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  • Heart‐Cut Two‐Dimensional Countercurrent Chromatography for the Isolation of a Furan Fatty Acid Triacylglycerol from Latex Gloves and Identification of Further Lipid Compounds
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Nina Wiedmaier‐Czerny; Marco Müller; Walter Vetter

    Hevea brasiliensis latex from specific genotypes such as RRIM501 or PB235 is one of the richest natural sources of furan fatty acid 9‐(3‐methyl‐5‐pentylfuran‐2‐yl)‐nonanoic acid (9M5), which is mainly present in the form of triacylglycerols. In this study, we successfully isolated a triacylglycerol esterified with three 9M5 molecules (tri‐9M5) with a purity of 97% from the lipid extract of latex gloves by means of countercurrent chromatography (CCC). The gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry (GC/MS) spectrum of tri‐9M5 not only featured the diagnostic fragment ion [M‐RCOO]+ of triacylglycerols but also a fragment ion shifted by 16 Da to higher mass which corresponded with [M‐RCO]+. [M‐RCO]+ was only detected in triacylglycerols substituted with at least one furan fatty acid. Additionally, five γ‐tocotrienyl fatty acid esters (γ‐T3‐FA esters), namely, γ‐T3‐16:0, γ‐T3‐18:0, γ‐T3‐18:1n‐9, γ‐T3‐18:2n‐6 and γ‐T3‐20:0, were detected in the sample. Contributions of γ‐T3‐FA esters with 18:1n‐9 and 18:2n‐6 which co‐eluted in GC/MS could be calculated after mathematical correction for contributions of the 13C2 isotope peak of γ‐T3‐18:2n‐6 to γ‐T3‐18:1n‐9. This was necessary for quantitation of these two γ‐T3‐FA esters. Improved separation of the γ‐T3‐FA esters could be achieved by the novel heart‐cut recycling CCC mode (four cycles). Sterols detected in disposable latex gloves were β‐sitosterol, Δ5‐avenasterol, and stigmasterol along with small quantities of 24‐methylene‐cycloartenol and Δ5‐citrostadienol.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Effect of Feeding a Low Level of Encapsulated Fish Oil to Dairy Goats on Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Maryuri Núñez de González; Rahmat Attaie; Sela Woldesenbet; Adela Mora‐Gutierrez; Jeneanne Kirven; Yoonsung Jung; Deland Myers

    Contradictory results have been found in the response of dairy goats to the supplementation of fish oil in their diet to improve the n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk. The responses to the inclusion of fish oil in the diet of ruminants either induced milk fat depression, increased milk fat content, and/or negatively impacted milk yield. The objective of this study was to determine whether including a low dose of encapsulated fish oil in the diet of goats can modify yield, milk composition, and the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk. Ten Alpine goats were divided into two homogeneous subgroups and assigned to either the control or experimental diet. The control animals received the basal diet without supplementation of fish oil, whereas the experimental group was given the same basal diet supplemented with encapsulated fish oil (1.14 g /kg of concentrate) for 56 days. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition and FA profile. The inclusion of encapsulated fish oil in the goat diet did not affect the yield and composition of goat milk. The effect of diet was not significant on the FA profile of goat milk, except that 20:0 was lower (P < 0.05) in the milk of goats that received fish oil. The low dose of encapsulated fish oil supplement used in this study did not impact (P > 0.05) the PUFA content of goat milk or milk composition and yield; however, the atherogenicity index (AI), which is beneficial to heart health, was lower (P < 0.05) in the milk of goats that received fish oil as a supplement in their diet compared to the control.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Activated Kaolin Minerals as Bleaching Clays for Prolonging the Useful Life of Palm Oil in Industrial Frying Operations
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Niramon Worasith; Bernard A. Goodman

    During frying operations, vegetable oils break down and compounds with undesirable flavors are produced. Various procedures have been developed to extend the useful life of frying oils, including treatment with bleaching clays. In this article, we describe the activation of kaolin minerals by a combination of grinding and chemical treatments, and report their performance in removing breakdown products generated in palm oil that had been used for 20 hours continuous frying. There was little influence of the original kaolin mineral form on the ability to reduce the free fatty acid (FFA) contents, and grinding only changed FFA reduction from ∼32% to ∼36%. However, much greater FFA reductions were obtained after chemical treatment of the ground clays, and the best performing kaolin product gave similar FFA reduction to a commercial bleaching clay (∼76% and ∼77%, respectively). This activated kaolin also produced a reduction in viscosity at 40 °C from ∼73 to 48.4 cSt (compared to 45.5 cSt in the unused oil), and in the peroxide value from 30.0 to 22.0 meq/kg (compared to 10.0 meq/kg in the initial oil). Thus, activated kaolin samples represent a cheap and convenient alternative to conventional bleaching clay for improving common quality parameters in used palm oil, although we also found that the optimum kaolin preparation conditions were different from those that have been reported for raw rice bran oil refining.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Fatty Acid Estolides: A Review
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Yunzhi Chen; Girma Biresaw; Steven C. Cermak; Terry A. Isbell; Helen L. Ngo; Li Chen; Amber L. Durham

    Estolides are bio‐based oils synthesized from fatty acids or from the reaction of fatty acids with vegetable oils. Estolides have many advantages as lubricant base oils, including excellent biodegradability and cold flow properties. Promising applications for estolides include bio‐lubricant base oils and in cosmetics. In this review, the synthesis of estolides from fatty acids using four different types of catalysts, namely, mineral acids, solid acids, lipases, and ionic liquids, is summarized. The summary includes the yield of estolide obtained from varying synthetic conditions (time, temperature, catalyst). Also reviewed are studies comparing the physical properties of estolides synthesized from refined fatty acids against those synthesized from fatty acid mixtures obtained from vegetable oils such as coconut, castor, Physaria, etc. By varying the structure of the fatty acids, estolides with a wide range of pour point, cloud point, and viscosity are synthesized to meet a wide range of application requirements. Currently, estolide products are being commercialized for personal care and lubricant base oils for automotive, industrial, and marine applications. The application areas and the demand for estolides is expected to grow as the drive for switching from petroleum to bio‐based products keeps growing.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Thermal Degradation of p‐Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Macadamia Nut Oil, Olive Oil, and Corn Oil
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Hardy Z. Castada; Zhaoyu Sun; Sheryl A. Barringer; Xuesong Huang

    p‐Hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) plays a significant role in sustaining the oxidative stability of macadamia nut oil (MNO). However, PHBA undergoes thermal decarboxylation and loses its bioactive antioxidant properties. In this study, we determine PHBA degradation kinetics in oils at various heating temperatures, which provides fundamental understanding of PHBA thermal degradation in oils and oil quality changes during high‐temperature processing. PHBA degradation kinetics in MNO, olive oil, and corn oil were evaluated at temperatures typical for cooking and frying. PBHA headspace concentration was measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. PHBA decarboxylation followed a zero‐order reaction, where degradation could be affected by factors such as the type of oil matrix having different FA compositions, antioxidants, and component interactions. PHBA degradation activation energies (E a) showed that PHBA was more stable against thermal decarboxylation in MNO (85 kJ mol–1) than in olive oil (40 kJ mol−1) or corn oil (22 kJ mol−1). The higher enthalpy () of decarboxylation in MNO (82 kJ mol−1) indicates that PHBA is more inhibited from decomposition than olive oil (37 kJ mol−1) or corn oil (19 kJ mol−1). Moreover, the negative entropy values () of PHBA degradation from MNO (−192 J mol−1 K−1), olive oil (−277 J mol−1 K−1), and corn oil (−325 J mol−1 K−1) indicates that these oils impart some inhibitory properties against PHBA thermal decarboxylation.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Spontaneous Oleofoams from Water‐in‐Oil Emulsions
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sofia Grizopoulou; Maria Karagiorgou; Vassilis Karageorgiou; Ping Shao; Dimitrios Petridis; Christos Ritzoulis

    Spontaneously foaming oil systems have been formulated from water‐in‐oil emulsions by the controlled release and entrapment of gas in emulsified water droplets contained within the oil. The cascade of events leading to their formation is as follows: Two Span 60‐emulsified populations of water droplets, one containing Na2CO3, the other 10% HCl and caseinate, were mixed in miglyol oil; the controlled coalescence of Na2CO3 droplets with the HCl ones served as a microreactor for the pH reduction and the subsequent release of CO2 from Na2CO3; these gas microbubbles were arrested by sodium caseinate, stabilizing a microfoam within the water droplets; these droplets expanded under the rising gas pressure, spontaneously transforming the surrounding oil into a foamy oleogel containing water droplets.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Synthesis of Edible Vegetable Oils Enriched with Healthy 1,3‐Diglycerides Using Crude Glycerol and Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Catalysis
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Liza A. Dosso; Pablo J. Luggren; Juana Isabel Di Cosimo

    Commercial edible vegetable oils in which part of their triglycerides are substituted with 1,3‐diglycerides are healthier for human consumption than the original oils. This is because the human metabolism of 1,3‐diglycerides is believed to occur through a distinct pathway with less probability of being deposited as fat in the body tissues. To obtain these enriched oils, conversion of triglycerides into diglycerides is carried out by glycerolysis using commercial crude glycerol containing dissolved alkali cations that homogeneously catalyze the reaction. The addition of a food production‐compatible MgO as a supplementary solid basic catalyst, shortens the reaction time by half due to a combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis processes. In either homogeneously or homogeneous‐heterogeneously catalyzed glycerolysis, the increase of the reaction temperature in the range of 453–493 K increases the final 1,3‐diglyceride content. Furthermore, in both glycerolysis processes the triglyceride content can be decreased in more than 60% with the consequent increase of total diglycerides to 50%, 70% of which are the 1,3‐isomers. The glycerolysis reaction proceeds without altering the fatty acid distribution of the original oils.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Comparative Study of Fatty Acid Composition, Total Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in Rapeseed Mutant Lines
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Souhail Channaoui; Lahcen Hssaini; Leonardo Velasco; Hamid Mazouz; Mohamed El Fechtali; Abdelghani Nabloussi

