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  • A novel bilayer zein/MMT nanocomposite incorporated with H. perforatum oil for wound healing
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Seda Gunes, Sedef Tamburaci, Funda Tihminlioglu

    Abstract Recently, layered structures composed of nanofibers have gained attention as a novel material to mimic skin tissue in wound healing applications. The aim of this study is to develop a novel hybrid bilayer material composed of zein based composite film and nanofiber layers as a wound dressing material. The upper layer was composed of H. perforatum oil incorporated zein film including MMT and the bottom layer was comprised of 3D electrospun zein/MMT nanofibers to induce wound healing with the controlled release of H. perforatum oil. The bilayer composites were characterized in terms of mechanical test, WVP, water uptake and surface wettability. Antimicrobial activity of the wound dressings against microorganisms were investigated by disc diffusion method. In vitro cytotoxicity of monolayer film and bilayer structure was performed using WST-1 assay on HS2 keratinocyte and 3T3 cell lines. Results indicated that the prepared monolayer films showed appropriate mechanical and gas barrier properties and surface wettability for wound healing. Controlled release of H. perforatum oil was obtained from fabricated membranes up to 48 h. Bilayer membranes showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans and did not show any toxic effect on NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast and HS2 keratinocyte cell lines. In vitro scratch assay results indicated that H. perforatum oil had a wound healing effect by inducing fibroblast migration. The proliferation study supported these results by increasing fibroblast proliferation on H. perforatum oil loaded bilayer membranes.

  • Micro-computed tomography high resolution evaluation of dimensional and morphological changes of 3 root-end filling materials in simulated physiological conditions
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Fernanda Ferrrari Esteves Torres, Reinhilde Jacobs, Mostafa EzEldeen, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Bernardo Camargo dos Santos, Éverton Lucas-Oliveira, Tito José Bonagamba, Mario Tanomaru-Filho

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate volumetric and morphological stability of 3 root-end filling materials in addition to porosity and interface voids, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) in high resolution and a highly accurate approach for image analysis. Following root-end resection and apical preparation, two-rooted maxillary premolars were divided into three groups, according to the filling materials: White MTA Angelus, Biodentine, and IRM. Samples were scanned by µCT at 5 µm after the setting time and at time intervals of 7 and 30 days after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Volumetric and morphological changes besides material porosity and interface voids were evaluated by comparing initial values and those obtained after immersion. Data were analyzed statistically, using ANOVA and t-tests (α = 0.05). All materials showed volumetric stability. Regarding the morphological changes, Biodentine had a significant thickness reduction after storage in PBS when compared with MTA. Biodentine also showed an increase in porosity, as well as in percentage and thickness of voids after 30 days of immersion. In conclusion, µCT in high resolution and an accurate image analysis approach may be used to evaluate morphological changes of endodontic materials. Although Biodentine showed suitable adaptability and lower values of porosity than MTA, after PBS immersion there was a dimensional reduction of this material, besides an increase in porosity and interface voids.

  • Preparation, structural, microstructural, mechanical and cytotoxic characterization of as-cast Ti-25Ta-Zr alloys
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Pedro Akira Bazaglia Kuroda, Fernanda de Freitas Quadros, Karolyne dos Santos Jorge Sousa, Tatiani Ayako Goto Donato, Raul Oliveira de Araújo, Carlos Roberto Grandini

    Abstract Titanium alloys have been widely used as biomaterials, especially for orthopedic prostheses and dental implants, but these materials have Young's modulus almost three times greater than human cortical bones. Because of this, new alloys are being produced for the propose of decreasing Young's modulus to achieve a more balanced mechanical compatibility with the bone. In this paper, it is reported the development of Ti-25Ta alloys as a base material, in which was introduced zirconium, with concentration varying between 0 and 40 wt%, with the aim of biomedical applications. The alloys were prepared in an arc-melting furnace. The microstructural analysis was performed by x-ray diffraction as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected mechanical properties were analyzed by microhardness and Young’s modulus measurements, and cytotoxicity analysis by indirect test. X-ray measurements revealed the presence of α″ phase in the alloy without zirconium; α″ + β phases for alloys with 10, 20, and 30 wt% of zirconium, and β phase only for the alloy with 40 wt% of zirconium. These results were corroborated by the microscopy results. The hardness of the alloy was higher than that of cp-Ti due to the actions of zirconium and tantalum as hardening agents. The Young’s modulus decreases with high levels of zirconium due to the stabilization of the β phase. The cytotoxicity test showed that the extracts of studied alloys are not cytotoxic for osteoblast cells in short periods of culture.

  • Fabrications of boron-containing apatite ceramics via ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis route and their responses to immunocytes
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Daiki Nakagawa, Mariko Nakamura, Shigenori Nagai, Mamoru Aizawa

    Abstract Immunotherapy without side effects has been expected as a novel medical treatment for cancer. However, drugs such as cytokines typically used for immunotherapy are very expensive. Therefore, we propose the concept of immunoceramics that affect the immune system. Previous studies have shown that polymers including the phenylboronic acid group activate lymphocytes. This activation may be due to interaction between the sugar chains in cells and the OH group in B(OH)3 formed via dissociation of the BO2 group. In the present study, boron-containing apatite (BAp; Ca9.5+0.5x{(PO4)6−x(BO3)x}{(BO2)1–xOx} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)) was successfully fabricated via the ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis (USSP) route. We examined the material properties of the BAp ceramics with an aim to application as immunoceramics and the responses of immune cells to the BAp ceramics. The crystalline phases of the BAp ceramics included the apatite phase and infrared (IR) absorption of BO2 and BO3 groups was detected in the BAp ceramics. The cellular response of immune cells derived from mice spleens to dense BAp ceramics was examined next. The proportion of helper T cells and killer T cells on BAp (x = 0.4) ceramics increased compared to that on hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HAp) ceramics and on a control. These results indicate that BAp (x = 0.4) ceramics fabricated via the USSP route can be expected to act as immunoceramics that can affect the immune system.

