• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
Yiqun Xiong, Masaki Takaoka, Taketoshi Kusakabe, Kenji Shiota, Kazuyuki Oshita, Takashi Fujimori

Abstract To better understand the general behavior of heavy metals in semi-aerobic incinerator residue landfills, we developed a general equation for calculating the mass balance of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, mercury, and chromium) based on monitoring data from incineration plants and landfill sites. The mass balance results showed that 0.0042%, 0.001%, 0.0004%, 0.0019%, 0.022%, and 0.0065% of the disposed Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cr, respectively, were washed out by rainfall from 1975 to 2015. Heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Hg) with a lower total mass in the landfill had a relatively high total leaching rate. This may be because of the high pH of the landfill, which affected the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cu. According to our analysis of the changes in annual leaching rates at this landfill site, there was an obvious change in those of Cu, Zn, and Pb after 1989, when the pH of the leachate increased suddenly. The overall annual leaching rate became more stable, at around 0.00002%, following closure of the landfill site, and it is believed that the dissolvable fraction and heavy metal concentration in the leachate are expected to reach a limit under the current conditions.

更新日期：2020-01-21
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
Astryd Viandila Dahlan, Hiroki Kitamura, Yu Tian, Hirofumi Sakanakura, Takayuki Shimaoka, Takashi Yamamoto, Fumitake Takahashi

Abstract Although municipal solid waste incineration fly ash are fine particles and a priori considered as homogeneous, they have complicated structures inside their bodies. This study quantitatively investigated two categories of heterogeneity of fly ash produced from a fluidized bed combustor. They are the heterogeneity of a single fly ash particle body (intra-particle heterogeneity) and heterogeneity among fly ash particles (inter-particle heterogeneity). In the surface and semi-soluble components, Ca has smaller intra-particle heterogeneity than Al and Si. These results and ternary diagram analysis suggest that semi-soluble components consisted of mainly Ca-based matrices such as CaCO3 and unreacted Ca(OH)2 in which aluminosilicate domains. All major elements, excluding Fe and Ti, are 3–66% higher inter-particle heterogeneities on the surface than semi-soluble and insoluble core components. It shows that the surface component of the fly ash is more heterogeneous than other components of fly ash particles. Fly ash from fluidized bed combustor has intra- and inter-particle heterogeneity similar to stoker combustor. Besides, heterogeneity analysis can explain the fly ash formation process. Heterogeneity analysis suggests that Si plays more critical roles in the fly ash formation process of the fluidized bed combustor than that of the stoker combustor. Fly ash has heterogeneous bodies, and it might give non-negligible impacts on the leaching of metals included in fly ash components.

更新日期：2020-01-21
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
Luana E. R. Santos, Lucas Meili, João I. Soletti, Sandra H. V. de Carvalho, Livia M. O. Ribeiro, José L. S. Duarte, Rodrigo Santos

Abstract The use of biomass obtained by pyrolysis has received great attention due to its favorable characteristics to the improvement of soil quality for agricultural purposes, soil remediation against several types of contaminants and great potential for carbon sequestration. This study aimed to evaluate the physical–chemical characteristics of biochar produced from the endocarp of Syagrus coronata. It was determined the best operational conditions to obtain a biochar with good features to be used in soil as fertilizer. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTGA), elemental analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques allowed the finding that the pyrolyzed at 400 °C was the one that presented a greater stability and more suitable characteristics, in comparison to the other materials. The material in that condition is more favorable to be used as a natural fertilizer to improve the ground standard and, consequently, to stimulate the agricultural productivity. Graphic abstract

更新日期：2020-01-21
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
Vu Chi Mai Tran, Hoang Son Le, Yasuhiro Matsui

Abstract This study focused on the waste separation behavior of households in areas with a waste separation at source (WSS) program to understand the effect of the program and identify suggestions for improving the participation rate. A questionnaire survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 402 households in Da Nang City, Vietnam. To measure the effect of the WSS program on waste separation behavior, the authors conducted a comparison between waste separation behavior before and after implementing the program. The authors developed a model of waste separation behavior to clarify the factors. The differences in participation rates and influencing factors as they related to respondents’ level of involvement in the WSS program were also examined by Chi-squared test and ANOVA. The participation rate before the WSS program was 70.0% for plastic bottles, 70.1% for cardboard, and 71.4% for aluminum cans. After the WSS program, these rates significantly increased by 14.2% for plastic bottles, 12.6% for cardboard, and 12.3% for aluminum cans. Through behavior modeling, the factors influencing waste separation behavior were clarified. The attendance of respondents at an explanatory meeting and the recognition of the leaflets would positively promote the participation rate and the factors influencing waste separation behavior.

更新日期：2020-01-21
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
O. L. Y. Momoh, A. Shana, S. Ouki, M. Asaadi

In this study, a newly developed biomass transfer kinetic model was utilized for studying anaerobic digestion behaviour of proteins in sludge from two different thermally treatment processes [i.e., the thermal hydrolysis process (THP) and intermediate thermal hydrolysis processes (ITHP)]. Three different experimental runs comprising a high-level protein load (HLPL) (2000 < X < 3000 mg/L), intermediate-level protein load (ILPL) (1000 < X < 2000 mg/L), and low-level protein load (LLPL) (X < 1000 mg/L) were allowed to undergo anaerobic degradation for 312 h to monitor changes in total protein concentration. Analysis of protein degradation kinetics revealed that the first-order model was inappropriate for studying AD behaviour of protein in thermally treated sludge. However, the biomass transfer kinetic model provided an excellent fitting for the experimental data. In addition, it was observed that the anaerobically digested ITHP-treated sludge displayed higher values for the initial hydrolysis rate and overall biomass transfer coefficient at HLPL as compared to the anaerobically digested THP-treated sludge. Furthermore, step-wise kinetics was blamed on variability in the rates of utilizing highly soluble hydrozylate protein fractions present in the liquid phase in comparison to the slowly degradable proteins present in the liquid–solid sludge interface.

更新日期：2020-01-16
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
Rieko Kubota, Masahide Horita, Tomohiro Tasaki

Municipal solid-waste management (MSWM) in developing countries has faced common challenges such as no separation at source, complicated collection processes, and open landfills. Previous studies suggested that it is essential that MSWM policy adapts to local contexts and situations in its implementation. In Indonesia, neighborhood associations exist to enhance cooperation among community members. Community-based recycling activities called waste banks (WBs) in Indonesia utilize the functions of neighborhood associations. This study analyzed how local governments supported community-based WB programs and examined the institutional mechanism of the central WB which was established as part of the community-based WB integration to the city’s MSWM policy in Makassar, Indonesia. Through a desk study and semi-structured interviews with key actors in community-based WBs, it was found that the local government’s major intervention was the establishment of a mayor’s regulation to set up a central WB using the municipal budget to facilitate waste transaction between community-based WBs and recyclers. The institutional framework of the central WB and the functions performed by the central WB, such as recyclable waste collection from community-based WBs and market price analysis on recyclable waste, were clarified through this study.

