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  • Advances in additive manufacturing of metal-based functionally graded materials
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Ashley Reichardt; Andrew A. Shapiro; Richard Otis; R. Peter Dillon; John Paul Borgonia; Bryan W. McEnerney; Peter Hosemann; Allison M. Beese

    Over the 2010s technological improvements allowed metal additive manufacturing to graduate from a prototyping tool to a widespread, full-scale manufacturing process. Among the capabilities still under development, however, is the ability to locally tailor alloy composition and properties to fabricate bulk, complex geometry functionally graded materials (FGMs), eliminating the need for dissimilar-metal welds and joints. The challenge of compositional grading involves overcoming chemical, metallurgical, and thermal property differences to achieve a continuous structure between a wide range of selected combinations of alloys. In this review, examples are discussed of fabricating FGMs joining a variety of combinations of stainless, nickel, titanium and copper alloys, and FGMs joining metals to ceramics and metal-matrix composites. The change in design strategy enabled by practical FGMs may lead to effective use of biomimetic designs that are both much more efficient as well as aesthetically pleasing.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Model-driven design of bioactive glasses: from molecular dynamics through machine learning
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Maziar Montazerian, Edgar D. Zanotto, John C. Mauro

    Research in bioactive glasses (BGs) has traditionally been performed through trial-and-error experimentation. However, several modelling techniques will accelerate the discovery of new BGs as part of the ongoing endeavour to ‘decode the glass genome.’ Here, we critically review recent publications applying molecular dynamics simulations, machine learning approaches, and other modelling techniques for understanding BGs. We argue that modelling should be utilised more frequently in the design of BGs to achieve properties such as high bioactivity, high fracture strength and toughness, low density, and controlled morphology. Another challenge is modelling the biological response to biomaterials, such as their ability to foster protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and bactericidal effects. The development of databases integrated with robust computational tools will be indispensable to these efforts. Future challenges are thus envisaged in which the compositional design, synthesis, characterisation, and application of BGs can be greatly accelerated by computational modelling.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Selection, processing, properties and applications of ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites, UHTCMCs – a review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Jon Binner, Matt Porter, Ben Baker, Ji Zou, Vinothini Venkatachalam, Virtudes Rubio Diaz, Andrea D'Angio, Prabhu Ramanujam, Tailin Zhang, T. S. R. C. Murthy

    Composites are, in general, a rapidly evolving and growing technical field with a very wide range of applications across the aerospace, defence, energy, medical and transport sectors as a result of their superior mechanical and physical properties. Ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites, UHTCMCs, are a new subfield within the wider grouping of CMCs that offer applications in rocket and hypersonic vehicle components, particularly nozzles, leading edges and engine components. The design and development of structural materials for use in oxidising and rapid heating environments at temperatures above 1600°C is therefore of both great scientific and engineering importance. UHTC materials are typically considered to be the carbides, nitrides, and borides of the transition metals, but the Group IV compounds (Zr, Hf & Ti) plus TaC are generally considered to be the main focus of research due to the superior melting temperatures and stable high-melting temperature oxide that forms in situ. This review presents the selection, processing, properties, applications, outlook and future directions of UHTCMCs.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Hybrid materials – a review on co-dispersion, processing, patterning, and properties
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Kathy Lu

    Inorganic and organic hybrids are a class of new materials that are purposely designed and arranged at individual species levels (often at nanoscale) to provide new morphological attributes and properties. This review is intended to offer a systematic discussion and understanding of nanoparticle–polymer hybrid materials. First, integration of nanoparticles and organic matrices is explained from two aspects: mixing of nanoparticles and organic matrix materials and in-situ formation of hybrids; the latter includes both in-situ nanoparticle formation and in-situ polymerisation. Traditional processing techniques for hybrids, such as spin coating and casting, are briefly reviewed followed by more detailed discussion on patterning through self-organisation, laser-induced patterning, and nanoimprint lithographic moulding. The extraordinary potentials of hybrids in existing property improvement and new property creation, including mechanical property, electronic property, optical property, catalytic property, magnetic property, and sensing property are presented. Lastly, opportunities and challenges for future hybrid material development are provided.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • A review on mechanistic understanding of MnO2 in aqueous electrolyte for electrical energy storage systems
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Jaewook Shin, Joon Kyo Seo, Riley Yaylian, An Huang, Ying Shirley Meng

    The demand for the large-scale storage system has gained much interest. Among all the criteria for the large-scale electrical energy storage systems (EESSs), low cost ($ k Wh−1) is the focus where MnO2-based electrochemistry can be a competitive candidate. It is notable that MnO2 is one of the few materials that can be employed in various fields of EESSs: alkaline battery, supercapacitor, aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery, and metal-air battery. Yet, the technology still has bottlenecks and is short of commercialisation. Discovering key parameters impacting the energy storage and developing systematic characterisation methods for the MnO2 systems can benefit a wide spectrum of energy requirements. In this review, history, mechanism, bottlenecks, and solutions for using MnO2 in the four EESSs are summarised and future directions involving more in-depth mechanism studies are suggested.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Morphological diversity of AlN nano- and microstructures: synthesis, growth orientations and theoretical modelling
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Hayk H. Nersisyan, Jong Hyeon Lee, Hyun You Kim, Seunhwa Ryu, Bung Uk Yoo

    Recent developments have seen breakthroughs in zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional AlN micro- and nanostructures, such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, thin films and 3D multifold symmetry crystals. The attractive electrical, optical, and thermal properties of AlN make these materials irreplaceable for microelectrochemical systems (MEMS), surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and light emitting diodes (LED). The significant interest in the field of AlN nanostructure synthesis and application encouraged us to summarise the reported data to better understand the physical and chemical aspects of AlN crystal growth processes. Four main topics are covered in this review article: (1) the morphological diversity of AlN nano- and microstructures; (2) formation mechanisms and growth dynamics; (3) theoretical simulation of growth processes based on density functional theory (DFT) and phase field (PF) modelling approaches; (4) application and devices. This article also provides a perspective on future research relevant to AlN micro- and nanostructures.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Review of structural models for the compositional interpretation of metallic glasses
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Chuang Dong, Zi-Jian Wang, Shuang Zhang, Ying-Min Wang

    Composition interpretation of metallic glasses with high glass-forming abilities is an important issue, which relies on insights into their complex atomic structures. With the aim of illustrating the advance in structural modelling of metallic glasses, representative atomic and electronic structural models are summarised in this review, including Bernal’s dense random packing model, Gaskell’s stereochemical model, Miracle’s efficient cluster packing model, Nagel and Tauc’s nearly free electron model, Häussler’s global resonance model, and our cluster-plus-glue-atom and cluster-resonance models. Their capabilities as well as limitations to interpret compositions of good glass formers are focused. With aides of these theoretical models, fairly accurate interpretation and eventually design of metallic glasses with large glass-forming abilities could be envisaged.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • A progress report on the MAB phases: atomically laminated, ternary transition metal borides
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-07-11
    Sankalp Kota, Maxim Sokol, Michel W. Barsoum