    There is limited variability within rapeseed germplasm in Morocco. Induced mutation was recently used to generate novel genetic variability and develop mutant lines combining desirable traits. In this context, nine promising advanced rapeseed M2 mutant lines and the wild‐type variety “INRA‐CZH2” were evaluated for their seed oil content, fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), and free‐radical scavenging activity (FRSA) by 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. The results showed significant variability among all mutants in seed oil content (38.14–42.04%) and fatty acids (SAFA = 5.49–10.99%, MUFA = 50.33–71.62%, PUFA = 22.89–8.68%). The mutant H2M‐5 exhibited the highest fraction of MUFA and the lowest proportion of SAFA and PUFA, while the mutant H2M‐4 showed the highest SAFA and PUFA amounts and the lowest MUFA level. TPC varied from 2.16 to 4.35 mg GAE/100 g. The highest amount was found in the mutant H2M‐1, which is about twice that of other mutants and the wild‐type variety. FRSA differed significantly among the samples, and the variations observed for DPPH and ABTS methods were 40.5–59.28% and 40.31–59.86%, respectively. FRSA was positively correlated to TPC in the sampled oils (r = 0.801 and 0.802, P < 0.01). This is the first report emphasizing the biochemical potential of rapeseed varieties and novel mutants in Morocco. H2M‐1, H2M‐4, and H2M‐5 were proposed for the Rapeseed National Breeding Program, as they showed higher levels in some biochemical traits of interest.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Fatty Acid Profile and Bioactive Compound Extraction in Purple Viper's Bugloss Seed Oil Extracted with Green Solvents
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Miguel Ángel Rincón‐Cervera; Raúl Galleguillos‐Fernández; Valeria González‐Barriga; Rodrigo Valenzuela; Hernán Speisky; Jocelyn Fuentes; Alfonso Valenzuela

    Oil extraction from seeds of purple viper's bugloss (Echium plantagineum) was carried out using different solvents (chloroform:methanol, n‐hexane, ethanol, 2‐propanol and ethyl acetate) at room temperature and also using Randall extraction. Extraction yields were calculated and oils were analyzed in terms of fatty acid profiles and distribution among lipid classes, total polyphenol content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and phytosterol content. No considerable differences were found on fatty acid profiles and distribution in oils regardless of the solvent and temperature used for the extraction. However, ethanol combined with Randall extraction (85 °C for 1 hour) offered the best results in terms of total polyphenol content (20.9 mg GAE/100 g oil), ORAC (468.0 μmol TE/100 g oil), and phytosterol amount (437.2 mg identified phytosterols/100 g oil) among all assayed extraction methods. A higher extraction temperature led to significantly higher concentrations of bioactive compounds and ORAC values in the oil when ethanol or 2‐propanol were used as extracting solvent, but that was not the case using n‐hexane except for the concentrations of β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol, which were significantly higher using Randall extraction than room temperature extraction with n‐hexane. Ethanol is classified as a “green solvent,” and it could be considered a suitable option to produce oil from E. plantagineum seeds with a higher antioxidant capacity and bioactive compound concentration than the current commercial oil, which is usually extracted with n‐hexane.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Production of Structured Triacylglycerol via Enzymatic Interesterification of Medium‐Chain Triacylglycerol and Soybean Oil Using a Pilot‐Scale Solvent‐Free Packed Bed Reactor
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Zhen Zhang; Siwen Zhang; Wan Jun Lee; Oi Ming Lai; Chin Ping Tan; Yong Wang

    Oils rich in medium‐ and long‐chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) serve as functional oils to help reduce body fat accumulation and weight gain. However, most of the MLCT‐rich products on the market are physical blends of medium‐ and long‐chain triacylglycerols (MCT and LCT, respectively) that are not structured triacylglycerols (TAG). In this study, an efficient pilot‐scale packed bed reactor (PBR) of immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme® TL IM, Novozymes, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) was employed for producing structured MLCT via 1,3‐specific interesterification of TAG enriched in caprylic and capric acyl groups and soybean oil (SBO). The PBR was operated under continuous recirculation mode in the absence of solvent. Optimal reaction conditions were determined to be: caprylic/capric TAG: SBO ratio (45:55 w/w), reaction temperature (75 °C) and residence time (16.0 min) on MLCT production were studied. When employing a pilot‐scale PBR (100 kg day−1) under optimal conditions, a product containing 76.61 wt% MLCT was produced. Lipozyme TL IM was reused for 25 successive batch reactions (125 kg substrates) with no significant reduction in catalytic efficiency. The light yellow MLCT‐enriched product had a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA, 82.74 wt%) in its sn‐2 position as a result of the enzyme's 1,3‐positional specificity. One‐stage molecular distillation and methanol extraction were used to remove the free fatty acids, mono‐, and diacylglycerols generated from hydrolysis. With distillation temperature of 150 °C and oil‐to‐methanol ratio of 1:3 v/v, MLCT content was further increased to 80.07 wt%. The enzymatic PBR was therefore effective in producing structured MLCT at a pilot‐scale under solvent‐free conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Prediction of Fatty Acid Incorporation during Enzymatic Interesterification
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Albert J. Dijkstra

    When a mixture of triacylglycerols and free fatty acids or fatty acid alkyl esters is treated with a random or sn‐1,3 regioselective lipase enzyme, part of these acids will be incorporated into the triacylglycerols while liberating fatty acids that were originally part of these triacylglycerols. Authors generally report the extent of incorporation and then comment on whether equilibrium had been reached and/or acyl migration has been observed. In doing so, they do not refer to articles that provide equations to be used to conclude whether equilibrium has been reached. It is the purpose of the present article to provide these equations and, by using them on literature data, show to what extent conclusions drawn by authors are correct. Besides, the availability of these equations will make it easier to interpret ongoing research on interesterification and to steer its direction in a more appropriate manner.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Catalytic Cracking of Rapeseed Oil with Binary Oxide Systems: An Alternative to Production of Petrochemicals
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Robert E. Przekop; Monika Osinska‐Broniarz; Agnieszka Martyła; Bogna Sztorch; Mikołaj Stodolny; Piotr Kirszensztejn; Marcin Szymański

    The aim of this work is to evaluate analytical tools for fast assessment of the catalysts’ ability to conduct a catalytic cracking process with the use of vegetable oils. The practical context of the presented concept relates to the use of cracking reaction products as valuable chemical raw materials. The proposed analytical tools allow for quick assessment of reaction products, indication of the molecular weight range, or the presence of specific functional groups. We want to emphasize that vegetable oils can not only be raw products for biofuels but also an alternative to petrochemicals. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of acid–base properties of catalysts on the rapeseed oil conversion process at 500°C. The effect of these properties on the character of the process and quality of the products obtained was shown to be very high. Basic correlations between the formation of coke, gaseous products and dehydrogenation products, and acid–base parameters of the individual catalysts have been observed. The use of spectroscopic methods (FTIR ‐ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 1H NMR ‐ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) for fast qualitative analysis of the products is described.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Development of Whole and Ground Seed Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations for Oil, Protein, Moisture, and Fatty Acids in Salvia hispanica
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    William Serson; Paul Armstrong; Elizabeth Maghirang; Ahmed AL‐Bakri; Timothy Phillips; Maythem AL‐Amery; Kai Su; David Hildebrand

    Chia (Salvia hispanica) is an ancient crop that has experienced an agricultural resurgence in recent decades owing to the high omega 3 fatty acid (ω‐3) content of the seeds and good production potential. Analysis of 563 lots of chia grown in Kentucky and 10 lots from Arizona, Australia, Mexico, and Peru was performed. All of these lots were assessed for fatty acid, oil, and protein content, while a subset of 120 samples were assessed for amino acids, fiber, minerals, and trace elements. The mean oil content was 31.3%, ranging from 21.4% to 35.3%. The protein content averaged 22.8%, ranging from 18.2% to 28.2%, and the ω‐3 FA α‐linolenic acid (ALA) averaged 61.3%, ranging from 33.9% to 69.9%. Using these seed lots, nondestructive near‐infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed for whole and ground seed oil, protein, moisture, and the six major fatty acids. The R2 and SE of cross‐validation (SECV) values for oil were 0.78 and 0.95, respectively, while those for protein were 0.75 and 1.05, respectively. The NIRS calibrations for fatty acid had R2 and SECV greater than 0.6 and less than 10% of actual values for all major fatty acids, respectively. An R2 of 0.99 was established for moisture content of whole seeds within the range of 3–10% moisture content. The precision and accuracy of these calibrations is adequate for use by breeders, growers, and food quality experts to quantitatively assess these major constituents without the need for costly and time‐consuming chemical analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Glycidols Esters, 2‐Chloropropane‐1,3‐Diols, and 3‐Chloropropane‐1,2‐Diols Contents in Real Olive Oil Samples and their Relation with Diacylglycerols
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Angelo Cichelli; Ylenia Riciputi; Lorenzo Cerretani; Maria F. Caboni; Nicola d'Alessandro
    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Preparation and Characterization of Oil Rich in Odd Chain Fatty Acids from Rhodococcus opacus PD630
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Mei‐Yun Chu; Lin‐Shang Zhang; Wen‐Yong Lou; Min‐Hua Zong; Yu‐Qian Tang; Ji‐Guo Yang