更新日期：2020-01-16
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
Marzena Smol, Christian Adam, Michał Preisner

One of the key elements in the transformation towards a circular economy (CE) is providing more sustainable practices for resources and waste management. Improvement actions focused on transformation towards a CE should be targeted at all groups of materials and waste. As water is essential for human survival and well-being and plays a significant role in sustainable development (SD), the actions related to the reuse of water and the recovery of raw materials from wastewater and other water-based waste should be taken. The paper presents a proposition for a new CE model framework in the water and wastewater sector, which includes the six following actions: reduction—prevent wastewater generation in the first place by the reduction of water usage and pollution reduction at source; reclamation (removal)—an application of effective technologies for the removal of pollutants from water and wastewater; reuse—reuse of wastewater as an alternative source of water supply (non-potable usage), recycling—recovery of water from wastewater for potable usage; recovery—recovery of resources such as nutrients and energy from water-based waste, and rethink—rethinking how to use resources to create a sustainable economy, which is free of waste and emissions. The novelty of the proposed CE model framework is that it presents possible ways of implementing CE principles in the water and wastewater sector, with a strong emphasis not only technological but also organisational and societal changes. Application of the proposed model may help to further transform the European economy to the CE model. Moreover, the indicated model can be significant tool supporting an assessment of local or regional progress towards CE in the water and wastewater sector and further environmental management and planning.

更新日期：2020-01-16
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
Shan Zhong, Zengxian Wei, Lishan Zhang, Shujun Li, Hui Gao, Jingkun Feng, Liwen Sun, Xiaoying Jiang

This paper analyses the characteristics of various heavy metal pollution in surface soils surrounded a MSW incinerator located at the coastal areas using fuzzy cluster analysis, Kriging method and field investigation. And the designing operation life estimate of the incineration plant taken into account the national agriculture land use standards had been carried out. The results show that, in the surface soil of the coastal area, the Cr of the soil background structure, which is probably due to the influence of the waste incineration exhaust, is the background value of the downwind 18 times. Pb can be used as an indication of the pollution of exhaust gas, and its source analysis and pollution characteristics indicate that the total pollution in the surrounding area depends mainly on the emission of pollution sources. And the pollution distribution is closely related to the terrain and weather conditions. The use of the ground point source diffusion model and the actual value, to burn the surrounding soil environment for the exhaust of heavy metal pollution receptors, the coastal area incineration plant’s comprehensive environment life is about 29 years.

更新日期：2020-01-14
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
Chart Chiemchaisri, Wilai Chiemchaisri, Nipaporn Manochai

The emissions of two major greenhouse gases, i.e., CH4 and N2O, during the treatment of partially stabilized municipal solid waste leachate by a practical-scale two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. The system consisted of anoxic and aerobic reactors that had a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and were operated with internal sludge recirculation at 100% of the influent flow rate. At steady operation, high organic and nitrogen removals of 99% for BOD, 97% for COD, 99% for TOC and 94% for TKN were achieved. During operation, high direct CH4 emissions from the anoxic reactor, accounting for 90% of the total emissions from the system and 16.2% of the total organic carbon mass removed, were observed. N2O was emitted to a much lower extent, and N2O emissions varied much less between the reactors. The presence of methane- and nitrous oxide-producing bacteria was confirmed by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR analyses. The operation of the two-stage MBR with sludge recirculation enabled the co-existence of CH4- and N2O-producing microorganisms in the sludge from the anoxic and aerobic reactors, with an approximately 30% difference in their microbial communities.

更新日期：2020-01-14
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
Arpita Dasgupta, Munish Kumar Chandel

Anaerobic digestion is one of the most prospective and economical techniques to recover energy and simultaneously treat organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). However, more often than not, the complex polymeric structure of lignocellulosic fraction and high lipid content of Indian OFMSW prove to be hindrances in realizing the full potential of energy recovery through anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment of OFMSW is an effective method to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper explores the effect of alkali pretreatment on change in characteristics of OFMSW in India and its subsequent impact on biogas generation. Pretreatment was carried out using 5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and varying the initial pH of OFMSW in the range of 8–13 for 24 h. Thereafter, batch anaerobic digestion assays of untreated and pretreated OFMSW were carried out using cow excrement as inoculum. Results indicate that NaOH pretreatment was advantageous in solubilizing the organic matter of OFMSW, thus increasing biogas yield and reduced digestion time. The cumulative biogas generation increased by 19.6–34.8% post-NaOH pretreatment. OFMSW pretreated with NaOH at pH 10 had maximum biogas yield of 407.1 mL/gVS with 68.9% methane content, as compared to 301.9 mL/gVS and 50.3% of untreated OFMSW. A preliminary cost assessment indicated a positive net profit for pretreatment of OFMSW with NaOH at pH ranges of 8–10.

更新日期：2020-01-14
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
Mohammad Reza Sabour, Ehsan Alam, Amir Mostafa Hatami

Abstract Despite the increasing amount of waste being reused, recycled, or energetically valorized, landfills continue to play an important role in waste management strategies. Many researchers have studied various aspects of landfilling, regarding positive or negative features. However, a few of them have summarized the related literature, resulted in a lack of overall progress understanding. This paper aimed to perform a bibliometric analysis of landfilling research during 2000–2017. Various aspects, such as document types, languages, major journals, key countries, authors, and keywords were all systematically analyzed. The collaborations among authors and countries were wholly constructed, visualized, and evaluated through the application of social network analysis based on co-authorship relations. Moreover, to discover the most leading topics on landfill discussion, keyword clustering analysis was conducted using co-occurrences relations. The research showed that the number of landfill-related publications has significantly increased within the period. Regarding both quality and quantity, the United States was the most leading country. As well, Rowe, R.K., from Canada, was quantitatively the most productive author. The findings of this study indicated that landfill leachate was the most studied topic in the literature. Besides, the keywords “global warming” and “sustainability” had the highest rate of growth during the studied period. This paper also demonstrated that the most productive countries in landfill research have had a significant contribution to decrease the total amount of landfilling using other waste disposal alternatives (such as incineration with/without energy recovery) or waste management strategies.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-29

In the original publication of the article.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
Hossein Ebrahimzade, Gholam Reza Khayati, Mahin Schaffie

Abstract Leaching is a complex solid–liquid reaction which has an important influence on the recovery efficiency of the spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Therefore, it is of significant importance to utilize an appropriate technique to predict the effect of operating parameters on the optimized recovery rate. In the present study, a combined method of the artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) was used as a model to predict the leaching efficiency of cobalt from spent LIBs. To find the dependency of the leached percentage of cobalt on the operational parameters as model inputs, 42 repeatable numerous experiments are performed using H2SO4 in the presence of H2O2. It was found that the proposed model can be a useful technique in the demonstration of the nonlinear relationship between the leaching efficiency and the process parameters. The performance of PSO–ANN models was validated by statistical thresholds and compared with those of common ANN technique. Moreover, it was found that the pulp density of the leaching solution and the concentration of sulfuric acid were the most important reaction parameters of the spent LIBs recovery, respectively.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
Zhiwei Li, Xuejiao Liu, Yin Wang

Sludge-based biochar was first modified for the adsorption of phosphorus from aqueous solution. This study is to modify sludge-based biochar (SBC) via peroxidation with nitric acid and impregnation with ferrous ions to obtain a high adsorption capacity for phosphorus (P). The P adsorption capacity of the modified sludge biochar (M-SBC) was increased to 9.79 mg/g, a value almost 40 times higher than that of the original biochar. Among the adsorption parameters studied, pH was found to be particularly important to P adsorption. After modification, the point of zero charge of the M-SBC occurred at pH 6. The isotherms of P adsorption on M-SBC obeyed the Freundlich equation. An analysis of the adsorption thermodynamics indicated that the process of P adsorption on M-SBC was spontaneous and endothermic, increased the degree of disorder, and involved chemisorption. The main mechanisms of P adsorption were surface precipitation and electrostatic attraction.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
Komwit Siritorn, Chompoonuh K. Permpoonwiwat