    The MAB phases are atomically layered, ternary or quaternary transition metal (M) borides (TMBs), with the general formula (MB)2zAx(MB2)y (z = 1–2; x = 1–2; y = 0–2), whose structures are composed of a transition M-B sublattices interleaved by A-atom (A = Al,Zn) mono- or bilayers. Most of the MAB phases were discovered before the 1990s, but recent discoveries of intriguing magnetocaloric properties, mechanical deformation behaviour, catalytic properties, and high-temperature oxidation resistance has led to their ‘re-discovery’. Herein, MAB phase synthesis is reviewed and their magnetic, electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties are summarized. Because the M-B layers in the MAB phases structurally resemble their corresponding binaries of the same M:B stoichiometry, the effects of the A-layers on properties are discussed. Inconsistencies in the literature are critically assessed to gain insights on the processing-structure-property relations, suggest fruitful avenues for future research, and identify limitations for prospective applications.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Surface engineering and applications of nanodiamonds in cancer treatment and imaging
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-06-26
    H. Lai, M. H. Stenzel, P. Xiao

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as a promising platform for theranostic particles because they unite a spectrum of important properties into a single agent, including facile synthesis, small size, inertness, rich surface functional groups, biocompatibility, stable fluorescence and long fluorescence lifetime. These unique properties have stimulated the application of NDs in cancer treament and imaging. The majority of these applications rely on the rational engineering of the particle surface, as the surface plays a critical role in carrying bioactive molecules, resisting aggregation and constructing composite materials. In this review, recent developments of functionalising NDs for cancer treatment and imaging purposes are discussed. A brief introduction in the structure of NDs and properties of NDs will be given, followed by a summary of various surface functionalisation methods. The latter part is organised in three subsections: NDs coated with bioactive compounds, NDs coated with synthetic polymers and NDs/inorganic composites.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Brazing filler metals
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Matthew Way, Jack Willingham, Russell Goodall

    Brazing is a 5000-year-old joining process which still meets advanced joining challenges today. In brazing, components are joined by heating above the melting point of a filler metal placed between them; on solidification a joint is formed. It provides unique advantages over other joining methods, including the ability to join dissimilar material combinations (including metal-ceramic joints), with limited microstructural evolution; producing joints of relatively high strength which are often electrically and thermally conductive. Current interest in brazing is widespread with filler metal development key to enabling a range of future technologies including; fusion energy, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and nanoelectronics, whilst also assisting the advancement of established fields, such as automotive lightweighting, by tackling the challenges associated with joining aluminium to steels. This review discusses the theory and practice of brazing, with particular reference to filler metals, and covers progress in, and opportunities for, advanced filler metal development.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • A review of Long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) composites
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Haibin Ning, Na Lu, Ahmed Arabi Hassen, Krishan Chawla, Mohamed Selim, Selvum Pillay

    Long fibre-reinforced thermoplastic or long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) composites possess superior specific modulus and strength, excellent impact resistance, and other advantages such as ease of processability, recyclability, and excellent corrosion resistance. These advantages make LFT composites one of the most advanced lightweight engineering materials and enable their increasing use in various applications. This review paper summarises the research and development work that has been conducted on LFT composites since their initial development. Different aspects of LFTs, such as process development, fibre orientation distribution (FOD), fibre length distribution (FLD), and their effects on the mechanical properties of LFT composites are described. The characterisation of the FOD and FLD in the LFT composites using advanced imaging technology such as high-resolution 3D micro-CT scanning technique is summarised. Research and development of LFT hybridisation and LFT additives are also discussed. Finally, conclusions are made and the future outlook of LFT composites is given.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Tailoring the electrical and thermal conductivity of multi-component and multi-phase polymer composites
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-03-01
    Yao Huang, Christopher Ellingford, Chris Bowen, Tony McNally, Daming Wu, Chaoying Wan

    The majority of polymers are electrical and thermal insulators. In order to create electrically active and thermally conductive polymers and composites, the hybrid-filler systems is an effective approach, i.e. combining different types of fillers with different dimensions, in order to facilitate the formation of interconnected conducting networks and to enhance the electrical, thermal, mechanical and processing properties synergistically. By tailoring polymer-filler interactions both thermodynamically and kinetically, the selective localisation of fillers in polymer blends and at the interface of co-continuous polymer blends can enhance the electrical conductivity at a low percolation threshold. Moreover, selective localisation of different filler types in different co-continuous phases can result in multiple functionalities, such as high electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity or electromagnetic interference shielding. In this review, we discuss the latest progress towards the development of electrically active and thermally conductive polymer composites, and highlight the technical challenges and future research directions..

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Review: creep of fibre-reinforced ceramic matrix composites
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Jacques Lamon

    The content of the review covers, first, generalities on creep. Then, the creep of ceramics and fibres, that are key constituents of fibre-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are addressed. The general features of ceramic matrix composites that may influence the creep behaviour and creep rupture are discussed. Emphasis is placed on microstructure–property relationships and load sharing between fibres and matrix that are critical for CMCs. Then, creep tests and the creep behaviour of various types of fibre-reinforced composites are presented. Mechanisms and models are discussed. The influence of various factors including composite structure, constituent properties (matrix and fibres), interfacial properties and environmental conditions are examined. The paper focuses on non-oxide composites like SiC/SiC that received much attention during the last three decades. Creep of oxide ceramics, fibres and composites are addressed more briefly.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Degradation of optical materials in solid-state lighting systems
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-01-27
    M. Yazdan Mehr, A. Bahrami, W. D. van Driel, X. J. Fan, J. L. Davis, G. Q. Zhang

    In this paper, degradation mechanisms of optical materials, used in the light emitting diode (LED)-based products, are reviewed. The LED lighting is one of the fastest technology shifts in human history. Lighting accounts for almost 20% of the global electrical energy use, inferring that replacement of traditional lighting sources with LEDs with higher efficiencies will have major positive implications for the global energy consumption. Organic optical materials are key components in LEDs in the sense that they control the functionality of the device and they have decisive effects on the durability and reliability of LEDs. This paper aims at describing the influences of chemical structure and service conditions on the degradation mechanisms of organic optical materials in LEDs which lead to the lumen depreciation, discolouration, and colour shift of the LED light output. The contributions of different degradation mechanisms of optical and package materials in LED-based products to the lumen depreciation and colour shift are methodically reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Cementite
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    Cementite occurs in steels, in meteorites, possibly at the core of the Earth and has uses in its pure form. It's composition can deviate from Fe3C, but not by much because the Fe–C bond contributes to its cohesion. Its crystallographic unit cell is orthorhombic and primitive, with large lattice parameters, explaining its hardness. Many of its properties are anisotropic. Its single-crystal elastic properties have been investigated using first-principles calculations and by clever experiments. The iron atoms in the cell occupy two types of positions with different point symmetries; the four carbon atoms lodge within prismatic interstices. The structure can develop defects such as dislocations, faults and vacancies. Cementite is metallic and ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature of about 187 ∘C. When alloyed, metallic solutes substitute on to the iron sites; smaller atoms such as boron replace carbon at interstitial sites. This review focuses on cementite as a single phase.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Viscosity of chalcogenide glass-formers
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-01-09
    Petr Koštál, Jana Shánělová, Jiří Málek

