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  • Population and Environment.
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Alex de Sherbinin,David Carr,Susan Cassels,Leiwen Jiang

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The State and Future of Antarctic Environments in a Global Context
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Steven L. Chown, Cassandra M. Brooks

    Antarctica and the Southern Ocean comprise a critical part of the Earth System. Their environments are better understood than ever before, yet the region remains poorly considered among international agreements to improve the state of the global environment. In part the situation owes to isolated regional regulation within the Antarctic Treaty System, and in part to the dated notion that Antarctica

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Island Biodiversity in the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    James C. Russell, Christoph Kueffer

    Biodiversity on marine islands is characterized by unique biogeographic, phylogenetic and functional characteristics. Islands hold a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity, and they have also experienced a disproportionate loss of it. Following human contact, island biodiversity has sustained negative human impacts increasing in rate and magnitude as islands transitioned from primary through

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Mammal Conservation: Old Problems, New Perspectives, Transdisciplinarity, and the Coming of Age of Conservation Geopolitics
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    David W. Macdonald

    I review the shocking current status of terrestrial mammals and then describe an approach to solving it, embracing a continuum of spatial and intellectual scales, from groundedness to geopolitics. Starting with an illustrative arena, the interface between agriculture and wildlife, I then outline the litany of threats to mammals and some successful approaches to their conservation, and document some

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • The State of the World's Mangrove Forests: Past, Present, and Future
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Daniel A. Friess, Kerrylee Rogers, Catherine E. Lovelock, Ken W. Krauss, Stuart E. Hamilton, Shing Yip Lee, Richard Lucas, Jurgenne Primavera, Anusha Rajkaran, Suhua Shi

    Intertidal mangrove forests are a dynamic ecosystem experiencing rapid changes in extent and habitat quality over geological history, today and into the future. Climate and sea level have drastically altered mangrove distribution since their appearance in the geological record ∼75 million years ago (Mya), through to the Holocene. In contrast, contemporary mangrove dynamics are driven primarily by anthropogenic

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Food Loss and Waste: Measurement, Drivers, and Solutions
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Edward S. Spang, Laura C. Moreno, Sara A. Pace, Yigal Achmon, Irwin Donis-Gonzalez, Wendi A. Gosliner, Madison P. Jablonski-Sheffield, Md Abdul Momin, Tom E. Quested, Kiara S. Winans, Thomas P. Tomich

    It has been estimated that one-third of global food is lost or wasted, entailing significant environmental, economic, and social costs. The scale and impact of food loss and waste (FLW) has attracted significant interest across sectors, leading to a relatively recent proliferation of publications. This article synthesizes existing knowledge in the literature with a focus on FLW measurement, drivers

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Sustainable Living: Bridging the North-South Divide in Lifestyles and Consumption Debates
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Bronwyn Hayward, Joyashree Roy

    This article presents a critical assessment of the literature on sustainable consumption in the global North and South, in the context of accelerated and megascale transitions that are needed across all human activities, in ways that “leave no one behind,” as envisaged in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It challenges two dominant, related research foci: an emphasis on the individual

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Status, Institutions, and Prospects for Global Capture Fisheries
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Christopher Costello, Daniel Ovando

    We compile global data to examine the current status, trends, threats, and opportunities in the world's wild-capture fisheries. We find that global fisheries have largely diverged—well-managed, often industrial fisheries tend to be in reasonably good health, while coastal fisheries, often from low-governance regions, tend to be in poor health. Good governance seems to play a central role, and we summarize

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Illegal Wildlife Trade: Scale, Processes, and Governance
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Michael ‘t Sas-Rolfes, Daniel W.S. Challender, Amy Hinsley, Diogo Veríssimo, E.J. Milner-Gulland

    Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) has increased in profile in recent years as a global policy issue, largely because of its association with declines in prominent internationally trafficked species. In this review, we explore the scale of IWT, associated threats to biodiversity, and appropriate responses to these threats. We discuss the historical development of IWT research and highlight the uncertainties