Abstract This study attempted to calculate the amount of waste generated by the residents, households and commercial businesses in Songkhla and Hat Yai cities under three potential scenarios: (1) status quo—no charge for waste collection service (current situation); (2) an equal fee charging rate for constituents of both Songkhla and Hat Yai cities as stated in the Public Health Law of Thailand; (3) a different waste collection fee within the cities of Songkhla and Hat Yai as proposed and concluded in the study of Siritorn (Presented at the APBERS conferences in Japan, 2017, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu, 2017). The regression results of the double-log model indicated that different optimal rates for waste collection fee in each city would decrease the waste produced in Songkhla by 162 kg per day and decrease waste production by 503 kg per day in Hat Yai. As a result, the two municipalities could generate a double benefit of (1) savings from total expenditure on waste management and (2) savings from the adjustment of behaviour of the residents to create a decrease in the present waste production total amounts. In summary, the “different” fee policy strategy created a win–win situation for the municipalities.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
Zahra Aghalari, Abdoliman Amouei, Somayyeh Jafarian

Dental wastes need comprehensive identification, planning and management due to the presence of hazardous chemicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the quantity, quality and management of wastes in general and specialized dental offices in Babol, Mazandaran Province. This research was conducted in 40 general dentistry offices with 52 dental units and 240 patients per day and in 13 specialized dentistry offices with 21 units and 78 patients per day through random sampling. Samples were analyzed at the end of the work hour after transferring to a suitable place. The total amount of wastes generated was 333.8 and 340.9 g/unit/day as well as was 72.3 and 91.7 g/patient/day in general and specialized dentistry offices, respectively. In general and specialized dentistry offices, the amount of infectious wastes was 95 and 83.2 g/unit/day as well as 20.6 and 22.4 g/patient/day; Domestic-type wastes was 113.4 and 124.7 g/unit/day as well as 24.6 and 33.5 g/patient/day; chemical toxic waste was 47.3 and 47.04 g/unit/day as well as 10.2 and 12.6 g/patient/day; sharps was 66.1 and 69.6 g/unit/day as well as 14.3 and 18.7 g/patient/day; and amalgams was 11.9 and 16.4 g/unit/day as well as 2.6 and 4.43 g/patient/day. The recycling of silver and mercury was carried out in 7.5% of specialized dentistry offices. Training the dentists is required to perform the activities related to the reduction, separation and recycling of wastes as well as to implement the plan of collection, transportation and disposal of infectious, sharp, chemical-toxic and amalgam wastes according to the relevant criteria.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
Özge Naz Büyükyonga, Nagihan Akgün, Işıl Acar, Gamze Güçlü

Abstract Glycolysis reactions of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes obtained from post-consumer water bottles were carried out at 220–250 °C using diethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol and triethylene glycol, and molar ratios of PET/glycol in the glycolysis reactions were chosen to be 1/3. The obtained glycolysis products were used in the synthesis of medium-oil acrylic-modified water-reducible alkyd resins. Acrylic modification was carried out using methacrylic acid–maleic acid copolymer synthesized in our laboratory. The structure of the acrylic copolymer was investigated with FTIR analysis. Films of the modified alkyd resins were prepared and their physical and chemical surface coating properties were investigated. When surface coating test results were evaluated, it was observed that waste PET had no adverse effect on these properties of acrylic-modified water-reducible alkyd resins. Then, two water-based paints were prepared using PET-based acrylic-modified water-reducible alkyd resin and reference acrylic-modified water-reducible alkyd resin as binder. Wet paint properties and physical/chemical dry film properties of paints were determined. When the physical surface coating test results were evaluated, no difference was observed between the properties of both paints. If we evaluate the results of chemical surface coating properties, the hot water and alkali resistance of waste PET-based paint was considerably higher than the reference resin.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
Ons Ghriss, Hédi Ben Amor, Hassen Chekir, Mohamed-Razak Jeday

Abstract In this work, the removal of dilute nitrogen oxides NOx from the gaseous effluents of Tunisian nitric acid plant by absorption into aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions containing or not nitric acid was studied. All semi-continuous absorption tests were carried out at ambient conditions and at 40 Pa as NOx partial pressure. The effects of the gas flow rate, the initial H2O2 concentration and the presence of HNO3 on the NOx absorption efficiency (ANOx) were studied. The tests results revealed that ANOx increases with an increase in initial H2O2 concentration in the scrubbing liquid, but decreases with an increase of gas flow rate. Furthermore, the presence of nitric acid in the aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution has a positive effect on ANOx. These results confirmed that the removal of NOx liberated from the plants of the Tunisian Chemical Group (TCG) by absorption into H2O2 solution is a feasible and an effective solution.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
Alicia Lee, Mei Shan Liew

The accumulation of plastic waste is a pressing environmental problem, growing hand-in-hand with the rising production and consumption of consumer products. The robustness and intrinsic strength of plastics, which render them extremely useful in various packaging applications, are a double-edged sword as they are likewise highly resistant to degradation and may persist for several millennia. Conventional waste treatment solutions are increasingly unable to manage the growing volume of such waste, bringing us to the brink of ecological disaster. Interestingly, environmental microorganisms are beginning to evolve their own biological means of thriving within such environments through production of metabolic intermediaries that enable them to utilize plastics as energy sources. Here, we present a brief review of the current literature, highlighting various micro- and multicellular organisms that have been found to degrade plastics, as well as propose some strategies for industrialization of these processes in the future.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
Ahmad Rashid Khoshbeen, Mohanakrishnan Logan, Chettiyappan Visvanathan

Abstract The increasing generation of solid waste and its improper management has imposed daunting impact on Kabul city. The city of 5 million people generated 3050 tonnes of solid waste every day in 2018. Data analysis shows that if an estimated 25% waste reduction is achieved gradually by 2023, then the total cost of the system will be reduced to 1505.9 million Afs/year, much lesser than the estimated cost at 2210 million Afs/year. This study was aimed at developing an integrated solid-waste management (ISWM) plan for Kabul city based on an overview of the existing system and practices, including the gaps in the entire value chain. The study recommends a paradigm shift from business-as-usual scenario to an ISWM approach. The proposed strategies, when implemented effectively, will increase the recycling rate and reduce the requirement for landfilling in Kabul city. Policy reforms to encourage waste reduction and segregation, and the establishment of facilities for recycling, treatment, and landfilling are proposed. Moreover, the willingness to pay of citizens indicates the total cost of waste management system, estimated at 111.53 million Afs/month, can be recovered effectively.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
P. Sabarinathan, V. E. Annamalai, A. Xavier Kennedy

Abstract Vitrified grinding wheels are used in various end applications. They are easy to dress and have better mechanical properties. In general, grinding wheels are used till the stub portion. After usage, this stub portion is discarded as waste. Grains in this portion are fresh. Recovering and reusing the grain in the stub portion are both economically and environmentally beneficial. This work deals with the recovery and reuse of abrasive grains from vitrified brown alumina grinding wheel rejects. Grains are recovered using mechanical crushing processes. The recovered grains are used for production of resinoid cylindrical grinding wheel of 350 mm outer diameter. Performance of this grinding wheel was compared with standard grinding wheel of brown alumina grain in a CNC cylindrical grinding machine. The experiment was conducted by varying three feed rates (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm/min). The trial wheel exhibits lower wheel wear and higher grinding ratio in all feed rates, without any loss in material removal rate. The difference in performance of the grinding wheel is correlated to the difference in toughness of the grains. It is shown that grains from vitrified rejects of brown alumina can be recovered and advantageously used in resinoid applications. This helps in reusing the otherwise wasted abrasive, thereby reducing pollution to the environment.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
Ke Yin, Xiaomin Dou, Wei-Ping Chan, Victor Wei-Chung Chang