  • Adult stem cell response to doped bioactive borate glass
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Nathan J. Thyparambil, Lisa C. Gutgesell, Cassandra C. Hurley, Lauren E. Flowers, Delbert E. Day, Julie A. Semon

    Abstract Bioactive glasses have transformed healthcare due to their versatility. Bioactive borate glass, in particular, has shown remarkable healing properties for both hard and soft tissues. Incorporating dopants into the composition of bioactive glass helps to control mechanical properties, and it increases their usefulness for clinical applications. Using a bioactive borate glass, 13-93B3 (B3), we investigated eleven dopants on the viability and migration potential of adipose stem cells (ASCs), a therapeutic source of cells used in tissue engineering and cell therapy. Our results show that under standard cell culture conditions, only Cu-doped B3 decreased cell viability, while only Y-doped B3 attracted ASCs as it dissolved in cell culture media. Using a transwell invasion assay, priming ASCs with Co, Fe, Ga, I, Sr, or Zn-doped B3 increased their homing capacity. Because there is widespread interest in optimizing and enhancing the homing efficiency of ASCs and other therapeutic cells, we then tested if priming bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with dopants also increased their homing capacity. In the case of BMSCs, there was a significant increase in invasion when cells were primed with any of the doped-B3 glasses. This work shows that incorporating dopants into borate glasses can provide a platform for a safe and efficient method that stimulates endogenous cells and healing mechanisms.

  • Skin permeation and thermodynamic features of curcumin-loaded liposomes
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Virginia Campani, Lorena Scotti, Teresa Silvestri, Marco Biondi, Giuseppe De Rosa

    Abstract This work describes the development of liposomes encapsulating curcumin (CURC) aiming to provide insights on the influence of CURC on the thermodynamic and skin permeation/penetration features of the vesicles. CURC-loaded liposomes were prepared by hydration of lipid film, in the 0.1–15% CURC:DPPC w/w ratio range. The obtained formulations were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential and vesicle deformability, along with their thermodynamic properties and ex vivo skin penetration/permeation ability. Liposome size was 110–130 nm for all formulations, with fairly narrow size distribution (polydispersity index was ≤0.20) and a zeta potential mildly decreasing with CURC loading. DSC outcomes indicated that CURC interferes with the packing of DPPC acyl chains in liposome bilayer when CURC percentage was at least 10%, leading to a more fluid state than blank and low-payload vesicles. Consistently, the deformability index of liposomes with 15% CURC:DPPC was strongly increased compared to other formulations. This is congruent with ex vivo skin penetration/permeation results, which showed how more deformable liposomes showed an improved deposition in the epidermis, which acts as a reservoir for the active molecule. Altogether, results hint at a possible application of high payload liposomes for improved topical dermal accumulations of actives.

  • Study on osteogenesis of zinc-loaded carbon nanotubes/chitosan composite biomaterials in rat skull defects
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Chenbing Wang, Jinlong Liu, Yanbo Liu, Boheng Qin, Dongning He

    Abstract Chitosan with hydroxyapatite composition, a natural polymer, may be a biomaterial of importance for bone regeneration. Carbon nanotube, a nanoscale material, has been another focus for bone restoration. Zinc, an essential trace element, contributes to the development and growth of skeletal system. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the effects of Zinc-loaded Carbon Nanotubes/Chitosan composite biomaterials in the restoration of rat skull defects, and to verify the hypothesis that these zinc ions of appropriate concentration would strengthen the osteogenesis of rat defects. Four different groups of composite biomaterials were fabricated from no Zinc Carbon nanotubes/Chitosan (GN), 0.2% Zinc-Carbon nanotubes/Chitosan (GL), 1% Zinc-Carbon nanotubes/Chitosan (GM) and 2% Zinc-Carbon nanotubes/Chitosan (GH). After characterizations, these composite biomaterials were then transplanted into rat skull defects. The experimental animals were executed at 12 weeks after transplanted surgeries, and the rat skull defects were removed for related analyses. The results of characterizations suggested the Zinc-loaded composite biomaterials possessed good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. An important finding was that the optimal osteogenic effect appeared in rat skull defects transplanted with 1% Zinc-Carbon nanotubes/Chitosan. Overall, these composite biomaterials revealed satisfactory osteogenesis, nevertheless, there was a requirement to further perfect the zinc ion concentrations to achieve the better bone regeneration.

  • Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial drug loaded β-tricalcium phosphate powders for bone engineering applications
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Aysenur Topsakal, Nazmi Ekren, Osman Kilic, Faik N. Oktar, Mahir Mahirogullari, Ozan Ozkan, Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel, Mustafa Turk, Iuliana M. Bogdan, George E. Stan, Oguzhan Gunduz

    Abstract Powders of β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP, β-Ca3(PO4)2] and composite powders of β-TCP and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were synthesized by using wet precipitation methods. First, the conditions for the preparation of single phase β-TCP have been delineated. In the co-precipitation procedure, calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were used as calcium and phosphorous precursors, respectively. The pH of the system was varied in the range 7–11 by adding designed amounts of ammonia solution. The filtered cakes were desiccated at 80 °C and subsequently calcined at different temperatures in the range between 700–1100 °C. Later on, rifampicin form II was used to produce drug-loaded β-TCP and PVA/β-TCP powders. All the synthesized materials have been characterized from morphological (by scanning electron microscopy) and structural-chemical (by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) point of view. The drug loading capacity of the selected pure β-TCP powder has been assessed. The biological performance (cytocompatibility in fibroblast cell culture and antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) has been tested with promising results. Application perspectives of the designed drug-bioceramic-polymer blends are advanced and discussed.

  • In vivo osseointegration of a randomized trabecular titanium structure obtained by an additive manufacturing technique
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Vincenza Ragone, Elena Canciani, Massimo Arosio, Matteo Olimpo, Lisa Adele Piras, Mitzy Mauthe von Degerfeld, Davide Augusti, Riccardo D’Ambrosi, Claudia Dellavia

    Abstract The additive manufacturing techniques (AM) are able to realize three-dimensional trabecular structures that mimic the trabecular structure of the bone. An in vivo study in sheep was carried out with the aim of assessing the bone response and the trend of osteointegration of a randomized trabecular titanium structure produced by the AM technique. In 6 sheep were implanted 84 specimens with a trabecular titanium structure (4 implants in the femur distal epiphysis; 4 implants in the tibial plate; 6 implants in the tibial shaft). Sheep were sacrificed at 3 postoperative time-points: 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks. Histomorphometric analysis was performed for the evaluation of Bone Implant Contact, and Bone Ingrowth. A standard push-out test was used to analyze the mechanical characteristics of the bone-implant interface. The histomorphometric data and biomechanical tests showed a fast osseointegration of the specimens both in the cancellous and in the cortical bone. The quantitative analysis of osseointegration data in cancellous bone showed the percentage of the surface of the implant in direct contact with the regenerated bone matrix significantly improved from 28% at 6 weeks to 54% at 14 weeks. An early osseointegration occurred in cortical bone showing that 75% of surface of implant was in direct contact with regenerated bone after 6 weeks; this value increased to 85% after 14 weeks. Mechanical tests revealed an early improvement of mean peak load of implants at 10 weeks (4486 N ± 528 N) compared to values at 6 weeks (2516 N ± 910 N) confirming the high rate of progression of osseointegration in the cortical bone. The non-mineralized matrix followed an increasing process of mineralization almost completely after 14 weeks. The results of this study have showed a rapid osseointegration and excellent biocompatibility for a randomized trabecular titanium structure that should be confirmed by clinical investigations.

