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  • Bacosides Encapsulated in Lactoferrin Conjugated PEG-PLA-PCL-OH Based Polymersomes Act as Epigenetic Modulator in Chemically Induced Amnesia
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Kritika Goyal, Arpita Konar, Ashish Kumar, Veena Koul

    Abstract The present study demonstrates the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effect of Bacoside rich extract of Bacopa monniera—a nootropic herb, on scopolamine treated amnesic mice conferred via chromatin modifying enzymes. The focus of the work was to elucidate the modulation of the chromatin modifying enzymes: DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, HDAC2, HDAC5 and CPB in scopolamine induced amnesic mice after treatment with bacoside rich extract of Bacopa monniera (BA) and BA encapsulated in lactoferrin conjugated PEG-PLA-PCL-OH based polymersomes (BAN). We observed remarkable difference between the results obtained after the treatment with BA and BAN. Interestingly BAN was found to be more efficient in downregulating DNA methylation and histone chain deacetylation. Scopolamine treatment showed up-regulation of DNMT1 expression in qRT-PCR by 3.14-fold as compared to the control, which was considerably decreased by 1.5-fold after treatment with BA and remarkably decreased 0.11-fold by BAN treatment. Scopolamine treatment up-regulated the expression of DNMT3a by 1.6-fold while for DNMT3b by 3.13-fold. In DNMT3a and DNMT3b the fold change decreased to 0.64 and 0.76 after BA treatment, whereas the BAN treatment further down-regulated to 0.32- and 0.63-fold, respectively. Similarly scopolamine up-regulated HDAC2 and HDAC5 by 3.12 fold and 3.64-fold, respectively. BA treatment reversed the changes by reducing HDAC2 mRNA to 0.89-fold and HDAC5 mRNA 0.83-fold. BAN further reduced expression of HDAC2 further to 0.39-fold and HDAC5 to 0.31-fold. On the other hand scopolamine down-regulated CBP mRNA expression by 0.28-fold and increased by 1.09 after BA treatment. BAN significantly increased the CPB expression by 1.65-fold as compared to BA treatment. These findings were consolidated by DNMT and HDAC enzyme activity assay, methylation in the promoter region of the memory related genes: ARC and BDNF and Dot blot assay for DNA methylation. The percent activity increase of DNMT and HDAC after scopolamine administration was 375.74 and 240.90 respectively. After treatment with BA the downfall in percent activity was observed as 167.99 in DMNT and 130.57 in HDAC. BAN treatment further decreased the percent enzyme activity of DNMT and HDAC significantly by 30.0 and 61.81 respectively. The potency of BAN in reversing the epigenetic changes of scopolamine induced amnesic mouse brain, can be attributed to the brain specific delivery of BA through polymersomes which are able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) via receptor mediated endocytosis. Graphic Abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Epidural Fat-Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Improve Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Jiang-Hu Huang, Chun-Hui Fu, Yang Xu, Xiao-Ming Yin, Yong Cao, Fei-Yue Lin

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event which caused high mortality and morbidity. Recently, nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been showed to act a critical t role in the secondly injury phase of SCI. In current study, we aimed to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of extracellular vesicles derived from epidural fat (EF)- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of SCI. Ninety-six Sprague–Dawley rats were used for current study and randomly divided into four groups: sham group, SCI group, SCI + Saline group, SCI + Extracellular vesicles group. Basso‐Beattie‐Bresnahan (BBB) scores was applied to evaluate the neurological functional recovery. Cresyl violet–stained was conducted evaluate the protective effect of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles on lesion volume after SCI. ELISA, immunohistochemistry assay, TUNEL assay and western blotting were conducted to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that the administration of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles via tail vein injection improved neurological functional recovery and reduced the lesion volume after SCI. And systemic administration of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, the expression levels of proapoptotic protein Bax was decreased and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was upregulated with the treatment of EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles after SCI. In summary, in current study, we demonstrated for the first time that the EF-MSCs-Extracellular vesicles can improve neurological functional recovery after SCI, and the underlying molecular mechanisms may partly through the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Daphnetin Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through Regulating Heme Oxygenase-1
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Dan Wang, Bo Zhu, Xiaoyi Liu, Qin Han, Weihong Ge, Wenping Zhang, Yin Lu, Qinan Wu, Liyun Shi

    Abstract To assess the potential role of daphnetin, a clinically used anti-inflammatory agent, on the development of the inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease, we investigated its immune regulatory function in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Significantly, lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17, interferon-γ, Il6, Il12a, and Il23a were observed in brains of daphnetin-treated EAE mice, compared with those in control littermates. We also confirmed that daphnetin suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse BV2 microglial cells. Mechanistically, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a canonical anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory factor, was found to be substantially induced by daphnetin treatment in BV2 cells. Also, a significantly higher level of HO-1, accompanied by a decreased level of malondialdehyde, was observed in daphnetin-treated EAE mice. More importantly, the deletion of HO-1 in BV2 microglia largely abrogated daphnetin-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response. Together, our data demonstrate that daphnetin has an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role during the pathogenesis of EAE, which is partially at least, dependent on its regulation of HO-1.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Pedunculopontine Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Gait Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Fabin Lin, Dihang Wu, Chenxin Lin, Huihui Cai, Lina Chen, Guofa Cai, Qinyong Ye, Guoen Cai

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as a treatment strategy for gait disorder in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials to assess the effect of this treatment on gait disorder in patients with PD. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Knowledge, Wan Fang and WIP for randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials (published before July 29, 2014; no language restrictions) comparing PPN–DBS with other treatments. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model and a fixed effects model. Of 130 identified studies, 14 were eligible and were included in our analysis (N = 82 participants). Compared to those presurgery, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) 27–30 scores for patients were lowered by PPN–DBS [3.94 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.23 to 6.65)]. The UPDRS 13 and 14 scores did not improve with levodopa treatment [0.43 (− 0.35 to 1.20); 0.35 (− 0.50 to 1.19)], whereas the UPDRS 27–30 scores could be improved by the therapy [1.42 (95% CI 0.34 to 2.51)]. The Gait and Falls Questionnaire and UPDRS 13 and 14 scores showed significant improvements after PPN–DBS under the medication-off (MED-OFF) status [15.44 (95% CI = 8.44 to 22.45); 1.57 (95% CI = 0.84 to 2.30); 1.34 (95% CI = 0.84 to 1.84)]. PPN–DBS is a potential therapeutic target that could improve gait and fall disorders in patients with PD. Our findings will help improve the clinical application of DBS in PD patients with gait disorder.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Impaired EAT-4 Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Leads to Defective Nocifensive Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Noxious Heat
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Sophie Leonelli, Bruno Nkambeu, Francis Beaudry

    Abstract In mammals, glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter. Glutamate and glutamate receptors are found in areas specifically involved in pain sensation, transmission and transduction such as peripheral nervous system, spinal cord and brain. In C. elegans, several studies have suggested glutamate pathways are associated with withdrawal responses to mechanical stimuli and to chemical repellents. However, few evidences demonstrate that glutamate pathways are important to mediate nocifensive response to noxious heat. The thermal avoidance behavior of C. elegans was studied and results illustrated that mutants of glutamate receptors (glr-1, glr-2, nmr-1, nmr-2) behaviors was not affected. However, results revealed that all strains of eat-4 mutants, C. elegans vesicular glutamate transporters, displayed defective thermal avoidance behaviors. Due to the interplay between the glutamate and the FLP-18/FLP-21/NPR-1 pathways, we analyzed the effectors FLP-18 and FLP-21 at the protein level, we did not observe biologically significant differences compared to N2 (WT) strain (fold-change < 2) except for the IK602 strain. The data presented in this manuscript reveals that glutamate signaling pathways are essential to elicit a nocifensive response to noxious heat in C. elegans.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • miR-124-5p/NOX2 Axis Modulates the ROS Production and the Inflammatory Microenvironment to Protect Against the Cerebral I/R Injury
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yakun Wu, Jia Yao, Kai Feng

    Abstract The reperfusion after an acute ischemic stroke can lead to a secondary injury, which is ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury. During ischemia, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is over-produced, mostly from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX). Besides, miRNAs are also associated with neuronal death in ischemic stroke. MiR-124-5p is selectively expressed within central nervous system (CNS) and is predicted to bind to NOX2 directly. Herein, we successfully set up cerebral I/R injury model in rats through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. After 12 h or 24 h of refusion, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly inhibited, accompanied by NOX2 protein increase within MCAO rat infarct area. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation/refusion (OGD/R) stimulation on PC-12 cells significantly increased NOX2 protein levels, ROS production, and the cell apoptosis, while a significant suppression on SOD activity; OGD/R stimulation-induced changes in PC-12 cells described above could be significantly attenuated by NOX2 silence. In vivo, miR-124 overexpression improved, whereas miR-124 inhibition aggravated I/R injury in MCAO rats. miR-124-5p directly bound to the CYBB 3′-untranslated region (UTR) to negatively regulate CYBB expression and NOX2 protein level. In vitro, miR-124 overexpression improved, while NOX2 overexpression aggravated OGD/R-induced cellular injuries; NOX2 overexpression significantly attenuated the effects of miR-124 overexpression. Besides, miR-124 overexpression significantly repressed NF-κB signaling activation and TNFα and IL-6 production through regulating NOX2. In conclusion, miR-124-5p/NOX2 axis modulates NOX-mediated ROS production, the inflammatory microenvironment, subsequently the apoptosis of neurons, finally affecting the cerebral I/R injury.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Proteasome Composition in Cytokine-Treated Neurons and Astrocytes is Determined Mainly by Subunit Displacement
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Kara L. Shanley, Che-Lin Hu, Oscar A. Bizzozero

    Abstract In this study, we investigated if subunit displacement and/or alterations in proteasome biosynthesis are responsible for the changes in the levels of constitutive proteasomes (c-20S), immunoproteasomes (i-20S) and the activators PA28 and PA700 in neurons and astrocytes cultured with a cytokine mixture (IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-1β). Exposure of both cell types to cytokines for 24 h increases mRNA and protein expression of the i-20S-specific subunit β5i and PA28α/β, and leads to a decline in the amount of the c-20S-specific subunit β5. Since β5 mRNA levels are unchanged by the cytokine treatment, it is fair to conclude that displacement of constitutive β-subunits with inducible β5i subunits is likely the mechanism underlying the decrease in c-20S. As expected, the increase in the amount of the IFN-γ-inducible subunits coincides with elevated expression of phospho-STAT-1 and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1). However, inhibition of NF-κB signaling in cytokine-treated astrocytes reduces IRF-1 expression without affecting that of i-20S, c-20S and PA28. This suggests that STAT-1 is capable of increasing the transcription of i20S-specific subunits and PA28α/β by itself. The lack of a decrease in proteasome β5 mRNA expression is consistent with the fact that Nrf1 (Nfe2l1) and Nrf2 (Nfe2l2) levels are not reduced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, we previously found that there is a significant Nrf1 dysregulation and reduced β5 mRNA expression in the spinal cords of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Thus, there are stressors in EAE, other than a pro-inflammatory environment, that are not present in cytokine-treated cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Activation of PPAR-β/δ Attenuates Brain Injury by Suppressing Inflammation and Apoptosis in a Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mouse Model
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Xiangming Tang, Kunning Yan, Yingge Wang, Yaping Wang, Hongmei Chen, Jiang Xu, Yaoyao Lu, Xiaohong Wang, Jingyan Liang, Xinjiang Zhang