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Pete Smith, Justin Adams, David J. Beerling, Tim Beringer, Katherine V. Calvin, Sabine Fuss, Bronson Griscom, Nikolas Hagemann, Claudia Kammann, Florian Kraxner, Jan C. Minx, Alexander Popp, Phil Renforth, Jose Luis Vicente Vicente, Saskia Keesstra

    Land-management options for greenhouse gas removal (GGR) include afforestation or reforestation (AR), wetland restoration, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), biochar, terrestrial enhanced weathering (TEW), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We assess the opportunities and risks associated with these options through the lens of their potential impacts on ecosystem services (Nature's

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Sanitation for Low-Income Regions: A Cross-Disciplinary Review
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Christopher Hyun, Zachary Burt, Yoshika Crider, Kara L. Nelson, C.S. Sharada Prasad, Swati D.G. Rayasam, William Tarpeh, Isha Ray

    Sanitation research focuses primarily on containing human waste and preventing disease; thus, it has traditionally been dominated by the fields of environmental engineering and public health. Over the past 20 years, however, the field has grown broader in scope and deeper in complexity, spanning diverse disciplinary perspectives. In this article, we review the current literature in the range of disciplines

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Co-Producing Sustainability: Reordering the Governance of Science, Policy, and Practice
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Carina Wyborn, Amber Datta, Jasper Montana, Melanie Ryan, Peat Leith, Brian Chaffin, Clark Miller, Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    Co-production has become a cornerstone of research within the sustainability sciences, motivating collaborations of diverse actors to conduct research in the service of societal and policy change. This review examines theoretical and empirical literature from sustainability science, public administration, and science and technology studies (STS) with the intention of advancing the theory and practice

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Solar Geoengineering: Social Science, Legal, Ethical, and Economic Frameworks
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Jane A. Flegal, Anna-Maria Hubert, David R. Morrow, Juan B. Moreno-Cruz

    Solar geoengineering research in the social sciences and humanities has largely evolved in parallel with research in the natural sciences. In this article, we review the current state of the literature on the ethical, legal, economic, and social science aspects of this emerging area. We discuss issues regarding the framing and futures of solar geoengineering, empirical social science on public views

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Is Natural Capital Really Substitutable?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    François Cohen, Cameron J. Hepburn, Alexander Teytelboym

    The extent to which natural capital can be substituted with manufactured or human capital in production is a key determinant of the possibility of long-run sustainable economic development. We review empirical literature pertaining to the degree of substitutability between natural capital and other forms of capital. We find that most available substitutability estimates do not stand up to careful scrutiny

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Social Synergies, Tradeoffs, and Equity in Marine Conservation Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    David A. Gill, Samantha H. Cheng, Louise Glew, Ernest Aigner, Nathan J. Bennett, Michael B. Mascia

    Biodiversity conservation interventions often aim to benefit both nature and people; however, the social impacts of these interventions remain poorly understood. We reviewed recent literature on the social impacts of four marine conservation interventions to understand the synergies, tradeoffs, and equity (STE) of these impacts, focusing on the direction, magnitude, and distribution of impacts across

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Toward REDD+ Implementation
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Danae Maniatis, Joel Scriven, Inge Jonckheere, Jennifer Laughlin, Kimberly Todd

    After several years of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries) readiness, countries are starting to move toward REDD+ implementation and accessing results-based payments (RBPs). Currently various parallel processes for

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Ecotourism for Conservation?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Amanda L. Stronza, Carter A. Hunt, Lee A. Fitzgerald

    Ecotourism originated in the 1980s, at the dawn of sustainable development, as a way to channel tourism revenues into conservation and development. Despite the “win-win” idea, scholars and practitioners debate the meaning and merits of ecotourism. We conducted a review of 30 years of ecotourism research, looking for empirical evidence of successes and failures. We found the following trends: Ecotourism