  • Synthesis and characterization of novel calcium phosphate glass-derived cements for vital pulp therapy
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Jerry Howard, Levi Gardner, Zahra Saifee, Aladdin Geleil, Isaac Nelson, John S. Colombo, Steven E. Naleway, Krista Carlson

    Abstract Evaluation of the physicochemical behavior and setting reactions of a novel inorganic pulp capping cement which makes use of the unique corrosion properties of sodium metasilicate (NaSi) glass. NaSi and calcium phosphate (CaP) glass powders were synthesized through a melt-quench method. Cements were created by mixing various amounts of the glasses with deionized water at a powder-to-liquid ratio of 2.5 g mL−1. Working and setting times were measured using the indentation standard ISO 9917-1. Sealing ability was tested by placing set samples of each composition in methylene blue dye solution for 24 h. Set samples were also submerged in phosphate buffered saline and incubated at 37 °C for one week. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mature crystalline phases after incubation. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize cements before and after setting and after incubation. Working and setting times measured in the ranges of 2–5 and 10–25 min, respectively. Working and setting time generally decrease with increased NaSi concentration. Cements with compositions of 25 and 33 wt% NaSi were found to resist the infiltration of dye and maintain their shape. Compositions outside this range absorbed dye and collapsed. Infrared spectroscopy provided insight into the setting mechanism of these cements. After one week in vitro, cements were found to contain crystalline phases matching chemically stable, bioactive phases. The combination of NaSi and CaP glasses has favorable setting behavior, sealing ability, and mature phases for pulp capping while relying on a relatively simple, inorganic composition.

  • Surface sulfonation and nitrification enhance the biological activity and osteogenesis of polyetheretherketone by forming an irregular nano-porous monolayer
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Yanhua Li, Jing Wang, Dong He, GuoxiongZhu, Gaoyi Wu, Lei Chen

    Abstract Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is becoming a popular component of clinical spinal and orthopedic applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. In this study, irregular nano-porous monolayer with differently functional groups was formed on the surface of PEEK through sulfonation and nitrification. The surface characteristics were detected by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, water contact angle measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cellular behaviors were evaluated by cell adhesion, morphological changes, proliferation, alkalinity, phosphatase activity, real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses. In vivo osseointegration was examined through micro-CT and histological assessments. Our results reveal that the irregular nano-porous of PEEK affect the biological properties. High-temperature hydrothermal NP treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation and early osteogenesis. Modification by sulfonation and nitrification can broaden the use of PEEK in orthopedic and dental applications. This study provides a theoretical basis for the wider clinical application of PEEK. a To obtain a uniform porous structure, PEEK samples were treated by concentrated sulfuric acid and fuming nitric acid (82–80%) with magnetic stirring sequentially. b Effects of nanopores on biological behavior of bMSCS.

  • Assessing two-way interactions between cells and inorganic nanoparticles
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    C. Cristallini, N. Barbani, S. Bianchi, S. Maltinti, A. Baldassare, R. Ishak, M. Onor, L. Ambrosio, V. Castelvetro, M. G. Cascone

    A safe and effective use of nanoparticles in biology and medicine requires a thorough understanding, down to the molecular level, of how nanoparticles interact with cells in the physiological environment. This study evaluated the two-way interaction between inorganic nanomaterials (INMs) and cells from A549 human lung carcinoma cell line. The interaction between silica and zinc oxide INMs and cells was investigated using both standard methods and advanced characterization techniques. The effect of INMs on cell properties was evaluated in terms of cell viability, chemical modifications, and volume changes. The effect of cells and culture medium on INMs was evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC–MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). No cytotoxic effect was detected in the case of silicon oxide INMs, while for high doses of zinc oxide INMs a reduction of cell survival was observed. Also, increased cell volume was recorded after 24 h incubation of cells with zinc oxide INMs. A better dimensional homogeneity and colloidal stability was observed by DLS for silicon oxide INMs than for zinc oxide INMs. SEM–EDS analysis showed the effectiveness of the adopted dispersion procedure and confirmed in the case of zinc oxide INMs the presence of residual substances derived from organosilane coating. HPLC and GC–MS performed on INMs aqueous dispersions after 24 h incubation showed an additional peak related to the presence of an organic contaminant only in the case of zinc oxide INMs. FTIR Chemical Imaging carried out directly on the cells showed, in case of incubation with zinc oxide INMs, a modification of the spectra in correspondence of phospholipids, nucleic acids and proteins characteristic absorption bands when compared with untreated cells. Overall, our results confirm the importance of developing new experimental methods and techniques for improving the knowledge about the biosafety of nanomaterials.

  • Cell Loaded GelMA:HEMA IPN hydrogels for corneal stroma engineering
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Cemile Kilic Bektas, Vasif Hasirci

    Stroma is the main refractive element of the cornea and damage to it is one of the main causes of blindness. In this study, cell loaded hydrogels of methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) (8:2) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were prepared as the corneal stroma substitute and tested in situ and in vitro. Compressive modulus of the GelMA hydrogels was significantly enhanced with the addition of pHEMA in the structure (6.53 vs 155.49 kPa, respectively). More than 90% of the stromal keratocytes were viable in the GelMA and GelMA-HEMA hydrogels as calculated by Live-Dead Assay and NIH Image-J program. Cells synthesized representative collagens and proteoglycans in the hydrogels indicating that they preserved their keratocyte functions. Transparency of the cell loaded GelMA-HEMA hydrogels was increased significantly up to 90% at 700 nm during three weeks of incubation and was comparable with the transparency of native cornea. Cell loaded GelMA-HEMA corneal stroma model is novel and reported for the first time in the literature in terms of introduction of cells during the preparation phase of the hydrogels. The appropriate mechanical strength and high transparency of the cell loaded constructs indicates a viable alternative to the current devices used in the treatment of corneal blindness.