    Odd‐chain fatty acids (OCFA) are widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as the chemical industry. In this study, oil rich in OCFA was produced by Rhodococcus opacus PD630, and 1‐propanol in combination with glucose was used as the carbon and energy source. Oil was extracted by the subcritical extraction system. Gas chromatography (GC), ultra‐performance liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (UPLC‐MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to evaluate the fatty acids composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, and thermal properties, respectively. It was found that the content of OCFA reached 68.15%, where pentadecanoic acid (7.74%), heptadecanoic acid (18.20%), and heptadecenoic acid (42.71%) were the dominant OCFA. The most abundant TAG were HePaHa (15.82%), HePHa (11.42%), HePaHe (9.68%), HeHaHa (9.62%), HePaO (8.26%), and HePPa (8.00%). In terms of thermal profiles, recrystallization was detected in the oil rich in OCFA. Above all, these findings greatly extend the utilization of the microbial oil rich in OCFA, and they may have a significant impact on the future development of the microbial oil industry.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolism in Marine Protist Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Xuewei Yang; Siting Li; Shuangfei Li; Liangxu Liu; Zhangli Hu

    Thraustochytriidae sp., have drawn the attention as a promising source for producing significant quantities of omega‐3 fatty acids. In this study, Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#Mn16, with impressive docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production, was de novo assembled as a complete transcriptome. A total of 59.65 Mb clean reads were assembled into 35,745 transcripts, with a mean size of 991 bp. The results allowed us to annotate 11,924 (45.97%) of the transcripts with putative functions. The potential target genes enriched for specific gene ontology terms, including metabolic process (469 genes) and macromolecular complex (221 genes), were identified. There were 6858 (26.44%) putative proteins classified into 25 categories, of which 459 (6.69%) predicted proteins were assigned to lipid transport and metabolism, closely related to DHA production. The most strongly represented pathways annotated from the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) database were metabolism pathways including carbohydrate (388, 6.99%), amino acid (375, 6.76%), and lipid (330, 5.95%). Of these unigenes with coding sequences, the majority (2950) were 200–300 bp. A total of 7362 simple sequence repeats were identified with the frequency occurrence of 1/4.15 kb. This study reveals a wealth of the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Thraustochytriidae sp., which could facilitate further research into the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid production.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Field Performance of High Oleic Soybeans with Mutant FAD2‐1A and FAD2‐1B Genes in Tennessee
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Lauren Darr; Mia Cunicelli; Hem Bhandari; Kristin Bilyeu; Feng Chen; Tarek Hewezi; Zenglu Li; Carl Sams; Vince Pantalone

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with high oleic acid (>75%) has increased oxidative stability and health benefits that are valuable for food, fuel, and industrial products. It has been determined that two naturally occurring mutations in genes FAD2‐1A and FAD2‐1B can combine to produce high oleic soybeans. The objective of this study was to test the effect of these mutant alleles on seed yield and oil and protein concentration. Molecular markers assisted in the creation of a population of 48 BC3F2:4 lines (93.75% expected genome commonality). Each line was classified into one of four genotypic groups where both FAD2‐1A and FAD2‐1B genes were either homozygous wild type or mutant, respectively. Twelve lines for each genotypic group were evaluated in three replications at six locations across Tennessee. There was no seed yield difference between the high oleic genotypic group and the other groups (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in fatty acid profiles and oil and protein concentrations. In combination, the mutant FAD2‐1A and FAD2‐1B alleles produced a mean of 803.1 g kg−1 oleic acid. This is, on average, approximately 500 g kg−1 more oleic acid compared to soybean lines with only one mutant FAD2‐1 allele. The high oleic double mutant group had more total oil (228.0 g kg−1) and protein (401.0 g kg−1) compared to all other genotypic groups (P < 0.05). Overall, this specific combination of mutant FAD2‐1A and FAD2‐1B alleles appears to generate conventional high oleic soybeans without a yield drag.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Oxidative Stability and Characterization of Quinoa Oil Extracted from Wholemeal and Germ Flours
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jesica Romina Mufari; Horacio Adrián Gorostegui; Patricia Paola Miranda‐Villa; Antonella Estefanía Bergesse; Edgardo Luis Calandri

    Quinoa seeds are a source of lipids of great quality, and they highlight the content and composition of fatty acids and the presence of antioxidants such as tocopherols. Solvent extraction of quinoa oils was carried out from two matrices (wholemeal and germ flours), and in both cases, the extraction performance, physical–chemical characteristics, and oxidative stability were determined. Oxidative stability of the oil was assessed using an accelerated aging experiment under storage conditions at 60 °C for 12 days, in which the following parameters were measured: peroxide value, acid value, conjugated dienes and trienes, and scavenging radical capacity. Germ flour showed greater extraction yields (27.30 ± 0.15 g/100 g) compared to wholemeal (5.88 ± 0.02 g/100 g). Both oils presented similar physicochemical parameters, although the tocopherol content was higher in the oil extracted from germ flour (1354 vs. 735 mg/kg oil). At the same time, wholemeal oil showed a superior oxidative stability; hence, the wet milled process produces a minor impact on the compounds responsible for protection against lipid oxidation.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Antimicrobial Potential of Chiral Amide Derivatives of Ricinoleic and 3‐Hydroxynonanoic Acid
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Sylwia Matysiak; Julia Zabielska; Józef Kula; Alina Kunicka‐Styczyńska

    The growing role of fatty acid amides in medicinal chemistry has recently been observed. Therefore, using simple and fast methods, a series of chiral amide derivatives (24 compounds) of ricinoleic and 3‐hydroxynonanoic acid was obtained with 31–95% yields. Then, the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity against 13 microorganisms representing Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria, yeast, and molds was performed. The obtained compounds showed antimold potential; however, the tested species of molds were more susceptible to derivatives of 3‐hydroxynonanoic acid than to amides obtained from ricinoleic acid (RA). Interestingly, hydroxamic acids derived from RA exhibited the best activity against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. On the other hand, hydroxamic acids derived from 3‐hydroxynonanoic acid showed the best antimicrobial potential against the remaining tested microorganisms, especially against Pseudomonas cedrina. The obtained derivatives can be considered compounds of potential pharmacological significance, which is important due to the increasing problem of microbial resistance.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Polyurethane Thermosets Using Lipidic Poly(α‐Hydroxyketone)
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Benoit Briou; Nam Duc Vu; Sylvain Caillol; Jean‐Jacques Robin; Nicolas Duguet; Marc Lemaire; Pascal Etienne; Laurent Bonnet; Vincent Lapinte

    Lipidic polyols based on α‐hydroxyketone reactive groups were investigated for polyurethane thermosets. The reactivity of this peculiar secondary alcohol group in triacylglycerol structure was compared, without use of catalyst, to that of poly(1,2‐diol) triacylglycerol and castor oil to demonstrate the influence of ketone in the α position of the alcohol group in the presence of HDI for the urethanization rate. The kinetic effect of the ketone group was also studied on various lipidic architectures: mono(α‐hydroxyketone) ester, di(α‐hydroxyketone) diester and tri(α‐hydroxyketone) triacylglycerol. The presence of hydrogen bonds in the network coming from urethane, residual alcohol, and ketone in hard segments of PU was discussed and correlated with the thermal stability and the soft mechanical properties of the resulting polyurethane thermosets.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Effects of Tween 20 and Transglutaminase Modifications on the Functional Properties of Peanut Proteins
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Shao Bing Zhang; Xiao Hua Wang; Xia Li; Dong Qiong Yan

    The effects of Tween 20 on the emulsification and gelation properties of peanut protein isolates (PPI) were investigated. The functional properties of different peanut protein products, including PPI, Tween 20‐assisted aqueous extraction peanut proteins (TPP), and their transglutaminase‐modified products (TG‐TPP), were then compared. The results indicate that the addition of Tween 20 to the PPI resulted in higher emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI) values than PPI without Tween 20; however, the emulsions produced by the PPI–Tween 20 mixtures were easier to destabilize during storage. As the amount of Tween 20 was increased, both the surface hydrophobicity and gel strength of the PPI–Tween mixtures significantly decreased. TPP (containing approximately 11% Tween 20) exhibited significantly different functional properties from PPI. Compared with PPI, TPP had higher EAI and ESI values but a weaker heat‐induced gelation ability. The protein solubility of TPP was markedly higher than that of PPI. Modification of TPP with transglutaminase (TGase) significantly enhanced their gelation and oil‐binding properties but reduced the protein solubility and ESI value. The remarkable improvement in the gelation ability of TG‐TPP was mainly attributed to the formation of high‐molecular‐weight protein aggregates and their conformational changes.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Effect of Chemical Structure of Solid Lipid Matrix on Its Melting Behavior and Volumetric Expansion in Pressurized Carbon Dioxide
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Junsi Yang; Ozan N. Ciftci

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC‐CO2) technology offers new opportunities for green processing of lipids; however, there is little information of the melting behavior and volumetric expansion of solid lipids in pressurized CO2. In this study, melting behavior and volumetric expansion of two different solid lipid classes and the effect of the structural differences within the same lipid class on the melting behavior in pressurized CO2 were investigated. The melting point of the solid lipids decreased linearly with increasing pressures up to a certain level; then, it stayed constant. The highest melting point depression was observed for soybean oil monoacylglycerol (SO‐MAG) at 51.5 °C/110 bar, whereas the lowest was for fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) containing 30% SO‐MAG at 55.0 °C/79 bar. Melting point depression depended on lipid class. SO‐MAG exhibited a higher melting point depression than FHSO (triacylglycerol form), and its blends with SO‐MAG. There was no difference in melting point depression between glyceryl 1,2‐distearate and glyceryl 1,3‐distearate up to 200 bar (P > 0.05). A positive correlation between the melting point depression and volumetric expansion of solid lipids was observed. The highest volumetric expansion was for SO‐MAG in the linear region of the melting point depression curve, achieving 14.4% expansion compared to 9.3% for FHSO (P < 0.05). The highest dT/dP value (0.17 °C bar−1) was obtained for SO‐MAG, whereas the FHSO (0.09 °C bar−1) had the lowest one. Findings of this study will help optimize solid lipid‐involving SC‐CO2 processes for better protection of heat‐sensitive compounds while improving energy efficiency.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Characterization of Seed, Oil, and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters of an Ethyl Methanesulfonate Mutant of Camelina sativa with Reduced Seed‐Coat Mucilage
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Richard H. Lohaus; Jordan J. Zager; Dylan K. Kosma; John C. Cushman