    Chalcogenide glass-formers are being used in a remarkable range of various optoelectronic, photonics, photoconducting, sensing and memory device applications. The knowledge of viscosity is essential for the processing of any glass-forming material, in particular for the fabrication of precise optical elements, which is the main application field of chalcogenide glasses. This work presents an extensive collection of all available viscosity data for chalcogenides, including the measurement methods. The Mauro–Yue–Ellison–Gupta–Allan (MYEGA), Arrhenius and VFT equations are used to fit the temperature dependences of viscosity. The viscosity glass transition temperatures, fragilities and apparent activation energies are calculated from these fits. Consequently, these parameters are discussed with regard to the compositional evolution of the respective chalcogenide systems.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Hybrid materials – a review on co-dispersion, processing, patterning, and properties
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 
    Kathy Lu

    Inorganic and organic hybrids are a class of new materials that are purposely designed and arranged at individual species levels (often at nanoscale) to provide new morphological attributes and properties. This review is intended to offer a systematic discussion and understanding of nanoparticle–polymer hybrid materials. First, integration of nanoparticles and organic matrices is explained from two aspects: mixing of nanoparticles and organic matrix materials and in-situ formation of hybrids; the latter includes both in-situ nanoparticle formation and in-situ polymerisation. Traditional processing techniques for hybrids, such as spin coating and casting, are briefly reviewed followed by more detailed discussion on patterning through self-organisation, laser-induced patterning, and nanoimprint lithographic moulding. The extraordinary potentials of hybrids in existing property improvement and new property creation, including mechanical property, electronic property, optical property, catalytic property, magnetic property, and sensing property are presented. Lastly, opportunities and challenges for future hybrid material development are provided.

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • Bast fibres: structure, processing, properties, and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Vahid Sadrmanesh, Ying Chen

    There is an increasing demand for natural fibres worldwide due to their renewable and biodegradable nature. This paper reviews many aspects of natural fibres, focusing on the bast fibres of plants including hemp, flax, kenaf, jute, and ramie. Important characteristics of these plant fibres include physical, mechanical, dielectric, degradation, hygroscopic, and surface properties. These properties are highly variable, depending on both the chemical composition of the fibre and the environmental conditions. Retting and mechanical are the two main fibre extraction methods. When executed properly, retting produces the highest purity fibre; however, it is time-consuming and generates large amounts of wastewater. In contrast, mechanical extraction is faster and more environmentally friendly but results in low-purity fibre. Despite the drawbacks of bast fibres (e.g. low thermal stability, low hygroscopicity, low surface energy), they have been successfully used in insulation, composite, and geotextiles and many further applications are currently being explored.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Modeling dislocations and heat conduction in crystalline materials: atomistic/continuum coupling approaches
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Shuozhi Xu, Xiang Chen

    Dislocations and heat conduction are essential components that influence properties and performance of crystalline materials, yet the modelling of which remains challenging partly due to their multiscale nature that necessitates simultaneously resolving the short-range dislocation core, the long-range dislocation elastic field, and the transport of heat carriers such as phonons with a wide range of characteristic length scale. In this context, multiscale materials modelling based on atomistic/continuum coupling has attracted increased attention within the materials science community. In this paper, we review key characteristics of five representative atomistic/continuum coupling approaches, including the atomistic-to-continuum method, the bridging domain method, the concurrent atomistic–continuum method, the coupled atomistic/discrete-dislocation method, and the quasicontinuum method, as well as their applications to dislocations, heat conduction, and dislocation/phonon interactions in crystalline materials. Through problem-centric comparisons, we shed light on the advantages and limitations of each method, as well as the path towards enabling them to effectively model various material problems in engineering from nano- to mesoscale.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Dewetting mechanisms and their exploitation for the large-scale fabrication of advanced nanophotonic systems
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
    Jongpil Ye, Dmitry Zuev, Sergey Makarov

    Recent progress in submicron- and nano-fabrication technologies has led to the emergence of novel photonic structures such as optical nanoantennas and metasurfaces. Real-life applications of these advanced photonic structures still require substantial improvement of the fabrication processes, in terms of their throughput and cost-effectiveness. Because of its simplicity and effectiveness, dewetting of a thin film has attained increasing attention as a feasible process for improving the scalability and productivity. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms and phenomenologies of dewetting to foster an improved fundamental understanding necessary for the optimisation of the dewetting process condition and template design. We then review the strategies demonstrating the use of templated-dewetting for producing well-aligned arrays of submicron- and nanostructures with great control over their size, shape and arrangement. Recent applications of dewetted structures in advanced nanophotonics are reviewed with an emphasis on the exploitation of dewetting mechanisms. Special attention is given to the fabrication of resonant optical nanoantennas and nanophotonic applications in which high repeatability and throughput are important parameters: sensing, colourisation, photovoltaics and nonlinear light frequency conversion. We expect this review to provide a basis for the use of thin-film dewetting to realise the industrial-level fabrication of various practical advanced photonic systems.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Gold nanotubes and nanorings: promising candidates for multidisciplinary fields
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-12-11
    Umair Shamraiz, Bareera Raza, Hidayat Hussain, Amin Badshah, Ivan R. Green, Farwa Ahmad Kiani, Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    Gold is considered as an inert metal and ranks as one of the noblest among all the metals. Progressive importance associated with nanotechnology offers potential development of new methods and controlled morphologies of the anisotropic gold nanostructures to develop its innovative properties and commensurate applications. The unique gold nanostructures are considered for their potential applications in various fields due to their large surface area, excellent adhesion properties and resistance to corrosion. In this review, we will present recent developments for gold nanorings and nanotubes, under the headings of synthesis, properties and potential applications in various fields.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • A review of Long fibre-reinforced thermoplastic or long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) composites
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Haibin Ning, Na Lu, Ahmed Arabi Hassen, Krishan Chawla, Mohamed Selim, Selvum Pillay

    Long fibre-reinforced thermoplastic or long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) composites possess superior specific modulus and strength, excellent impact resistance, and other advantages such as ease of processability, recyclability, and excellent corrosion resistance. These advantages make LFT composites one of the most advanced lightweight engineering materials and enable their increasing use in various applications. This review paper summarises the research and development work that has been conducted on LFT composites since their initial development. Different aspects of LFTs, such as process development, fibre orientation distribution (FOD), fibre length distribution (FLD), and their effects on the mechanical properties of LFT composites are described. The characterisation of the FOD and FLD in the LFT composites using advanced imaging technology such as high-resolution 3D micro-CT scanning technique is summarised. Research and development of LFT hybridisation and LFT additives are also discussed. Finally, conclusions are made and the future outlook of LFT composites is given.