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • China's Environment on a Metacoupled Planet
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Jianguo Liu, Andrés Viña, Wu Yang, Shuxin Li, Weihua Xu, Hua Zheng

    China has emerged as a global economic powerhouse after four decades of unprecedented growth. Such growth has generated many environmental challenges with enormous ecological, socioeconomic, and health consequences in China and beyond. Although the overall quality of air and water is starting to improve, both are still below national and international standards. Water shortages are widespread. Biodiversity

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Recent Progress and Emerging Topics on Weather and Climate Extremes Since the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Yang Chen, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Panmao Zhai, Anna Pirani

    Weather and climate extremes impose serious impacts on natural and human systems. In its fifth assessment report (AR5) and a special report [Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX)], the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provided a thorough assessment of observed and projected changes in extremes in a warming climate, with evidenced scientific

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Inequality and the Biosphere
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Maike Hamann, Kevin Berry, Tomas Chaigneau, Tracie Curry, Robert Heilmayr, Patrik J.G. Henriksson, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Amir Jina, Emilie Lindkvist, Yolanda Lopez-Maldonado, Emmi Nieminen, Matías Piaggio, Jiangxiao Qiu, Juan C. Rocha, Caroline Schill, Alon Shepon, Andrew R. Tilman, Inge van den Bijgaart, Tong Wu

    Rising inequalities and accelerating global environmental change pose two of the most pressing challenges of the twenty-first century. To explore how these phenomena are linked, we apply a social-ecological systems perspective and review the literature to identify six different types of interactions (or “pathways”) between inequality and the biosphere. We find that most of the research so far has only

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Religion and Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Willis Jenkins, Evan Berry, Luke Beck Kreider

    Understanding the cultural dimensions of climate change requires understanding its religious aspects. Insofar as climate change is entangled with humans, it is also entangled with all the ways in which religion attends human ways of being. Scholarship on the connections between religion and climate change includes social science research into how religious identity figures in attitudes toward climate

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Diet, Health, and Environment Trilemma
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Michael Clark, Jason Hill, David Tilman

    As populations become more affluent and urbanized, diets are shifting such that they are becoming higher in calories and include more highly processed foods and animal products. These dietary shifts are driving increases in diet-related diseases and are also causing environmental degradation. These linked impacts pose a new key issue for global society—a diet, health, and environment trilemma. Recent

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • 1.5°C Hotspots: Climate Hazards, Vulnerabilities, and Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Carl-Friedrich Schleussner, Delphine Deryng, Sarah D'haen, William Hare, Tabea Lissner, Mouhamed Ly, Alexander Nauels, Melinda Noblet, Peter Pfleiderer, Patrick Pringle, Martin Rokitzki, Fahad Saeed, Michiel Schaeffer, Olivia Serdeczny, Adelle Thomas

    Differentiating the impacts of climate change between 1.5°C and 2°C requires a regional and sector-specific perspective. Whereas for some regions and sectors the difference in climate variables might be indistinguishable from natural variability, other areas especially in the tropics and subtropics will experience significant shifts. In addition to region-specific changes in climatic conditions, vulnerability

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Methane and Global Environmental Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Dave S. Reay, Pete Smith, Torben R. Christensen, Rachael H. James, Harry Clark

    Global atmospheric methane concentrations have continued to rise in recent years, having already more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution. Further environmental change, especially climate change, in the twenty-first century has the potential to radically alter global methane fluxes. Importantly, changes in temperature, precipitation, and net primary production may induce positive climate feedback

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Effects of Tropical Vegetation on Rainfall
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    D.V. Spracklen, J.C.A. Baker, L. Garcia-Carreras, J.H. Marsham

    Vegetation modifies land-surface properties, mediating the exchange of energy, moisture, trace gases, and aerosols between the land and the atmosphere. These exchanges influence the atmosphere on local, regional, and global scales. Through altering surface properties, vegetation change can impact on weather and climate. We review current understanding of the processes through which tropical land-cover