  • Investigating the repair of alveolar bone defects by gelatin methacrylate hydrogels-encapsulated human periodontal ligament stem cells
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Jie Pan, Jiajia Deng, Liming Yu, Yuhui Wang, Weihua Zhang, Xinxin Han, Pedro H. C. Camargo, Jiale Wang, Yuehua Liu

    Although various efforts have been made to develop effective treatments for alveolar bone defect, alveolar regeneration has been emerging as the one with the most potential Herein, we investigated the potential of gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels-encapsulated human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) to regenerate alveolar bone. The easy, rapid, and cost-effective nature of GelMA hydrogels makes them a promising mode of stem cell-delivery for clinically relevant alveolar bone regeneration. More importantly, GelMA hydrogels provide an optimal niche for hPDLSCs proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation, which are critical for alveolar bone regeneration. In this study, we examined the microstructure of GelMA hydrogels, and identified a highly porous and interconnected network. Compressive test of GelMA hydrogels showed that the stress reached a maximum value of 13.67 ± 0.03 kPa when the strain reached 55%. The maximum values of swelling ratio were 700 ± 47% at the fifth hour. The proliferation rate of hPDLSCs in the GelMA hydrogels resembled that in 2D culture and gradually increased. We established a critical-sized rat model of alveolar bone defects, and applied Micro-CT to assess new bone formation. Compared to the control group, there was substantial bone regeneration in the GelMA + hPDLSCs group at both 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. Histological analysis results were consistent with Micro-CT results. Our study demonstrates that the GelMA hydrogels-encapsulated hPDLSCs have a significant alveolar regenerative potential, and may represent a new strategy for the therapy of alveolar bone defects.

  • Curcumin-loaded nanofibers for targeting endometriosis in the peritoneum of a mouse model
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Safieh Boroumand, Sara Hosseini, Zaiddodine Pashandi, Reza Faridi-Majidi, Mohammad Salehi

    Endometriosis is a common, chronic gynecological disorder associated with ongoing pelvic pain, infertility, and adhesions in reproductive age women. Current therapeutic strategies are not effective and the recurrent nature of endometriosis makes it difficult to treat. In this study, we have designed a drug delivery system to control sustained and prolonged release of curcumin in the peritoneum and pelvic cavity of a mouse model of endometriosis. Poly ε-Caprolactone (PCL) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) polymers were used to synthesize curcumin loaded nanofibers. After scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of the nanofiber’s morphology, we evaluated the drug release profile and in vitro degradation rate of the curcumin-loaded nanofibers. Next, we tested these nanofibers in vivo in the peritoneum of an endometriosis mouse model to determine their anti-endometriosis effects. Histological evaluations were also performed. Curcumin loaded nanofibers were successfully synthesized in the 8 and 10 wt% polymers. The release test of the curcumin-loaded nanofibers showed that approximately 23% of the loaded curcumin was released during 30 min, 35% at 24 h, and 50% at 30 days. Endometriosis was successfully induced in Balb/c mice, as noted by the observed characteristics of endometriosis in all of the mice and confirmation of endometriosis by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. In vivo experiments showed the ability of these implanted curcumin loaded nanofibers to mitigate endometriosis. We observed a considerable reduction in the endometrial glands and stroma, along with significant reduction in infiltration of inflammatory cells. Implantable curcumin loaded nanofibers successfully mitigated intraperitoneal endometriosis.

  • Torque property of titanium alloy cerebral aneurysm clips in a magnetic resonance scanner
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Minghui Tang, Shingo Kawahira, Naoyuki Nomura, Toru Yamamoto

    Titanium (Ti) alloys have been introduced in magnetic resonance (MR) safe implantable medical devices because the susceptibility of Ti is approximately 1/10 that of the Co-Cr-Ni alloy (Elgiloy), which was the previously preferred MR-safe material. The torque applied to metallic materials in an MR imaging (MRI) scanner is commonly believed to increase with the susceptibility of the material. However, a visual inspection showed that the torque applied to Ti alloy cerebral aneurysm clips is comparable with that in the case of those of Elgiloy. In this study, we measured the torque applied to the small test pieces of rods and aneurysm clips quantitatively in a 3-T MRI using an accurate self-developed torque measurement apparatus. The maximum torques of Ti alloy and Elgiloy rod test pieces were comparable as 1.1 and 1.2 µN·m, respectively. The values for Ti alloy aneurysm clips were distinctly higher than the values for those of Elgiloy. These contradictory results of a larger torque for smaller-susceptibility products could be explained by our new theory, which takes into account the crystal susceptibility anisotropy in addition to the conventional torque due to the shape anisotropy.

  • Injectable hydrogel based on dialdehyde galactomannan and N-succinyl chitosan: a suitable platform for cell culture
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Everton Lucas de Lima, Niédja Fittipaldi Vasconcelos, Jeanny da Silva Maciel, Fábia Karine Andrade, Rodrigo Silveira Vieira, Judith Pessoa Andrade Feitosa

    Regenerative medicine proposes to regenerate or even replace human damaged tissues to return to normal functions. Hence, biomaterials have been used to provide appropriate environment for cell development. Among the groups of biodegradable biomaterials, hydrogels, which are characterized by three-dimensional and cross-linked networks of water-soluble polymers, have been highlighted as suitable matrices for such applications. An injectable hydrogel based on oxidized galactomannan (OxGM) from Delonix regia and N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) was developed and characterized according to its physicochemical and biocompatible properties. The hydrogel was formed by Schiff base (−CH = N−) cross-linking between aldehyde groups from OxGM and NH2 groups from NSC, in few minutes (9.7 min) without any external stimulus. A hydrogel with macroporous structure, interconnected pores, and porosity of 69% was obtained. The biomaterial exhibited excellent injectability. No change in volume or integrity was observed in the hydrogel after its swelling in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) medium. This is an important property because when the hydrogel is injected into the site of interest and it fills the environment, it will not have additional space to occupy. Biocompatibility studies were conducted in vitro, which revealed the non-cytotoxic nature of the material and demonstrated the potential of the hydrogel based on dialdehyde galactomannan and N-succinyl chitosan for cell culture and soft tissue engineering.