    Abstract Brain injury has been proposed as the major cause of the poor outcomes associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Emerging evidence indicates that the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPAR-β/δ), plays a crucial role in the pathological process of central nervous impairment. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of PPAR-β/δ activation using a selective PPAR-β/δ agonist, GW0742, against brain injury after ICH in a mouse model. ICH was induced by intravenous injection of collagenase into the right caudate putamen. To examine the protective effect of PPAR-β/δ activation against ICH-induced brain injury, mice were either intraperitoneally injected with GW0742 (3 mg/kg, body weight) or saline (control group) 30 min before inducing ICH. Behavioral dysfunction was evaluated 24 and 72 h after injury. Then, all mice were killed to assess hematoma volume, brain water content, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. TUNEL and Nissl staining were performed to quantify the brain injury. The expression of PPAR-β/δ, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Bcl-2-related X-protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the perihematomal area was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. Mice treated with GW0742 showed significantly less severe behavioral deficits compared to the control group, accompanied by increased expression of PPAR-β/δ and Bcl-2, and increased expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and Bax decreased simultaneously in the GW0742-treated group. Furthermore, the GW0742-pretreated group showed significantly less brain edema and BBB leakage. Neuronal loss was attenuated, and the number of apoptotic neuronal cells in perihematomal tissues reduced, in the GW0742-pretreated group compared to the control group. However, the hematoma volume did not decrease significantly on day 3 after ICH. These results suggest that the activation of PPAR-β/δ exerts a neuroprotective effect on ICH-induced brain injury, possibly through anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Activation of BDNF-AS/ADAR/p53 Positive Feedback Loop Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Xinwen Lv, Chunyan Gu, Shiwen Guo

    Despite progress in conventional treatment for glioblastoma (GBM), the prognosis remains poor due to high tumor recurrence. Therefore, identification of new molecular mechanisms is a pressing need for betterment of GBM patient outcomes. qRT-PCR was used to determine BDNF-AS expression in GBM cells. CCK-8, EdU incorporation, and caspase-3 activity assays were employed to analyze biological functions of BDNF-AS. RIP and RNA pull-down were conducted to detect the interactions among BDNF-AS, ADAR, and p53. Actinomycin D was utilized to examine the stability of p53 mRNA. ChIP and luciferase reporter assays were performed to detect transcriptional activation of BDNF-AS by p53. We found that BDNF-AS was significantly downregulated in GBM cell lines, and its overexpression inhibited GBM cell growth, and promoted apoptosis. Importantly, we illustrated that BDNF-AS coupled with ADAR protein to potentiate stability of p53 mRNA and thus upregulate p53. Interestingly, we further identified p53 as a transcription factor of BDNF-AS, activating transcription of BNDF-AS. This study firstly demonstrated that BDNF-AS acted as a tumor suppressor in GBM and the positive feedback circuit of BDNF-AS/ADAR/p53 served an important mechanism to control GBM proliferation. Targeting this auto-regulatory loop may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Sodium–Calcium Exchangers of the SLC8 Family in Oligodendrocytes: Functional Properties in Health and Disease
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Samantha A. Spencer, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Miguel Escalante, Yu Par Myo, Babette Fuss

    The solute carrier 8 (SLC8) family of sodium–calcium exchangers (NCXs) functions as an essential regulatory system that couples opposite fluxes of sodium and calcium ions across plasmalemmal membranes. NCXs, thereby, play key roles in maintaining an ion homeostasis that preserves cellular integrity. Hence, alterations in NCX expression and regulation have been found to lead to ionic imbalances that are often associated with intracellular calcium overload and cell death. On the other hand, intracellular calcium has been identified as a key driver for a multitude of downstream signaling events that are crucial for proper functioning of biological systems, thus highlighting the need for a tightly controlled balance. In the CNS, NCXs have been primarily characterized in the context of synaptic transmission and ischemic brain damage. However, a much broader picture is emerging. NCXs are expressed by virtually all cells of the CNS including oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the cells that generate the myelin sheath. With a growing appreciation of dynamic calcium signals in OLGs, NCXs are becoming increasingly recognized for their crucial roles in shaping OLG function under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In order to provide a current update, this review focuses on the importance of NCXs in cells of the OLG lineage. More specifically, it provides a brief introduction into plasmalemmal NCXs and their modes of activity, and it discusses the roles of OLG expressed NCXs in regulating CNS myelination and in contributing to CNS pathologies associated with detrimental effects on OLG lineage cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • SNHG16 Silencing Inhibits Neuroblastoma Progression by Downregulating HOXA7 via Sponging miR-128-3p
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Juntao Bao, Shufeng Zhang, Qinglei Meng, Tao Qin

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common intracranial solid tumor with high mortality. Small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16), one of the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), has been reported to be linked to the poor prognosis of NB. However, the mechanisms of SNHG16 in regulating NB progression remain poorly understood. The expression level of SNHG16 was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The starBase was employed to predict the interaction of miR-128-3p and SNHG16 or HOXA7, which was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry, respectively. Transwell assay was used to detect cell invasion or migration. The mRNA and protein levels of homeobox protein A7 (HOXA7) were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The levels of SNHG16 and HOXA7 were conspicuously increased in NB tissues and cells, while the expression of miR-128-3p was obviously declined, compared with corresponding normal tissues and cells. SNHG16 silencing inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion and induced apoptosis of NB cells. We identified that SNHG16 directly interacted with miR-128-3p, and miR-128-3p could target the 3′UTR of HOXA7 in NB cells. Simultaneously, miR-128-3p expression was negatively associated with SNHG16 or HOXA7. Further studies indicated that SNHG16 overexpression rescued the effects of miR-128-3p-mediated on inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion and promoting apoptosis of NB cells. Moreover, SNHG16 could modulate HOXA7 by sponging miR-128-3p in NB cells. Besides, SNHG16 silencing suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Knockdown of SNHG16 impeded proliferation, migration, invasion and induced apoptosis through the SNHG16/miR-128-3p/HOXA7 axis in NB cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • lncRNA ANRIL Ameliorates Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation (OGD) Induced Injury in Neuron Cells via miR-199a-5p/CAV-1 Axis
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Wei Zhong, Yong-Chang Li, Qian-Yi Huang, Xiang-Qi Tang

    Ischemia stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL has been reported to play an important role in ischemic injury. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism by which ANRIL exhibits protective effect. Middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse models were applied and infarction areas were assessed by TTC assay. The expression of ANRIL and miR-199a-5p were determined by qPCR. Oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment was applied to mimic in vitro ischemia injury in N-2a cells. The levels of BCL-2, BAX, MEK, ERK, CAV-1 were determined by western blot. Cell viability were assessed by MTT assay. The direct interaction among miR-199a-5p and ANRIL, miR-199a-5p and CAV-1 were demonstrated by dual Luciferase report assay. ANRIL and miR-199a-5p expression were changed in both in vivo and in vitro ischemia model. Overexpression of ANRIL or inhibition of miR-199a-5p could protect cells against ischemia induced injury by elevating cell viability through CAV-1 mediated MEK/ERK pathway. miR-199a-5p attenuated CAV-1 expression by direct targeting. ANRIL competitively interacted with miR-199a-5p in N-2a cells, leading to a de-repression of CAV-1. ANRIL protects N-2a cells against ischemia induced injury by elevated CAV-1 by competitively interacting with miR-199a-5p, thus activating MEK/ERK pathway and elevating cell viability.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • The Menadione-Mediated WST1 Reduction by Cultured Astrocytes Depends on NQO1 Activity and Cytosolic Glucose Metabolism
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Eric Ehrke, Johann Steinmeier, Karsten Stapelfeldt, Ralf Dringen

    The reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WSTs) is frequently used to determine the metabolic integrity and the viability of cultured cells. Recently, we have reported that the electron cycler menadione can efficiently connect intracellular oxidation reactions in cultured astrocytes with the extracellular reduction of WST1 and that this menadione cycling reaction involves an enzyme. The enzymatic reaction involved in the menadione-dependent WST1 reduction was found strongly enriched in the cytosolic fraction of cultured astrocytes and is able to efficiently use both NADH and NADPH as electron donors. In addition, the reaction was highly sensitive towards dicoumarol with Kic values in the low nanomolar range, suggesting that the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) catalyzes the menadione-dependent WST1 reduction in astrocytes. Also, in intact astrocytes, dicoumarol inhibited the menadione-dependent WST1 reduction in a concentration-dependent manner with half-maximal inhibition observed at around 50 nM. Moreover, the menadione-dependent WST1 reduction by viable astrocytes was strongly affected by the availability of glucose. In the absence of glucose only residual WST1 reduction was observed, while a concentration-dependent increase in WST1 reduction was found during a 30 min incubation with maximal WST1 reduction already determined in the presence of 0.5 mM glucose. Mannose could fully replace glucose as substrate for astrocytic WST1 reduction, while other hexoses, lactate and the mitochondrial substrate β-hydroxybutyrate failed to provide electrons for the cell-dependent WST1 reduction. These results demonstrate that the menadione-mediated WST1 reduction involves cytosolic NQO1 activity and that this process is strongly affected by the availability of glucose as metabolic substrate.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Roles Played by the Na + /Ca 2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    M. Lakatos, M. Baranyi, L. Erőss, S. Nardai, T. L. Török, B. Sperlágh, E. S. Vizi

    The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA induced by ischemic conditions. This finding indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), working in reverse in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, fails to trigger the influx of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+ and fails to counteract ischemia by further increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, significantly reduced the cytoplasmic resting release rate of catecholamines under ischemic conditions and under conditions where Ca2+ was removed. Hypothermia inhibited the excessive release of [3H]DA in response to ischemia, even in the absence of Ca2+. These findings further indicate that the NCX plays an important role in maintaining a high [Na+]i, a condition that may lead to the reversal of monoamine transporter functions; this effect consequently leads to the excessive cytoplasmic tonic release of monoamines and the reversal of the NCX. Using HPLC combined with scintillation spectrometry, hypothermia, which enhances the stimulation-evoked release of DA, was found to inhibit the efflux of toxic DA metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). In slices prepared from human cortical brain tissue removed during elective neurosurgery, the uptake and release values for [3H]NA did not differ from those measured at 37 °C in slices that were previously maintained under hypoxic conditions at 8 °C for 20 h. This result indicates that hypothermia preserves the functions of the transport and release mechanisms, even under hypoxic conditions. Oxidative stress (H2O2), a mediator of ischemic brain injury enhanced the striatal resting release of [3H]DA and its toxic metabolites (DOPAL, quinone). The study supports our earlier findings that during ischemia transmitters are released from the cytoplasm. In addition, the major findings of this study that hypothermia of brain slice preparations prevents the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o)-independent non-vesicular transmitter release induced by ischemic insults, inhibiting Na+/Cl−-dependent membrane transport of monoamines and their toxic metabolites into the extracellular space, where they can exert toxic effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Astroglia in Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-02-18
    Tatyana Shulyatnikova, Alexei Verkhratsky