    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Tailoring the electrical and thermal conductivity of multi-component and multi-phase polymer composites
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-03-01
    Yao Huang, Christopher Ellingford, Chris Bowen, Tony McNally, Daming Wu, Chaoying Wan

    The majority of polymers are electrical and thermal insulators. In order to create electrically active and thermally conductive polymers and composites, the hybrid-filler systems is an effective approach, i.e. combining different types of fillers with different dimensions, in order to facilitate the formation of interconnected conducting networks and to enhance the electrical, thermal, mechanical and processing properties synergistically. By tailoring polymer-filler interactions both thermodynamically and kinetically, the selective localisation of fillers in polymer blends and at the interface of co-continuous polymer blends can enhance the electrical conductivity at a low percolation threshold. Moreover, selective localisation of different filler types in different co-continuous phases can result in multiple functionalities, such as high electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity or electromagnetic interference shielding. In this review, we discuss the latest progress towards the development of electrically active and thermally conductive polymer composites, and highlight the technical challenges and future research directions..

    更新日期:2019-03-01
  • Progress in modelling solidification microstructures in metals and alloys: dendrites and cells from 1700 to 2000
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    Wilfried Kurz, David J. Fisher, Rohit Trivedi

    This is the first account of the history of our understanding of, and ability to model, solidification microstructures. Its objective is to retrace the scientific steps made, from the earliest observations of the eighteenth century to our present-day understanding of dendrites and eutectics. Because of the abundance of information, especially that added during the present century, sub-division was essential: this being the first of three articles. They cover dendrites and cells from 1700 to 2000, and then from 2001 to 2015 and finally eutectics and peritectics from 1700 to 2015. The authors have striven always to identify the genesis of every advance made, being aware that such a compact history must leave many worthy contributions by the wayside; others will doubtless complete the history. This review shows how cross-fertilisation between theory and experiment, and basic and applied research led to both the posing and answering of challenging fundamental questions, thus rewarding society with beneficial results.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Development of strong, oxidation and corrosion resistant nickel-based superalloys: critical review of challenges, progress and prospects
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    R. Darolia

    A comprehensive review of alloying effects in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys for turbine blades and vanes operating in a very aggressive environment of stress, oxidation and corrosion is presented. Exceptionally strong single-crystal superalloys have been developed containing increasing amounts of rhenium and decreasing amounts of chromium resulting in reduced environmental resistance. Interactions in a superalloy containing up to 15 alloying elements are complex and poorly understood. The superalloys can form brittle topologically closed-packed (TCP) phases unless the alloying additions are carefully selected. Development of superalloys with a required balance of strength and environmental resistance has been very challenging. Aluminium, chromium and tantalum are essential alloying elements for strength and environmental protection. Aluminium beyond an upper limit can lead to incipient melting during heat treatment necessary for achieving an optimum size and distribution of the γ′ phase. Rhenium and ruthenium additions contribute significantly to strength, while considerably degrading environmental resistance. Hafnium and yttrium singularly or in combinations improve oxidation and corrosion resistance. Progress in modelling based on thermodynamics, kinetics and regression analysis of prior data to simultaneously predict strength and environmental resistance has been limited since the strengthening and environmental degradation are distinctly separate mechanisms. The paper presents a critical review of alloying studies and provides an insight into future developments.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Biodegradable polyol-based polymers for biomedical applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-08-19
    Queeny Dasgupta, Giridhar Madras, Kaushik Chatterjee

    Polyols are multifunctional alcohols, with branched structures, where each arm terminates with an –OH group. These free –OH groups have been utilised to make a variety of polymer structures ranging from cross-linked to linear to starshaped. This review presents a comprehensive account of polyol-based polymers in biomedical applications. The advantages afforded by polyolbased biodegradable polymers are detailed in this review, alongside a general historical perspective on the development of biodegradable polymers. The major advantage of these polyols is that they are endogenous to the human body. Synthesis strategies and fabrication techniques to mould these materials into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are discussed. Modifications to the conventionally used polyol-based polyesters have been achieved by chemically incorporating drugs/ bioactives or by preparing nanocomposites. This review discusses the physicochemical properties and biological responses of these polymers relevant in biomedical applications and further outlines the need for improving their processability and performance.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Bast fibres: structure, processing, properties, and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Vahid Sadrmanesh, Ying Chen

    There is an increasing demand for natural fibres worldwide due to their renewable and biodegradable nature. This paper reviews many aspects of natural fibres, focusing on the bast fibres of plants including hemp, flax, kenaf, jute, and ramie. Important characteristics of these plant fibres include physical, mechanical, dielectric, degradation, hygroscopic, and surface properties. These properties are highly variable, depending on both the chemical composition of the fibre and the environmental conditions. Retting and mechanical are the two main fibre extraction methods. When executed properly, retting produces the highest purity fibre; however, it is time-consuming and generates large amounts of wastewater. In contrast, mechanical extraction is faster and more environmentally friendly but results in low-purity fibre. Despite the drawbacks of bast fibres (e.g. low thermal stability, low hygroscopicity, low surface energy), they have been successfully used in insulation, composite, and geotextiles and many further applications are currently being explored.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Modeling dislocations and heat conduction in crystalline materials: atomistic/continuum coupling approaches
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Shuozhi Xu, Xiang Chen

    Dislocations and heat conduction are essential components that influence properties and performance of crystalline materials, yet the modelling of which remains challenging partly due to their multiscale nature that necessitates simultaneously resolving the short-range dislocation core, the long-range dislocation elastic field, and the transport of heat carriers such as phonons with a wide range of characteristic length scale. In this context, multiscale materials modelling based on atomistic/continuum coupling has attracted increased attention within the materials science community. In this paper, we review key characteristics of five representative atomistic/continuum coupling approaches, including the atomistic-to-continuum method, the bridging domain method, the concurrent atomistic–continuum method, the coupled atomistic/discrete-dislocation method, and the quasicontinuum method, as well as their applications to dislocations, heat conduction, and dislocation/phonon interactions in crystalline materials. Through problem-centric comparisons, we shed light on the advantages and limitations of each method, as well as the path towards enabling them to effectively model various material problems in engineering from nano- to mesoscale.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Surface modification to control the water wettability of electrospun mats
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Rafael S. Kurusu, Nicole R. Demarquette