  • Chitosan-based double-faced barrier membrane coated with functional nanostructures and loaded with BMP-6
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Menemşe Gümüşderelioğlu, Elif Sunal, Tuğrul Tolga Demirtaş, Arlin S. Kiremitçi

    In the present study, a chitosan-based, multifunctional and double-faced barrier membrane was developed for the periodontitis therapy. The porous surface of the membrane was coated with bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) produced by microwave-assisted biomimetic method and enriched with bone morphogenetic factor 6 (BMP-6) to enhance the bioactivity of chitosan. This surface of the membrane was designed to be in contact with the hard tissue that was damaged due to periodontitis. Otherwise the nonporous surface of membrane, which is in contact with the inflammatory soft tissue, was coated with electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers to prevent the migration of epithelial cells to the defect area. PrestoBlue, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and real-time PCR results demonstrated that while porous surface of the membrane was enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts, nonporous surface of membrane did not allow migration of epithelial Madine Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. The barrier membrane developed here is biodegradable and can be easily manipulated, has osteogenic activity and inactivity for epithelial cells. Thus, by implanting this membrane to the damaged periodontal tissue, bone regeneration will take place and integrity of periodontal tissues will be preserved.

  • Differences in osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells between a tailored 3D hybrid scaffold and a 2D standard culture
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Samuele M. Dozio, Monica Montesi, Elisabetta Campodoni, Monica Sandri, Adriano Piattelli, Anna Tampieri, Silvia Panseri

    Many medical-related scientific discoveries arise from trial-error patterns where the processes involved must be refined and modified continuously before any product could be able to reach the final costumers. One of the elements affecting negatively these processes is the inaccuracy of two-dimension (2D) standard culture systems, carried over in plastic plates or similar, in replicating complex environments and patterns. Consequently, animal tests are required to validate every in vitro finding, at the expenses of more funds and ethical issues. A possible solution relies in the implementation of three-dimension (3D) culture systems as a fitting gear between the 2D tests and in vivo tests, aiming to reduce the negative in vivo outcomes. These 3D structures are depending from the comprehension of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the ability to replicate it in vitro. In this article a comparison of efficacies between these two culture systems was taken as subject, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was utilized and a hybrid scaffold made by a blend of chitosan, gelatin and biomineralized gelatin was used for the 3D culture system.

  • Stretchable collagen-coated polyurethane-urea hydrogel seeded with bladder smooth muscle cells for urethral defect repair in a rabbit model
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Chengyuan Wang, Chunyang Chen, Mingyu Guo, Bin Li, Fengxuan Han, Weiguo Chen

    The major challenge to treat the clinical adverse effects of long-segment urethra is in achieving viable tissue substitution. The substituted construct’s properties-such as its resilience, contraction, and ability to minimize scar-stenosis formation should be considered. In the present work, a unique polyurethane-urea (PUU) fibrous membrane is fabricated by electrospinning. Then PUU was coated by collagen and formed the elasticity hydrogel after immersed in collagen solution. Meanwhile, the cPUU hydrogel exhibited a fibrous microstructure. This cPUU hydrogel had outstanding stretching property with 404 ± 40% elongation at break compared with traditional hydrogels, which satisfied the requirement of urethra. The cPUU hydrogel also supported the adhesion and growth of bladder smooth-muscle cells (BSMCs) in natural state cell morphology. Urethral defects in New Zealand male rabbits were repaired with cPUU seeded with BSMCs in vivo. After three months, more smooth-surface area of reconstructed urethral tissues was observed in the cPUU hydrogel-BMSCs groups compared with that of the control group. The luminal patency and the incidence of complications-including calculus formation, urinary fistula, and urethral-stricture occurrence were significantly lower in the cPUU group compared with that of the control group. Hence, cPUU fibrous hydrogels are promising scaffolds for application in urological tissue engineering.

  • Biocompatibility of bioabsorbable Mg–Ca alloys with rare earth elements addition
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Daniel Fernandes, Celso Resende, Jacqueline Cavalcanti, Dexue Liu, Carlos Elias

    The objectives were to investigate the mechanical strength and biocompatibility of Mg2Ca2Gd and Mg1Ca2Nd (wt%) alloys developed for biomedical application as implantable bioabsorbable devices. Samples were implanted in New-Zealand rabbits tibia for 3, 6 and 8 weeks and compatibility analysis involved whole blood test, biochemistry, histopathology, histology, and radiographs. Refinement in grains were observed in Mg2Ca2Gd alloy; and Mg5Gd, Mg41Nd5, α-Mg and Mg2Ca phases were identified. Polarization curves revealed easier oxidation of Mg2Ca2Gd alloy, smaller values of corrosion rate and a higher polarization resistance of Mg1Ca2Nd. Adequate compatibility of both alloys was identified with pre-osteoblast stem cells. Red and white cells stayed compatible with reference ranges. Enzymes from liver and kidneys stayed at regular values and samples from kidneys and liver tissues presented similar organization to control animals. Histological displays from implantation sites disclosed well-structured tissues with evidences of bone cells activities compatible with the new bone tissues observed. Radiographs from tibias did not revealed relevant gas pockets. Mg2Ca2Gd alloy demonstrated faster degradation. Adequate biocompatibility was observed in Mg–Ca alloys with RE addition, being potential candidates for development of metallic implantable bioabsorbable devices.

  • Translational Research Symposium—collaborative efforts as driving forces of healthcare innovation
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    João Q. Coentro, Andrea De Pieri, Diana Gaspar, Dimitrios Tsiapalis, Dimitrios I. Zeugolis, Yves Bayon

    The 5th Translational Research Symposium was organised at the annual meeting of the European Society for Biomaterials 2018, Maastricht, the Netherlands, with emphasis on the future of emerging and smart technologies for healthcare in Europe. Invited speakers from academia and industry highlighted the vision and expectations of healthcare in Europe beyond 2020 and the perspectives of innovation stakeholders, such as small and medium enterprises, large companies and Universities. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, with particular attention on the need to identify unmet clinical needs and their efficient translation into healthcare solutions through active collaborations between all the participants involved in the value chain.