    Abstract Cellular pathophysiology of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly characterised. Brain pathology in SAE, which is manifested by impaired perception, consciousness and cognition, results from multifactorial events, including high levels of systemic cytokines, microbial components and endotoxins, which all damage the brain barriers, instigate neuroinflammation and cause homeostatic failure. Astrocytes, being the principal homeostatic cells of the central nervous system contribute to the brain defence against infection. Forming multifunctional anatomical barriers, astroglial cells maintain brain-systemic interfaces and restrict the damage to the nervous tissue. Astrocytes detect, produce and integrate inflammatory signals between immune cells and cells of brain parenchyma, thus regulating brain immune response. In SAE astrocytes are present in both reactive and astrogliopathic states; balance between these states define evolution of pathology and neurological outcomes. In humans pathophysiology of SAE is complicated by frequent presence of comorbidities, as well as age-related remodelling of the brain tissue with senescence of astroglia; these confounding factors further impact upon SAE progression and neurological deficits.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The Effect of Hapln4 Link Protein Deficiency on Extracellular Space Diffusion Parameters and Perineuronal Nets in the Auditory System During Aging
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Petra Sucha, Martina Chmelova, Monika Kamenicka, Marcel Bochin, Toshitaka Oohashi, Lydia Vargova

    Abstract Hapln4 is a link protein which stabilizes the binding between lecticans and hyaluronan in perineuronal nets (PNNs) in specific brain regions, including the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). The aim of this study was: (1) to reveal possible age-related alterations in the extracellular matrix composition in the MNTB and inferior colliculus, which was devoid of Hapln4 and served as a negative control, (2) to determine the impact of the Hapln4 deletion on the values of the ECS diffusion parameters in young and aged animals and (3) to verify that PNNs moderate age-related changes in the ECS diffusion, and that Hapln4-brevican complex is indispensable for the correct protective function of the PNNs. To achieve this, we evaluated the ECS diffusion parameters using the real-time iontophoretic method in the selected region in young adult (3 to 6-months-old) and aged (12 to 18-months-old) wild type and Hapln4 knock-out (KO) mice. The results were correlated with an immunohistochemical analysis of the ECM composition and astrocyte morphology. We report that the ECM composition is altered in the aged MNTB and aging is a critical point, revealing the effect of Hapln4 deficiency on the ECS diffusion. All of our findings support the hypothesis that the ECM changes in the MNTB of aged KO animals affect the ECS parameters indirectly, via morphological changes of astrocytes, which are in direct contact with synapses and can be influenced by the ongoing synaptic transmission altered by shifts in the ECM composition.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • NMDA Receptors in Astrocytes
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Alexei Verkhratsky, Alexandr Chvátal

    Astrocytes support glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system through multiple mechanisms which include: (i) glutamate clearance and control over glutamate spillover due to operation of glutamate transporters; (ii) supply of obligatory glutamate precursor glutamine via operation of glutamate–glutamine shuttle; (iii) supply of l-serine, the indispensable precursor of positive NMDA receptors neuromodulator d-serine and (iv) through overall homoeostatic control of the synaptic cleft. Astroglial cells express an extended complement of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, which mediate glutamatergic input to astrocytes. In particular a sub-population of astrocytes in the cortex and in the spinal cord express specific type of NMDA receptors assembled from two GluN1, one GluN2C or D and one GluN3 subunits. This composition underlies low Mg2+ sensitivity thus making astroglial NMDA receptors operational at resting membrane potential. These NMDA receptors generate ionic signals in astrocytes and are linked to several astroglial homoeostatic molecular cascades.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Nestin Null Mice Show Improved Reversal Place Learning
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Marie Kalm, Marcela Pekna, Milos Pekny

    The intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed by neural stem cells, but also by some astrocytes in the neurogenic niche of the hippocampus in the adult rodent brain. We recently reported that nestin-deficient (Nes−/−) mice showed increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, reduced Notch signaling from Nes−/− astrocytes to the neural stem cells, and impaired long-term memory. Here we assessed learning and memory of Nes−/− mice in a home cage set up using the IntelliCage system, in which the mice learn in which cage corner a nose poke earns access to drinking water. Nes−/− and wildtype mice showed comparable place learning assessed as the incorrect corner visit ratio and the incorrect nose poke ratio. However, during reversal place learning, a more challenging task, Nes−/− mice, compared to wildtype mice, showed improved learning over time demonstrated by the incorrect visit ratio and improved memory extinction over time assessed as nose pokes per visit to the previous drinking corner. In addition, Nes−/− mice showed increased explorative activity as judged by the increased total numbers of corner visits and nose pokes. We conclude that Nes−/− mice exhibit improved reversal place learning and memory extinction, a finding which together with the previous results supports the concept of the dual role of hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The negative effect of magnetic nanoparticles with ascorbic acid on peritoneal macrophages
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-04-03
    Klára Jiráková, Maksym Moskvin, Lucia Machová Urdzíková, Pavel Rössner, Fatima Elzeinová, Milada Chudíčková, Daniel Jirák, Natalia Ziolkowska, Daniel Horák, Šárka Kubinová, Pavla Jendelová

    Abstract Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn) are widely used as a contrast agent for cell labeling. Macrophages are the first line of defense of organisms in contact with nanoparticles after their administration. In this study we investigated the effect of silica-coated nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3–SiO2) with or without modification by an ascorbic acid (γ-Fe2O3–SiO2-ASA), which is meant to act as an antioxidative agent on rat peritoneal macrophages. Both types of nanoparticles were phagocytosed by macrophages in large amounts as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Prusian blue staining, however they did not substantially affect the viability of exposed cells in monitored intervals. We further explored cytotoxic effects related to oxidative stress, which is frequently documented in cells exposed to nanoparticles. Our analysis of double strand breaks (DSBs) marker γH2AX showed an increased number of DSBs in cells treated with nanoparticles. Nanoparticle exposure further revealed only slight changes in the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response. Lipid peroxidation, another marker of oxidative stress, was not significantly affirmed after nanoparticle exposure. Our data indicate that the effect of both types of nanoparticles on cell viability, or biomolecules such as DNA or lipids, was similar; however the presence of ascorbic acid, either bound to the nanoparticles or added to the cultivation medium, worsened the negative effect of nanoparticles in various tests performed. The attachment of ascorbic acid on the surface of nanoparticles did not have a protective effect against induced cytotoxicity, as expected.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Integrity of White Matter is Compromised in Mice with Hyaluronan Deficiency
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Ang D. Sherpa, David N. Guilfoyle, Aditi A. Naik, Jasmina Isakovic, Fumitoshi Irie, Yu Yamaguchi, Jan Hrabe, Chiye Aoki, Sabina Hrabetova

    Abstract Brain white matter is the means of efficient signal propagation in brain and its dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. We studied the effect of hyaluronan deficiency on the integrity of myelin in murine corpus callosum. Conditional knockout mice lacking the hyaluronan synthase 2 were compared with control mice. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy revealed a higher proportion of myelin lamellae intruding into axons of knockout mice, along with significantly slimmer axons (excluding myelin sheath thickness), lower g-ratios, and frequent loosening of the myelin wrappings, even though the myelin thickness was similar across the genotypes. Analysis of extracellular diffusion of a small marker molecule tetramethylammonium (74 MW) in brain slices prepared from corpus callosum showed that the extracellular space volume increased significantly in the knockout animals. Despite this vastly enlarged volume, extracellular diffusion rates were significantly reduced, indicating that the compromised myelin wrappings expose more complex geometric structure than the healthy ones. This finding was confirmed in vivo by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy suggested that water was released from within the myelin sheaths. Our results indicate that hyaluronan is essential for the correct formation of tight myelin wrappings around the axons in white matter.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Reduction of Dimensionality in Monte Carlo Simulation of Diffusion in Extracellular Space Surrounding Cubic Cells
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Charles Nicholson, Padideh Kamali-Zare

    The real-time iontophoretic method has measured volume fraction and tortuosity of the interstitial component of extracellular space in many regions and under different conditions. To interpret these data computer models of the interstitial space (ISS) of the brain are constructed by representing cells as Basic Cellular Structures (BCS) surrounded by a layer of ISS and replicating this combination to make a 3D ensemble that approximates brain tissue with a specified volume fraction. Tortuosity in such models is measured by releasing molecules of zero size into the ISS and allowing them to execute random walks in the ISS of the ensemble using a Monte Carlo algorithm. The required computational resources for such simulations may be high and here we show that in many situations the 3D problem may be reduced to a quasi-1D problem with consequent reduction in resources. We take the simplest BCS in the form of cubes and use MCell software to perform the Monte Carlo simulations but the analysis described here may be extended in principle to more complex BCS and an ISS that has a defined viscosity and an extracellular matrix that interacts with diffusing molecules. In the course of this study we found that the original analytical description of the relation between volume fraction and tortuosity for an ensemble of cubes may require a small correction.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Cortical Spreading Depolarization (CSD) Recorded from Intact Skin, from Surface of Dura Mater or Cortex: Comparison with Intracortical Recordings in the Neocortex of Adult Rats
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    A. Lehmenkühler, F. Richter

    In cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats single waves of spreading depolarization (CSD) were elicited by needle prick. CSD-related changes of DC (direct current) potentials were either recorded from the intact skin or together with concomitant changes of potassium concentration with K+-selective microelectrodes simultaneously at the surface of the dura mater or of the cortex ([K+]s) and in the extracellular space at a cortical depth of 1200 µm. At the intact skin CSD-related DC-shifts had amplitudes of less than 1 mV and had only in a minority of cases the typical CSD-like shape. In the majority these DC-shifts rose and recovered very slowly and were difficult to identify without further indicators. At dura surface CSD-related DC shifts were significantly smaller and rose and recovered slower than intracortically recorded CSD. Concomitant increases in [K+]s were delayed and reached maximal values of about 5 mM from a baseline of 3 mM. They rose and recovered slower than simultaneously recorded intracortical changes in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]e) that were up to 65 mM. The results suggest that extracellular potassium during CSD is diffusing through the subarachnoid space and across the dura mater. In a few cases CSD was either absent at the dura or at a depth of 1200 µm. Even full blown CSDs in this cortical depth could remain without concomitant deflections at the dura. Our data confirmed in principle the possibility of non-invasive recordings of CSD-related DC-shifts. For a use in clinical routine sensitivity and specificity will have to be improved.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Spinal Cord Injury: Animal Models, Imaging Tools and the Treatment Strategies
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-04-20
    Dasa Cizkova, Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Veronika Cubinkova, Filip Humenik, Zuzana Mojzisova, Marcela Maloveska, Milan Cizek, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to irreversible neuro-degenerative changes with life-long consequences. While there is still no effective therapy available, the results of past research have led to improved quality of life for patients suffering from partial or permanent paralysis. In this review we focus on the need, importance and the scientific value of experimental animal models simulating SCI in humans. Furthermore, we highlight modern imaging tools determining the location and extent of spinal cord damage and their contribution to early diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. Finally, we focus on available cellular and acellular therapies and novel combinatory approaches with exosomes and active biomaterials. Here we discuss the efficacy and limitations of adult mesenchymal stem cells which can be derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue or umbilical cord blood and its Wharton’s jelly. Special attention is paid to stem cell-derived exosomes and smart biomaterials due to their special properties as a delivery system for proteins, bioactive molecules or even genetic material.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Astroglial Mechanisms of Ketamine Action Include Reduced Mobility of Kir4.1-Carrying Vesicles
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-02-22
    Matjaž Stenovec, Mićo Božić, Samo Pirnat, Robert Zorec