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz (large‐seeded false flax) is a promising oilseed crop for the production of edible oil and biodiesel. An ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutant of C. sativa was identified that lacked seed coat mucilage (SCM) using Ruthenium Red (RR) colorimetric staining. Compared with wild‐type (WT) plants, the mucilage‐defect mutant line (Cs98) had smaller seeds and seeds with significantly less SCM, but exhibited significantly taller plant height. The seed mass and oil content of the seeds of Cs98 were significantly lower than those of WT plants. However, the seeds of Cs98 had significantly higher crude protein and starch contents, but a significantly lower neutral detergent‐soluble fiber (NDSF) fraction (pectin) content. Although Cs98 seed contained significantly higher mineral contents for various macro‐ and microminerals (e.g., Mg, S, Al, Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn), these large differences did not prevent the Cs98 seed biodiesel from passing all American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for macro‐ and micromineral content and viscosity, pH, and turbidity. Notably, the oil and biodiesel derived from Cs98 had significantly reduced viscosity compared with WT. Water washes of oil derived from WT and Cs98 seed confirmed that the Cs98 contained only 57% of the mucilage content of the WT oil washes. These significantly lower pectic residues are expected to improve the flow characteristics of the resultant oil and require less washing during biodiesel production.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Tailoring Crystalline Structure Using High‐Intensity Ultrasound to Reduce Oil Migration in a Low Saturated Fat
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Thais L. T. da Silva; Zachary Cooper; Juhee Lee; Veronique Gibon; Silvana Martini

    The objective of this study was to use high‐intensity ultrasound (HIU) to change the crystalline structure of an interesterified soybean oil (IESBO) with 33% of saturated fats and to evaluate how these changes affect oil migration. The IESBO was crystallized at different temperatures (26, 28, 30, and 32 °C) with and without HIU. Results show that oil migration was significantly affected by HIU (P < 0.05). HIU promoted crystallization and induced the formation of harder crystalline networks that were more resistant to oil migration with lower melting peak temperatures and sharper melting profiles. Samples processed with HIU had fewer crystalline clusters as observed by microscopy. Changes observed on the physical properties of the IESBO due to sonication that consequently improved oil migration were attributed to the ability of HIU to induce secondary nucleation and crystallize low‐melting point triacyclglycerols (SUU) that would not crystallize without the HIU and to the stronger and stable crystalline network formed capable of entrapping liquid TAG (UUU).

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Isolation and Evaluation of Stearin and Olein Fractions from Rice Bran Oil Fatty Acid Distillate by Detergent Fractionation and Conversion into Neutral Glycerides by Autocatalytic Esterification Reaction
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Sudhasri Sahu; Minakshi Ghosh; Dipak K. Bhattacharyya

    Detergent fractionation (Lanza process) offers a valuable separation process for edible oils that contain varying amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBOFAD), obtained as a major byproduct of rice bran oil deacidification refining process, was fractionated by detergent solution into a fatty acid mixture as follows: low‐melting (19.00 °C) fraction of fatty acids as olein fraction (44.50 g/100 g) and high‐melting (49.00 °C) fatty acids as stearin fraction (37.15 g/100 g). A high amount of palmitic acid (42.75 wt%) is present in stearin fraction, while oleic acid is higher (48.21 wt%) in the olein fraction. The stearin and olein fractions of RBOFAD with very high content of free fatty acids are converted into neutral glycerides by autocatalytic esterification reaction with a theoretical amount of glycerol at high temperatures (130–230 °C) and at a reduced pressure (30 mmHg). Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, and unsaponifiable matters are important analytical parameters to identity for quality assurance. These neutral glyceride‐rich stearin and olein fractions, along with unsaponifiable matters, can be used as nutritionally and functionally superior quality food ingredients in margarine and in baked goods as shortenings.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Potential Bio‐Based Lubricant Basestocks via Epoxidation Process
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    João Paulo C. Marques; Ítalo C. Rios; Expedito J.S. Parente; Solange A. Quintella; F. Murilo T. Luna; Célio L. Cavalcante

    Chemical modifications of vegetable oils may be applied for the purpose of improving their physicochemical properties in their usage for the bio‐based lubricants. The vegetable oils with a high percentage of oleic acid, such as soybeans and rapeseed oils, are important raw materials to obtain the biolubricants. In this particular study, the oleic acid was esterified with 1‐octanol, followed by epoxidation. The oxirane ring opening reaction was performed using different alcohol structures (linear, branched, and cyclic), in order to evaluate their influence on the final physicochemical properties with the synthesized samples. These aforesaid reaction steps were followed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and the main physicochemical properties in the intermediate and final samples were assessed. The highest oxidative stability was observed for the samples obtained, using a cyclic alcohol at the oxirane ring opening reaction (230 min), followed by the linear alcohols with the branched alcohol presenting the lowest oxidative stability (124 min). The pour point values for the samples synthesized with the branched alcohol were slightly better than those with the linear and cyclic alcohols. All the synthesized samples showed high viscosity indexes (>130) and kinematic viscosities at 40 °C, ranging from 30 to 33 cSt (application degree ISO VG‐32), which are adequate for their use in the formulation of bio‐based lubricants.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Synthesis of Alkyl Sulfur‐Functionalized Oleic Acid‐Based Polymethacrylates and Their Application as Viscosity Index Improvers in a Mineral Paraffinic Lube Oil
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Juliette Lomège; Claire Negrell; Jean‐Jacques Robin; Vincent Lapinte; Sylvain Caillol

    This work describes the synthesis of alkyl sulfur‐functionalized polymethacrylate‐based Viscosity Index Improvers (VII) derived from oleic acid (OLA) for mineral paraffinic lubricating oils. In this strategy, OLA was first quantitatively ramified by alkyl thiols containing long aliphatic chains through thiol‐ene coupling as demonstrated by 1H NMR spectroscopy with the complete consumption of OLA internal double bonds. The resulting alkyl sulfur‐functionalized OLA‐based derivatives were methacrylated through Steglich esterification in order to afford highly suitable hydrophobic OLA‐based monomers which, as far as we know, have not been described yet in the current literature. High polymethacrylate molecular weights were reached through radical polymerization despite the long alkyl pendant chains contained in their backbones. Finally, the resulting alkyl sulfur‐functionalized OLA‐based polymethacrylates have been blended in a mineral paraffinic oil (MPO) of reference at 5 wt% and evaluated as VII. Rheological measurements revealed that polymer thickening powers were significantly improved in oil with temperature and promoted by increasing the pendant alkyl thiol contained in polymer backbones. Moreover, the viscosity index of MPO was significantly improved with the addition of both synthesized homopolymers which confirmed their efficiency as VII. In the meantime, these results have been compared with a previously reported polymer, the poly(2‐[methacryloyloxy]ethyl oleate) (PMAEO), which demonstrated a lower VII efficiency compared with its analogous polymethacrylates containing an additional alkyl chain in their pendant chains.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Quality and Composition of Virgin Olive Oils from Indigenous and European Cultivars Grown in China
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Le Yu; Yongjin Wang; Gangcheng Wu; Jun Jin; Qingzhe Jin; Xingguo Wang

    The characteristics of eight varieties of virgin olive oil (Arbosana, Arbequina, Coratina, Cornicabra, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Picual, and Ezhi 8) obtained in two successive crops in the southwest of China (Xichang, Sichuan Province) were investigated. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile, minor component contents, and oxidative stability between different varieties of olive oils. The physicochemical properties of all samples met IOC standards for extra virgin olive oil, while in Koroneiki, olive oils were present the optimum oxidation stability among studied varieties. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) showed a good classification between varieties based on their qualitative characteristics. Koroneiki and Ezhi 8 olive oils were significantly different from other varieties mainly due to color, fatty acid profile, and minor components. PCA result also showed that harvest crop influences the characteristics of samples mainly due to the variance of temperature and rainfall.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Versatile Tool for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of an Emulsifier Mixture of Soybean Oil
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Nazanin Vafaei; Kirk Marat; Michael N. A. Eskin; Curtis B. Rempel; Peter J. H. Jones; Martin G. Scanlon