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Terrestrial Carbon Sink
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    T.F. Keenan, C.A. Williams

    Life on Earth comes in many forms, but all life-forms share a common element in carbon. It is the basic building block of biology, and by trapping radiation it also plays an important role in maintaining the Earth's atmosphere at a temperature hospitable to life. Like all matter, carbon can neither be created nor destroyed, but instead is continuously exchanged between ecosystems and the environment

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Social-Ecological Systems Insights for Navigating the Dynamics of the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Belinda Reyers, Carl Folke, Michele-Lee Moore, Reinette Biggs, Victor Galaz

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research offers new theory and evidence to transform sustainable development to better contend with the challenges of the Anthropocene. Four insights from contemporary SES literature on (a) intertwined SES, (b) cross-scale dynamics, (c) systemic tipping points, and (d) transformational change are explored. Based on these insights, shifts in sustainable development practice

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Research On Degrowth
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Giorgos Kallis, Vasilis Kostakis, Steffen Lange, Barbara Muraca, Susan Paulson, Matthias Schmelzer

    Scholars and activists mobilize increasingly the term degrowth when producing knowledge critical of the ideology and costs of growth-based development. Degrowth signals a radical political and economic reorganization leading to reduced resource and energy use. The degrowth hypothesis posits that such a trajectory of social transformation is necessary, desirable, and possible; the conditions of its

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Politics of Climate Change Adaptation
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Nives Dolšak, Aseem Prakash

    Climate action has two pillars: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation faces collective action issues because its costs are focused on specific locations/actors but benefits are global and nonexcludable. Adaptation, in contrast, creates local benefits, and therefore should face fewer collective action issues. However, governance units vary in the types of adaptation policies they adopt. To explain this

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Evolution of the UNFCCC
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Jonathan Kuyper, Heike Schroeder, Björn-Ola Linnér

    This article takes stock of the evolution of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through the prism of three recent shifts: the move away from targeting industrial country emissions in a legally binding manner under the Kyoto Protocol to mandating voluntary contributions from all countries under the Paris Agreement; the shift from the top-down Kyoto architecture to the

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Sustainability Standards: Interactions Between Private Actors, Civil Society, and Governments
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Eric F. Lambin, Tannis Thorlakson

    New partnerships between governments, private companies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are reshaping global environmental governance. In particular, there has been a rise of voluntary sustainability standards in an attempt to manage social and environmental impacts of global supply chains. We analyze the large spectrum of interactions between private, public, and civil society actors around

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • India and Climate Change: Evolving Ideas and Increasing Policy Engagement
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Navroz K. Dubash, Radhika Khosla, Ulka Kelkar, Sharachchandra Lele

    India is a significant player in climate policy and politics. It has been vocal in international climate negotiations, but its role in these negotiations has changed over time. In an interactive relationship between domestic policy and international positions, India has increasingly become a testing ground for policies that internalize climate considerations into development. This article critically

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Transnational Governance for Mining and the Mineral Lifecycle
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Graeme Auld, Michele Betsill, Stacy D. VanDeveer

    This review focuses on transnational governance in the minerals and mining sector. Although several initiatives have emerged to address specific governance challenges in this sector, knowledge of these efforts is piecemeal and little is known about patterns in transnational governance development across this issue area. We address these gaps by reviewing the extant research literature and analyzing

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Economics of 1.5°C Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Simon Dietz, Alex Bowen, Baran Doda, Ajay Gambhir, Rachel Warren

    The economic case for limiting warming to 1.5°C is unclear, due to manifold uncertainties. However, it cannot be ruled out that the 1.5°C target passes a cost-benefit test. Costs are almost certainly high: The median global carbon price in 1.5°C scenarios implemented by various energy models is more than US$100 per metric ton of CO2 in 2020, for example. Benefits estimates range from much lower than