    Abstract The finding that ketamine, an anaesthetic, can elicit a rapid antidepressant effect at low doses that lasts for weeks in patients with depression is arguably a major achievement in psychiatry in the last decades. However, the mechanisms of action are unclear. The glutamatergic hypothesis of ketamine action posits that ketamine is a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist modulating downstream cytoplasmic events in neurons. In addition to targeting NMDARs in synaptic transmission, ketamine may modulate the function of astroglia, key homeostasis-providing cells in the central nervous system, also playing a role in many neurologic diseases including depression, which affects to 20% of the population globally. We first review studies on astroglia revealing that (sub)anaesthetic doses of ketamine attenuate stimulus-evoked calcium signalling, a process of astroglial cytoplasmic excitability, regulating the exocytotic release of gliosignalling molecules. Then we address how ketamine alters the fusion pore activity of secretory vesicles, and how ketamine affects extracellular glutamate and K+ homeostasis, both considered pivotal in depression. Finally, we also provide evidence indicating reduced cytoplasmic mobility of astroglial vesicles carrying the inward rectifying potassium channel (Kir4.1), which may regulate the density of Kir4.1 at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the astroglial capacity to control extracellular K+ concentration may be altered by ketamine and thus indirectly affect the action potential firing of neurons, as is the case in lateral habenula in a rat disease model of depression. Hence, ketamine-altered functions of astroglia extend beyond neuronal NMDAR antagonism and provide a basis for its antidepressant action through glia.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • MicroRNAs and Regeneration in Animal Models of CNS Disorders
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Tamara Roitbak

    Abstract microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with CNS repair after trauma and neuropathological conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. A number of specific miRNAs are implicated in regulating the development and propagation of CNS injury, as well as its subsequent regeneration. The review focuses on the functions of the miRNAs and their role in brain recovery following CNS damage. The article introduces a brief description of miRNA biogenesis and mechanisms of miRNA-induced gene suppression, followed by an overview of miRNAs involved in the processes associated with CNS repair, including neuroprotection, neuronal plasticity and axonal regeneration, vascular reorganization, neuroinflammation, and endogenous stem cell activation. Specific emphasis is placed on the role of multifunctional miRNA miR-155, as it appears to be involved in multiple neurorestorative processes during different CNS pathologies. In association with our own studies on miR-155, I introduce a new and unexplored approach to cerebral regeneration: regulation of brain tissue repair through a direct modulation of specific miRNA activity. The review concludes with discussion on the challenges and the future potential of miRNA-based therapeutic approaches to CNS repair.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Biomaterials and Magnetic Stem Cell Delivery in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Šárka Kubinová

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma, which often results in a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions, pain and spasticity. Despite extensive research, there is currently no available therapy that would restore the lost functions after SCI in human patients. Advanced treatments use regenerative medicine or its combination with various interdisciplinary approaches such as tissue engineering or biophysical methods. This review summarizes and critically discusses the research from specific interdisciplinary fields in SCI treatment such as the development of biomaterials as scaffolds for tissue repair, and using a magnetic field for targeted cell delivery. We compare the treatment effects of synthetic non-degradable methacrylate-based hydrogels and biodegradable biological scaffolds based on extracellular matrix. The systems using magnetic fields for magnetically guided delivery of stem cells loaded with magnetic nanoparticles into the lesion site are then suggested and discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The Effects of IL-1β on Astrocytes are Conveyed by Extracellular Vesicles and Influenced by Age
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Cory M. Willis, Pearl Sutter, Megan Rouillard, Stephen J. Crocker

    Abstract The aging brain is associated with significant pathophysiological changes reflected in changes in astrocyte function. In this study, we hypothesized that the response of astrocytes to mechanical and inflammatory stimulation would differ with long-term culture. We report that naïve short-term cultured (young) and long-term cultured astrocytes (aged) exhibit similar recovery to a scratch wound assay. However, in response to IL-1β young astrocytes have an arrested recovery which is not observed in IL-1β treated aged astrocytes. We had recently reported that astrocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) in response to IL-1β treatment. Given the disparate phenotypes between young and aged astrocytes, we next examined whether the EVs released from astrocytes reflected the differences in cellular responses to scratch and IL-1B treatment. Young cultures challenged with EVs collected from IL-1β treated cells exhibited a robust inhibition of wound recovery when compared to astrocytes treated with EVs collected from IL-1β treated aged astrocyte cultures. Heterochronic experiments also determined that the effect of IL-1β on astrocyte scratch wound recovery could be recapitulated by EVs alone. Taken together, these findings provide new information on how senescence alters the functional response and how EVs from astrocytes may elicit changes in glial responses which may have relevance to understanding neurological diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Neurochemical Evidence of Preclinical and Clinical Reports on Target-Based Therapy in Alcohol Used Disorder
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Santosh Kumar Prajapati, Shubham Bhaseen, Sairam Krishnamurthy, Alakh N. Sahu

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing disorder, which enforces a person to compulsively seek alcohol, restricting control over alcohol intake leads to emergence of an undesired emotional state during abstinence. There are recent advances for better understanding of neurocircuitry involved in the pathophysiology of AUD. Alcohol interaction with neuronal membrane proteins results in changes in neuronal circuits. It is also linked with the potential medication and their clinical validation concerning their pharmacological targets for alcoholic abstinence. This review covers research work from the past few decades on the therapeutic advances on treatment of alcohol dependence; further detailing the fundamental neurochemical mechanisms after alcohol administration. It also covers interaction of alcohol with GABAergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems. This review further elaborated the neurobiology of noradrenergic, cholinergic and cannabinoid systems and their interaction with AUD. Elaborative information of potential drug targets under current exploration for AUD treatment with their mechanisms are reported here along with clinical outcomes and the associated side effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The Combined Therapy of Berberine Treatment with lncRNA BACE1-AS Depletion Attenuates Aβ 25–35 Induced Neuronal Injury Through Regulating the Expression of miR-132-3p in Neuronal Cells
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yunli Ge, Xiaolin Song, Jianfeng Liu, Chun Liu, Changshui Xu

    Abstract Accumulating articles reported that berberine (Ber) played a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of AD. However, the precise mechanism by which lncRNA β-amyloid cleaving enzyme 1 antisense RNA (BACE1-AS)regulates the progression of AD remains largely unknown. HPN and SK-N-SH cells treated with amyloid β 25–35 (Aβ25–35) were regarded as AD model in vitro. Cell survival rate was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay was conducted to detect the cytotoxicity of neuronal cells. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis of neuronal cells. Western blot assay was carried out to detect the apoptosis-related proteins of neuronal cells. The abundance of lncRNA BACE1-AS and miR-132-3p was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The binding sites between miR-132-3p and BACE1-AS were predicted by Starbase, and the combination was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found that Ber alleviated Aβ25–35 induced neuronal injury in AD model, especially in high concentration Ber group. The enrichment of BACE1-AS was positively regulated by Aβ25–35 and was inversely modulated by Ber in neuronal cells. The interference of BACE1-AS alleviated the neuronal damage of AD model. miR-132-3p was a direct target of lncRNA BACE1-AS in HEK293T cells, and it was negatively regulated by BACE1-AS in neuronal cells. BACE1-AS accumulation reversed the protective effect of miR-132-3p overexpression on AD model. Ber treatment and BACE1-AS intervention recovered the viability of AD model. Ber up-regulated the level of miR-132-3p via BACE1-AS in SK-N-SH and HPN neuronal cells. in conclucsion, Ber protected neuronal cells against Aβ25–35 at least partly through BACE1-AS/miR-132-3p axis. The combined therapy of Ber treatment with BACE1-AS depletion might provide new insight into AD treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Modulatory Effects of Ginkgo biloba Against Amyloid Aggregation Through Induction of Heat Shock Proteins in Aluminium Induced Neurotoxicity
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Sonia Verma, Sheetal Sharma, Pavitra Ranawat, Bimla Nehru

    Abstract Protein misfolding and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, as well as formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the signature hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. To prevent this, molecular chaperones come into play as they facilitate the refolding of the misfolded proteins and cell protection under stress. Here, we have evaluated the possible effects of Ginkgo biloba (GBE) against aggregation of the Aβ through activation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the Aluminium (Al) induced AD based model. GBE (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered per oral to the female SD rats in conjunction with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Al lactate (10 mg/kg body weight) for six weeks. Pretreated animals were administered GBE for additional two weeks prior to any exposure of Al. GBE administration resulted in decrease in Aβ aggregation, ubiquitin deposition, accompanying a significant decline in APP & Tau protein hyperphosphorylation which can be attributed to activation of Heat shock factor (HSF-1) and upregulation in the protein expression of HSPs. Histopathological investigation studies have also shown the decrease in aggregation of Aβ peptide by GBE administration. Additionally, the decrease in ROS levels and Aβ aggregation by GBE administration prohibited the decline in the neurotransmitter levels and monoamine oxidase levels in hippocampus and cortex. This further caused improvement in learning and memory of the animals. In conclusion, our results indicate that GBE prevents the symptoms of Al induced AD like pathophysiology by upregulating the HSPs levels and decreasing the aggregation load. Graphic Abstract

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Amelioration of Repeated Restraint Stress-Induced Behavioral Deficits and Hippocampal Anomalies with Taurine Treatment in Mice
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Ashok Jangra, Prabha Rajput, Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi, Mangala Lahkar

    Taurine, an essential neutraceutical, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Substantial evidence indicates that prolonged stress is one of the leading causes of psychological and physiological anomalies. Restraint stress (RS) rat model is the most widely used experimental model for the induction of chronic psycho-emotional stress. In the present study, Swiss albino male mice were restrained for 6 h/day for 28 consecutive days. Animals were divided into four groups: control, RS, RS + taurine, and taurine control group. Taurine, a potent antioxidant, was administered (200 mg/kg) orally along with RS for 28 days. The taurine intervention significantly restored the RS-induced neurobehavioral alterations evident by the elevated plus-maze, Morris water maze test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, and a sucrose preference test. Moreover, taurine significantly prevented hippocampal oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitrite) and other neurochemical (acetylcholinesterase, and IL-1β) anomalies. Using western blotting analyses, we demonstrate that taurine treatment significantly ameliorated the alterations in Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, caspase-3, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) level in the hippocampus. Thus, Taurine effectively inhibited RS-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis via a mechanism involving the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, our study is the first to demonstrate that NF-κB and caspase-3 inhibition, as well as BDNF augmentation, was involved in neuroprotective potential of taurine against RS-induced behavioural anomalies.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Systemic Administration of an Apelin Receptor Agonist Prevents NMDA-Induced Loss of Retinal Neuronal Cells in Mice
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Fumiya Shibagaki, Yuki Ishimaru, Akihide Sumino, Akiko Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Yoshioka, Sadaaki Maeda

