FTIR, XRD, EDAX, and TGA. Thus, prepared polyaniline-sulfate●ash (PANI-ash) hybrid is taken as electro-active material for the construction of supercapacitor cell in a symmetric configuration in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. PANI-ash, wherein ash prepared at 600 oC of bituminous coal, gave higher electrochemical performance compared to its individual components of PANI and ash materials. Initial specific capacitance observed for the samples of PANI, PANI-A400, and PANI-A600 are 155, 328, and 363 F g−1, respectively. PANI-A600 symmetric cell system subjected to a higher current density of 0.75 A g−1 for 10,000 cycles. Remaining in specific capacitance values of polyaniline salts at 10,000 CD cycles is found to be 70 %, and further at 35,000 cycles, it shows 43% retention of specific capacitance.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Remarkable electrochemical performance of 0.5Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.5LiNi 0.5 Mn 0.3 Co 0.2 O 2 synthesized by means of a citric acid–aided route
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Anna V. Potapenko, Mengqiang Wu, Sviatoslav A. Kirillov

    Lithium-manganese-rich–lithiated nickel-manganese-cobalt oxides are advantageous for using in lithium-ion batteries due to low toxicity and high specific capacity but suffer from low high-rate capability. In this paper, characterization and electrochemical testing of 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.52Co0.08O2) obtained by means of a citric acid–aided route is described. It demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance possessing specific capacity equal to the theoretical value (280 mAh g−1), being able to be discharged with currents of 2240 mA g−1 (8 C), having high coulombic efficiency (~ 99%) even after high-rate tests, and manifesting low capacity fade after high current loads and upon further cycling by 0.1 C currents (0.144 mAh g−1 per cycle).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Combined parametric optimization of P3HT: PC 70 BM films for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Hafsa Siddiqui, Mohammad Ramzan Parra, Padmini Pandey, M. S. Qureshi, Fozia Zia Haque

    In this report, the effects of photoactive blend compositions, film thicknesses, and annealing conditions on the P3HT:PC70BM solar cells performance and reproducibility was investigated. The performance of prepared devices was described by examining their absorption spectra, current-voltage characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE). The thickness of active layer was achieved as 190 nm, 125 nm, and 90 nm, by maintaining the spin speed. Current density (Jsc) slightly increases from 6.39 to 7.15 mA/cm2 with increase in thickness from 90 to 125 nm; however, with further increase in film thickness (190 nm), the Jsc was reduced to 4.39 mA/cm2. To optimize the device performance, four different compositions of PC70BM (1:0.6, 1:0.8, 1:1, and 1:12) were investigated at the most favorable film thickness ~ 125 nm. The effect of different PC70BM compositions on photovoltaic performance was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman measurements that illuminated modification in structural properties. Additionally, annealing condition led to achieve the good phase separation for efficient charge separation and transport within P3HT: PCBM film which further leads to increased efficiency (PCE ~ 3.31%). These effects deliver valued facts for the choices of PC70BM amount in P3HT:PC70BM system, and this efficient device optimization might be useful in other efficient photovoltaic systems for better performance through excellent reproducibility.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy sensor for cloxacillin based on tetrabutylammonium octamolybdate
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    D. Najlaoui, M. Echabaane, A. Ben Khélifa, A. Rouis, H. Ben Ouada

    In this study, a sensor based on tetrabutylammonium octamolybdate (Bu4N)4 (Mo8O26) (POM) has been immobilized on the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates using the poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) for a selective determination of cloxacillin. The morphology and the hydrophobicity of the modified electrodes were examined using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements (CAM), respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to follow the detection progress of cloxacillin in the darkness and under illumination with the lowest limits of detection (10–11.5 M) and a wide linear range of 10−11 to 10−7 M. The evolution of the equivalent electrical circuit’s parameters was studied to establish the ability of the light excitation to improve the cloxacillin detection.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on MB-anchored GO for the rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Haixia Peng, Yuanyuan Hui, Rong Ren, Bini Wang, Shuanghong Song, Yaping He, Fuxin Zhang

    Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) can cause extremely high mortality diseases especially in infants, so it is necessary to rapidly and specifically detect C. sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In this work, the amplification strategy of methylene blue (MB)-anchored graphene oxide (GO) was used to develop an electrochemical aptasensor for detecting C. sakazakii easily and quickly. In the absence of C. sakazakii, GO would be bound to the aptamer of C. sakazakii by π-π interaction, and then adsorbed MB through electrostatic adherence; thus, the electrochemical signal of MB amplified. While in the presence of C. sakazakii, the bacteria would be specifically combined with the aptamer, and hindered the electrostatic adsorption of GO and MB to the aptamer, resulting in the decreasing electrochemical signal of MB. The fabricated electrochemical aptasensor showed a wide linear range from 2 × 101 to 2 × 106 CFU mL−1 of the bacteria concentration, and its limit of detection reached 7 CFU mL−1 (S/N = 3). In addition, the applicability of the aptasensor in PIF for the analysis of C. sakazakii was successfully demonstrated. This aptasensor would provide a new method for the detection of C. sakazakii but also a novel sensing platform for the rapid detection of pathogen bacteria.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Preparation oaf polyaniline/diazonium salt/TiO 2 nanotube arrays as supercapacitor electrode by electrochemical grafting and deposition
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Qinlei Chen, Zhengbin Xia, Yanhong Zhang, Shumin Wang

    Polyaniline/diazonium salt/TiO2 nanotube arrays (PANI/DZ/TiO2 NAs), as a supercapacitor electrode material, are fabricated by two-step anodic oxidation of titanium foils, electrochemical grafting and reduction of diazonium salts, and electrochemical deposition of polyaniline. Surface morphology, crystallization, and chemical compositions of nanocomposites are characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, and Raman. Electrochemical tests indicate that PANI/DZ/TiO2 NAs have excellent capacitance of 1108.5 F g−1 when the current density is 0.6 A g−1. With the current density increasing 20 times to 12 A g−1, the capacitance remains about 77.5%, demonstrating its good rate performance. Moreover, after 2000 charge–discharge cycles at 12 A g−1, the capacitance retains 83.7% of the initial value, showing its good cycling stability.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Applying the voltammetry of microparticles to assess the metal ion excess following a precipitation reaction: the determination of arsenic
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Javier Espinoza-Vergara, Jorge Pavez, Evelyn Gonzalez, Cristián Ramirez, Maritza Páez, Miguel Gulppi

    Here we demonstrate that the metal ion excess after precipitating a sparingly soluble metal salt can be conveniently determined by a secondary precipitation of a metal salt on an electrode surface, followed by measuring the solid-state electrochemical response of that salt. As an example, the analysis of the arsenic content of solutions is presented.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Multi-scan cyclic voltammetry of a solution containing mixed valence states
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Keith B Oldham, Jan C Myland

    When both members of a redox pair are present in a voltammetric cell, the applied signal must start at the null potential if pure cyclic voltammetry is to be conducted. Here the current from a limitless number of repetitive cyclic scans is predicted mathematically for any initial reductant to oxidant ratio. The predictions were prompted by, and are compared with, published experiments. Some simplifying conditions are imposed: the reaction is reversible; the redox pair share the same diffusivity; the reversal potentials are symmetrically disposed with respect to the halfwave potential.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Nickel iron carbonate hydroxide hydrate decorated with CeO x for highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Jinhua Cai, Jiangen Huang, Shichen Xu, Ling Yuan, Xueren Huang, Zhipeng Huang, Chi Zhang

    Highly active, durable, and inexpensive nanostructured catalysts are crucial for achieving efficiently and economically electrochemical water splitting. In recent years, the introduction of cerium (Ce) into electrocatalysts is an effective way to improve the performance of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, we report a cerium oxide deposited nickel iron carbonate hydroxide hydrate (NiFeCH(Ce)) on the carbon fiber paper through two-step hydrothermal/electrodeposition approach. The NiFeCH(Ce) not only exhibits a remarkably improved OER performance with an overpotential of 252 mV at a current density of 100 mA cm−2, but also possesses a small Tafel slope of 59 mV dec−1, the both values superior to the most non-noblemetal-based OER electrocatalysts reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the super OER electrocatalysis performance of the NiFeCH(Ce) was related intensely with the introduction of Ce ions, which not only richer surface defects and higher oxygen adsorption capacity, but also provide more effective charge and mass transfer between intermediates and catalysts, making a great contribution to the OER enhancement.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Synergic effect of catalyst/binder in passivation side-products of Li-oxygen cells
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Paulina Márquez, Julia Amici, María Jesús Aguirre, Francisco Herrera, Carlotta Francia, Silvia Bodoardo