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Mapping Sea-Level Change in Time, Space, and Probability
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Benjamin P. Horton, Robert E. Kopp, Andra J. Garner, Carling C. Hay, Nicole S. Khan, Keven Roy, Timothy A. Shaw

    Future sea-level rise generates hazards for coastal populations, economies, infrastructure, and ecosystems around the world. The projection of future sea-level rise relies on an accurate understanding of the mechanisms driving its complex spatio-temporal evolution, which must be founded on an understanding of its history. We review the current methodologies and data sources used to reconstruct the

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Multiple UAVs for Mapping: A Review of Basic Modeling, Simulation, and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Tarek I. Zohdi

    The goal of this article is to provide an introduction to basic modeling and simulation techniques for multiple interacting unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), called swarms, for applications in mapping. The target audience is senior students and young scientists. This review will serve to inform, orient, and direct someone already educated in environmental science but unaware of multiple-UAV interaction

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Scenario Development and Foresight Analysis: Exploring Options to Inform Choices
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Keith Wiebe, Monika Zurek, Steven Lord, Natalia Brzezina, Gnel Gabrielyan, Jessica Libertini, Adam Loch, Resham Thapa-Parajuli, Joost Vervoort, Henk Westhoek

    In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, where social and environmental change occur ever more rapidly, careful futures-oriented thinking becomes crucial for effective decision making. Foresight activities, including scenario development, quantitative modeling, and scenario-guided design of policies and programs, play a key role in exploring options to address socioeconomic and environmental

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Colin Hoag, Jens-Christian Svenning

    This review explores what past environmental change in Africa—and African people's response to it—can teach us about how to cope with life in the Anthropocene. Organized around four drivers of change—climate; agriculture and pastoralism; megafauna; and imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism (ICC)—our review zooms in on key regions and debates, including desertification; rangeland degradation; megafauna

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • The Concept of the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Yadvinder Malhi

    The Anthropocene, the concept that the Earth has moved into a novel geological epoch characterized by human domination of the planetary system, is an increasingly prevalent framework for debate both in academia and as a wider cultural and policy zeitgeist. This article reviews the proliferation of literature surrounding this concept. It explores the origins and history of the concept, as well as the

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Debating Unconventional Energy: Social, Political, and Economic Implications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Kate J. Neville, Jennifer Baka, Shanti Gamper-Rabindran, Karen Bakker, Stefan Andreasson, Avner Vengosh, Alvin Lin, Jewellord Nem Singh, Erika Weinthal

    The extraction of unconventional oil and gas—from shale rocks, tight sand, and coalbed formations—is shifting the geographies of fossil fuel production, with complex consequences. Following Jackson et al.’s (1) natural science survey of the environmental consequences of hydraulic fracturing, this review examines social science literature on unconventional energy. After an overview of the rise of unconventional

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Plastic as a Persistent Marine Pollutant
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Boris Worm, Heike K. Lotze, Isabelle Jubinville, Chris Wilcox, Jenna Jambeck

    Synthetic organic polymers—or plastics—did not enter widespread use until the 1950s. By 2015, global production had increased to 322 million metric tons (Mt) year−1, which approaches the total weight of the human population produced in plastic every year. Approximately half is used for packaging and other disposables, 40% of plastic waste is not accounted for in managed landfills or recycling facilities

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Mark Vardy, Michael Oppenheimer, Navroz K. Dubash, Jessica O'Reilly, Dale Jamieson

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) conducts policy-relevant but not policy-prescriptive assessments of climate science. In this review, we engage with some of the key design features, achievements, and challenges that situate and characterize the IPCC as an intergovernmental organization that is tasked with producing global environmental assessments (GEAs). These include the process

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Marked for Life: Epigenetic Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Miriam N. Jacobs, Emma L. Marczylo, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Joëlle Rüegg

    The presence of human-made chemical contaminants in the environment has increased rapidly during the past 70 years. Harmful effects of such contaminants were first reported in the late 1950s in wildlife and later in humans. These effects are predominantly induced by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), chemicals that mimic the actions of endogenous hormones and leave marks at several levels of organization