    Glutamate excitotoxicity via N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is thought to be a factor involved in the loss of retinal neuronal cells, including retinal ganglion cells, in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and acute angle closure glaucoma. Herein we report the protective effect of systemic administration of ML233, an apelin receptor agonist, against retinal neuronal cell death induced by the intravitreal injection of NMDA into mice. Intraperitoneal administration of ML233 prevented the NMDA-induced reduction in the amplitude of scotopic threshold responses (STR), which mainly reflect the activity of the retinal ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ML233 inhibited the NMDA-induced loss of retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells. In addition, ML233 suppressed the breakdown of spectrin αII, a neuronal cytoskeleton protein cleaved by calpain activation, in the retina after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Intraperitoneal administration of ML233 increased the phosphorylation of Akt, a potent anti-apoptotic protein in neurons, in the retina. Furthermore, oral administration of ML233 protected against the decrease in the STR amplitudes and the loss of retinal ganglion cells caused by NMDA. These results suggest that systemic administration of ML233 protected retinal neurons from NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and that drugs activating the apelin receptor may be a new candidate for preventing the progression of these retinal diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Prolonged Amphetamine Treatments Cause Long-Term Decrease of Dopamine Uptake in Cultured Cells
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Nafisa Ferdous, Sirisha Kudumala, Serena Sossi, Lucia Carvelli

    Abstract Amphetamine (AMPH) is a systemic stimulant used to treat a variety of diseases including Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, narcolepsy and obesity. Previous data showed that by binding to catecholamine transporters, AMPH prevents the reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Because AMPH, either used therapeutically at final concentrations of 1–10 µM or abused as recreational drug (50–200 µM), is taken over long periods of time, we investigated the prolonged effects of this drug on the uptake of DA. We found that, in LLC-PK1 cells stably expressing the human DA transporter (hDAT), pretreatments with 1 or 50 µM AMPH caused significant reduction in DA uptake right after the 15-h pretreatment. Remarkably, after 50 but not 1 µM AMPH pretreatment, we observed a significant reduction in DA uptake also after one, two or three cell divisions. To test whether these long-term effects induced by AMPH where conserved in a model comparable to primordial neuronal cells and native neurons, we used the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y cells, which were reported to endogenously express both hDAT and the NE transporter. Pretreatments with 50 µM AMPH caused a significant reduction of DA uptake both right after 15 h and 3 cell divisions followed by neuro-differentiation with retinoic acid (RA) for 5 days. Under these same conditions, AMPH did not change the intracellular concentrations of ATP, ROS and cell viability suggesting, therefore, that the reduction in DA uptake was not cause by AMPH-induced toxicity. Interestingly, while 1 µM AMPH did not cause long-term effects in the LLC-PK1 cells, in the SH-SY5Y cells, it decreased the DA uptake after one, two, but not three, cell divisions and 5-day RA differentiation. These data show that besides the well-known acute effects, AMPH can also produce long-term effects in vitro that are maintained during cell division and transmitted to the daughter cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Autophagy Dysfunction and mTOR Hyperactivation Is Involved in Surgery: Induced Behavioral Deficits in Aged C57BL/6J Mice
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Yanhua Jiang, Yongjian Zhou, Hong Ma, Xuezhao Cao, Zhe Li, Fengshou Chen, Hongnan Wang

    Autophagy is crucial for cell survival, development, division, and homeostasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is the foremost negative controller of autophagy, plays a key role in many endogenous processes. The present study investigated whether rapamycin can ameliorate surgery—induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting mTOR and activating autophagy in the hippocampus. Both adult and aged C57BL/6J mice received an intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (10 mg/kg/day) for 5 days per week for one and a half months. Mice were then subjected to partial hepatectomy under general anesthesia. Behavioral performance was assessed on postoperative days 3, 7, and 14. Hippocampal autophagy-related (Atg)-5, phosphorylated mTOR, and phosphorylated p70S6K were examined at each time point. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin, and tau hyperphosphorylation (T396) in the hippocampus were also examined. Surgical trauma and anesthesia exacerbated spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice on postoperative days 3 and 7. Following partial hepatectomy, the levels of phosphorylated mTOR, phosphorylated 70S6K, and phosphorylated tau were all increased in the hippocampus. A corresponding decline in BDNF and synaptophysin were observed. Rapamycin treatment restored autophagy function, attenuated phosphorylation of tau protein, and increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus of surgical mice. Furthermore, surgery and anesthesia induced spatial learning and memory impairments were also reversed by rapamycin treatment. Autophagy impairments and mTOR hyperactivation were detected along with surgery—induced behavioral deficits. Inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway with rapamycin successfully ameliorated surgery-related cognitive impairments by sustaining autophagic degradation, inhibiting tau hyperphosphorylation, and increasing synaptophysin and BDNF expression.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Dendrobium Alkaloids Promote Neural Function After Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting Pyroptosis Induced Neuronal Death in both In Vivo and In Vitro Models
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Daohang Liu, Zhi Dong, Fei Xiang, Hailin Liu, Yuchun Wang, Qian Wang, Jiangyan Rao

    Pyroptosis is a newly identified lytic form of programmed cell death which is characterized by plasma membrane blebbing and rupture. Pyroptosis occurs in cerebral ischemia injury, and contributes to the activation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and IL-6. Previous reports have found that Dendrobium alkaloids (DNLA) can exert neuroprotective effects against oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) damage in vitro, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. In this study, we investigated whether DNLA exerted therapeutic benefits against cerebral ischemia–reperfusion (CIR) damage via ameliorating pyroptosis and inflammation. OGD/R damage was induced in HT22 cells pretreated with DNLA (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mg/ml, 24 h prior to OGD/R), MCC950 (10 ng/ml, 1 h prior), and VX765 (10 ng/ml, 1 h prior). Neuronal apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and pathological changes were analyzed 24 h following OGD/R. Further to this, male C57/BL mice pretreated with different concentrations of DNLA (0.5 or 5 mg/kg, ip.) for 24 h and VX765 (50 mg/kg, ip., 1 h before CIR) underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. We found that DNLA pretreatment resulted in a lower neurologic deficit score, a reduced infarct volume, fewer pyroptotic cells, and reduced levels of inflammatory factors 24 h after CIR. Furthermore, DNLA administration also reduced the levels of the pyroptosis-associated proteins Caspase-1 and gasdermin-D, particularly in the hippocampal CA1 region. Similar decreases were observed in the levels of the inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18. OGD/R-associated ultrastructural damage was seen to improve following DNLA administration, likely due to the regulation of the tight junction protein Pannexin-1 by DNLA. Overall, these findings demonstrate that DNLA can protect against CIR damage through inhibiting pyroptosis-induced neuronal death, providing new therapeutic insights for CIR injury.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Desflurane and Surgery Exposure During Pregnancy Decrease Synaptic Integrity and Induce Functional Deficits in Juvenile Offspring Mice
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Shanshan Zou, Zheng Zachory Wei, Yun Yue, Hui Zheng, Michael Qize Jiang, Anshi Wu

    Abstract Anesthesia in pregnant women may cause adverse effects in the hippocampus of unborn babies and fetal brain development. The mechanisms underlying pathological changes resulting from anesthetics are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure to desflurane during pregnancy may impair cognition and memory functions of juvenile offspring. Pregnant mice (at gestational day 14) were administered 10% desflurane for 3 h and compared to sham control and sciatic nerve hemi-transection surgery. Hippocampal tissues of both fetal (G14) and offspring mice (postnatal day 31) were collected and analyzed by real-time qPCR and Western blot. Functional tests were performed to assess fear and memory functions in offspring mice. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures from postnatal day 0 (without desflurane exposure) were examined for neuronal and synaptic development under desflurane treatment in vitro. In this acute experiment, we showed that neuronal cultures exposed to desflurane significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression and apoptotic gene caspase-3 activation. Desflurane exposure significantly reduced PSD-95 expression in hippocampal neurons. Similar changes were observed in hippocampal tissues from juvenile offspring mice. Inhaled desflurane impaired memory functions in offspring mice compared to sham control. These mice displayed higher sensitivity to fear conditioning. Neurons isolated from the mice exposed to desflurane exhibited significantly lower levels of synaptophysin expression. These results suggest that anesthetic exposure together with surgery during pregnancy may induce detrimental effects in juvenile offspring mice via the induction of cell death and disruption of synaptic integrity.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Betanin Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by 6-OHDA in PC12 Cells via SAPK/JNK and PI3 K Pathways
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Elham Hadipour, Masoud Fereidoni, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which accompanied with cognitive decline, chorei form moves and behavioral difficulties. Oxidative stress which promote the apoptotic cell death are responsible for neurodegeneration in Parkinson. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of betanin against toxicity and oxidative damage induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in PC12 cells as an appropriate model of Parkinson's cell damage. PC12 cells pretreated with betanin (1–200 µM) for 24 h, and exposed to either 6-OHDA (100 µM) or H2O2 (150 µM) for 24 h. Cell survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production analyzed by resazurin and DCF-DA assay. The anti-apoptotic effects of betanin in PC12 cells were studied using flow cytometry of PI stained cells. Also, western blot analysis of survivin, Cyt c, Phospho SAPK/JNK, SAPK/JNK, Phospho-PI3 kinase P85, PI3 kinase P85 was performed for detection of apoptosis. Betanin (1–200 µM) significantly decreased the 6-OHDA and H2O2 cytotoxicity also attenuated the ROS level. Cell apoptosis significantly increased after 6-OHDA (100 µM) treatment, compared to the control. However, pretreatment with betanin (20 and 50 µM), protected against apoptosis. Western blot analysis of PC12 cells showed that 100 µM 6-OHDA could increase the proteins involved in apoptosis signaling and betanin (20 and 50 µM), could decrease the apoptosis. The results show that betanin has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects and may have the ability to prevent or delay the progress of neural death in Parkinson's disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • The Amino Terminus of LeuT Changes Conformation in an Environment Sensitive Manner
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Jawad A. Khan, Azmat Sohail, Kumaresan Jayaraman, Dániel Szöllősi, Walter Sandtner, Harald H. Sitte, Thomas Stockner

    Abstract Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters are highly expressed in the human brain and catalyze the uptake of substrate through the plasma membrane by using the electrochemical gradient of sodium as the energy source. The bacterial homolog LeuT, a small amino acid transporter isolated from the bacteria Aquifex aeolicus, is the founding member of the family and has been crystallized in three conformations. The N-terminus is structurally well defined and strongly interacts with the transporter core in the outward-facing conformations. However, it could not be resolved in the inward-facing conformation, which indicates enhanced mobility. Here we investigate conformations and dynamics of the N-terminus, by combining molecular dynamics simulations with experimental verification using distance measurements and accessibility studies. We found strongly increased dynamics of the N-terminus, but also that helix TM1A is subject to enhanced mobility. TM1A moves towards the transporter core in the membrane environment, reaching a conformation that is closer to the structure of LeuT with wild type sequence, indicating that the mutation introduced to create the inward-facing structure might have altered the position of helix TM1A. The mobile N-terminus avoids entering the open vestibule of the inward-facing state, as accessibility studies do not show any reduction of quenching by iodide of a fluorophore attached to the N-terminus.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Silencing of TXNIP Alleviated Oxidative Stress Injury by Regulating MAPK–Nrf2 Axis in Ischemic Stroke
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Yu Tian, Yue Su, Qile Ye, Lei Chen, Fei Yuan, Zhenyu Wang