With proper leaching tests, health hazards associated with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes, i.e., incineration bottom ashes (IBA) and incineration fly ashes (IFA), can be quantitatively defined. However, it must be coupled with specific environmental scenarios to draw the proper conclusions. Several environmental stresses based on current management of MSWI ashes were herein simulated with laboratory leaching studies to understand their impacts. The impact of bulk metal recovery on the IBA leaching potential was firstly investigated, suggesting the promoted release for certain metals including those with a relative high content (> 1000 mg/kg) such as Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn. The impact of seawater was also simulated. Most metal release was altered with the new chemistry established. Batch leaching tests were further performed under both salty and acidic environment to understand their aggregated effects, indicating an overwhelming influence from seawater buffering. Lastly, batch leaching tests of the IBA/IFA mixture were performed under various mass ratios, while data were compared with those by their individuals and the theoretical leaching value, unveiling different leaching characteristics during landfill disposal. Hereby, a comprehensive characteristic metal leaching potential was achieved under various ash managements. It provides insights into environmental risks relevant to their current practices.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
Saim Ozdemir, Kaan Yetilmezsoy

Abstract Poultry slaughtering and post-processing activities generate different kinds of highly perishable organic wastes and by-products. Poultry carcass yields are typically about 70–75% of the live bird weight, the rest is accepted as inedible waste. Depending on the efficiency of the processing methods birds’ blood, feather, head, feet, offal and inedible viscera, and in some cases, treated solids make up the slaughterhouse solids in the poultry industry. The management of nutritive organic waste should aim to produce value-added by-products such as pet animal or aquaculture feed components, energy through thermochemical or biochemical processes, and agricultural fertilizer. Conventional rendering at specified temperatures and pressures are widespread processing and well-established methods to produce sellable products in the form of protein-rich meals such as poultry powder, feather powder, and fat. The utilization of raw or processed poultry by-products for animal feed is become strictly banned in both national and international scales for the poultry industry. There has been increasing stress to find alternative areas demanding nutrient-rich solid by-products. The objective of this study is to review several studies with a special focus on poultry abattoir-related activities to draw attention to proper management practices from the environmental point of view. The review shows that best management of the process, high-quality wastes need further innovative and effective processing methods to find possible feed additive either for fish or other animal meal, as well as alternative waste treatment process that provides an opportunity for energy recovery and high-quality bio-nutrient source to be used for crop production.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
Masoud Taheriyoun, Alireza Memaripour, Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian

Abstract Coagulation–flocculation is a process commonly applied to treat many types of industrial wastewater. However, chemicals used in a wastewater treatment plant, including coagulants/flocculants, are costly. This study evaluated the feasibility of recycling the chemical sludge of the Mobarakeh Steel Complex (MSC), and using it as a coagulant aid in the process of wastewater treatment. The experiments were conducted in a jar test apparatus in consecutive cycles by adding a fraction of the settled sludge to samples. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to design the experiments and optimize the process. The response in the RSM model was residual turbidity, and the factors affecting the response included the sludge recycle ratio and return sludge cycle number. The sludge volume index (SVI) of the chemical sludge was also examined in each cycle of the tests to assess the sludge quality. The results revealed that recycling the sludge reduced the use of chemicals up to 60%. Finally, it was concluded that flocculation sludge could be considered as an alternative to chemicals, without adversely affecting the removal efficiency. Furthermore, SVI results showed that an increase in the number of cycles led to a decrease in SVI in each cycle, resulting in sludge volume reduction, better dewatering, and decreased sludge treatment costs.

更新日期：2020-01-08
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
Shuhei Takizawa, Yasunori Baba, Chika Tada, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Yutaka Nakai

Rumen fluid has been applied to lignocellulosic biomass digest for methane production, and various feed supplements have been shown to improve ruminant digestion of lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with rumen fluid and subsequent methane fermentation. SDS was mixed with rumen fluid at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g/L. After SDS addition, the waste paper was pretreated with rumen fluid at 37 °C for 6 h. SDS addition decreased the number of surviving rumen ciliates after pretreatment. SDS addition increased the dissolved chemical oxygen demand during pretreatment; however, SDS addition did not increase the volatile fatty acid concentration. After pretreatment, batch methane fermentation of pretreated waste paper was performed at 35 °C for 45 days. SDS addition at 0.1 and 0.2 g/L shortened the waste paper digestion time and enhanced methane gas production compared to the control. By contrast, SDS addition at 0.4 and 0.8 g/L remarkably inhibited methane production from waste paper. These findings suggest that low concentrations of SDS can improve the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with rumen fluid, and can enhance methane production from waste paper.

更新日期：2020-01-06
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
Vitthal L. Gole, Purvesh Kore, Saurabh N. Misal

With increasing automotive vehicles, disposal of waste automotive landfill engine oil (WALEO) is foremost challenge. Present work investigated synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from WALEO using first stage of orthophosphoric-catalyzed acid esterification followed by subsequent stage of potassium hydroxide-catalyzed alkaline transesterification using conventional and intensified microwave methods. Process parameters for study were molar ratio of oil–methanol, and catalyst concentration. The optimize parameters of acid esterification for reducing acid value from 33.72 to 1.71 mg of KOH/g of oil were catalyst concentration: 12% weight/weight, reaction temperature: 60 $$^\circ{\rm C}$$ and molar ratio: 1:2 using conventional method. Nearly same results were obtained using microwave-assisted esterification but there was considerable decrease in process time requirement using intensified approach of microwave irradiations. Time required for processing was 210 and 30 min for conventional and microwave methods, respectively. Microwave accelerated the rate of reaction by 7.5 times. There was substantial decrease in energy requirement for esterification process and energy utilization was 14.2–26.4 mg/kJ for conventional and microwave methods, respectively. Transesterification of esterified oil were performed using microwave method. The optimized parameters for transesterification process were molar ratio: 1:6, catalyst concentration: 1% weight/weight, reaction time: 15 min and yield: 92.3%.

更新日期：2020-01-04
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
G. Athira, A. Bahurudeen, Prasanta K. Sahu, Manu Santhanam, Prakash Nanthagopalan, S. Lalu

Abstract Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a by-product from sugar industry, has been evidently reported as a potential alternative cementitious material that can partially replace cement. In spite of its high valorization potential in cement production, the large quantity of bagasse ash generated from Indian sugar plants (44,220 tonnes/day) is entirely unutilized and disposed as waste. Lack of comprehensive SCBA availability and accessibility studies are the major deterrents for the effective utilization of SCBA in industrial scale applications. This study investigated the availability of bagasse ash, fly ash, and slag in India, and their accessibility to existing cement plants. A comparative network analysis using ArcGIS was adopted, to assess the benefits of using bagasse ash in cement plants. Bagasse ash was found to be a potentially viable supplementary cementitious material in three out of the five major sugar-producing states of India. It is shown that switching over to bagasse ash results in significant reduction of carbon emissions associated with logistics (5.41 million tonnes/year). Strategic locations for new cement plants were identified based on availability of bagasse ash, using location-allocation analysis. A practical framework has also been presented for the effective utilization and recycling of sugar industry wastes in the construction sector.