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Degradation and Recovery in Changing Forest Landscapes: A Multiscale Conceptual Framework
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Jaboury Ghazoul, Robin Chazdon

    Conceptual confusion revolves around how to define, assess, and overcome land, ecosystem, and landscape degradation. Common elements link degradation and recovery processes, offering ways to advance local, regional, and global initiatives to reduce degradation and promote the recovery of ecosystems and landscapes in forest biomes. Biophysical attributes of degradation and recovery can be measured,

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Drivers of Human Stress on the Environment in the Twenty-First Century
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Thomas Dietz

    Human actions are transforming ecosystems across the globe. Six frameworks aid in understanding the forces that drive human stress on the environment and human responses to this stress. Two of them, the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT) model and decomposition analysis, are approaches to analyzing data. Four describe the interrelated system of human

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Linking Urbanization and the Environment: Conceptual and Empirical Advances
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Xuemei Bai, Timon McPhearson, Helen Cleugh, Harini Nagendra, Xin Tong, Tong Zhu, Yong-Guan Zhu

    Urbanization is one of the biggest social transformations of modern time, driving and driven by multiple social, economic, and environmental processes. The impacts of urbanization on the environment are profound, multifaceted and are manifested at the local, regional, and global scale. This article reviews recent advances in conceptual and empirical knowledge linking urbanization and the environment

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Emerging Technologies for Higher Fuel Economy Automobile Standards
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Timothy E. Lipman

    Transportation systems contribute significantly to air pollution and ∼15% globally and ∼25% in the United States to emissions climate-changing gases. In the United States, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for motor vehicles were significantly raised in 2012 for the first time in almost three decades. The standards now call for an average across manufacturers of 54.5 miles per gallon

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • The Future of Low-Carbon Electricity
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Jeffery B. Greenblatt, Nicholas R. Brown, Rachel Slaybaugh, Theresa Wilks, Emma Stewart, Sean T. McCoy

    We review future global demand for electricity and major technologies positioned to supply it with minimal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: renewables (wind, solar, water, geothermal, and biomass), nuclear fission, and fossil power with CO2 capture and sequestration. We discuss two breakthrough technologies (space solar power and nuclear fusion) as exciting but uncertain additional options for low-net

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Organic and Conventional Agriculture: A Useful Framing?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Carol Shennan, Timothy J. Krupnik, Graeme Baird, Hamutahl Cohen, Kelsey Forbush, Robin J. Lovell, Elissa M. Olimpi

    In this review, we examine the debate surrounding the role for organic agriculture in future food production systems. Typically represented as a binary organic–conventional question, this debate perpetuates an either/or mentality. We question this framing and examine the pitfalls of organic–conventional cropping systems comparisons. The review assesses current knowledge about how these cropping systems

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Smallholder Agriculture and Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Avery S. Cohn, Peter Newton, Juliana D.B. Gil, Laura Kuhl, Leah Samberg, Vincent Ricciardi, Jessica R. Manly, Sarah Northrop

    Hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people directly depend on smallholder farming systems. These people now face a changing climate and associated societal responses. We use mapping and a literature review to juxtapose the climate fate of smallholder systems with that of other agricultural systems and population groups. Limited direct evidence contrasts climate impact risk in smallholder agricultural

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • The Future Promise of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Integration: A Sociotechnical Review and Research Agenda
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Benjamin K. Sovacool, Jonn Axsen, Willett Kempton

    Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) describes various approaches to link the electric power system and the transportation system in ways that may benefit both. VGI includes systems that treat plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) as controllable load with a unidirectional flow of electricity, such as “smart” or “controlled” charging or time-of-use (TOU) pricing. VGI typically encompasses vehicle-to-grid (V2G)

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Technology and Engineering of the Water-Energy Nexus
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Prakash Rao, Robert Kostecki, Larry Dale, Ashok Gadgil