    Finding a fast, reliable, and reproducible approach for an accurate analysis of complex lipid mixtures of emulsifiers is crucial for the food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, cosmetics, and agrochemicals industries. In the current study, a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis of a high monoester mixture of soybean oil (HMMS) was conducted using 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR of 2‐chloro‐4,4,5,5‐tetramethyl‐1,3,2‐dioxaphospholane (CTDP) derivatives. The HMMS was produced by enzymatic alcoholysis of soybean oil and 1.2‐propanediol in a supercritical CO2 system. Compositional distribution analysis, quantified by aliphatic carbons with 13C NMR, showed that HMMS is composed of more unsaturated fatty acids, comprised of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (60 ± 1.1%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (22 ± 0.8%), than saturated fatty acids (18 ± 0.9%). The 31P NMR quantification of HMMS demonstrated that, out of the total amount of monoacylglycerols (MAG), they are composed of 21 ± 2.9% of 2‐MAG and 4 ± 0.3% of 1‐MAG. Among the three techniques, 31P NMR spectroscopy proved to be a practical methodology with high reproducibility for the precise detection and quantification of partially esterified glycerols and free fatty acids in complex lipid mixtures.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Preparation of Docosahexaenoic Acid‐Rich Diacylglycerol‐Rich Oil by Lipase‐Catalyzed Glycerolysis of Microbial Oil from Schizochytrium sp. in a Solvent‐Free System
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Xiaoqiang Zou, Kakeza Nadege, Irabogora Ninette, Ye Wen, Shibin Wu, Xuan Jiang, Hui Zhang, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)‐rich diacylglycerol (DAG)‐rich oil was prepared by lipase‐catalyzed glycerolysis of microbial oil from Schizochytrium sp. in a solvent‐free system. The reaction parameters including lipase type, substrate molar ratio, temperature, lipase concentration, and reaction time were screened. The selected conditions were determined as follows: Novozym® 435 (Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) as biocatalyst at 8 wt%, substrate ratio (DHA‐rich microbial TAG/glycerol) of 1:1 mol/mol, temperature of 50 °C, and reaction time of 12 hours. Under these conditions, the triacylglycerol (TAG), DAG, and monoacylglycerol (MAG) contents in the product were 36.4%, 48.2%, and 15.4%, respectively. The lipase was reused successively for 18 cycles without significant loss of activity under the conditions given above. Fatty acid composition analysis of the final product showed that the contents of DHA in TAG, DAG, and MAG were 53.9%, 44.9%, and 34.8%, respectively. DHA‐rich DAG has the potential to be used as an ingredient in infant formula to increase the bioavailability of DHA.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Enzymatic Synthesis of Ether Lipids Rich in Docosahexaenoic Acid with Squalene as Reaction Medium
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-08
    Zhaomin Sun, Lingyu Zhang, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue, Zhaojie Li, Jingfeng Wang

    Using squalene as reaction medium was tried for the enzymatic synthesis of ether lipids rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) via transesterification of alkylglycerols (AKG) obtained from shark liver oil and DHA‐enriched ethyl esters (DHA‐EE) from Schizochytrium sp. The effects of reaction time, temperature, molar ratio (AKG /DHA‐EE), and enzyme dosage were investigated. DHA conversion of 74.47% was achieved for 48 hours of reaction at 60 °C using a molar ratio of 1:2 and an enzyme dosage of 30% based on AKG in the presence of squalene with Lipozyme® 435 (Novozymes, Tianjin, China) as the catalyst. With a high boiling point, squalene could act as a solvent without being vaporized from the reaction system under vacuum and improve the operational stability of immobilized lipase, which may be useful for enzymatic reactions under vacuum for lipid modification with byproducts of low boiling points.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Estimation of Protein and Fatty Acid Composition in Shell‐Intact Cottonseed by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-12-01
    Qingkang Wang, Huixian Xing, Xiangliu Liu, Lili Mao, Ze Wei, Haijun Zhang, Liyuan Wang, Haoran Wang, Muhammad Saeed, Guihua Zhang, Xianliang Song, Xue‐Zhen Sun, Yanchao Yuan

    Rapid and accurate analysis of cottonseed protein content and the composition of fatty acids (especially, saturated fatty acids) is often required in cotton production and breeding programs. This study aimed to establish a set of effective estimation models for these parameters. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibration equations using partial least‐squares regression for protein concentration, oil concentration, and five fatty acids of shell‐intact cottonseeds were established based on 90 varieties, and the prediction abilities of the calibration models were verified using 45 other varieties. The prediction abilities of the NIRS calibration equations were basically consistent with external validation results. Each equation was assessed based on the ratio of performance to deviation (RPDp). Protein content and seed total fatty acid (STA) content had high RPDp values (3.687 and 3.530, respectively), whereas cottonseed kernel total fatty acid (KTA) content, linoleic acid (18:2), stearic acid (18:0), myristic acid (14:0), and palmitic acid (16:0) exhibited relatively high RPDp (2.866, 2.836, 2.697, 2.676, and 2.506, respectively). The calibration model for oleic acid (18:1) had a low RPDp (1.945). The results indicated that NIRS can be used to rapidly determine contents of STA, KTA, protein, stearic acid (18:0), myristic acid (14:0), and palmitic acid (16:0) in shell‐intact cottonseed.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Phthalic Acid Esters in Gums and Soapstocks Obtained from Soybean Oil Refinery
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-27
    Dongsheng Chen, Longkai Shi, Gaoxiang Song

    Soybean oil gums and soapstocks are important by‐products that may potentially be contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and phthalic acid esters (PAE), thus lowering the value when using them as starting materials to produce animal feed additives, food industry ingredients, and pharmaceutical products. In the present work, PAH and PAE distributions in these two types of by‐products were detected using solvent extraction–solid phase extraction purification coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total PAH and PAE amounts in the soapstocks were significantly higher than those in the gums, thus indicating that neutralization showed much higher removal efficiency than degumming in terms of PAH and PAE eliminations. Meanwhile, the results proved that the concentrations of these two kinds of contaminants in the soybean oil gums and soapstocks were much higher than those in the soybean oils, suggesting that further investigations were needed and that the contents of PAH and PAE in soybean oil refining by‐products should be carefully monitored and regulated.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Enrichment of Erucic and Gondoic Fatty Acids from Crambe and Camelina Oils Catalyzed by Geotrichum candidum Lipases I and II
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Isabel Oroz‐Guinea, Katja Zorn, Uwe T. Bornscheuer

    Erucic (22:1, cisΔ13) and gondoic acids (20:1, cisΔ11) are building blocks obtained from renewable sources for the oleochemical industry. Different biocatalytic strategies for the enrichment of these compounds with high recovery yields were developed in our group. Geotrichum candidum lipases (GCL) strongly discriminate against fatty acids longer than 18 carbon atoms. Thus, GCL‐I and ‐II were investigated using hydrolysis or ethanolysis reactions with Crambe and Camelina oils. Hydrolysis was also studied using fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) derived from the corresponding oil. Both isoforms were highly selective; however, interesting differences were observed. Although it has been reported that GCL‐I displays a higher preference toward 18 cisΔ9, which is present in the studied oils at high levels, GCL‐II showed higher enrichment values during hydrolysis independent of the substrate used. Hence, enrichments of 87% (Crambe oil) and 82% (Crambe FAEE) for erucic acid and 50% (Camelina oil) and 45% (Camelina FAEE) for gondoic acid, with recovery values between 89% and 99%, were achieved. On the contrary, the best enzyme for ethanolysis was GCL‐I (82% and 41% for erucic and gondoic acid, respectively). In this case, although GCL‐II also displayed good enrichment and recovery levels (77% and 28%, respectively), they were lower compared to the former reactions. In both ethanolysis reactions, the FAEE fraction contained between 92% and 97% of 18 unsaturated fatty acids.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Genomic Regions Governing the Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean Raised across Multiple Growing Years
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Anita Rani, Vineet Kumar, Vaishali Mourya, Trupti Tayalkar

    The ratio of oleic acid to the combined value of linoleic and α‐linolenic acids determines the oxidative stability, and the ratio of linoleic acid to α‐linolenic acid is the key to the nutritional value of soybean oil. The present study was conducted to identify genomic regions associated with oleic, linoleic, and α‐linolenic acids in recombinant inbred lines (RIL), developed from LSb1 × NRC7, across 5 cropping years. These RIL were genotyped using 105 polymorphic SSR markers across soybean genome and analyzed for fatty acid composition. SSR markers, namely, Satt245 (LGp M), Satt556 (LGpB2), Sat_042 (LGp C1), Staga002 (LGp D1b), Satt684 (LGp A1), and AI856415 (LGpD1b) showed significant (P < 0.05) association with oleic acid for all the 5 years, though this association was weak in the years when the growing temperature during active seed formation stage was high. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to Satt684 (LGp A1), Satt556 (LGp B2), Sat_042 (LGp C1), and AI856415 (LGp D1b) showed pleiotropic influence on the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Complementation of favorable QTL from LSb1 and NRC7 generated 60% oleic acid and less than 4% α‐linolenic acid RIL, stable across 5 cropping years. New SSR markers, namely, Satt245, AI856415, and Staga002 identified to be associated with different unsaturated fatty acids may be useful in improving the efficiency of marker‐assisted breeding for enhancing the monounsaturated to polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio of soybean oil.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Encapsulation of Long‐Chain n‐3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Using Egg Yolk
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Selene Gonzalez‐Toledo, Jianping Wu

    Egg yolk is well known for its excellent emulsifying property. In this article, egg yolk was used as the encapsulating matrix to prevent the oxidation of n‐3 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil. A 2 × 2 × 5 complete block design with three replications was used. Two levels of fish oil (1% and 5%) and two levels of esterification type (triglycerides or ethyl esters) of eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic fatty acids were used. Time was considered a fixed factor with five levels. Emulsions were prepared by homogenization and stored for up to 4 weeks at 4–6 °C, with weekly sampling. Emulsions were analyzed for particle size and distribution, encapsulation efficiency, and surface oil. The oxidative stability of the emulsions was evaluated before and after cooking at 150–170 °C for 75 s. The addition of triglycerides resulted in a larger average particle size (234 ± 12.4 nm). All emulsions achieved 100% encapsulation efficiency and showed no significant change in the surface oil concentration during storage. After 4 weeks of storage, the concentration of eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic fatty acids in nonencapsulated fish oil triglycerides and ethyl esters decreased by 20.32% and 14.74%, respectively, while the emulsions showed no significant differences. In addition, no peroxide or propanal formation was detected in raw emulsions over the storage period. Propanal formation was negligible in cooked samples, and the peroxide value showed no differences between the egg yolk control and the emulsions. Therefore, egg yolk was observed to be an efficient encapsulating food matrix that protects n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidation and degradation.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • A Simplified Method for Fractionation and Analysis of Waxes and Oils from Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Bran
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Megan E. Hums, Robert A. Moreau