更新日期：2020-01-04
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
Yuki Kamimoto, Ren Kasuga, Kyohei Takeshita, Takeshi Hagio, Kensuke Kuroda, Ryoichi Ichino, Phengxay Deevanhxay

Tungsten carbide-cobalt alloys (WC–Cos), which are used for cutting tools, are mainly composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt with minor elements including chromium, tantalum, nickel. Recycling WC–Cos requires a large amount of energy and chemicals for leaching tungsten. We previously showed that tungsten in WC–COs can be leached by potentiostatic electrolysis at − 0.7 V in molten sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 723 K; tungsten constituted 99.7 mass% of the leached component in the molten salt. In this study, we investigated tungsten leaching at a lower temperature by using a eutectic mixture of 51.5 mol% NaOH and 49.5 mol% potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the electrolyte. Tungsten was leached from the alloy at temperatures above 623 K, which was 100 K lower than the previous study. Cobalt dissolved in the molten salt, although it formed a passive layer. Chromium underwent oxidization and dissolved as a hexavalent ion below 623 K. Tantalum dissolved even without electrolysis. Tungsten was leached at 623 K in this system. Highly purifying tungsten could be obtained by dissolving the cooled molten salt in water and bringing it in contact with air to precipitate other metal ions. Therefore, the electrochemical process is expected to be used for separating tungsten from WC–Cos.

更新日期：2020-01-02
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
Yugo Osaka, Takuya Tsujiguchi, Akio Kodama, Hongyu Huang

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in combustion exhaust gas from medium-scale facilities must be removed because it pollutes the air. In this study, dry-DeSOx filters, particularly calcium carbonate, that used simple desulfurization materials to capture SO2 is focused on. Physically modified calcium compound, which is the main ingredient of marine waste such as scallop shell, was synthesized using the amorphous citric acid complex method to improve low-temperature desulfurization. The effects of reaction conditions such as calcination temperature and concentration of citric acid were investigated to obtain materials with high specific surface areas and desirable pore-diameter distribution. Calcium carbonate, with a specific surface area of 166 m2/g and pore diameter of 8 Å, was obtained under a 4:1 molar ratio of organic acid molecules to Ca2+ ions and 823 K calcination temperature. The desulfurization of the modified calcium carbonate was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis for particle performance with calcium carbonate wash-coated onto a monolith to represent real-use conditions. All these results indicated that the desulfurization performance of the modified calcium carbonate was superior to that of commercially available calcium carbonate.

更新日期：2020-01-02
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
Katri Avarmaa, Hugh O’Brien, Lassi Klemettinen, Pekka Taskinen

Abstract Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represents a significant urban resource for precious metals. To maximize the recoveries and sustainable use of these metals, their behavior needs to be characterized in the secondary copper smelting of WEEE. The current study experimentally determined the distributions of gold, silver, platinum and palladium between copper alloy and FeOx–SiO2–Al2O3/FeOx–SiO2–Al2O3–CaO slags (LCu/s[M] = [M]Copper/[M]Slag) over the oxygen partial pressure range of 10−5 – 10−10 atm at 1300 °C. In addition, the equilibria of copper alloy, slag and Al–Fe spinel system are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted employing an equilibration—drop-quenching technique followed by major element analysis with Electron Probe MicroAnalysis (EPMA) and trace element analysis with sensitive Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results showed that the distribution coefficient of silver increased from 10 to 103 as a function of decreasing oxygen partial pressure. For gold, platinum and palladium, the distribution coefficients were at minimum 105. Lime addition improved the recovery of silver notably and had a small positive effect on gold recovery into copper. Overall, the precious metals can be recovered very efficiently in copper alloy via secondary copper smelting with alumina-rich iron-silicate slags.

更新日期：2019-12-31
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
Rahui Park, Vadahanambi Sridhar, Hyun Park

Abstract With ever increase in the consumption of bottled beverages; waste polyethylene terephthalate (wPET) bottles are rapidly emerging as a major constituent of urban waste. Amongst the various chemical techniques in vogue for recycling of wPET, glycolysis shows distinct advantage due to its ability to synthesize value added products. The current work was carried with the aim of optimizing the reaction conditions for microwave-induced catalytic glycolysis of wPET. As a first step, the effect of various cations like Zn, Ti, Fe and Co ions is reported which showed that zinc ions exhibit higher efficiency. In the second step the effect of variation in the loading of ethylene glycol (EG) glycolyzing agent showed that above a certain limit, the yield of bis-hydroxyethyl terephthalate monomer (BHET) reduced. In order to find the optimum ratio of reactants (wPET: EG) and weight of catalyst, a Taguchi design of experiments was formulated and experiments were carried. Our results show that at an optimal condition of 1:3 wPET: EG with a 1 wt% of zinc acetate gives a 65% molar yield of BHET product within 30 min.

更新日期：2019-12-25
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
Masoud Saatsaz, Hasan Mojallal, Iman Monsef, Zohreh Masoumi

This study presents a comprehensive framework for reevaluating the suitability of an old active dumpsite and identifying potential sites in the Abhar region, Iran, through geophysical tomography survey, hydrogeological investigation, and the GIS-based AHP method. The results of 2D geoelectrical tomography demonstrated that the leachate plume, with a concentration depth of ~ 20 m, has not affected the aquifer, which is at the minimum depth of 70 m. Our interpretation of the permeability measurement through Philip’s equation reveals that the dumpsite topsoil has a low to middle permeability, ranging from 3 to 5 mm/h. After field investigations, three main criteria and twelve sub-criteria were selected and weighted by the AHP method. Accordingly, a ranked suitability map was prepared using a weighted linear combination method in GIS. The suitability map confirms the dumpsite is situated in a moderately suitable class. The most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, poorly suitable, and least suitable zones cover 4.87%, 20.14%, 34.25%, 37.21%, and 3.72% of the Abhar plain, respectively. We have also defined vacant lands in the eastern and southern parts of the dumpsite for future operations. The method applied in this paper can be used for the suitability evaluation of other underground storage facilities.

更新日期：2019-12-21
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
Majd M. Salah, Majed I. Al-Sari’, Issam A. Al-Khatib, Stamatia Kontogianni

Waste disposal sector and local landfills operation are considered one of the major sources of pollution in Palestine. This paper focuses on the determination of the main negative impacts caused by Zahrat Al-Finjan landfill operation in the northern part of the West Bank. The data were collected from seven nearby communities. Overall results showed that odor emissions, impacts on plants and animals, impacts on inhabitants’ hygiene, impacts on traffic and aesthetic views and pollution due to leachate spills, presence of insects and rodents, reduction in the value of the nearby land are the most significant negative impacts. In particular home-landfill distance plays an important role to the negative impact perception in cases such as particularly odors, and quality of life. On the other hand, dust, noise, and impact on groundwater are not considered issues of major issues of concerns from the residents’ point of view. This fact is highly influenced by the application of compensatory benefits to locals. The Logistic Regression Model, that was developed to assess the factors that could affect the residents’ perception of impacts on traffic, aesthetics and pollution due to leachate spills, showcased that age, gender, level of education are the most significant explanatory variables.