    Ischemic stroke is a life-threatening cerebrovascular thrombotic disease, oxidative stress is considered to be a critical factor to stroke pathophysiology. This study aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism and propose the potential therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Bioinformatics analysis based on a public microarray profile (GSE 61616) of ischemic stroke rats was performed as a pilot research. Oxidative stress was enriched as a significantly gene ontology item, and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and MAPK signaling were identified as the hub gene and pathway, respectively. The experiments in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats demonstrated that ischemia induced the activation of oxidative stress. The expressions of TXNIP, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK were significantly increased while Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions were decreased after stroke. Rescue assays were conducted in primary cultured neurons to explore the accurate interrelations among these factors. The results indicated that MAPK specific inhibitor and siRNA-TXNIP significantly alleviated the oxidative stress injury induced by oxygen–glucose deprivation. In addition, knocking down of TXNIP inhibited the activation of MAPK pathway and promoted Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, these findings indicated that TXNIP aggravated the oxidative stress injury by regulating MAPK–Nrf2 axis in ischemic stroke. Silencing of TXNIP seems a promising therapeutic strategy to alleviate ischemic stroke.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Resveratrol Downregulates STAT3 Expression and Astrocyte Activation in Primary Astrocyte Cultures of Rat
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Moli Wu, Lihong Wang, Fengzhi Li, Ruina Hu, Jingxin Ma, Kaili Zhang, Xiaoxin Cheng

    Astrocytes respond to all forms of central nervous system (CNS) insults by a process referred to as reactive astrogliosis. Inhibition of astrocyte growth and activation is an important strategy for promoting injured CNS repair. STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is reported to be a critical regulator of astrogliosis, and resveratrol (RES, a dietary polyphenol) is considered to be a natural inhibitor of STAT3 expression and phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the effects of RES on STAT3 expression and phosphorylation, and then on the proliferation and activation of astrocytes, a critical process in reactive astrogliosis, in rat primary cultured astrocytes and an in vitro scratch-wound model. RES downregulated the expression levels of STAT3, P-STAT3 and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) in cultured astrocytes. The positive index of Ki67 was apparently reduced in cultured astrocytes after RES treatment. Meanwhile, cultured astrocyte proliferation and activation were attenuated by RES. Moreover, in the established in vitro scratch-wound model the increased expression levels of STAT3, P-STAT3 and GFAP induced by scratching injury were also clearly inhibited by RES. In addition, the inhibitory effect of RES on cell proliferation was similar to that of AG490 (a selective inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation) and abrogated by Colivelin (a STAT3 activator) stimuli. Taken together, our data suggest that RES is able to inhibit reactive astrocyte proliferation and activation mainly via deactivating STAT3 pathway. So RES may have a therapeutic benefit for the treatment of the injured CNS.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • In Vitro Effects of 2-{4-[Methylthio(methylsulfonyl)]phenyl}-3-substitutedthiazolidin-4-ones on the Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rat Brain and Lymphocytes: Isoform Selectivity, Kinetic Analysis, and Molecular Docking
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Daniel Schuch da Silva, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Franciele Martini, Ana Paula Pesarico, Bruna da Silveira de Mattos, Anita Avila de Souza, Cesar Emiliano Hoffman da Silva, João Luis Rheingantz Scaini, Karina dos Santos Machado, Cristina Wayne Nogueira, Roselia Maria Spanevello, Wilson Cunico

    This work evaluated the in vitro effect of thiazolidin-4-ones on the activity of AChE (total and isoforms) isolated from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and lymphocytes. Kinetic parameters were evaluated and molecular docking was performed. Our results showed that thiazolidinones derived from 4-(methylthio)benzaldehyde (1) and from 4-(methylsulfonyl)benzaldehyde (2) were capable of inhibiting the AChE activity in vitro. Three compounds, two with a propylpiperidine (1b and 2b) moiety and one with a 3-(diethylamino)propyl (1c) moiety showed IC50 values of 13.81 μM, and 3.13 μM (1b), 55.36 μM and 44.33 μM (1c) for cerebral cortex and hippocampus, respectively, and 3.11 μM for both (2b). Enzyme kinetics revealed that the type of AChE inhibition was mixed. Compound 1b inhibited the G1 and G4 AChE isoforms, while compounds 1c and 2b selectively inhibited the G4 isoform. Molecular docking showed a possible three-dimensional fit into the enzyme. Our findings showed that these thiazolidin-4-ones, especially those containing the propylpiperidine core, have a potential cholinesterase inhibitory activity and can be considered good candidates for future Alzheimer’s therapy.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Large-Scale Automated Hollow-Fiber Bioreactor Expansion of Umbilical Cord-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Neurological Disorders
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Ladislava Vymetalova, Tereza Kucirkova, Lucia Knopfova, Veronika Pospisilova, Tomas Kasko, Hana Lejdarova, Eva Makaturova, Petr Kuglik, Veronika Oralova, Eva Matalova, Petr Benes, Zdenek Koristek, Serhiy Forostyak

    Neurodegenerative disorders present a broad group of neurological diseases and remain one of the greatest challenges and burdens to mankind. Maladies like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke or spinal cord injury commonly features astroglia involvement (astrogliosis) with signs of inflammation. Regenerative, paracrine and immunomodulatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) could target the above components, thus opening new therapeutic possibilities for regenerative medicine. A special interest should be given to hMSCs derived from the umbilical cord (UC) tissue, due to their origin, properties and lack of ethical paradigms. The aim of this study was to establish standard operating and scale-up good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocols of UC-hMSCs isolation, characterization, expansion and comparison of cells’ properties when harvested on T-flasks versus using a large-scale bioreactor system. Human UC-hMSCs, isolated by tissue explant culture technique from Wharton’s jelly, were harvested after reaching 75% confluence and cultured using tissue culture flasks. Obtained UC-hMSCs prior/after the cryopreservation and after harvesting in a bioreactor, were fully characterized for “mesenchymness” immunomodulatory, tumorigenicity and genetic stability, senescence and cell-doubling properties, as well as gene expression features. Our study demonstrates an efficient and simple technique for large scale UC-hMSCs expansion. Harvesting of UC-hMSCs’ using classic and large scale methods did not alter UC-hMSCs’ senescence, genetic stability or in vitro tumorigenicity features. We observed comparable growth and immunomodulatory capacities of fresh, frozen and expanded UC-hMSCs. We found no difference in the ability to differentiate toward adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages between classic and large scale UC-hMSCs expansion methods. Both, methods enabled derivation of genetically stabile cells with typical mesenchymal features. Interestingly, we found significantly increased mRNA expression levels of neural growth factor (NGF) and downregulated insulin growth factor (IGF) in UC-hMSCs cultured in bioreactor, while IL4, IL6, IL8, TGFb and VEGF expression levels remained at the similar levels. A culturing of UC-hMSCs using a large-scale automated closed bioreactor expansion system under the GMP conditions does not alter basic “mesenchymal” features and quality of the cells. Our study has been designed to pave a road toward translation of basic research data known about human UC-MSCs for the future clinical testing in patients with neurological and immunocompromised disorders. An industrial manufacturing of UC-hMSCs next will undergo regulatory approval following advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) criteria prior to clinical application and approval to be used in patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Neuroinflammation by Altering Microglial M1/M2 Polarization Through MAPK/ERK Pathway
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Zhengguo Qiu, Pan Lu, Kui Wang, Xijuan Zhao, Qianqian Li, Jieqiong Wen, Hong Zhang, Rong Li, Haidong Wei, Yuying Lv, Shuyue Zhang, Pengbo Zhang

    Neuroinflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Microglial pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) status determines the outcome of neuroinflammation. Dexmedetomidine exerts anti-inflammatory effects in many neurological conditions. Whether dexmedetomidine functions via modulation of microglia M1/M2 polarization remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dexmedetomidine on the neuroinflammatory cell model and explored the potential mechanism. BV2 cells were stimulated with LPS to establish a neuroinflammatory model. The cell viability was determined with MTT assay. NO levels were assessed using a NO detection kit. The protein levels of IL-10, TNF-α, iNOS, CD206, ERK1/2, and pERK1/2 were quantified using Western blotting. LPS significantly increased pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and NO, and M1 phenotypic marker iNOS, and decreased anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 and M2 phenotypic marker CD206 in BV2 cells. Furthermore, exposure of BV2 cells to LPS significantly raised pERK1/2 expression. Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine attenuated LPS-elicited changes in p-ERK, iNOS, TNF-α, NO, CD206 and IL-10 levels in BV2 cells. However, co-treatment with dexmedetomidine and LM22B-10, an agonist of ERK, reversed dexmedetomidine-elicited changes in p-ERK, iNOS, TNF-α, NO, CD206 and IL-10 levels in LPS-exposed BV2 cells. We, for the first time, showed that dexmedetomidine increases microglial M2 polarization by inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK1/2, by which it exerts anti-inflammatory effects in BV2 cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Pramipexole Inhibits MPP + -Induced Neurotoxicity by miR-494-3p/BDNF
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Chao Deng, Jianping Zhu, Junlan Yuan, Yong Xiang, Li Dai

    Pramipexole (PPX) is a common drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. However, the mechanism allows PPX in the progression of Parkinson’s disease remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of PPX in 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-treated neuroblastoma cells and explore the interaction between PPX and miR-494-3p/brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) axis. SK-N-SH and CHP 212 cells challenged by MPP+ were used as cellular model of Parkinson’s disease and incubated with PPX. The expression levels of miR-494-3p and BDNF were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot. Neurotoxicity was investigated by cell apoptosis, inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The target association between miR-494-3p and BDNF was confirmed by luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. miR-494-3p expression was increased and BDNF level was decreased in MPP+-treated SK-N-SH and CHP 212 cells, which were reversed by introduction of PPX. Pramipexole attenuated cell apoptosis, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in MPP+-treated SK-N-SH and CHP 212 cells. Knockdown of miR-494-3p also suppressed neurotoxicity induced by MPP+ in SK-N-SH and CHP 212 cells. BDNF was validated as a target of miR-494-3p and its silence abated the suppressive effect of miR-494-3p on MPP+-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, addition of miR-494-3p and silence of BDNF mitigated the effect of PPX on MPP+-induced neurotoxicity. PPX inhibited MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH and CHP 212 cells by decreasing miR-494-3p and increasing BDNF, indicating the potential therapeutic effect of PPX on Parkinson’s disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Heterogeneity of Astrocytes in Grey and White Matter
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Susanne Köhler, Ulrike Winkler, Johannes Hirrlinger