    In the United States, sorghum is primarily used for animal feed and ethanol production but has potential to provide value‐added coproducts including waxes and oil. The surface of sorghum contains 0.1–0.4% wax; however, wax extraction from whole kernels before fermentation may not be economical. An alternative method for this extraction could be facilitated through decortication, abrasion of the surface to remove bran. Decortication increases the starch content of decorticated sorghum, potentially improving ethanol yields, while concentrating wax and oil to the bran. Typically, oil (triacylglycerols) and waxes are extracted from bran in one extraction and waxes are precipitated from oil using cold temperatures then filtration. This research compared traditional fractionation (simulated with a two‐step, single‐temperature extraction) to a two‐step, dual‐temperature extraction, whereby oil is first extracted at room temperature and then waxes at elevated temperature. Extractions were performed using an accelerated solvent extractor with hexane or ethanol as solvents. Ethanol extraction showed greater yields (~15% w/w) compared to those of hexane (~11% w/w) because polar materials were extracted. Using hexane, the two‐step, dual‐temperature fractionation separated waxes from oils via the temperature of extraction solvent with similar purity to the traditional method that fractionated via cold precipitation and filtration. For ethanol, the traditional single‐step method fractionated with higher wax purity but lower oil purity compared to the two‐step, dual‐temperature fractionation.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Impact of Frying on Changes in Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Lipids and Frying Oils: Compositional Changes and Oxidative Deterioration
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Zhong‐Yuan Liu, Da‐Yong Zhou, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Hong‐Kai Xie, De‐Yang Li, Bei‐Wei Zhu, Fereidoon Shahidi

    The current study shows the compositional changes and oxidation development of clam (Ruditapes philippinarum, R. philippinarum) lipids and frying oils when subjected to different processing conditions. Parameters measured include acid value, peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid‐reactive substances (TBARS), total oxidation (TOTOX), lipid classes, fatty acid composition, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) contents together with major glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species. Deep‐fat frying increased triacylglycerol (TAG) content and decreased the contents of PC, PE, and GP molecular species in clam in a time‐dependent manner. Meanwhile, minor amounts of free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, and polar lipids were detected in frying oils, indicating lipid migration between the clam and frying oils. The time‐dependent increase of POV, TBARS, and TOTOX in fried clams and frying oils with concurrent reduction of docosahexenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid indicates extensive oxidative degradation of clam lipids. Moreover, the moisture‐rich clam aggravated the deterioration of frying oils. Consequently, deep‐fat frying significantly altered the lipid profile and decreased the nutritional value of clams.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Improving Waste Cooking Oil Quality for Biodiesel Production with the Ethanolic By‐product of Soybean Oil Extraction
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Larissa Braga Bueno‐Borges, Grasiela Cristina Pereira dos Santos, Severino Matias de Alencar, Marisa Aparecida Bismara Regitano‐d'Arce

    Waste cooking oils (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel (fatty acid ethyl or methyl esters—FAEE or FAME) production. Their usual high acidity, high moisture, and low stability can impair the reaction yield and generate a low‐quality biodiesel. Here, we performed liquid–liquid washings using WCO and ethanol‐based solvents with the goal of generating oil‐rich miscella as FAEE feedstocks with a higher quality than WCO. Three different solvents were evaluated: 99% ethanol, 95% ethanol, and the soybean oil extraction ethanolic phase (SEP), a by‐product with immense unexplored antioxidant potential obtained by extracting soybean oil using ethanol. Washings were performed in a 1000 mL flat‐bottom flask at 78.1 °C, using a 1:2 (w/v) oil/solvent ratio, under magnetic stirring (1200 rpm) for 10 min. Ethyl esters were prepared via homogeneous alkali transesterification using WCO and oil‐rich miscella as feedstocks. Treatments reduced the acid value by 40–61% and the peroxide value by 15–50%. Improvements in feedstock quality generated 24–54% higher biodiesel yields. The oil‐rich phase produced with SEP was 15% more resistant to oxidation than WCO. This was attributed to the transference of isoflavones from the SEP. However, biodiesel from treated samples presented equal or lower oxidative stability than FAEE from WCO. High‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that no isoflavones remained in biodiesel after purification. Pretreatment of WCO with ethanol‐based extracts such as the SEP has great potential to improve WCO quality for biodiesel production as it can be a source of plant‐based antioxidants.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • The Development of Epoxidized Hemp Oil Prepolymers for the Preparation of Thermoset Networks
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Tolibjon S. Omonov, Vinay Patel, Jonathan M. Curtis

    Epoxy thermosets comprised of plant oils along with simple curing agents are sustainable and environmentally friendly polymers. The curing agent selected, and its compatibility with epoxy monomers, strongly affects the curing kinetics, the extent of curing, and the final properties of an epoxy polymers. The goal of this work is to expand the application of epoxidized oils in formulating biobased thermoset polymer systems. Epoxidized hemp oil (EHO) was produced with 8% oxirane oxygen content (OOC) after 24 hours using in situ generated performic acid. Two model curing agents—one aromatic (trimellitic anhydride, TMA) and one biobased nonaromatic (citric acid, CA)—with similar molecular weights were selected to study the cure behavior of EHO in acetone. Both curing agents are insoluble in EHO. The prepolymerization curing reaction behavior was monitored via the OOC, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR‐FTIR) spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. It was demonstrated that at 50 °C, the reaction of EHO with TMA was extremely fast to form esters of TMA, while the reaction of EHO with CA was slower and followed different pathways. The cured EHO/TMA epoxy network is rigid and has a high alpha relaxation temperature (T α) of 89 °C, which is associated with the glass transition temperature (T g), while the cured EHO/CA network system is semirigid with a T α of 40 °C. In addition, TGA analysis showed that the EHO/TMA resin system represents a more homogenous structure compared to the EHO/CA system, as indicated by the presence of lower‐temperature decompositions of citric acid derivatives.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Lipid Vesicle Preparation Using W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Via Solvent Evaporation: The Effect of Emulsifiers on the Entrapment Yield of Hydrophilic Materials
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Emmanuel Chekwube Ossai, Takashi Kuroiwa, Kaname Horikoshi, Yuya Otsuka, Junki Terasawa, Akihiko Kanazawa, Seigo Sato, Sosaku Ichikawa

    We studied the effects of emulsifiers on the entrapment yields of a hydrophilic material, calcein, in lipid vesicles formed using the multiple emulsion method. The primary emulsion (W1/O) was prepared via sonication while the secondary emulsification that produced the W1/O/W2 multiple emulsions was achieved using the microchannel (MC) emulsification technique. The emulsifiers used in the continuous (W2) phase were Tween® 80, Pluronic® F68, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Lipid vesicles formed via solvent evaporation of the multiple emulsion droplets had an average diameter of about 180 nm, similar to the size of the water droplets in the primary W1/O emulsions. The entrapment yields of calcein increased with decreasing concentrations of Tween® 80 but decreased with decreasing concentrations of Pluronic® F68 and BSA. The effects of type and concentration of emulsifier were considered in relation to three possible mechanisms: (i) destabilization/solubilization of lipid bilayers by emulsifiers, (ii) reversed‐micellar transport of W1 contents from internal to external water phases through the O phase, and (iii) release of inner water (W1) contents into the continuous (W2) phase via the instability of W1/O/W2 and leakage of W1 contents. Using the food grade emulsifier Tween® 80 at a low concentration of about 0.1 or 0.05 wt%, calcein as a model hydrophilic material could be efficiently entrapped (ca. 80%) in homogenously dispersed lipid vesicles.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Genotype x Environmental Effects on Yielding Ability and Seed Chemical Composition of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Varieties Grown in North Dakota, USA
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Yang Lan, Fengchao Zha, Allen Peckrul, Bryan Hanson, Burton Johnson, Jiajia Rao, Bingcan Chen

    The influence of growing conditions in North Dakota on grain yield and seed composition was evaluated for industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) grown in North Dakota, USA. Average grain yield across varieties was 2138 kg ha−1. Crude protein content of undehulled industrial hemp flour from 10 varieties ranged from 32.7% to 35.9%; and oil content ranged from 24.3% to 28.1%. All industrial hemp flours were excellent natural sources of iron (46.7%), manganese (169.1%), copper (29.0%), zinc (28.2%), phosphorus (41.0%), and magnesium (33.7%) on a per serving basis (30 g per serving) for percent recommended daily intake (% RDI). Oils from most of the varieties differed significantly for the fatty acid (FA) profile. The n6/n3 ratio ranged from 3.2 to 5.1. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that CFX‐2 and CRS‐1 grew well in North Dakota based on grain yield, flour, and oil quality. In this study, the chemical composition of flour was not influenced by crop year; but crop year did effect the nutritional mineral composition. These results may have important implications for the use of industrial hemp in food applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • The Solid–Liquid Phase Diagram of Binary Mixtures Dissolved in an Inert Oil: Application to Ternary Blends that Can Form Organogels
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Hermanus M. Schaink

    A simple generalization of the Hildebrand equation is presented for the prediction of the solid–liquid phase diagram of a binary mixture of structuring agents dissolved in an inert liquid. The model is a thermodynamic interpolation between three well‐known limits: (1) the freezing depression curve of liquid A under influence of the addition of the solvent, (2) the freezing depression curve of liquid B under influence of the addition of the solvent, and (3) the binary solid–liquid phase diagram of substances A and B. The theory is shown to be valid as long as the freezing temperature of the liquid is well below the freezing temperatures of the structurants. The theory is compared to literature data for three different mixtures: (1) stearyl alcohol and stearic acid dissolved in sunflower oil, (2) hentriacontane+melissic acid in safflower oil, and (3) lauric acid + behenic acid in canola oil. The agreement between the thermodynamic calculation and experimental data is good. The solid–liquid phase behavior of glyceryl tristearate + stearic acid in edible oil is also studied. The location of the eutectic point of the latter system is predicted to shift toward an axis with zero tristearate concentration as the structurant concentration decreases from 50% to 5% (w/w).