  • The use of clays for chlorhexidine controlled release as a new perspective for longer durability of dentin adhesion
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Lívia Rodrigues de Menezes, Emerson Oliveira da Silva, Lizandra Viana Maurat da Rocha, Isabel Ferreira Barbosa, Marina Rodrigues Tavares

    The adhesive systems have the function to establish the connection between the restorative material and dental tissue, therefore it is of fundamental importance, because failures in the adhesive interface can reduce the life of a dental restoration. This study investigated the possibility of using the adhesive layer as a chlorhexidine modified release system evaluating their impact on the properties of these systems as well as evaluating the impact of these systems on immediate and post-aging dentin adhesion. Were used a matrix with BisGMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA copolymer and clay particles (Dellite 67G); associated with a chlorhexidine and a camphorquinone photoinitiator system. The properties of these systems were evaluated by the XRD, FTIR spectrophotometer, flexural strength, elasticity modulus, drug release, enzymatic inhibition and dentin adhesion resistance. The presence of the clay can raise the mechanical properties of the adhesive systems engendering a more resistant hybrid layer and led to a more sustained release of chlorhexidine in the systems, allowing a longer effective period of MMP-2 inhibition. The hypothesis that the addition of clays as release modulators could increase the effectiveness of these drugs in inhibiting the dentin’s MPPs and consequently enhancing the adhesive durability was confirmed. These results indicate that the controlled release of chlorhexidine is able to reduce the process of loss of adhesion presenting itself as a promising system to increase the longevity of dental restorations.

  • Adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell on chitosan/collagen composite scaffold
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Md. Abdul Kafi, Mst. Khudishta Aktar, Yos Phanny, Mitsugu Todo

    In vitro tissue engineering requires a progenitor cell source and a porous scaffold providing three dimensional (3D) supports for growth and differentiation to attain tissue architectures. This research focused on fabrication and characterization of 3D porous scaffolds using chitosan (CS), collagen (CG) and chitosan-collagen (CS-CG) composite to investigate their influence on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Material dependent variations in porous morphology and mechanical behavior of the fabricated CS, CG and CS-CG scaffold showed significant impact on hMSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The maximum hMSC adhesion and proliferation was reported on CS-CG scaffold among all fabricated scaffold groups. Interconnectivity of pores structure in CS-CG scaffold was considered as preferable attribute for such enhanced growth and distribution throughout the scaffold. Besides, CS scaffold with well interconnected pores showed poor adhesion and proliferation because of inadequate adhesion motifs. In case of CG scaffold, optimum growth and distribution of hMSC occurs only at the surface because of the absence of interconnectivity in their pore structures. Likewise, osteogenic differentiation of hMSC occurs most preferably in CS-CG composite scaffold among all scaffold groups. Such enhanced hMSC proliferation and differentiation in CS-CG scaffold significantly influenced on mechanical behavior of scaffold which is essential for in vivo application of a bone tissue implant. Thus CS-CG composite scaffold holds promise to be a suitable platform for in vitro engineering of bone tissue implant.

  • The mechanism research of non-Smad dependent TAK1 signaling pathway in the treatment of bone defects by recombination BMP-2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres/chitosan composite
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Jingtang Li, Shilang Xiong, Linghua Ding, Jianhua Zeng, Peng Qiu, Jianguo Zhou, Xingen Liao, Long Xiong

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether the non-Smad dependent TAK1 signaling pathway (BMP-2-TAK1-p38-Osx signaling pathway) played an important role in bone repair mediated by hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres/chitosan (CS) composite.

  • Electrospun gelatin–polyethylenimine blend nanofibrous scaffold for biomedical applications
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Rachita Lakra, Manikantan Syamala Kiran, Purna Sai Korrapati

    In this study, gelatin–polyethylenimine blend nanofibers (GEL/PEI) were fabricated via electrospinning with different ratios (9:1, 6:1, 3:1) to integrate the properties of both the polymers for evaluating its biomedical application. From scanning electron microscopy, the average diameter of blend nanofibers (265 ± 0.074 nm to 340 ± 0.088 nm) was observed to be less than GEL nanofibers (403 ± 0.08 nm). The incorporation of PEI with gelatin resulted in improved thermal stability of nanofibers whereas the Young’s modulus was observed to be higher at 9:1 ratio when compared with other ratios. The in vitro studies showed that the GEL/PEI nanofibers with 9:1 ratio promoted better cell adhesion and viability. GEL/PEI nanofibers with 9:1 and 6:1 showed hemolysis within the permissible limits. From the results, it could be interpreted that GEL/PEI nanofibers with 9:1 ratio proved to be a better scaffold thereby making them a potential candidate for tissue engineering applications.

  • Chondrogenic phenotype in responses to poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds catalyzed by bioenzymes: effects of surface topography and chemistry
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Wasana Kosorn, Morakot Sakulsumbat, Tareerat Lertwimol, Boonlom Thavornyutikarn, Paweena Uppanan, Surapol Chantaweroad, Wanida Janvikul

    Biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has been increasingly investigated as a promising scaffolding material for articular cartilage tissue repair. However, its use can be limited due to its surface hydrophobicity and topography. In this study, 3D porous PCL scaffolds fabricated by a fused deposition modeling (FDM) machine were enzymatically hydrolyzed using two different biocatalysts, namely Novozyme®435 and Amano lipase PS, at varied treatment conditions in a pH 8.0 phosphate buffer solution. The improved surface topography and chemistry of the PCL scaffolds were anticipated to ultimately boost the growth of porcine articular chondrocytes and promote the chondrogenic phenotype during cell culture. Alterations in surface roughness, wettability, and chemistry of the PCL scaffolds after enzymatic treatment were thoroughly investigated using several techniques, e.g., SEM, AFM, contact angle and surface energy measurement, and XPS. With increasing enzyme content, incubation time, and incubation temperature, the surfaces of the PCL scaffolds became rougher and more hydrophilic. In addition, Novozyme®435 was found to have a higher enzyme activity than Amano lipase PS when both were used in the same enzymatic treatment condition. Interestingly, the enzymatic degradation process rarely induced the deterioration of compressive strength of the bulk porous PCL material and slightly reduced the molecular weight of the material at the filament surface. After 28 days of culture, both porous PCL scaffolds catalyzed by Novozyme®435 and Amano lipase PS could facilitate the chondrocytes to not only proliferate properly, but also function more effectively, compared with the non-modified porous PCL scaffold. Furthermore, the enzymatic treatments with 50 mg of Novozyme®435 at 25 °C from 10 min to 60 min were evidently proven to provide the optimally enhanced surface roughness and hydrophilicity most significantly favorable for induction of chondrogenic phenotype, indicated by the greatest expression level of cartilage-specific gene and the largest production of total glycosaminoglycans.