    Electrospun mats have many possible applications in which it is important to control their interaction with water: when used as separation membranes, superhydrophobic mats can remove oil from water, whereas when used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, hydrophilic mats present better cell affinity. Frequently, however, the surface properties of the polymer fibers that compose the mat need to be modified and tuned. This review covers the main surface modification techniques used to change the water wettability of mats produced by electrospinning. Some basic aspects of the electrospinning process and wetting theories are presented as a starting point for the discussion, highlighting the common wetting switching mechanism found in highly porous structures like electrospun mats. The surface modification techniques are then classified as post-treatments or one-step modification during electrospinning. The fundamental aspects of each technique are followed by a discussion emphasizing their technical advantages and drawbacks.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Review: creep of fibre-reinforced ceramic matrix composites
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Jacques Lamon

    The content of the review covers, first, generalities on creep. Then, the creep of ceramics and fibres, that are key constituents of fibre-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are addressed. The general features of ceramic matrix composites that may influence the creep behaviour and creep rupture are discussed. Emphasis is placed on microstructure–property relationships and load sharing between fibres and matrix that are critical for CMCs. Then, creep tests and the creep behaviour of various types of fibre-reinforced composites are presented. Mechanisms and models are discussed. The influence of various factors including composite structure, constituent properties (matrix and fibres), interfacial properties and environmental conditions are examined. The paper focuses on non-oxide composites like SiC/SiC that received much attention during the last three decades. Creep of oxide ceramics, fibres and composites are addressed more briefly.

    更新日期:2019-02-15
  • Degradation of optical materials in solid-state lighting systems
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-01-27
    M. Yazdan Mehr, A. Bahrami, W. D. van Driel, X. J. Fan, J. L. Davis, G. Q. Zhang

    In this paper, degradation mechanisms of optical materials, used in the light emitting diode (LED)-based products, are reviewed. The LED lighting is one of the fastest technology shifts in human history. Lighting accounts for almost 20% of the global electrical energy use, inferring that replacement of traditional lighting sources with LEDs with higher efficiencies will have major positive implications for the global energy consumption. Organic optical materials are key components in LEDs in the sense that they control the functionality of the device and they have decisive effects on the durability and reliability of LEDs. This paper aims at describing the influences of chemical structure and service conditions on the degradation mechanisms of organic optical materials in LEDs which lead to the lumen depreciation, discolouration, and colour shift of the LED light output. The contributions of different degradation mechanisms of optical and package materials in LED-based products to the lumen depreciation and colour shift are methodically reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-01-28
  • Cementite
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    Cementite occurs in steels, in meteorites, possibly at the core of the Earth and has uses in its pure form. It's composition can deviate from Fe3CFe3C , but not by much because the Fe–C bond contributes to its cohesion. Its crystallographic unit cell is orthorhombic and primitive, with large lattice parameters, explaining its hardness. Many of its properties are anisotropic. Its single-crystal elastic properties have been investigated using first-principles calculations and by clever experiments. The iron atoms in the cell occupy two types of positions with different point symmetries; the four carbon atoms lodge within prismatic interstices. The structure can develop defects such as dislocations, faults and vacancies. Cementite is metallic and ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature of about 187 ∘C. When alloyed, metallic solutes substitute on to the iron sites; smaller atoms such as boron replace carbon at interstitial sites. This review focuses on cementite as a single phase.

    更新日期:2019-01-13
  • Viscosity of chalcogenide glass-formers
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2019-01-09
    Petr Koštál, Jana Shánělová, Jiří Málek

    Chalcogenide glass-formers are being used in a remarkable range of various optoelectronic, photonics, photoconducting, sensing and memory device applications. The knowledge of viscosity is essential for the processing of any glass-forming material, in particular for the fabrication of precise optical elements, which is the main application field of chalcogenide glasses. This work presents an extensive collection of all available viscosity data for chalcogenides, including the measurement methods. The Mauro–Yue–Ellison–Gupta–Allan (MYEGA), Arrhenius and VFT equations are used to fit the temperature dependences of viscosity. The viscosity glass transition temperatures, fragilities and apparent activation energies are calculated from these fits. Consequently, these parameters are discussed with regard to the compositional evolution of the respective chalcogenide systems.

    更新日期:2019-01-10
  • Dewetting mechanisms and their exploitation for the large-scale fabrication of advanced nanophotonic systems
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
    Jongpil Ye, Dmitry Zuev, Sergey Makarov

    Recent progress in submicron- and nano-fabrication technologies has led to the emergence of novel photonic structures such as optical nanoantennas and metasurfaces. Real-life applications of these advanced photonic structures still require substantial improvement of the fabrication processes, in terms of their throughput and cost-effectiveness. Because of its simplicity and effectiveness, dewetting of a thin film has attained increasing attention as a feasible process for improving the scalability and productivity. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms and phenomenologies of dewetting to foster an improved fundamental understanding necessary for the optimisation of the dewetting process condition and template design. We then review the strategies demonstrating the use of templated-dewetting for producing well-aligned arrays of submicron- and nanostructures with great control over their size, shape and arrangement. Recent applications of dewetted structures in advanced nanophotonics are reviewed with an emphasis on the exploitation of dewetting mechanisms. Special attention is given to the fabrication of resonant optical nanoantennas and nanophotonic applications in which high repeatability and throughput are important parameters: sensing, colourisation, photovoltaics and nonlinear light frequency conversion. We expect this review to provide a basis for the use of thin-film dewetting to realise the industrial-level fabrication of various practical advanced photonic systems.

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • Gold nanotubes and nanorings: promising candidates for multidisciplinary fields
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-12-11
    Umair Shamraiz, Bareera Raza, Hidayat Hussain, Amin Badshah, Ivan R. Green, Farwa Ahmad Kiani, Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    Gold is considered as an inert metal and ranks as one of the noblest among all the metals. Progressive importance associated with nanotechnology offers potential development of new methods and controlled morphologies of the anisotropic gold nanostructures to develop its innovative properties and commensurate applications. The unique gold nanostructures are considered for their potential applications in various fields due to their large surface area, excellent adhesion properties and resistance to corrosion. In this review, we will present recent developments for gold nanorings and nanotubes, under the headings of synthesis, properties and potential applications in various fields.