    Astrocytes are a diverse and heterogeneous type of glial cells. The major task of grey and white matter areas in the brain are computation of information at neuronal synapses and propagation of action potentials along axons, respectively, resulting in diverse demands for astrocytes. Adapting their function to the requirements in the local environment, astrocytes differ in morphology, gene expression, metabolism, and many other properties. Here we review the differential properties of protoplasmic astrocytes of grey matter and fibrous astrocytes located in white matter in respect to glutamate and energy metabolism, to their function at the blood–brain interface and to coupling via gap junctions. Finally, we discuss how this astrocytic heterogeneity might contribute to the different susceptibility of grey and white matter to ischemic insults.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Involvement of PARP-1/AIF Signaling Pathway in Protective Effects of Gualou Guizhi Decoction Against Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury-Induced Apoptosis
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Lihong Nan, Qingqing Xie, Zheming Chen, Yuqin Zhang, Yaping Chen, Huang Li, Wenfang Lai, Yan Chen, Mei Huang

    Cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)/apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) signaling pathway-mediated apoptosis is one of the non-caspase-dependent cell death programs that are widely present in neurological diseases such as stroke. In our study, we aimed to conduct further research on the effects of Gualou Guizhi decoction (GLGZD) on the PARP-1/AIF signaling pathway in cell apoptosis after ischemia–reperfusion injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The results showed that GLGZD administration for 7 days significantly ameliorated MCAO-induced neurological damage, limb paralysis and the pathological state of the ischemic cortex. GLGZD exerted its effects by significantly reducing the volume of ischemic cerebral infarction, increasing the number of Nissl-positive cells, and reducing neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that GLGZD significantly inhibited the total protein expression of PARP-1, PAR, AIF and endonuclease G (Endo G) in the ischemic cortex and significantly increased the total protein expression of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70). On the one hand, the expression of PARP-1, AIF and Endo G protein in the nucleus significantly decreased while the expression of PAR nucleoprotein significantly upregulated. On the other hand, compared with the MCAO model group, the GLGZD-treated group showed a significantly reduced protein expression of PAR in mitochondria and significantly increased protein expression of mitochondrial AIF and Endo G. It was concluded that GLGZD had good therapeutic effects in MCAO model rats. These effects were closely related to GLGZD-mediated inhibition of ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulation of protein expression and translocation in the PARP-1/AIF signaling pathway.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Antinociceptive Effect of Spirocyclopiperazinium Salt Compound DXL-A-24 and the Underlying Mechanism
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Ding Wang, Hua Yang, Yingying Liang, Xin Wang, Xiaolei Du, Runtao Li, Yimin Jiang, Jia Ye

    The antinociceptive effects of spirocyclopiperazinium salt compound DXL-A-24 on neuropathic pain and chemical-stimulated pain were investigated in this study. After the administration of DXL-A-24, the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) were increased in rats suffering from neuropathic pain (chronic constriction injury, CCI) on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 after surgery, and pain responses were inhibited in mice stimulated with chemicals (formalin or acetic acid). In the analysis of antinociceptive targets, the effect of DXL-A-24 was blocked by a peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist (hexamethonium, Hex) or α7 nAChR antagonist (methyllycaconitine, MLA) in the formalin test. Meanwhile, the effect of DXL-A-24 was also blocked by a peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist (atropine methylnitrate, Amn) or M4 mAChR antagonist (tropicamide, TRO). The antinociceptive signalling pathway was explored using molecular biology methods in ipsilateral dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) of CCI rats after the administration of DXL-A-24 for 7 days. Western blot analyses showed that the increased levels of phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were eliminated, and the qRT-PCR assay showed that the increase in the expression of Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA was reduced. Meanwhile, immunofluorescence staining revealed that the increase in calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) expression was inhibited by the administration of DXL-A-24, and the effect was blocked by MLA or TRO. In conclusion, DXL-A-24 exerts significant antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain and chemical-stimulated pain. The antinociceptive effect of DXL-A-24 is probably attributed to the activation of peripheral α7 nAChR and M4 mAChR, the subsequent inhibition of the CaMKIIα/CREB signalling pathway, and finally the inhibition of TNF-α and CGRP expression.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Protective Effects of Ursolic Acid Against Cytotoxicity Induced by Corticosterone: Role of Protein Kinases
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Ana B. Ramos-Hryb, Nicolle Platt, Andiara E. Freitas, Isabella A. Heinrich, Manuela G. López, Rodrigo B. Leal, Manuella P. Kaster, Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues

    Neuronal hippocampal death can be induced by exacerbated levels of cortisol, a condition usually observed in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous in vitro and in vivo studies showed that ursolic acid (UA) elicits antidepressant and neuroprotective properties. However, the protective effects of UA against glucocorticoid-induced cytotoxicity have never been addressed. Using an in vitro model of hippocampal cellular death induced by elevated levels of corticosterone, we investigated if UA prevents corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 mouse hippocampal derived cells. Concentrations lower than 25 µM UA did not alter cell viability. Co-incubation with UA for 48 h was able to protect HT22 cells from the reduction on cell viability and from the increase in apoptotic cells induced by corticosterone. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), but not phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K), by using the pharmacological the inhibitors: H-89, chelerythrine, KN-62, and LY294002, respectively totally abolished the cytoprotective effects of UA. Finally, UA abrogated the reduction in phospho-extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) but not in phospho-c-Jun kinases induced by corticosterone. These results indicate that the protective effect of UA against the cytotoxicity induced by corticosterone in HT22 cells may involve PKA, PKC, CaMKII, and ERK1/2 activation. The cytoprotective potential of UA against corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity and its ability to modulate intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival suggest that UA may be a relevant strategy to manage stress-related disorders such as MDD.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Potassium Channel Kv1.5 Expression Alters During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    I. Bozic, D. Savic, A. Milosevic, M. Janjic, D. Laketa, K. Tesovic, I. Bjelobaba, M. Jakovljevic, N. Nedeljkovic, S. Pekovic, I. Lavrnja

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease with an autoimmune component. It was suggested that potassium channels, which are involved in crucial biological functions may have a role in different diseases, including MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). It was shown that voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.5 are responsible for fine-tuning in the immune physiology and influence proliferation and differentiation in microglia and astrocytes. Here, we explored the cellular distribution of the Kv1.5 channel, together with its transcript and protein expression in the male rat spinal cord during different stages of EAE. Our results reveal a decrease of Kv1.5 transcript and protein level at the peak of disease, where massive infiltration of myeloid cells occurs, together with reactive astrogliosis and demyelination. Also, we revealed that the presence of this channel is not found in infiltrating macrophages/microglia during EAE. It is interesting to note that Kv1.5 channel is expressed only in resting microglia in the naïve animals. Predominant expression of Kv1.5 channel was found in the astrocytes in all experimental groups, while some vimentin+ cells, resembling macrophages, are devoid of Kv1.5 expression. Our results point to the possible link between Kv1.5 channel and the pathophysiological processes in EAE.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Transplantation of NSCs Promotes the Recovery of Cognitive Functions by Regulating Neurotransmitters in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Mei-ling Luo, Lu Pan, Li Wang, Hai-yan Wang, Sen Li, Zai-yun Long, Lin Zeng, Yuan Liu

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) may be a potential strategy for traumatic brain injury treatment (TBI) due to their intrinsic advantages, such as cell replacement, secretion of neurotrophins and formation of functional synapses with host. However the underlying effects of transplanted NSCs on host micro-environment still need to be further elucidated. In this manuscript the effects of NSCs on release of neurotransmitter, survival of hippocampal neurons, reactivity of astrocytes and recovery of cognitive function after TBI were observed. The NSCs were isolated from cortex of neonatal Sprague–Dawley rat and then transplanted into injured brain regions caused by free-weight drop. The proliferation of astrocytes around injured sites were examined by GFAP immunofluorescent staining on 3, 7, 14 days after injury. The survival of neurons at CA1 regions of hippocampus toward contused regions was observed by HE staining on 3 and 14 days post-injury. The content of glutamic acid (Glu) and GABA in hippocampal tissues was examined on 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days after injury by ELISA. On third day post-injury, hippocampal-dependent spatial memory was measured for 5 days without intermittent. NSCs in culture have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into different phenotypes of neural cells. After transplantation of NSCs, the proliferation of astrocytes around injured site was significantly inhibited compared to the injured group. At the same time the survival of neurons in hippocampal CA1 region were much more than those in injured group on 14 days post-injury. Meanwhile, the cognitive functions in NSC transplanted group was remarkably improved compared with injured group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, NSCs transplantation dramatically inhibited the release of Glu and maintained the content of GABA in injured hippocampal tissues on 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days post-injury, which was of difference in statistics (p < 0.05). NSCs transplantation can effectively alleviate the formation of glial scar, enhance the survival of hippocampal neurons and improve cognitive function defects in rats with TBI. The underlying mechanism may be related to their effects on inhibiting the release of Glu and maintaining the content of GABA, so as to down-regulate excitotoxicity of neurotransmitter and improve the micro-environment in injured sites.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Paeoniflorin Alleviates H 2 O 2 -Induced Oxidative Injury Through Down-Regulation of MicroRNA-135a in HT-22 Cells
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Ailing Zhai, Zeng Zhang, Xiangjuan Kong

    Paeoniflorin (PF) has been reported to possess neuroprotective influences on cognitive dysfunction illness. In current research, we attempted to probe into the protective influences of PF against H2O2-induced damage and the underlying regulating mechanisms on hippocampal HT-22 cells. HT-22 cells were pretreated with PF, and then induced by H2O2. Afterwards, the influences of PF pretreatment were examined using CCK-8 assay, apoptosis assay, western blot and ROS assay, respectively. In addition, the expression of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) was analyzed and altered by qRT-PCR and cell transfection, respectively. After overexpression of miR-135a, the effects of miR-135a mimic on cell functions were detected again. Moreover, influences of H2O2, PF and miR-135a overexpression on JAK2/STAT3 and ERK1/2 signal pathways were further investigated. Further experiments verified that PF pretreatment alleviated H2O2-induced oxidative stress through increasing cell viability, inhibiting cell apoptosis, reducing ROS generation and activating JAK2/STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. Besides, expression of miR-135a was declined by PF pretreatment. Whereas, miR-135a mimic abrogated the protective effects triggered by PF pretreatment. These results indicated that PF can alleviate H2O2-induced oxidative stress by down-regulation of miR-135a via activation of JAK2/STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • PKC Mediates LPS-Induced IL-1β Expression and Participates in the Pro-inflammatory Effect of A 2A R Under High Glutamate Concentrations in Mouse Microglia
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Sheng-Yu Fu, Ren-Ping Xiong, Yan Peng, Zhuo-Hang Zhang, Xing Chen, Yan Zhao, Ya-Lei Ning, Nan Yang, Yuan-Guo Zhou, Ping Li