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of β‐Carotene‐Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier from Mixtures of Palm Stearin and Palm Olein
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Miftakhur Rohmah, Sri Raharjo, Chusnul Hidayat, Ronny Martien

    The main purpose of this study was to optimize a β‐carotene‐loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (βC‐NLC) using the lipid matrix of palm stearin and palm olein and Tween 80 as a surfactant. The NLC was prepared by using the high shear homogenization method. Box–Behnken Design (BBD) response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the process and formulation. A three‐factor experimental model was used to optimize the combination of palm stearin ratio (A, %w/w), lipid:surfactant ratio (B, %w/w), and (lipid+surfactant):water ratio (C, %w/w). The formulations were evaluated for their responses on particle size (Y1), polydispersity index (Y2), zeta potential (Y3), and encapsulation efficiency (Y4). Subsequently, Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (DT‐TGA), x‐ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and in vitro release (Franz diffusion cell) analyses were utilized to observe the resulting optimum formulation. The optimum formulation was obtained at a combination of A (5.5:4.5), B (1:4.9), and C (24:76) %w/w. This resulted in βC‐NLC having a particle size of 166 nm, polydispersity index of 0.35, zeta potential of −26.9 mV, and an encapsulation efficiency of 91.2%. No strong interaction between different NLC components was observed based on FTIR, DT‐TGA, and XRD profiles. Round‐shaped NLC particles were observed under TEM. Franz diffusion cell observation resulted in diffusion profile of β‐carotene of 110.6 μg cm−2 with a flux of 1.06 (μg cm−2 hour−1). This indicates that palm stearin and palm olein can be prospectively developed as βC‐NLC.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Robust and Reliable Quantification of Phospholipids in Edible Oils Using 31P NMR Spectroscopy
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jozef H. J. van Rijn, Peter P. Lankhorst, Paul B. M. Groen, Remco Muntendam, Adriana Carvalho de Souza

    Upon storage, crude plant oils will form a solid sediment called gum, which consists mainly of phospholipids (PL). PL are removed during the production of edible oils by a process called degumming. A higher yield is recognized as a major advantage of enzymatic degumming over traditional processes. Robust and accurate PL quantification methods are needed to develop and monitor enzymatic degumming processes. Several techniques, such as atomic emission spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, and thin‐layer chromatography, have been applied for the quantification of PL in edible oils. In the past decade, 31P NMR spectroscopy has been shown to have advantages over these techniques because of the possibility of the simultaneous, fast, and accurate quantification of different PL directly in the oil. This article demonstrates the application of 31P NMR spectroscopy as a method for the quantification of all relevant PL and phosphorous‐containing degradation products in crude and refined oils. In addition, the validation results show that this method is robust because the limit of detection is as low as 5 μmol/100 g oil. Variations of less than 5% were obtained for all P‐containing compounds present in the oils at concentrations above 100 μmol/100 g oil.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • The Effect of Antioxidants on Corn and Sunflower Biodiesel Properties under Extreme Oxidation Conditions
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Sergio Nogales‐Delgado, José María Encinar, Agustina Guiberteau, Sandra Márquez

    Biodiesel is an alternative to mineral fuels, with advantages such as biodegradability. However, this makes biodiesel unstable to oxidation. In this way, the use of natural or synthetic antioxidants is necessary. Although many studies have paid attention to the effect of these antioxidants on oxidation stability, not much literature about their effect of them on other properties (before and during storage) was found. The aim of this research study was to characterize biodiesel from corn and sunflower by adding two antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and tert‐butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), in order to improve its oxidation stability. Moreover, the effect of oxidation on the parameters of biodiesel was studied by using extreme oxidation conditions to accelerate the oxidation process. Both antioxidants improved the oxidation stability of biodiesel, whereas some parameters were altered (viscosity and acid number), which could make this biofuel, if high concentrations of antioxidants are used, unsuitable for commercialization according to standards.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Antioxidant and Emulsifying Activities of Corn Gluten Meal Hydrolysates in Oil‐in‐Water Emulsions
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Yanting Shen, Ruijia Hu, Yonghui Li

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) is a protein‐rich coproduct generated during corn wet milling. In this study, CGM was hydrolyzed using Neutrase protease for 1 and 3 hours, respectively, to obtain antioxidative corn gluten meal protein hydrolysates (CGMPH), which could be a potential antioxidant in various products to retard lipid oxidation. Our objective was to evaluate the emulsion properties and oxidation stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions containing different types (1‐hour and 3‐hour hydrolysates) and amounts of CGMPH. The results showed that the emulsions with CGMPH had significantly improved oxidative stability than the control based on both peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) analysis. The emulsion with higher concentration of CGMPH (e.g., 5 mg mL−1) showed more effective inhibition on lipid oxidation. The emulsion turbidity of 1‐hour CGMPH at 2.5 mg mL−1 had a lower value than that of other emulsions, and overall, the turbidity for 3‐hour CGMPH had a slightly higher value than that with 1‐hour CGMPH. Addition of CGMPM did not affect emulsion morphology and droplet sizes. Zeta potential analysis showed that emulsions with 1‐hour hydrolysate had more negative charges with better emulsion stability than that with 3‐hour hydrolysate at the same pH. In conclusion, the CGMPH were able to inhibit lipid oxidation in reducing the formation of hydroperoxides and TBARS, and could be a potential functional antioxidant for food emulsion applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Performance Evaluation and Biodegradation Study of Polyvinyl Chloride Films with Castor Oil‐based Plasticizer
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-06
    Sohini Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh

    In the present study, a renewable resource‐based plasticizer was synthesized by the lipase‐catalyzed esterification reaction of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and castor oil fatty acid (COFA). The resultant ester (FA‐COFA ester) was used as secondary plasticizers to the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films. The PVC films were formulated using the combination of a conventional plasticizer di‐butyl phthalate (DBP) and FA‐COFA ester as a secondary plasticizer at different concentrations. Films were characterized by X‐ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, mechanical performance, and migration stability. A biodegradability study of the PVC films showed increased degradability with increasing concentration of the FA‐COFA ester in the PVC film. The study showed that ester of FA and COFA could be a substitute of DBP by as much as 80% of the total plasticizer with improved elongation and tensile properties, and such a kind of sustainable resource‐based PVC blend films could be used as a good packaging material with biodegradable property.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Effects of Dehulling Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) Seeds on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Oils Extracted by Means of Cold Pressing
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Luis‐Felipe Gutiérrez, Zain Sanchez‐Reinoso, Yolanda Quiñones‐Segura

    Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is a plant native to the Peruvian Amazon, with great expansion because of the high industrialization potential of its seeds (SIS). The Sacha Inchi oil (SIO) is commonly obtained by pressing the SIS, and it is of high commercial value because of its excellent nutritional properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dehulling of SIS on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the SIO extracted by means of cold pressing. The fatty acid composition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, density, refractive index (RI), acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), p‐anisidine index (p‐An), oxidative stability index (OSI), color, and sensory profiles of the SIO samples were evaluated. The oils obtained from whole SIS showed similar fatty acid profiles, physicochemical properties, and sensory profiles to those extracted from dehulled SIS. After 60 days of storage, the total oxidation values of both SIO samples significantly increased, but there were no significant differences between oils from whole and dehulled SIS. Thus, the dehulling process could be avoided without affecting significantly the quality of the obtained oils.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Cavitation Clusters in Lipid Systems: The Generation of a Bifurcated Streamer and the Dual Collapse of a Bubble Cluster
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Peter R. Birkin, Hannah L. Martin, Jack J. Youngs, Tadd T. Truscott, Andrew S. Merritt, Ethan J. Elison, Silvana Martini

    Several studies have reported the use of high‐intensity ultrasound (HIU) to induce the crystallization of lipids. The effect that HIU has on lipid crystallization is usually attributed to the generation of cavities but acoustic cavitation has never been fully explored in lipids. The dynamics of a particular cavitation cluster next to a piston like emitter (PLE) in an oil was investigated in this study. The lipid systems, which are important in food processing, are studied with high‐speed camera imaging, laser scattering, and acoustic pressure measurements. A sequence of stable clusters was noted. In addition, a bifurcated streamer was detected, which exists within a sequence of clusters. This is shown to originate from two clusters on the PLE tip oscillating with a 180° phase shift in time with respect to one another. Finally, the collapse phase of the cluster is shown to involve a rapid (~10 μs) two‐stage process. These results show that the dynamics of cluster formation and collapse is driven by HIU power levels and might have implications in lipid sonocrystallization.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Retardation of Crystallization through the Addition of Dairy Phospholipids
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Zachary Cooper, Casey Simons, Silvana Martini

    The objective of this work was to identify the effects that milk phospholipids (PL) have on crystallization of anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Three mixtures were prepared by adding 0%, 0.01%, and 0.1% PL to AMF. Each mixture was crystallized for 90 min at 24, 26, and 28 °C. The solid fat content was measured as a function of time and fitted to the Avrami equation. Melting point, thermal behavior, viscoelastic properties, and crystal morphology were all measured at 90 min. All assays were repeated, as well as hardness, after being stored at 5 °C for 48 hours. Samples containing PL showed slower crystallization as concentration increased especially at higher temperatures (26 and 28 °C). The addition of PL caused a difference in crystal morphology resulting in visibly larger crystals at 90 min. The elasticity and hardness at 90 min were influenced by the addition of PL at 24 °C with lower values obtained in samples with PL compared to the AMF alone. No differences in hardness nor in elasticity was observed for samples crystallized at 26 and 28 °C. A decrease in melting enthalpy was observed in samples with PL indicating a reduction in crystallization at all temperatures, which was supported by crystal morphology.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Modeling the Rheological Behavior of Chemically Interesterified Blends of Palm Stearin/Canola Oil as a Function of Physicochemical Properties
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Zahra Saghafi, Mohammad Hossein Naeli, Mahnaz Tabibiazar, Azizollaah Zargaraan