    更新日期:2018-12-12
  • Metallic composite coatings by electroless technique – a critical review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-08-09
    Jerin K. Pancrecious, Sarah Bill Ulaeto, R. Ramya, T. P. D. Rajan, B. C. Pai

    The development of composite/nanocomposite coatings on various surfaces based on electroless process has much interest among researchers due to their enhanced mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties compared with their metallic or alloy counterparts. These coatings have shown many applications in automotive, aerospace and industrial fields with unique characteristics obtained by the incorporation of secondary particles as reinforcement at micro or nanoscale in the matrix. However, properties of the product depend upon not only the nature of secondary particle used but also the specific characteristics of the metal matrix. This paper critically reviews the recent developments in micro and nanostructured metallic composite coatings formed by electroless coating techniques and retrospect into the various mechanisms of the electroless coating process, its preparation with different metallic systems, properties, and applications in detail.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Wood-based biochar for the removal of potentially toxic elements in water and wastewater: a critical review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Sabry M. Shaheen, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Noha E. E. Hassan, Irshad Bibi, Hailong Wang, Daniel C. W. Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Nanthi Bolan, Jörg Rinklebe

    Recently, biochar has received significant attention, especially for the removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from water and wastewater. No review has been focused on the potential use of wood-based biochar (WB) for the removal of PTEs in water and wastewater. Here, we have critically reviewed the (i) preparation and characterisation of WB; (ii) removal efficiency of WB for PTEs in water with respect to its physicochemical characteristics, biochar/water ratio, pH, and sorption system; (iii) removal mechanisms of PTEs by WB; (iv) fate of the sorbed PTEs onto WB; and (v) recovery of the sorbed PTEs from the resultant sludge of WB. We also discussed the removal of PTEs by engineered/designer WB as compared to pristine WB. This review demonstrates the overarching scientific opportunities for a comprehensive understanding of using WB as an emerging biosorbent and a promising low-cost and effective material for the remediation of PTEs contaminated water.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Size-dependent mechanical responses of metallic glasses
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-05-19
    Yunfeng Shi

    Metallic glasses (MGs) are arguably one of the most exciting metallic systems in the past 30 years, attracting significant research effort and undergoing rapid development. Parallel to research on crystalline metals, the sample size has been exploited as property-tuning parameters for MGs. It has been shown that nanometre-sized MG samples exhibit higher-than-bulk elastic limit, tensile strength, and non-zero tensile ductility. While some of the size-related observations have been generally accepted, others have been poorly understood, even hotly debated. Of particular interests is the importance of sample preparation in experiments and model generation in simulations. Here, we will review how the sample size affects mechanical properties including the elastic, plastic, fracture properties, and fatigue endurance, as well as various proposed size-dependent mechanisms and relevant length scales.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • A review of recent work on discharge characteristics during plasma electrolytic oxidation of various metals
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    Trevor William Clyne, Samuel Christopher Troughton

    The review describes recent progress on understanding and quantification of the various phenomena that take place during plasma electrolytic oxidation, which is in increasing industrial use for production of protective coatings and other surface treatment purposes. A general overview of the process and some information about usage of these coatings are provided in the first part of the review. The focus is then on the dielectric breakdown that repeatedly occurs over the surface of the work-piece. These discharges are central to the process, since it is largely via the associated plasmas that oxidation of the substrate takes place and the coating is created. The details are complex, since the discharge characteristics are affected by a number of processing variables. The inter-relationships between electrical conditions, electrolyte composition, coating microstructure and rates of growth, which are linked via the characteristics of the discharges, have become clearer over recent years and these improvements in understanding are summarised here. There is considerable scope for more effective process control, with specific objectives in terms of coating performance and energy efficiency, and an attempt is made to identify key points that are likely to assist this.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Recent advances in fibre-hybrid composites: materials selection, opportunities and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Yentl Swolfs, Ignaas Verpoest, Larissa Gorbatikh

    Fibre-hybrid composites are composed of two or more fibre types in a matrix. Such composites offer more design freedom than non-hybrid composites. The aim is often to alleviate the drawbacks of one of the fibre types while keeping the benefits of the other. The hybridisation can also lead to synergetic effects or to properties that neither of the constituents possess. Even though fibre-hybrid composites are attractive, they also pose more challenges in terms of materials selection than conventional, single fibre type composites. This review analyses the mechanisms for synergetic effects provides guidance on the fibre and matrix selection and describes recent opportunities and trends. It finishes by describing the current applications, and by contrasting how the industrial use is different from the academic research.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Recent concepts in biodegradable polymers for tissue engineering paradigms: a critical review
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-04-18
    Naseer Iqbal, Abdul Samad Khan, Anila Asif, Muhammad Yar, John W. Haycock, Ihtesham Ur Rehman

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are emerging as future approaches for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases. Numerous clinical conditions exist today and include congenital disorders, trauma, infection, inflammation, and cancer, in which hard and soft tissue damage, organ failure and loss are still not treated effectively. Researchers are constantly developing new biomaterials and tissue-engineered technologies to stimulate tissue regeneration. Various emerging approaches according to organ, tissue, disease and disorder are identified. Irrespective, engineered biomaterials are required to regenerate and ultimately reproduce the original physiological, biological, chemical, and mechanical properties. Biodegradable materials have been used extensively as regenerative therapies. The selection, design, biological and physicochemical properties of these materials are important and must be considered for stimulating tissue growth. In this review, we critique recently developed biodegradable materials for tissue regeneration of some targeted organs e.g., skin, nerves, blood vessels, heart, cornea, trachea, dental/oral structure and bones.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Magnetically triggered release of biologics
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-04-02
    Olivia L. Lanier, Adam G. Monsalve, Peter S. McFetridge, Jon Dobson

    The development of platforms for the controlled release of therapeutic molecules remains a crucial research focus, as controlled release reduces the frequency of administration, minimizes side effects and improves compliance. However, biological conditions and diseases with a progression that exhibits strong temporal dependence, or those that can result in the evolution of tolerance to the therapeutic during continuous exposure, require the development of sophisticated release systems tailored to the needs to the individual and the disease. Thus, there has been emphasis on the development of platforms with remotely controlled release mechanisms. Specifically, magnetically triggered release utilizes magnetic nanoparticles as the remote control modality. Many reviews discuss the magnetically triggered release of small molecule drugs, however, the release of biomacromolecules has not been reviewed. This review examines the limited work on the magnetically triggered release of biomacromolecules and the challenges associated with their delivery. Important material parameters that have been used in this pursuit are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Microfluidic synthesis of functional inorganic micro-/nanoparticles and applications in biomedical engineering
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Nanjing Hao, Yuan Nie, John X. J. Zhang

    Engineered micro-/nanoparticles of various physicochemical properties play significant roles in biomedical engineering from biosensing, in vivo imaging, in vitro diagnosis, drug delivery to therapy. Compared to conventional batch synthesis, microfluidics-based synthesis enables precise reaction control, enhanced mixing, and rapid chemical reactions, allowing for the flow synthesis of particles in a controllable, sustainable, and costsaving manner that is attractive to industry. This review focuses on the recent advances of using microfluidic devices for the flow synthesis of inorganic micro-/nanoparticles with specific properties and their practical applications. We highlight the principle and the merits of emerging microfluidic techniques over conventional methods, discuss chemical reactions performed in the microfluidic reactors, summarize and tabulate strategies for the flow synthesis of inorganic particles, and provide the established applications of materials from these microfluidic systems. The challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives of microfluidics in the synthesis and applications of inorganic micro-/nanoparticles are furthermore discussed.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Magnesium extrusion alloys: a review of developments and prospects
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Zhuoran Zeng, Nicole Stanford, Christopher Huw John Davies, Jian-Feng Nie, Nick Birbilis