    Pathogens such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) play an important role in promoting the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in response to infection or damage in microglia. However, whether different signalling pathways regulate these two inflammatory factors remains unclear. The protein kinase C (PKC) family is involved in the regulation of inflammation, and our previous research showed that the activation of the PKC pathway played a key role in the LPS-induced transformation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) from anti-inflammatory activity to pro-inflammatory activity under high glutamate concentrations. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the role of PKC in the LPS-induced production of these inflammatory cytokines in mouse primary microglia. GF109203X, a specific PKC inhibitor, inhibited the LPS-induced expression of IL-1β messenger ribonucleic acid and intracellular protein in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 5 µM GF109203X prevented LPS-induced IL-1β expression but did not significantly affect LPS-induced TNF-α expression. PKC promoted IL-1β expression by regulating the activity of NF-κB but did not significantly impact the activity of ERK1/2. A2AR activation by CGS21680, an A2AR agonist, facilitated LPS-induced IL-1β expression through the PKC pathway at high glutamate concentrations but did not significantly affect LPS-induced TNF-α expression. Taken together, these results suggest a new direction for specific intervention with LPS-induced inflammatory factors in response to specific signalling pathways and provide a mechanism for A2AR targeting, especially after brain injury, to influence inflammation by interfering with A2AR.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Pioglitazone Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative Stress, Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss and Neurobehavioral Impairment by Activating Nrf2/ARE/HO-1
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Aya Zakaria, Mona Rady, Laila Mahran, Khaled Abou-Aisha

    The aim of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective potential of pioglitazone via activation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 signaling pathway in chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration mouse model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After assessing spatial memory, anxiety and motor-coordination, TH+ neurons in substantia nigra (SN) were counted. The oxidative stress marker carbonyl protein levels and HO-1 enzyme activity were also evaluated. RT-qPCR was conducted to detect HO-1, Nrf2 and NF-κp65 mRNA expression levels and Nrf2 transcriptional activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) of HO-1 was investigated. Pioglitazone ameliorated LPS-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss, as well as mitigated neurobehavioral impairments. It enhanced Nrf2 mRNA expression, and augmented Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 pathway activation by amplifying HO-1 mRNA expression. Moreover, it induced a significant decrease in NF-κB p65 mRNA expression, while reducing carbonyl protein levels and restoring the HO-1 enzyme activity. Interestingly, LPS induced Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) of HO-1 activation, ultimately resulting in slight enhanced HO-1 mRNA expression. However, LPS elicited decrease in HO-1 enzyme activity. Zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX) administrated with pioglitazone abolished its effects in the LPS mouse model. The study results demonstrate that coordinated activation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 pathway defense mechanism by the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone mediated its neuroprotective effects.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Bexarotene Attenuates Focal Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury via the Suppression of JNK/Caspase-3 Signaling Pathway
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Hailin Liu, Shengwei Liu, Xiaocui Tian, Qian Wang, Jiangyan Rao, Yucun Wang, Fei Xiang, Hang Zheng, Lu Xu, Zhi Dong

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is implicated not only in chronic degenerative neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, but also in acute brain disorders, including traumatic brain injury. Bexarotene, a selective agonist of the retinoid X receptor, has been reported to enhance markedly the expression of APOE. Previous studies have indicated that bexarotene exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke by modulating the peripheral immune response and autophagy. However, the role of this drug in neuronal apoptosis and the potential mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated. The present study employed transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (t-MCAO) as a model of acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The experiments were performed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice and APOE gene knockout (APOE-KO) mice. After t-MCAO, mice received intraperitoneal injection of bexarotene (5 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the vehicle. The outcome measurements included neurological deficits, learning ability, spatial memory, infarct volume, histopathology, magnitude of apoptosis, and the level of expression of proteins of the JNK/caspase-3 signaling pathway. The obtained results demonstrated that bexarotene administration significantly improved neurological function, learning ability, and spatial memory in C57BL/6 mice, but not in APOE-KO mice. Infarct volume, tissue damage, neuronal apoptosis rate, and the expression of proteins involved in the JNK/caspase-3 signaling pathway were markedly increased after t-MCAO in both C57BL/6 and APOE-KO mice. Importantly, bexarotene treatment significantly ameliorated all these changes in C57BL/6, but not in APOE-KO mice. In conclusion, bexarotene markedly alleviates the neurological deficits, improves the histological outcome, and inhibits cell apoptosis in mice after t-MCAO. This effect is mediated, at least in part, by up-regulation of APOE. Thus, bexarotene may be a candidate drug for the treatment of cerebral ischemia patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Angiopoietin-1 Protects Spinal Cord Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Autophagy in Rats
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Jian Yin, Zhaoyang Yin, Bin Wang, Chao Zhu, Chao Sun, Xinhui Liu, Ge Gong

    Spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion (SCIR) injury can induce autophagy, which is involved in the survival of neurons. However, whether autophagy plays a neuroprotective or a detrimental role in SCIR injury remains controversial. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), an endothelial growth factor, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. The present study aimed to explore the neuroprotective mechanisms of Ang-1 in neuronal cells in a rat model of SCIR injury in vivo. Ang-1 protein and rapamycin were injected intrathecally. Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scoring and hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to assess the degree of SCIR injury. Proteins that reflected the level of autophagy expression, such as Beclin-1 and LC3, were evaluated by western blotting. The results indicated that SCIR injury resulted in loss in lower limb motor function. Ang-1 protein inhibited the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3, which improved the BBB score and alleviated spinal cord injury. In contrast, rapamycin, an autophagy activator, caused the opposite effect. This study provides evidence that Ang-1 plays a neuroprotective role by inhibiting of autophagy expression in SCIR injury. Overall, findings could be useful for the treatment of SCIR injury.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Dysregulated Transcription Factor TFAP2A After Peripheral Nerve Injury Modulated Schwann Cell Phenotype
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Fuchao Zhang, Xiaokun Gu, Sheng Yi, Hui Xu

    Transcription factors regulate the transcriptions and expressions of numerous target genes and direct a variety of physiological and pathological activities. To obtain a better understanding of the involvement of transcription factors during peripheral nerve repair and regeneration, significantly differentially expressed genes coding for transcription factors in rat sciatic nerves after sciatic nerve crush injury were identified. A total of 9 transcription factor genes, including GBX2, HIF3A, IRF8, LRRC63, SNAI3, SPIB, TBX21, TFAP2A, and ZBTB16 were identified to be commonly differentially expressed at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after nerve injury. TFAP2A, a gene encoding transcription factor activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha, was found to be critical in the regulatory network. PCR validation and immunohistochemistry staining of injured rat sciatic nerves showed that TFAP2A expression was significantly up-regulated in the Schwann cells after nerve injury for at least 2 weeks. Schwann cells transfected with TFAP2A-siRNA exhibited elevated proliferation rate and migration ability, suggesting that TFAP2A suppressed Schwann cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, our study provided a global overview of the dynamic changes of transcription factors after sciatic nerve injury, discovered key transcription factors for the regeneration process, and deepened the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Disruption of Striatal-Enriched Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Signaling Might Contribute to Memory Impairment in a Mouse Model of Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Man-man Zong, Hong-mei Yuan, Xue He, Zhi-qiang Zhou, Xiao-dong Qiu, Jian-jun Yang, Mu-huo Ji

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a potentially irreversible acute cognitive dysfunction with unclear mechanism. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific phosphatase which normally opposes synaptic strengthening by regulating key signaling molecules involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function. Thus, we hypothesized that abnormal STEP signaling pathway was involved in sepsis-induced cognitive impairment evoked by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) injection. The levels of STEP, phosphorylation of GluN2B (pGluN2B), the kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), synaptophysin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum were determined at the indicated time points. In the present study, we found that STEP levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum following LPS injection, which might resulted from the disruption of the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Notably, a STEP inhibitor TC-2153 treatment alleviated sepsis-induced memory impairment by increasing phosphorylation of GluN2B and ERK1/2, CREB/BDNF, and PSD95. In summary, our results support the key role of STEP in sepsis-induced memory impairment in a mouse model of SAE, whereas inhibition of STEP may provide a novel therapeutic approach for this disorder and possible other neurodegenerative diseases.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Initiation and Transmission of α-Synuclein Pathology in Parkinson’s Disease
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Alex Mazurskyy, Jason Howitt

    The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves the accumulation of aggregated forms of α-synuclein in the body. The location for the initiation of misfolded forms of α-synuclein is now a contentious issue, what was once thought to be a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) now appears to involve multiple organs in the body. In particular, the two regions in the body where the nervous system is exposed to the environment, the olfactory bulb and the enteric nervous system, are now thought to play an important role in the initial phase of the disease. Epidemiological studies point to the gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix, as a potential site for the misfolding and transmission of α-synuclein, with the vagus nerve providing a conduit between the gut and brain. A growing body of animal studies also support this pathway, implicating the transmission of pathological α-synuclein from outside the CNS in the development of PD.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Story of Nanoparticles in Differentiation of Stem Cells into Neural Cells
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Vajihe Asgari, Amir Landarani-Isfahani, Hossein Salehi, Noushin Amirpour, Batool Hashemibeni, Saghar Rezaei, Hamid Bahramian

    Stem cells have been long looked at as possible therapeutic vehicles in regenerative medicine largely due to their multi-lineage differentiation potential and paracrine actions. Therefore, development of new procedures for the differentiation of stem cells into different cell types holds great potential for opening new opportunities in regenerative medicine. In addition to various methods for inducing stem cell differentiation, the utilization of nanomaterials for differentiation of stem cells has recently received considerable attention and has become a potential tool for such purpose. Multiple lines of evidence revealed that nanomaterial-based scaffolds, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), and biodegradable polymers have led to significant progress in regulation of stem cell differentiation. Several studies indicated that different NPs including selenium, gold, graphene quantum dots (QDs) and silica could be employed for the regulation of differentiation of stem cells such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In addition, magnetic core–shell NPs could be applied for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. Taken together, these findings suggested that NPs are potential candidates which could be utilized for the differentiation of stem cells into various cell types such as neural cells. Herein, we summarized the application of NPs for differentiation of stem cells into various cells in particular neural cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Icariin Ameliorates Amyloid Pathologies by Maintaining Homeostasis of Autophagic Systems in Aβ 1–42 -Injected Rats
    Neurochem. Res. (IF 2.782) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Xia Jiang, Lin-Lin Chen, Zhou Lan, Fan Xiong, Xiang Xu, Yang-Yang Yin, Ping Li, Ping Wang

    Macroautophagy, a sole pathway for dysfunctional organelles or aggregated proteins turnover, has been implicated in the early development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have found that reversal of autophagy dysfunction in APP transgenic mice ameliorates amyloid pathologies. Icariin (ICA), the main component from traditional Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., can reduce accumulations of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we explored the effects of ICA on autophagy-lysosomal pathway in intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of human Aβ1–42 peptide rats. We demonstrated that feeding the rats with ICA (30 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg rat, per os) for 4 weeks rescued the Aβ1–42-induced spatial memory impairments, reduced endogenous rat Aβ42 tested by ELISA and decreased Aβ accumulation using 6E10 antibody. Furthermore, Aβ1–42 induced strong autophagy response, however ICA decreased the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/LC3I, Beclin1, Cathepsin D (Cat D) and brain lysosomal Cathepsin D activity. We also observed that ICA enhanced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). In addition, ICA arrested Aβ1–42-induced cells loss, mitochondrias damage, nuclear membranes unclear and abundant nucleas chromatin agglutinates in hippocampus, lessened the expression of Cleaved-caspase-3, brain oxidative stress, astroglial activation. These findings suggest that ICA can ameliorate amyloid pathologies with improving autophagy-lysosome function and Chinese materia medica may be potential for AD treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
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