更新日期：2019-12-19
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
Hapsari Puspitaloka, Hiroshi Mimoto, Quyen Ngoc Minh Tran, Mitsuhiko Koyama, Kiyohiko Nakasaki

Maintaining proper aerobic conditions is a crucial factor in composting. Positive aeration (PA, blowing) has been widely applied but diffuses the odorous exhaust gas to the atmosphere. Negative aeration (NA, suction) enables to minimize the gas diffusion, but NA has scarcely been applied mainly because there has been no clear answer about the advantage in the organic matter degradation rate in this system. The air in the PA flows from the higher temperature zone (inside the pile) to the lower temperature zone (the top of the pile), while the air in the NA flows in the opposite direction. We hypothesized that the water vapor and NH3 gas produced in the high-temperature zone of PA was more likely to be transported and absorbed/adsorbed in the lower temperature zone than that of NA, which could influence microbial activity during composting. This study quantitatively evaluated the effect of two aeration methods on organic matter degradation during composting. We examined the effect of absorption/adsorption of NH3 on the compost by preventing the compost from drying. We found that PA indeed tended to accumulate more NH3 than NA but did not show large differences, consequently having little influence on the organic matter degradation.

更新日期：2019-12-17
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
Iman Ghalehkhondabi, Ehsan Ardjmand

The impact of appropriate E-waste management practices on the environment, human health, and natural resources has made E-waste management an interesting research topic in recent decades. Research also shows that government intervention is an important factor in controlling the emission volume produced by waste management systems. This study considers a base E-waste supply chain in which a collection center is responsible for collecting E-waste and delivering it to a recycling center. The recycling center recovers valuable material and sells it to electronic device manufacturing companies using a price/sustainability-sensitive demand. E-waste material recovery generates emissions that are undesirable for manufacturing companies. Two extended cases regarding the base supply chain are studied, as well: (1) the recycling center is also active in E-waste collection. (2) There are two active recycling centers. Although the sustainability-sensitive demand is a controlling factor for material recovery emissions, government interferences through tariff and emission penalties make sure that sustainable issues are considered in the material recovery process. Each plant in this study makes a marginal profit by processing E-waste; therefore, it is important to know which plant is the primary decision-maker when it comes to price. Because of its capability in terms of solving interactive decision-making problems, game theory is used to model different scenarios in our problem. Equilibrium values are derived, and a numerical example with parameter sensitivity analysis is provided to show the applicability of the proposed models. The results show that the E-waste supply chain makes more profit and selects a higher level of material recovery sustainability if the plants work under a centralized decision-making framework. Moreover, it is more profitable for the entire E-waste supply chain if the recycling center undertakes a portion of the E-waste collection activity.

更新日期：2019-12-13
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-11

Coffee processing wastewater is one of the major agro-processing wastes that put high pollution pressure in coffee growing and exporting countries affecting water, soil, and human health. The processing industries apply no or low efficient technologies for management due to a lack of economic and technological feasibility. The purpose of this review was to assess ever practiced and studied management options of coffee processing wastewater and design feasible alternatives suitable for coffee-producing and agrarian regions. Treatment/management efficiencies of the advanced oxidation process, coagulation-flocculation, adsorption, wetland system, anaerobic digestion and fertigation along with their limitations were considered in this review. Most importantly, this work demonstrates fertigation as the first choice of coffee effluent management for agrarian coffee-producing countries due to low cost, additional nutrient value and ease of technological application.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
Muhammad Safar Korai, Munawar Ali, Cheng Lei, Rasool Bux Mahar, Dongbei Yue

The situation of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Pakistan and China was analyzed. In Pakistan, neither MSW collection nor disposal is effective due to the lack of institutional, administrative and financial arrangements. The MSW collection rate is about 60% and remainder 40% is leftover either in streets or vacant plots. Pakistan requires an economic and sustainable technology to achieve prompt solution for MSW collection and disposal problems in the country. Whereas, China has shown a progressive improvement in MSW management. Landfilling is a predominant and cost-effective method of MSW management in China. Also it has been revealed that MSW in China is treated by incineration. Whereas, there is neither engineered landfill nor any waste-to-energy treatment facility in Pakistan. Additionally, this study suggests a future potential investment in the waste management sector under the China Pakistan Economic Corridor project.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
Myo Min Win, Misuzu Asari, Ryo Hayakawa, Hiroyuki Hosoda, Junya Yano, Shin-Ichi Sakai

Fluidized bed gasifiers (FBGs) and gas engines (GEs) could be available as waste-to-energy technology, because most small- and medium-scale municipal solid waste treatment plants have low electricity generation efficiencies. As feedstock composition vary widely based on regional characteristics, clarifying the relationship between gas and tar generation behaviors and feedstock is useful for the design of the GE generation process to predict gas and tar yields and compositions. To understand the synergistic effect of feedstock characteristics in fluidized bed gasification, flash pyrolysis of wood pellet, polyethylene, and polypropylene at 900 °C was conducted. Yields and compositions of gasses and tar from single and co-pyrolysis were investigated. The results reveal that co-pyrolysis increases the gas yield because of oxygenates and moisture present in the wood pellet. Tar yields found to decrease while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not reduced even during co-pyrolysis. That is because most chain hydrocarbons of tar are converted to CmHn gases and PAHs.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
Injun Kim, Yunsung Yoo, Juhee Son, Jinwon Park, Il-Sang Huh, Dongwoo Kang

Carbon dioxide is contained in the flue gas of many industrial plants, including those producing cement and power, and makes a significant contribution to climate change. Thus, methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are under intensive investigation. Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is a technology for converting captured carbon into useful chemical compounds while reducing CO2 emissions. Thus, CCUS technology is a promising method for combating global warming. In this study, we focused on a mineral carbonation CCUS process using seawater-based industrial wastewater (SBIW). A two-step CCUS process using NaOH as an absorbent for CO2 capture was used to produce two types of metal carbonate. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for analysis. Using our new technique, we obtained high-purity NaHCO3 (92.2%) and MgCO3 ·3H2O (93%). We also found that it is possible to improve the utilization of the cations present in seawater.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-28

Thermolysis of Waste Engine oil (WEO) was performed in a semi-batch reactor in the temperature range of 450–575 °C. The highest yield of pyrolytic oil was obtained (76.73%) at 550 °C temperature. The comparative study between the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis experiment disclosed that the conversion of WEO was 99.34% in TGA and 98.23% in pyrolysis experiment. The fuel properties such as density (795 g cc−1), calorific value (42.40 MJ kg−1), and flash point (33 °C) of the pyrolytic oil were less compared to petrol. The decrease in the concentration of Ca, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, and Cu in the pyrolytic oil compared to WEO was perceived. The transformation in the chemical compositions in the pyrolytic oil during the course of pyrolysis was noticed. The pyrolytic oil had a composition of 38% aromatics, 32.97% alkanes, 7.97% cyclo-alkanes, 11.9% alkenes, and 4.78% poly-aromatic hydrocarbons compounds was lower than that of WEO. The WEO pyrolytic oil was containing 65% of gasoline ranged hydrocarbon compounds (C9–C12) along with 24.53% of kerosene (C11–C15), 7.47% of diesel (C15–C19), and 15.32% of heavy fuel oil (˃ C19).