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have received a significant interest in the past 20 years, owing to a nonlinearly increasing demand for lightweight structural materials. Magnesium extrusions alloys to date have had lower industrial uptake than their counterpart aluminium extrusion alloys, predominantly due to lower extrudability and formability, tension-compression yield asymmetry and no clear advantage in the specific strength. Any improvement in extrusion alloy properties requires a better understanding of the effects of alloy composition and processing conditions; and how these dictate the final alloy microstructure. This review sheds insightful information on the processing–microstructure–property relationships of extruded magnesium alloys. Historical and recent progress in magnesium extrusion alloys is critically reviewed, including the advances in extrudability, mechanical properties and microstructural characterisation. The challenges associated with the ‘gap’ in properties between the magnesium and aluminium extrusion alloys are identified, and prospects discussed regarding the development of high performance magnesium extrusion alloys.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Microstructural features, mechanical properties and high temperature failures of ferritic to ferritic dissimilar welds
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-01-16
    Peter Mayr, Christian Schlacher, John A. Siefert, Jonathan D. Parker

    Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs) between ferritic steel grades are found extensively in the construction of thermal power plants. The potential combinations and approaches for joining dissimilar ferritic steels are nearly limitless. For DMWs, the difference in alloy composition (specifically chromium and carbide-forming elements) provides the main driving force for carbon diffusion during welding, post-weld heat treatment and long-term service at elevated temperatures. Since the high temperature creep strength of local, carbon-denuded zones can be dramatically reduced from that of the parent or filler material, the service performance of ferritic DMWs can be severely reduced. This article reviews experimental observations on microstructural evolution in dissimilar ferritic welds, activities to describe the observed phenomena by modelling and simulation and discusses the performance of these welds at high temperature. Lastly, a well-engineered approach to the design of ferritic DMWs is discussed in the context of thermal power plants which are subject to damage by creep.

    更新日期:2018-09-30
  • Powder metallurgy of titanium – past, present, and future
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-08-28
    Zhigang Zak Fang, James D. Paramore, Pei Sun, K. S. Ravi Chandran, Ying Zhang, Yang Xia, Fei Cao, Mark Koopman, Michael Free

    Powder metallurgy (PM) of titanium is a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional wrought titanium. This article examines both traditional and emerging technologies, including the production of powder, and the sintering, microstructure, and mechanical properties of PM Ti. The production methods of powder are classified into two categories: (1) powder that is produced as the product of extractive metallurgy processes, and (2) powder that is made from Ti sponge, ingot, mill products, or scrap. A new hydrogen-assisted magnesium reduction (HAMR) process is also discussed. The mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V produced using various PM processes are analyzed based on their dependence on unique microstructural features, oxygen content, porosity, and grain size. In particular, the fatigue properties of PM Ti-6Al-4V are examined as functions of microstructure. A hydrogen-enabled approach for microstructural engineering that can be used to produce PM Ti with wrought-like microstructure and properties is also presented.

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Microwave-assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline binary and ternary metal oxides
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-12-22
    Markus B. Schütz, Lisong Xiao, Thomas Lehnen, Thomas Fischer, Sanjay Mathur

    Interplay of chemistry and nanotechnology has effectively substantiated the ever-expanding horizons of materials chemistry, leading to a paradigm shift in (nano)materials synthesis. Current challenges of chemically processed materials include efforts to redesign synthetic procedures by using less hazardous starting materials, choosing milder reaction conditions, shortening time scale of chemical transformations and most importantly reduction of energy requirements. In this context, successful substitution of classical energy input by microwave radiation is a promising alternative in most fields of common chemical synthesis. This review highlights the latest developments in the synthesis of advanced inorganic materials by microwave-assisted chemical reactions. When compared to conventional convective and conductive heating techniques, microwave irradiation provides efficient internal volumetric heating through generation of localised high temperature zones in the reaction media by direct coupling of microwave energy to the molecules present in the reaction mixture, thereby enabling rapid synthesis with superior yield and both reduced reaction time as well as processing steps.

    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Review: microstructure-development mechanism during sintering in polycrystalline zirconia
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-11-21
    Koji Matsui, Hidehiro Yoshida, Yuichi Ikuhara

    Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2 (YSZ) ceramics have been used for various engineering applications since Garvie et al. discovered phase-transformation toughening in 1975. The performance of YSZ ceramics depends on the YSZ microstructure. In the present review, the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation and grain growth are first discussed, organised according to existing hypotheses of microstructure-development mechanisms in YSZ during sintering. We demonstrate that the phase transformation and grain growth can be most reasonably understood by a grain boundary segregation-induced phase transformation (GBSIPT) mechanism and that the solute-drag effect of Y3+ ions segregating along the grain boundaries, respectively. Next, the Al2O3-doping effect is discussed with emphasis on the microstructure-development behaviour in a small amount of Al2O3-doped YSZ, which is widely used in engineering applications. We further discuss the effect of GBSIPT on low-temperature degradation resistance and the effect of grain size on superplasticity, focusing on the nanocrystalline YSZ, which was created by applying the Al2O3-doping effect.

    更新日期:2018-05-18
  • Corrosion-fatigue: a review of damage tolerance models
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    N. O. Larrosa, R. Akid, R. A. Ainsworth

    The synergistic combination of mechanical fatigue stresses and environmental agents acting together can be more detrimental than that of the summation of the contributions of each mechanism acting separately. Major attempts to understand the contribution of the different agents (microstructure, chemical composition of environment, temperature, loading conditions, etc.) have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, current knowledge is insufficient to address life estimation with a sound physical basis from the initiation of localised corrosion (such as pitting) to the estimation of crack propagation. Major simplifications and assumptions have been required in the development of life prediction methodologies. This paper reviews recent efforts made by the different interested parties, in both academia and industry, in the development of corrosion fatigue (CF) lifetime prediction procedures. The paper mainly focuses on the methodologies proposed in the literature for oil and gas, nuclear, energy generation and aerospace applications, dealing with pitting CF damage in aluminium alloys, carbon and stainless steels. The transition of a pit into a small crack (SC) and its growth is influenced by the interaction of the pit stress/strain concentration and the local environmental conditions, making the modelling of this stage of the utmost complexity. A major trend in the models reviewed in this paper is to simplify the analysis by assuming the pit (a volumetric defect) as a sharp crack, decouple the CF problem and account for the mechanical and environmental contributions separately. These procedures heavily rely on fitting experimental data and exhibit low generality in terms of application to varying system conditions. There is a clear opportunity in this field to develop mechanistically based methodologies, considering the inherent dependence of the damage mechanism on the interaction of environmental, metallurgical and mechanical features, allowing more realistic lifetime estimates and defect tolerance arguments, where pit-to-crack transition and SC initiation stages pose a significant challenge.