  • Autologous protein-based scaffold composed of platelet lysate and aminated hyaluronic acid
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Şükran Şeker, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin

    This study describes a protein-based scaffold using platelet rich plasma (PRP), aminated hyaluronic acid (HA-NH2) and Genipin for potential use in regenerative applications as an autologous tissue engineering scaffold. Human PRP was subjected to three freeze–thaw cycles for obtaining platelet lysates (PL). HA-NH2 was synthesized from hyaluronic acid. PL/HA-NH2 scaffolds were fabricated using different concentrations of genipin (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) and HA-NH2 (10, 20 and 30 mg/mL). Mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of the scaffolds were comprehensively investigated. The compressive test findings revealed that crosslinking with 0.1 and 0.2% genipin improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. SEM evaluations showed that the scaffolds exhibited an interconnected and macroporous structure. Besides, porosimetry analysis indicated a wide distribution of the scaffold pore-size. Rheological findings demonstrated that the G′ values were higher than the G″ values, indicating that PL/HA-NH2 scaffolds had typical viscoelastic properties. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the scaffolds were both cytocompatible and hemocompatible. Alamar Blue test indicated that human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) were able to attach, spread and proliferate on the scaffolds for 21 days-duration. Our findings clearly indicate that PL/HA-NH2 can be a promising autologous candidate scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

  • The application of 3D-printed titanium mesh in maxillary tumor patients undergoing total maxillectomy
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Bing-yao Liu, Gang Cao, Zhen Dong, Wei Chen, Jin-ke Xu, Ting Guo

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of reconstruction of maxillary class III defect using 3D-printed titanium mesh.

  • Development and characterization of a suturable biomimetic patch for cardiac applications
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Elisabetta Rosellini, Luigi Lazzeri, Simona Maltinti, Francesca Vanni, Niccoletta Barbani, Maria Grazia Cascone

    3D scaffolds used to repair damaged tissues should be able to mimic both composition and functions of natural extracellular matrix, which is mainly composed of polysaccharides and proteins. In our previous research new biomimetic sponges, based on blends of alginate with gelatin, were produced and characterized for myocardial tissue engineering applications. It was observed that these scaffolds can potentially function as a promising cardiac extracellular matrix substitute, but a reinforcement is required to improve their suturing properties. Aim of the present work was the development of a suturable biomimetic patch by the inclusion of a synthetic mesh within an alginate/gelatin scaffold. The mesh, produced by dry spinning, was made of eight superimposed layers of polycaprolactone microfibers, each one rotated of 45° with respect to the adjacent one. Reinforced scaffolds were obtained through the use of a mold, specially designed to place the fibrous mesh exactly in the center of the sponge. Both the reinforcement mesh and the reinforced scaffold were characterized. A perfect integration between the mesh and the sponge was observed. The fibrous mesh reduced the capacity of the sponge to absorb water, but the degree of hydrophilicity of the material was still comparable with that of natural cardiac tissue. The reinforced system showed a suitable stability in aqueous environment and it resulted much more resistant to suturing than not reinforced scaffold and even than human arteries. Polycaprolactone mesh was not cytotoxic and the reinforced scaffold was able to support cardiomyocytes adhesion and proliferation. Overall, the obtained results confirmed that the choice to modify the alginate/gelatin sponges through the insertion of an appropriate reinforcement system turned out to be correct in view of their potential use in myocardial tissue engineering.

  • Outcome evaluation of new calcium titanate schanz-screws for external fixators. First clinical results and cadaver studies
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Martin Gathen, Milena Maria Ploeger, Max Jaenisch, Sebastian Koob, Davide Cucchi, Adnan Kasapovic, Thomas Randau, Richard Placzek

    External fixators are important for correcting length discrepancies and axis deformities in pediatric or trauma orthopedic surgery. Pin loosening is a common pitfall during therapy that can lead to pain, infection, and necessary revisions. This study aims to present clinical data using calcium titanate (CaTiO3) Schanz screws and to measure the fixation strength.

  • Diffusion tensor imaging predicting neurological repair of spinal cord injury with transplanting collagen/chitosan scaffold binding bFGF
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Xiao-Yin Liu, Jun Liang, Yi Wang, Lin Zhong, Chang-Yu Zhao, Meng-Guang Wei, Jing-Jing Wang, Xiao-Zhe Sun, Ke-Qiang Wang, Jing-Hao Duan, Chong Chen, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Dong Ming, Xiao-Hong Li

    Prognosis and treatment evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI) are still in the long-term research stage. Prognostic factors for SCI treatment need effective biomarker to assess therapeutic effect. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may become a potential indicators for assessing SCI repair. However, its correlation with the results of locomotor function recovery and tissue repair has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to use quantitative DTI to predict neurological repair of SCI with transplanting collagen/chitosan scaffold binding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). To achieve our research goals, T10 complete transection SCI model was established. Then collagen/chitosan mixture adsorbed with bFGF (CCS/bFGF) were implanted into rats with SCI. At 8 weeks after modeling, implanting CCS/bFGF demonstrated more significant improvements in locomotor function according to Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score, inclined-grid climbing test, and electrophysiological examinations. DTI was carried out to evaluate the repair of axons by diffusion tensor tractgraphy (DTT), fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), a numerical measure of relative white matter from the rostral to the caudal. Parallel to locomotor function recovery, the CCS/bFGF group could significantly promote the regeneration of nerve fibers tracts according to DTT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Bielschowsky’s silver staining and immunofluorescence staining. Positive correlations between imaging and locomotor function or histology were found at all locations from the rostral to the caudal (P < 0.0001). These results demonstrated that DTI might be used as an effective predictor for evaluating neurological repair after SCI in experimental trails and clinical cases.

  • Systematical evolution on a Zn–Mg alloy potentially developed for biodegradable cardiovascular stents
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Song Lin, Xiaolin Ran, Xinhao Yan, Qilong Wang, Jack G. Zhou, Tingzhang Hu, Guixue Wang

    To reduce the long-term side effects of permanent metallic stents, a new generation of cardiovascular stents called “biodegradable stents” is being extensively developed. Zinc has been considered as a promising candidate material for biodegradable cardiovascular stents due to its excellent biocompatibility and appropriate biodegradability. However, weak mechanical properties limit its further clinic application. In this study, hot extruded pure Zn and Zn-0.02 Mg alloy were prepared. Compared with pure Zn, Zn-0.02 Mg alloy showed more homogeneous microstructure, much smaller grain size and higher mechanical strength. Zn-0.02 Mg alloy presented uniform corrosion morphologies during the immersion process, and its corrosion rates was higher than that of pure Zn. Hemocompatibility results showed that the Zn-based alloy had extremely low hemolysis rate (0.74 ± 0.15%) and strong inhibitory effect on blood coagulation, platelet adhesion and aggregation. Zn-0.02 Mg alloy also exhibited excellent cytocompatibility. Its extracts could significantly promote the proliferation of endothelial cells. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of the Zn-based alloy were demonstrated by spread plate assay, live/dead viability assay and bacterial morphology observation. These results indicate that the extruded Zn-0.02 Mg alloy has a potential in biodegradable cardiovascular stents.