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
Panagiotis Sinioros, Marianthi Anastasatou, Stavroula Kavouri, Michael Lasithiotakis, Michael Stamatakis

The purpose of the work is to investigate the existence and the possibility of recovering economically interesting elements, such as precious metals and rare earth elements, from phosphor layers of cathode ray tube wastes. Therefore, a series of analyses took place in the precipitation material that resulted from the disassembling and wet processing of the cathode-ray tube screens. An applied recycling method, that mechanically with water enriches precipitates of cathode ray tube glass (wet cathode ray tube recycling method), is hosted in a small-medium recycling company. Identification of the amorphous and crystalline phases in combination with the micro-structural characterization and the chemical, major, and trace-element analysis were performed in waste materials as well as in the precipitate that resulted from the wet cathode-ray tube recycling process. Important quantities of zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, and gold appear in the precipitate. Conclusively, a hydraulic classification enrichment method should be, furthermore, examined.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-22

The industrial effluents recently have become more complex and a constant health hazard polluting and contaminating water, soil and air. In this study, it is important to obtain high performance for the treatment of recalcitrant and toxic azo dyes being caused by textile industries and deal with inhibitory factors. For this aim, a continuous two-stage mesophilic anaerobic system has been employed to treat synthetic textile wastewater contained C. I. Acid Red 88 dye. A laboratory-scale of acidogenic continuous stirred tank reactor followed by methanogenic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor was operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48, 24 and 12 h. The acidogenic reactor was able to remove 50.3% of the total COD added and 90.3% of the color at HRT of 12 h. However, the maximum bio-hydrogen conversion as COD was 30.7% with acetate and butyrate as main by-products at HRT of 24 h. The second stage showed a total of 94.8% COD removal and 97.2% decolorization at HRT of 12 h with maximum methane production of 1.01 l/l/day. The experimental results showed that the changing in the soluble by-product could explain the effect of HRT and the maximum total hythane energy produced was 121.5 MJ/m3.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
Selman Karagoz, Nezir Aydin, Vladimir Simic

Waste management is gaining very high importance in recent years. As automotive is one of the most critical sectors worldwide, which is rapidly increasing, the management of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) gains importance day by day. Due to legislation and new regulations, actors like users, producers, and treatment facilities are being conferred new responsibilities in the ELV management process. Besides, the ELV management is of vital importance for environment conservation, circular economy and sustainable development. All of these reasons are making the ELV management such a crucial issue to study. Today, the ELV management is a well-positioned and emergent research area. However, the available review papers are focused only on a small area of the ELV management, such as reverse logistics, recovery infrastructure, disassemblability, etc. Besides, a review of state-of-the-art mathematical models for the ELV management is still missing. This paper aims to provide an extensive content analysis overview of studies on the ELV management. A total of 232 studies published in the period 2000–2019 are collected, categorized, reviewed and analyzed. A critical review of the published literature is provided. Gaps in the literature are identified to clarify and suggest future research directions. This review can provide a source of references, valuable insights, and opportunities for researchers interested in the ELV management and inspire their additional attention.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
Hao Li, Jinlin Li, Zengbo Zhang, Xueli Cao, Jingrong Zhu, Wenjia Chen

Healthcare services provided by hospitals and clinics inevitably produce waste that may hazardous to the environment and society. However, there is a lack of an effective and comprehensive evaluation framework that takes uncertainty and fuzziness into account to assess healthcare waste treatment technologies in the emerging economies. The objective of this paper is to present a new integrated multi-criteria decision-making method based on interval-valued fuzzy DEMATEL (Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) and interval-valued fuzzy TOPSIS for evaluating healthcare waste treatment technologies in the emerging economies from a sustainability perspective. In this study, the decision makers are allowed to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria and prioritize the alternatives using linguistic variables. The weights of the evaluation criteria are determined by the interval-valued fuzzy DEMATEL method, and the prioritization of the alternatives is determined by the interval-valued fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) method. Four alternatives for healthcare waste treatment technologies including incineration, steam sterilization, microwave and landfill are studied, and the results show that our established method is effective to help the decision-makers to determine the prioritization of the alternatives for healthcare waste treatment technologies.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
Chafika Djelal, Jonathan Page, Hassina Kada, Yannick Vanhove

An experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential use of poplar by-products in cement mortars. Two by-products from poplar processing were studied: sawdust (from sawing wood) and milled fibres (from wood waste obtained during cutting). Poplar fibres and sawdust were incorporated into mortars as sand volume substitution with rates ranging from 0 to 100%. Before introduction into the mortar, poplar aggregates were characterized (morphology and water absorption). It appeared that these wood aggregates absorb very quickly a large amount of water (up to 200%). The introduction of these poplar by-products has significant effects on the composite properties in both fresh and hardened states. It was noted that the workability of the mixtures with the poplar wood varies with the substitution rate. The inhibition of cement setting with poplar sawdust is characterized by maturity tests and affects the mechanical properties of mortars. In addition, increasing the poplar aggregates content causes a continuous increase of the material porosity, which leads to a decrease in density. Besides, it appears that the incorporation of poplar aggregates into mortars also decrease their thermal conductivities, which would help to reduce building heat losses. A significant decrease in the mechanical properties of poplar-based mortars was also noted, related to the rate of fibres or sawdust introduced into mixtures. The hydration disturbances, the high internal porosity of the wood particles and their low density can explain these lower mechanical strengths. However, despite these disturbances, the valorisation of poplar wood by-products remains possible in cementitious materials for the manufacture of concrete masonry blocks.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
Suekyoung Yun, Donsik Ryu, Jeehyeong Khim

Construction and demolition waste fines (CDWF) account for approximately 15% of landfill waste, and are likely to generate H2S during decomposition. In Korea, CDWF disposal depends mostly on landfill sites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using CDWF as a substrate for plant growth or soil amendment agent for the improvement of reclaimed land. Experiments were conducted on the growth of three plant species in garden soil mixed with CDWF. Because of the high salinity of CDWF, the heights of all plants decreased as the mixing ratio of CDWF increased. However, the Chrysanthemum morifolium growing in only CDWF showed similar or slightly lower dry weight compared to the control specimens. Upon evaluating the applicability of CDWF to the improvement of reclaimed soil with a column test, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and removal rate of cations from the soil were found to increase as the CDWF mixing ratio increased because of the Ca2+ contained in the CDWF. These results suggest that it is possible to reduce both the amount of landfill and the H2S generation using previously landfilled CDWF.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
Pablo Emilio Escamilla-García, Martha E. Jiménez-Castañeda, Emmanuel Fernández-Rodríguez, Silvia Galicia-Villanueva

This research addresses the use of methane (CH4) for energy generation in a landfill located in Southern Mexico. To evaluate the feasibility of this renewable and sustainable energy project, a LandGEM model was used to estimate the CH4-emissions, the environmental benefits and the economic profitability. Taken together, results showed an average CH4-production of 2932 ft3/min, with a maximum CH4-generation flowrate of 4072 ft3/min (115.3 m3). Energy generation resulted in 32.396 million KW h/year with a hot water/steam production of 63.990 million BTU/year. The installed capital costs of a 15-years project were estimated in $9,034,907 USD; economic parameters showed a financial profitability with a net present value of$6,304,060 and an internal rate of return of 25%. The environmental benefits reported a total collection and destruction of CH4 at 9,824,469,979 ft3 (278,198,009.2 m3). The results obtained in this research can be used to conduct further studies to implement waste-to-energy technologies in Mexico and thus improve the sector of sustainable and renewable energy.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
Fabiula D. B. de Sousa, Aline Zanchet, Elaine S. Marczynski, Vinicius Pistor, Rudinei Fiorio, Janaina S. Crespo

Vulcanized residues of ethylene–propylene–diene monomer rubber (EPDM) from expanded profiles trims, called EPDM-r, were treated to remove the paraffinic oil and then devulcanized by microwaves at different exposure times (0, 2, 3 and 4 min). Elastomeric formulations of EPDM-r compound/raw EPDM compound containing 67 wt% of recycled phase were produced, and the characteristics of the vulcanization process, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties, morphology and accelerated aging of the blends were analyzed. The promising results showed that it is possible to obtain new rubber compositions containing 67 wt% of EPDM-r with similar—or even higher—mechanical properties than the Reference sample (without EPDM-r), pointing out to the potential use of devulcanized EPDM-r in several applications, as a possible solution to the destination of these materials, aiming at the sustainable development.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
Can Bülent Karakuş, Demet Demiroğlu, Ayşen Çoban, Alptekin Ulutaş