    更新日期:2018-03-16
  • Tribological behaviour of self-lubricating materials at high temperatures
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Hector Torres, Manel Rodríguez Ripoll, Braham Prakash

    Self-lubricating materials are becoming more widespread in fields like metal forming or power generation due to the inability to use conventional lubricants in high-temperature (HT) applications. In an effort to summarise the progress done in this field, a detailed literature review has been carried out, ranging from micron-thickness thin films to hardfacings and bulk materials, and classified by the reported solid lubricants. Moreover, the most-cited deposition techniques have been reviewed for each lubricant class in addition to their advantages and limitations. HT friction and wear data for self-lubricating materials have also been examined in order to identify effective lubrication ranges and general trends in their tribological behaviour, which is expected to be useful for researchers interested in this field. Finally, several apparent research gaps have been described, with suggestions for new experimental work that could lead to the development of new high-temperature self-lubricating materials.

    更新日期:2018-03-16
  • Ultrafast laser processing of silicon for photovoltaics
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-11-08
    Benjamin Franta, Eric Mazur, S. K. Sundaram

    The photovoltaics market has been growing rapidly in the past decade or so, driven by policy support, growing economies of scale, and technological improvements. Continued advances in photovoltaics manufacturing and technologies may drive further cost reductions and facilitate market growth going forward. Here, we review one such potential advance: the use of ultrafast laser processing in silicon photovoltaic production. We provide an overview of the current major capabilities of ultrafast laser processing of silicon, including texturing, hyperdoping, and combined texturing and hyperdoping. We describe each process, survey recent advances, compare to alternative methods, and report the state-of-the-art of each process in relation to photovoltaic devices. We also discuss the major challenges facing each process. We close with a prospectus for research and applications. We conclude that there are no major technical obstacles to the application of ultrafast laser texturing to photovoltaics manufacturing currently, while ultrafast laser hyperdoping requires further research and development before adoption. We also show that the use of hyperdoping for intermediate band silicon photovoltaics likely requires concurrent surface texturing or other absorption-enhancement techniques to yield photoconversion efficiency improvements.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Catalytic materials for biofuel conversion
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Shelley D. Minteer

    Over the last three decades, there has been a large increase in the production and use of biofuels. This has led researchers to study alternative strategies for converting biofuel energy into electrical energy. This review starts with an introduction to the field, including a brief discussion of the production of common biofuels from a variety of biomass sources. The main focus of the review is on the variety of catalytic materials that have been developed for biofuel conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. The scope of the article ranges from soft materials (organic and biological catalysts) to metallic catalytic materials to ceramic catalytic materials. The review covers biofuels from biohydrogen to bioethanol to biodiesel to glycerol to glucose. As a critical review, this review describes the state-of-the-art electrocatalysts for biofuel oxidation and provides a critical discussion of the practical properties of desired catalytic materials and areas of need for the coming decade.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Nanostructured photocatalysis in the visible spectrum for the decontamination of air and water
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-09-30
    Srikanth Gunti, Ashok Kumar, Manoj K. Ram

    Photocatalytic remediation aligns with the zero waste schemes of waste and wastewater industries with low cost, environment-friendly and sustainable treatment technologies. Efforts are made to increase the photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts (titanium oxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and tungsten oxide (WO3)) by altering their shape (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, etc.), size and doping (nitrogen, metal and carbon). The photocatalytic properties of various photocatalysts in visible light radiation have been reviewed critically. The nanostructure, doping and composite formation of photocatalysts have profound impact on the remediation of various organics in both air and water. The article also emphasises on attempts to enhance the contact of insoluble pollutants by the use of surfactants and biosurfactants in photocatalytic remediation methods. The comparative photocatalytic activities using doping, surfactants and biosurfactants have been discussed to show the effective remediation of organics under visible light. This review depicts, as the first attempt, organic remediation in visible light using various photocatalytic materials.

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Polymer derived silicon oxycarbide-based coatings
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-05-18
    Kathy Lu, Donald Erb

    Silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) is a promising protective coating material. However, so far there has not been any comprehensive review to systematically evaluate the characteristics and properties of this material as coatings. In this review, SiOC compositions and fillers are examined based on their fundamental functions in the coating materials. From a processing point of view, different coating formation processes, such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, dip coating, and spin coating, are discussed. As an intrinsic requirement and one of the most challenging aspects for SiOC to be used as coating materials, the stability of SiOC in air conditions is analysed and the degradation mechanisms of SiOC are discussed. Lastly, for different application needs, the physical and mechanical behaviours, electrical conductivity, and optical property of the coatings are presented. This first-ever systematic review on the SiOC system as coating materials is intended to provide guidance for future SiOC coating development.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Progress in CVD synthesis of layered hexagonal boron nitride with tunable properties and their applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-05-15
    Malay Jana, Raj N. Singh

    A very thin layer of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an important 2D nanomaterial, sometimes called ‘white graphene’, with many properties distinct from graphene. However, the lack of controlled synthesis of high quality and wide-area films largely prevents realisation of the full potential of this material. In this review article, a comprehensive overview of the current status of the synthesis, growth mechanism using chemical vapour deposition, structure and electronic properties to tune the bandgap is covered. In particular, the progress towards achieving the improved quality and functionalities of the h-BN films via epitaxial growth and control of grain size, number of layers, morphology and orientation have been critically reviewed. In addition to synthesis and properties of the atomically thin (mono and few layer) h-BN, the applications in possible and emerging areas are also described and discussed.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Three-dimensional graphene monolith-based composite: superiority in properties and applications
    Int. Mater. Rev. (IF 21.086) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Bo Tang, Shuli Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhengwei Wang, Yanfeng He, Weiqiu Huang

    With the development of graphene research, the three-dimensional graphene monolith (3DGM), which can be prepared by the chemical vapour deposition method (CVD-3DGM) and the self-assembly of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGO-3DGM), has drawn increasing attention because of its properties and application prospects that are better than those of two-dimensional graphene nanosheets. By utilising its excellent electrical property, large BET area and favourable mechanical strength, some research findings on the 3DGM-assisted thermal interface materials, conductive polymers and films, dye-sensitised solar cells and supercapacitors have been reported. In this perspective, we review recent progress in the synthesis and application of 3DGM-based composites and devices. In particular, the advantages of the CVD-3DGM are highlighted after comparing the reports, and the specific reasons are analysed and discussed. Finally, the probable directions of development, research focus and corresponding challenges for the preparation and application of the CVD-3DGM in the future are proposed.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
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