    While used in minor proportion respect to other components in cathode formulations, binders play a crucial role in lithium batteries cathode. This is particularly true in Li-O2 batteries which represent a very harsh environment mainly because of the formation, upon cycling, of very aggressive superoxide radicals. In such batteries, the use of catalyst in the cathode formulation is quite usual to help oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR and OER) to proceed rapidly and reversibly. However, the slightest binder degradation upon cycling can hinder the catalyst effects dramatically, modifying them to act on other reactions associated with the generated side-products, thus deteriorating cell performances and preventing researchers from drawing the right conclusions about catalytic properties of new materials. In this work, the influence of different catalysts in the degradation of the PVDF binder, on the performance of Li-O2 batteries, was investigated. The results obtained were compared with the ones of cathodes prepared with the same catalysts but Li-Nafion binder instead (already reported as stable), to further demonstrate that the choice of binder must be strongly linked to the nature of the catalyst. The catalysts employed for this study were α-MnO2, and commercial Co3O4, and Co phthalocyanines (CoPc).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Synthesis of zirconium diboride and its application in the protection of stainless steel surface in harsh environment
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Krishna K. Yadav, Sujit Kumar Guchhait, Sunaina, Ankush, C. M. Hussain, Ashok K. Ganguli, Menaka Jha

    Surface degradation of steel is one of the key problems of steel end user because of the electrochemical reaction at the steel surface caused by atmospheric weather condition. The major problem with steel is its surface degradation because of the electrochemical reaction at the surface from the atmospheric weather condition. To address this issue, zirconium diboride anticorrosive film has been fabricated on stainless steel by the chemical process. The synthesis of ZrB2 (~ 150 nm) has been carried out at via reaction of ZrO2 nanoparticles (10 nm) with amorphous boron at 1200 °C under argon atmosphere. The scalable doctor blade technique has been employed for the fabrication of ZrB2 film. The electrochemical performance, viz linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies of ZrB2 on 304 grade stainless steel (SS), shows highly anticorrosive behaviour with excellent protection efficiency (up to 98% in acidic media) as compared to bare 304SS in neutral, acidic and alkaline media.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • An effective interaction in polypyrrole/nickel phosphide (PPy/Ni 2 P) for high-performance supercapacitor
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Shuling Liu, Yan Chen, Jing Ren, Yueyan Wang, Wei Wei

    Polypyrrole/nickel phosphide (PPy/Ni2P) composites were synthesized through a facile two-step method. The results show that when there is 30% Ni2P in PPy/Ni2P (active material 3 mg), the prepared composites possess uniform morphology, which composed of large quantities of broccoli-like PPy microstructures (average dimension of about 200 nm) and Ni2P spherical particles (average diameters of 250 nm). It achieves a higher specific capacity for 476.5 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1 in a three-electrode system, even after 3000 cycles the capacity maintained 89%. The excellent electrochemical performance of PPy/Ni2P composites may be due to the good dispersion and uniform morphology of Ni2P nanoparticles. In addition, the synergistic effect between PPy and Ni2P nanoparticles also dramatically improves the electrochemical properties of the composites.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A miniaturized solid-contact potentiometric multisensor platform for determination of ionic profiles in human saliva
    J. Solid State Electr. (IF 2.531) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Marcin Urbanowicz, Dorota G. Pijanowska, Artur Jasiński, Marcin Ekman, Maria K. Bocheńska

    This paper describes a miniaturized multisensor platform (MP-ISES) consisting of electrodes: a reference one (RE) and ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for monitoring Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, and SCN− ions and pH in human saliva. Gold electrode surface was modified by deposition of two layers: electrosynthesized PEDOT:PSS forming an intermediate layer, and ion-selective membrane. The developed ISEs were characterized by a wide linear range and sensitivity consistent with the Nernst model. The entire MP-ISEs are characterized by satisfactory metrological parameters demonstrating their applicability in biomedical research, in particular in measurements concerning determination of ionic profiles of saliva. Saliva samples of 18 volunteers aged from 20 to 26 participating in a month experiment had been daily collected and investigated using the MP-ISEs assigned individually to each person. Personalized profiles of ions (ionograms) in saliva, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, SCN−, and H+, were obtained.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
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