Landfill is the most common method used to eliminate municipal solid waste in developing countries. As in all developing residential units, Sivas city is also encountering a major solid waste problem menacing both public health and environment. This study analyzes the 7 criteria (geological structure, land ability class, transportation, groundwater, surface water, residential areas, and existing land use) utilized for solid waste landfill area preference reasons by employing some Geographical Information System (GIS) based, multi-criteria decision-making methods such as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Evaluation of alternative areas defined by AHP and SAW methods is conducted with the help of Combinative Distance-Based Assessment (CODAS). The study area was classified as “most suitable”, “suitable”, “averagely suitable”, “too little suitable” and “not suitable” in terms of their sanitary landfill properties. According to AHP and SAW analyses results, it was determined that a large part of the study area (respectively, 46.82% and 27.81%) is within the category of “averagely suitable”. After the application based on GIS oriented multi-criteria decision-making analysis, 4 alternative places as solid waste disposal areas were recommended by taking environmental and physical factors into consideration. AHP–CODAS and SAW–CODAS methods were mutually utilized to rank these 4 areas according to their suitability. As a result, “Area1” in integrated weights (AHP and SAW)–CODAS was selected as the most appropriate place for sanitary permanent landfill.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
Ahmad Reza Salehiyoun, Mohammad Sharifi, Francesco Di Maria, Hamid Zilouei, Mortaza Aghbashlo

The article “Effect of substituting organic fraction of municipal solid waste with fruit and vegetable wastes on anaerobic digestion”, written by Ahmad Reza Salehiyoun, Mohammad Sharif, Francesco Di Maria, Hamid Zilouei, Mortaza Aghbashlo, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 25 June 2019 with open access.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
A. T. Ta, S. Babel

In this study, biogas yields and methane contents of vegetable wastes from Thailand’s largest agricultural market were investigated. Granular sludge from an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was used as inoculum. To determine the influences of the feedstock to inoculum (F/I) ratio and alkalinity, batch experiments were conducted at three different F/I ratios (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g VSfeedstock/g VSinoculum), and five NaHCO3 concentrations (i.e., 0, 300, 500, 600, and 900 mg/g VSadded). The reuse of digestate from previous anaerobic reactors, as sources of alkalinity and inoculum, was also investigated. After 53 days of the experiment, without adding NaHCO3, an F/I of 0.5 gave the highest biogas yield of 851 mL/g VS and a CH4 content of 52.3%. Adding external alkalinity significantly helped to improve the biogas production and methane contents at F/I ratios of 1.0 and 2.0. The results from using the recycled digestate as inoculum were comparable with reactors using UASB sludge and helped to decrease the amount of NaHCO3 to 150 mg/g VS. The high anaerobic digestion performance in the study demonstrated the potential of utilizing the organic waste from a vegetable market as a renewable energy source.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
Ali Koolivand, Hamid Abtahi, Kazem Godini, Reza Saeedi, Mohammad Sadegh Rajaei, Maryam Parhamfar, Hamed seifi

In this study, the effect of adding various bulking agents on the performance of a two-phase composting method in bioremediation of petroleum compounds from oily sludge was surveyed. The utilized system included the primary stage composting (PSC) using 6 windrow piles and the secondary stage composting (SSC) using 6 in-vessel bioreactors. Various amounts and combinations of immature compost, mature compost, and green waste were blended with oil tank bottom sludge (OTBS). Then, the mixture was added to the PSC and SSC experiments and composted for a period of 12 and 6 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the degradation percentages of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the PSC and SSC experiments were 63.56–84.50% and 57.59–88.95%, respectively. The removal efficiency reached through the two-phase system was higher than that of the single-stage process. Biodegradation was fitted to the first- and second-order kinetic with the rate constants of 0.076–0.389 day−1 and 0.006–0.176 g kg−1 day−1, respectively. The bacteria identified from the composting mixtures were Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Klebsiella sp. It was concluded that the two-stage composting system, as an inexpensive and efficient method, is practically applicable for remediation of OTBS.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-08-10
Junya Yano, Guochang Xu, Heping Liu, Toshiyuki Toyoguchi, Hisao Iwasawa, Shin-ichi Sakai

The purpose of this study is to obtain useful information for end-of-life (ELV) management through a dismantling survey. Six vehicles, comprising conventional and next-generation (hybrid electric vehicles HEV; electric vehicles EV) ELVs, were dismantled. The dismantling survey allowed identification of material composition and of parts distribution; For instance, the printed wiring board content ranged from 0.74 to 4.1 kg for conventional vehicles, 3.8 kg for HEV, and 7.9 kg for EV. Resource and/or toxic contents were also estimated per ELV at an elemental level, using chemical analysis and data from previous studies. Rare earth element (REE) contents were 3100 g for HEV and 710 g for EV, compared with 22–64 g for conventional vehicles. Precious metal contents (sum of Rh, Pd, Pt, Ag, and Au) were 3.1–9.6 g. Brominated flame retardants were also detected from 13 interior materials. Related to the element contents per ELV, next-generation vehicles tended to contain a wider variety of elements in higher amounts than did conventional vehicles. In some elements including REEs significant variations in the contents per ELV were noted among the studies on ELVs reported so far; these uncertainties should be considered in life cycle assessments for ELV recycling schemes.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-06-22
Firas Al-Zuhairi, Luca Micoli, Ciro Florio, Angelo Ausiello, Maria Turco, Domenico Pirozzi, Giuseppe Toscano

Anaerobic co-digestion of mixed feedstocks improves the biogas yields due to a better balance of nutrients in the digestion medium. A suitable choice for improving biogas yields from the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes is the co-digestion with lignocellulosic materials. The growing exploitation of the giant reed in several industrial fields motivated a preliminary investigation on the anaerobic co-digestion of steam-exploded giant reed and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW).The anaerobic digestion was carried out at 37 °C, in batch operation mode. Biogas volumes produced and the concentration–time profiles of volatile fatty acids were analysed for different initial ratios of the mixed feedstock. All the mixtures performed better than the single feedstock. The optimal biogas yield was obtained with the co-digestion of a mixture containing 75% OFMSW and 25% giant reed, which produced 236 mL CH4/g VS with a 1.5-fold increase respect to the digestion of OFMSW alone.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. (IF 2.004) Pub Date : 2019-07-11
N. N. M. Pauzi, M. Jamil, R. Hamid, A. Z. Abdin, M. F. M. Zain

Waste cathode ray tube glass has been formed into two different products which are spherical glass (GS) and crushed glass (GC). Since it is a new material that acts as a coarse aggregate in concrete production, the architectural and civil structures built with such concretes may face a risk of fire situations. Thus, it is important to analyze the behavior of concrete containing GS and GC after exposure to high temperatures. A series of experimental programs were conducted on mixtures of concrete containing GS and GC as coarse aggregates, which were subjected to high temperatures ranging from ambient temperature to 800 °C at exposure time of 1 and 2 h. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, mass loss, and X-ray diffraction were analyzed. Results show better compressive strength in concrete containing GS at temperature 200–600 °C. However, the use of GS affects the splitting tensile strength more negatively, compared to GC. But, at a temperature beyond 600 °C, the use of GC causing bubbles of glass appeared on the surface of concrete and toxic Pb was found in the crushed concrete paste.

更新日期：2019-12-11
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.

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