    The global demand for water and energy is projected to grow, but there likely will be significant constraints in our ability to keep meeting it. These constraints will be imposed partly by the interdependence between water, energy, and climate change. If left unchecked, these connections can exacerbate water and energy shortages and aggravate climate change impacts: Energy is used to supply and treat

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Landscape Approaches: A State-of-the-Art Review
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Bas Arts, Marleen Buizer, Lumina Horlings, Verina Ingram, Cora van Oosten, Paul Opdam

    Landscape approaches have become en vogue in the past couple of decades. Originating from nineteenth-century landscape geography, this renewed popularity since the 1980s is fueled by debates on—among others—nature conservation, landscape restoration, ecosystem services, competing claims on land and resources, sectorial land-use policies, sustainable development, and sense of place. This review illuminates

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Matthew A. Cole, Robert J.R. Elliott, Liyun Zhang

    We review the literature that investigates the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the environment. After reviewing the theoretical literature, we discuss two broad strands of research. First, the impact of environmental regulations on the choice of plant location and second, the impact of FDI on the emissions of various pollutants and the related question of whether we can observe

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Land Tenure Transitions in the Global South: Trends, Drivers, and Policy Implications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Thomas K. Rudel, Monica Hernandez

    Clouded titles to land in remote rural areas of the Global South have recently prevented increases in agricultural productivity and payments for environmental services (PES), so making land tenure more secure has become a priority for policymakers. The historical dynamics surrounding land tenure transitions suggest a strategy for reform. Colonial regimes stripped indigenous peoples of most rights to

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Ecosystem Services from Transborder Migratory Species: Implications for Conservation Governance
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Laura López-Hoffman, Charles C. Chester, Darius J. Semmens, Wayne E. Thogmartin, M. Sofia Rodríguez-McGoffin, Robert Merideth, Jay E. Diffendorfer

    This article discusses the conservation challenges of volant migratory transborder species and conservation governance primarily in North America. Many migratory species provide ecosystem service benefits to society. For example, insectivorous bats prey on crop pests and reduce the need for pesticides; birds and insects pollinate food plants; and birds afford recreational opportunities to hunters and

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Legacies of Historical Human Activities in Arctic Woody Plant Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Signe Normand, Toke T. Høye, Bruce C. Forbes, Joseph J. Bowden, Althea L. Davies, Bent V. Odgaard, Felix Riede, Jens-Christian Svenning, Urs A. Treier, Rane Willerslev, Juliane Wischnewski

    Recent changes in arctic vegetation might not be driven by climate change alone. Legacies of human activities have received little attention as a contributing factor. We examine the extent to which traditional human activities (hunting, herding, fire, wood extraction, and agriculture) have had lasting effects on arctic woody plant communities and therefore might continue to affect biome-wide responses

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Toward the Next Generation of Assessment
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Katharine J. Mach, Christopher B. Field

    Through integrative assessment, experts evaluate the state of knowledge on complex problems relevant to societies. In this review, we take stock of recent advances and challenges, rooting our analysis in climate change assessment. In particular, we consider four priorities in assessment: (a) integrating diverse evidence including quantitative and qualitative results and understanding, (b) applying

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Sustainability Transitions Research: Transforming Science and Practice for Societal Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Derk Loorbach, Niki Frantzeskaki, Flor Avelino

    The article describes the field of sustainability transitions research, which emerged in the past two decades in the context of a growing scientific and public interest in large-scale societal transformation toward sustainability. We describe how different scientific approaches and methodological positions explore diverse types of transitions and provide the basis for multiple theories and models for

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Attribution of Weather and Climate Events
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Friederike E.L. Otto

    Within the past decade, the attribution of extreme weather and climate events has emerged from a theoretical possibility into a subfield of climate science in its own right, providing scientific evidence on the role of anthropogenic climate change in individual extreme weather events, on a regular basis and using a range of approaches. Different approaches and thus different framings of the attribution

    更新日期:2017-10-17
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