    The main aim of the current study was to model the rheological and textural properties of chemically interesterified palm stearin (PS)/canola oil (CO) blends as a function of saturated fatty acids (SFA), solid fat content (SFC), and temperature. The results and proposed models in this study can be used in design and development of new fat products by trying to limit the need for instrumental methods. To describe and predict how the viscoelastic properties and firmness of the blends change with SFA content, several models have been proposed. The firmness curves of fat samples were described as a function of (SFA, Firmness f(SFA), Rsqr = 0.94, and mean absolute error (MAE) = 1009.00 g) and (SFC20, Firmness f(SFC20), Rsqr = 0.98, and MAE = 750.80 g) using a one‐variable Quadratic model. In the next step, a two‐variable Quadratic function for expression of firmness as a function of both SFA content and SFC20 with high goodness of fit and low error (Rsqr = 1.00 and MAE = 0.00) was developed. The G′ modulus as a function of temperature (G′ f(T)) and SFC (G' f(SFC)) curves was S‐shaped and the three Sigmoidal functions (Logistic, Gompertz, and Sigmoid models) were well able to describe their properties. However, the Logistic models described the G′ f(T) (Rsqr>0.99 and MAE < 7838.00 Pa) and G′ f(SFC) (Rsqr>0.94 and MAE < 20,802.00 Pa) curves in the best way. Finally, a two‐variable Logistic model considering both temperature and SFC as variables was developed and fitted on the experimental data with Rsqr of 0.97 and MAE of 85,367.56 Pa. The validation of the proposed models shows their efficiency and ability for prediction of rheological and textural values of various interestrified blends.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Evaluation of Beeswax, Candelilla Wax, Rice Bran Wax, and Sunflower Wax as Alternative Stabilizers for Peanut Butter
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Jill K. Winkler‐Moser, Julie Anderson, Jeffrey A. Byars, Mukti Singh, Hong‐Sik Hwang

    Four natural waxes were evaluated as stabilizers in peanut butter. The potential advantage of using natural waxes would be the replacement of current stabilizers such as hydrogenated or tropical oils, thereby reducing saturated fats and satisfying clean label requirements. Beeswax (BW), candelilla wax (CLW), rice bran wax (RBW), sunflower wax (SFW), and a commercial peanut butter stabilizer, hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCO), were added to three natural peanut butter brands at levels ranging from 0.5% to 2.0% (w/w) and tested for accelerated oil release, long‐term stability, firmness, and rheology. At levels ≥0.5%, all waxes improved oil‐binding capacity (OBC). SFW and HCO had the highest OBC, followed by RBW, CLW, and BW. All waxes reduced the amount of oil separation after 6 months at 22 ± 2 °C. HCO followed by SFW reduced oil separation the most, but there were no significant differences between stabilizers at 1–2%. Firmness and yield stress increased with increasing stabilizer level, with SFW increasing firmness the most, followed by HCO, RBW, and CLW, while BW had the lowest effect. The results indicate that the waxes may be feasible replacements for hydrogenated oils as peanut butter stabilizers, but levels would need to be optimized depending on the product characteristics and wax type.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Effects of Conjugation between Proteins and Polysaccharides on the Physical Properties of Emulsion‐Based Edible Films
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Chen Li, Luxin Wang, Feng Xue

    The effects of conjugation between protein (soybean or peanut protein isolates) and polysaccharides (dextran or gum acacia) with different glycation time (0–32 hours) on the physical properties of emulsion‐based edible films containing beeswax as dispersed phase were studied. Both the reaction time and type of polymers significantly (P < 0.05) affected the emulsifying properties of conjugates. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsifying stability index (ESI), and droplet size of emulsions were in strong correlation with the physical properties of films, such as whiteness index, transparency, water vapor permeability, surface hydrophobicity, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, even though glycation could significantly (P < 0.05) affect intermolecular interactions between polymers in films, there was no strong correlation between the intermolecular interactions and the physical properties of films. Therefore, the emulsifying properties of conjugates are essential for preparing emulsion‐based edible films.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Comparative Biological Activities Determination of Aqueous Extracts of Hempseed Oil and Hempseed Protein Isolate Production Coproducts
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Vermont P. Dia, Zhihong Wang, Yang Lin, Philipus Pangloli

    Industrial hempseed is an important agricultural crop with increasing potential for food applications. The objective of this study was to determine the different biological activities of hempseed coproducts after hempseed oil extraction and hempseed protein isolate precipitation. Hempseed oil was extracted by n‐hexane and the defatted meal was dried. The hempseed protein isolate was prepared by alkaline pH solubilization followed by isoelectric precipitation. Two coproducts were obtained by freeze drying the precipitate after alkaline solubilization and freeze drying the supernatant after isoelectric precipitation. The coproducts were called hempseed meal after protein isolation (HM‐PI) and hempseed supernatant after protein isolation (HS‐PI). The biological activities of HM‐PI and HS‐PI were determined by measuring their antioxidant properties, antiproliferative properties against two human colon cancer cell lines, and anti‐inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide‐induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that HS‐PI has better biological activities than HM‐PI, which correlated positively with the concentrations of soluble proteins, soluble polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Our results showed for the first time that coproducts of hempseed processing can be potential sources of food ingredients with health‐promoting properties.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Antioxidant Activity and Total Polyphenols Content of Camellia Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Weifang Wang, Sai Han, Zhen Jiao, Jiangrui Cheng, Junying Song

    In this study, Camellia oil is co‐extracted from Camellia oleifera seeds and green tea scraps by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC‐CO2), which is optimized on the extraction yield, ABTS‐scavenging activity, and total polyphenols content (TPC) of oil by single‐factor experiments combined with response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction temperature, pressure, dynamic time, carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate, and seed mass ratio were investigated with single‐factor experiments. The results indicated the optimum CO2 flow rate and dynamic extraction time were 15 L hour−1 and 60 min (i.e., 2.382 kg CO2/100 g sample). Furthermore, the complicated effects of extraction temperature (40–50 °C), pressure (20–30 MPa), and seed mass ratio (0.25–0.75) were optimized by RSM based on the Box–Behnken design (BBD). The models with high R‐squared values were obtained and used to predict the optimum operating conditions of the process. Under the optimum operating conditions (i.e., temperature of 46 °C, pressure of 30 MPa, and seed mass ratio of 0.35), the extraction yield, ABTS‐scavenging activity, and TPC of oil were 14.43 ± 0.17 g/100 g sample, 73.70 ± 0.34%, and 2.18 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g oil, which were in good agreement with the predicted values. In addition, the experiments indicated that the Camellia oil obtained was rich in polyphenols, resulting in better oxidation stability and antioxidant activity than the original oil.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of Soy Fatty Acid Ester Estolides as Bioplasticizers in Poly(Vinyl Chloride)
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Lucas J. Stolp, Eugene Joseph, Dharma R. Kodali

    Plasticizers are nonvolatile organic liquids that impart flexibility to polymers. Due to environmental, health, and safety reasons, the industry is looking for bioplasticizers to replace petroleum‐derived phthalates. To fulfill this need, soy fatty acid ester estolides were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated as phthalate replacements. Soybean oil was transesterified with methanol or glycerol to form lower molecular weight fatty acid esters that were epoxidized and ring opened with acetic acid and acetylated to give the final products. Ring opening and acetylation of the epoxidized oleic acid esters gave acyclic acetate fatty acid ester estolides, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, linoleate, and linolenate gave cyclic tetrahydrofuran derivatives and cross‐linked higher molecular weight materials. The cyclization mechanism to form the tetrahydrofuran derivatives was postulated. Soy fatty acid ester estolides were compounded with formulated poly(vinyl chloride), (PVC) and tested for their functional properties. The physical and functional properties of the new bioplasticizers were compared with commercial plasticizers. The elasticity of PVC compounded with experimental plasticizers and commercial phthalates was comparable. PVC compounded with fatty acid methyl ester estolide showed lower glass transition temperature and similar tensile properties compared to PVC compounded with the commercial phthalate. PVC compounded with the glyceryl fatty acid ester estolide showed a higher glass transition temperature, higher tensile properties compared to PVC compounded with the commercial phthalate.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Purification Process, Physicochemical Properties, and Fatty Acid Composition of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus) Larvae Oil
    J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (IF 1.72) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Huynh Cang Mai, Ngoc Duy Dao, Tri Duc Lam, Bao Viet Nguyen, Duy Chinh Nguyen, Long Giang Bach

    This study presented a refining process and reported on fatty acid composition and the physicochemical properties of the oil from black soldier fly larvae (BSFL). Crude larvae oil was purified through four steps consisting of degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. Optimum degumming conditions that give the highest phospholipid weight and oil consisted of water concentration of 7% (v/v), followed by addition of H2SO4 at a concentration of 0.5% (v/v). Optimum conditions for saponification that maximize saponification value and free fatty acid (FFA) value were 0.4 mg NaOH/100 g oil, 1 hour, and 80 °C of NaOH quantity, reaction time, and temperature, respectively. The oil was then dehydrated using 10 mg Na2SO4/g oil. The bleaching process that gives maximum oil yield consisted of activated carbon at concentration of 5% (w/w), followed by centrifugation at a speed of 5000 rpm (radius = 86 mm) for 30 min. The contents of lauric acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid in purified oil were 28.8%, 11.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Physicochemical properties of the refined oil included viscosity of 96 ± 0.14 cP (measured at 20 °C), FFA value of 0.45 ± 0.017%, acid value of 0.9 ± 0.043 mg KOH g−1, saponification value of 215.78 mg KOH g−1, iodine value of 53.7 gI2/100 g, and peroxide index of 133 mEq kg−1.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
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