  • Addition of decellularized extracellular matrix of porcine nasal cartilage improves cartilage regenerative capacities of PCL-based scaffolds in vitro
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    P. S. Wiggenhauser, S. Schwarz, L. Koerber, T. K. Hoffmann, N. Rotter

    Composite scaffolds can improve regenerative capacities of scaffolds in various tissue-engineering approaches. In order to generate a 3D printable scaffold that is capable of cartilage regeneration, decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) of porcine nasal cartilage was added to 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. Subsequently, scaffolds (PCL, PCL/DECM and DECM) were seeded with human primary nasoseptal chondrocytes and differentiated with cartilage inductive medium for up to 42 days in vitro. Afterwards samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and gene expression analysis. In short, results showed cell attachment and proliferation on all scaffolds. There was a trend towards ossification on pure PCL scaffolds, whereas we found evidence for cartilage tissue formation on DECM scaffolds as well as on PCL/DECM scaffolds. Moreover, biochemical analysis indicated an enhanced differentiation on novel PCL/DECM scaffolds. In conclusion, the addition of DECM to 3D printable PCL scaffolds may yield a new composite material for regenerative approaches in cartilage for facial reconstructive surgery. Further research will be necessary to evaluate these findings in vivo.

  • Effects of culture conditions on the mechanical and biological properties of engineered cartilage constructed with collagen hybrid scaffold and human mesenchymal stem cells
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Yusuke Nakamuta, Takaaki Arahira, Mitsugu Todo

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been used as one of the new cell sources in osteochondral tissue engineering. It has been well known that control of their differentiation into chondrocytes plays a key role in developing engineered cartilages. Therefore, this study aims to develop a fundamental protocol to control the differentiation and proliferation of MSCs to construct an engineered cartilage. We compared the effects of three different culture conditions on cell proliferation, extracellular matrix formation and the mechanical response of engineered cartilage constructed using a collagen-based hybrid scaffold and human MSCs. The experimental results clearly showed that the combined culture condition of the chondrogenic differentiation culture and the chondrocyte growth culture exhibited statistically significant cell proliferation, ECM formation and stiffness responses as compared to the other two combinations. It is thus concluded that the combination of the differentiation culture with the subsequent growth culture is recommended as the culture condition for chondrogenic tissue engineering using hMSCs.

  • A review of accelerated wound healing approaches: biomaterial- assisted tissue remodeling
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Shirin Nour, Nafiseh Baheiraei, Rana Imani, Mohammad Khodaei, Akram Alizadeh, Navid Rabiee, S. Mohammad Moazzeni

    Nowadays, due to a growing number of tissue injuries, in particular, skin wounds, induction and promotion of tissue healing responses can be considered as a crucial step towards a complete regeneration. Recently, biomaterial design has been oriented towards promoting a powerful, effective, and successful healing. Biomaterials with wound management abilities have been developed for different applications such as providing a native microenvironment and supportive matrices that induce the growth of tissue, creating physical obstacles against microbial contamination, and to be used as delivery systems for therapeutic reagents. Until now, numerous strategies aiming to accelerate the wound healing process have been utilized and studied with their own pros and cons. In this review, tissue remodeling phenomena, wound healing mechanisms, and their related factors will be discussed. In addition, different methods for induction and acceleration of healing via cell therapy, bioactive therapeutic delivery, and/or biomaterial-based approaches will be reviewed.

  • Stress analysis of the implants in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion under static and vibration loadings: a comparison between pedicle screw fixation system with rigid and flexible rods
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Wei Fan, Li-Xin Guo, Dan Zhao

    The use of a pedicle screw fixation system with rods made of more compliant materials has become increasingly popular for spine fusion surgery in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare stress responses of the implants in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) when using flexible and conventional rigid posterior fixation systems. A previously validated intact L1–S1 finite element model was modified to simulate single-level (L4–L5) TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation using two types of connecting rod (rigid and flexible rods). The von Mises stresses in the implants (including TLIF cage, pedicle screws and rods) for the rigid and flexible fixations were analyzed under static and vibration loadings. The results showed that compared with the rigid fixation, the use of flexible fixation decreased the maximum stress in the pedicle screws, but increased the maximum stress in the cage and the ratio of maximum stress in the rods to the yield stress. It was also found that with decreasing diameter of the flexible rod (i.e. increasing flexibility of the rod), the maximum stress was decreased in the pedicle screws but increased in the cage and the rods. The findings imply that compared with the rigid rod, application of the flexible rod in the pedicle screw fixation system for the TLIF might decrease the breakage risk of pedicle screws but increase the risk of cage subsidence and rod breakage. Moreover, flexibility of the rod in the flexible fixation system should be carefully determined.

  • Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial efficacy of composite films from guar gum/sago starch/whey protein isolate loaded with carvacrol, citral and carvacrol-citral mixture
    J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. (IF 2.467) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Chanda Vilas Dhumal, Kunal Pal, Preetam Sarkar

    The aim of this research was to formulate antimicrobial, composite films of guar gum, sago starch, and whey protein isolate for the prophylaxis of the bacterial gastroenteritis. The model antibacterial agents incorporated were essential oils, namely, carvacrol, citral and their combination. The films became darker and brownish in color due to the entrapment of the oils. The surface of the oil-entrapped films was more rough and coarse compared to the control film. Confocal micrographs affirmed the uniform distribution of the oil droplets within the biopolymeric network. The highest crystallite size and lowest lattice strain were estimated in the citral-containing film. FTIR analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of citral increased the proportion of the β-sheet structures of the whey protein isolate within the film matrix. However, the film formulation containing combination of carvacrol and citral demonstrated the lowest water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), highest tensile strength, Young’s modulus and work to failure. All the oil-containing films demonstrated good antibacterial potency against the model bacterial gastroenteritis causing bacteria, namely, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. In gist, it can be concluded that the prepared antimicrobial films could be used for the prophylaxis of the bacterial gastroenteritis.

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上海纽约大学William Glover