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  • Advances in Density-Functional Calculations for Materials Modeling
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Reinhard J. Maurer, Christoph Freysoldt, Anthony M. Reilly, Jan Gerit Brandenburg, Oliver T. Hofmann, Torbjörn Björkman, Sébastien Lebègue, Alexandre Tkatchenko

    During the past two decades, density-functional (DF) theory has evolved from niche applications for simple solid-state materials to become a workhorse method for studying a wide range of phenomena in a variety of system classes throughout physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. Here, we review the recent advances in DF calculations for materials modeling, giving a classification of modern DF-based methods when viewed from the materials modeling perspective. While progress has been very substantial, many challenges remain on the way to achieving consensus on a set of universally applicable DF-based methods for materials modeling. Hence, we focus on recent successes and remaining challenges in DF calculations for modeling hard solids, molecular and biological matter, low-dimensional materials, and hybrid organic-inorganic materials.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Applications of DFT + DMFT in Materials Science
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Arpita Paul, Turan Birol

    First-principles methods can provide insight into materials that is otherwise impossible to acquire. Density functional theory (DFT) has been the first-principles method of choice for numerous applications, but it falls short of predicting the properties of correlated materials. First-principles DFT + dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) is a powerful tool that can address these shortcomings of DFT when applied to correlated metals. In this brief review, which is aimed at nonexperts, we review the basics and some applications of DFT + DMFT.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Modeling Corrosion with First-Principles Electrochemical Phase Diagrams
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Liang-Feng Huang, John R. Scully, James M. Rondinelli

    Understanding and predicting materials corrosion under electrochemical environments are of increasing importance to both established and developing industries and technologies, including construction, marine materials, geology, and biomedicine, as well as to energy generation, storage, and conversion. Owing to recent progress in the accuracy and capability of density functional theory (DFT) calculations to describe the thermodynamic stability of materials, this powerful computational tool can be used both to describe materials corrosion and to design materials with the desired corrosion resistance by using first-principles electrochemical phase diagrams. We review the progress in simulating electrochemical phase diagrams of bulk solids, surface systems, and point defects in materials using DFT methods as well as the application of these ab initio phase diagrams in realistic environments. We conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges in the thermodynamic modeling of materials corrosion and promising future research directions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Phase Field Method: Mesoscale Simulation Aiding Material Discovery
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Michael R. Tonks, Larry K. Aagesen

    Mesoscale modeling and simulation approaches provide a bridge from atomic-scale methods to the macroscale. The phase field (PF) method has emerged as a powerful and popular tool for mesoscale simulation of microstructure evolution, and its use is growing at an ever-increasing rate. While initial research using the PF method focused on model development, as it has matured it has been used more and more for material discovery. In this review we focus on applying the PF method for material discovery. We start with a brief summary of the method, including numerical approaches for solving the PF equations. We then give seven examples of the application of the PF method for material discovery. We also discuss four barriers to its use for material discovery and provide approaches for how these barriers can be overcome. Finally, we detail four lessons that can be learned from the examples on how best to apply the PF method for material discovery.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Systems Approaches to Materials Design: Past, Present, and Future
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Raymundo Arróyave, David L. McDowell

    There is increasing awareness of the imperative to accelerate materials discovery, design, development, and deployment. Materials design is essentially a goal-oriented activity that views the material as a complex system of interacting subsystems with models and experiments at multiple scales of materials structure hierarchy. The goal of materials design is effectively to invert quantitative relationships between process path, structure, and materials properties or responses to identify feasible materials. We first briefly discuss challenges in framing process-structure-property relationships for materials and the critical role of quantifying uncertainty and tracking its propagation through analysis and design. A case study exploiting inductive design of ultrahigh-performance concrete is briefly presented. We focus on important recent directions and key scientific challenges regarding the highly collaborative intersections of materials design with systems engineering, uncertainty quantification and management, optimization, and materials data science and informatics, which are essential to fueling continued progress in systems-based materials design.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Understanding, Predicting, and Designing Ferroelectric Domain Structures and Switching Guided by the Phase-Field Method
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Jian-Jun Wang, Bo Wang, Long-Qing Chen

    Understanding mesoscale ferroelectric domain structures and their switching behavior under external fields is critical to applications of ferroelectrics. The phase-field method has been established as a powerful tool for probing, predicting, and designing the formation of domain structures under different electromechanical boundary conditions and their switching behavior under electric and/or mechanical stimuli. Here we review the basic framework of the phase-field model of ferroelectrics and its applications to simulating domain formation in bulk crystals, thin films, superlattices, and nanostructured ferroelectrics and to understanding macroscopic and local domain switching under electrical and/or mechanical fields. We discuss the possibility of utilizing the structure-property relationship learned from phase-field simulations to design high-performance relaxor piezoelectrics and electrically tunable thermal conductivity. The review ends with a summary of and an outlook on the potential new applications of the phase-field method of ferroelectrics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Topological Semimetals from First Principles
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Heng Gao, Jörn W.F. Venderbos, Youngkuk Kim, Andrew M. Rappe

    We review recent theoretical progress in the understanding and prediction of novel topological semimetals. Topological semimetals define a class of gapless electronic phases exhibiting topologically stable crossings of energy bands. Different types of topological semimetals can be distinguished on the basis of the degeneracy of the band crossings, their codimension (e.g., point or line nodes), and the crystal space group symmetries on which the protection of stable band crossings relies. The dispersion near the band crossing is a further discriminating characteristic. These properties give rise to a wide range of distinct semimetal phases such as Dirac or Weyl semimetals, point or line node semimetals, and type I or type II semimetals. In this review we give a general description of various families of topological semimetals, with an emphasis on proposed material realizations from first-principles calculations. The conceptual framework for studying topological gapless electronic phases is reviewed, with a particular focus on the symmetry requirements of energy band crossings, and the relation between the different families of topological semimetals is elucidated. In addition to the paradigmatic Dirac and Weyl semimetals, we pay particular attention to more recent examples of topological semimetals, which include nodal line semimetals, multifold fermion semimetals, and triple-point semimetals. Less emphasis is placed on their surface state properties, their responses to external probes, and recent experimental developments.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Topological Semimetals in Square-Net Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Sebastian Klemenz, Shiming Lei, Leslie M. Schoop

    Many materials crystallize in structure types that feature a square net of atoms. While these compounds can exhibit many different properties, some members of this family are topological materials. Within the square-net-based topological materials, the observed properties are rich, ranging, for example, from nodal-line semimetals to a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect. Hence, the potential for guided design of topological properties is enormous. Here we provide an overview of the crystallographic and electronic properties of these phases and show how they are linked, with the goal of understanding which square-net materials can be topological, and predict additional examples. We close the review by discussing the experimentally observed electronic properties in this family.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Transport of Topological Semimetals
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Jin Hu, Su-Yang Xu, Ni Ni, Zhiqiang Mao

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological semimetals represent a new class of topological matters. The study of this family of materials has been at the frontiers of condensed matter physics, and many breakthroughs have been made. Several topological semimetal phases, including Dirac semimetals (DSMs), Weyl semimetals (WSMs), nodal-line semimetals (NLSMs), and triple-point semimetals, have been theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated. The low-energy excitation around the Dirac/Weyl nodal points, nodal line, or triply degenerated nodal point can be viewed as emergent relativistic fermions. Experimental studies have shown that relativistic fermions can result in a rich variety of exotic transport properties, e.g., extremely large magnetoresistance, the chiral anomaly, and the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect. In this review, we first briefly introduce band structural characteristics of each topological semimetal phase, then review the current studies on quantum oscillations and exotic transport properties of various topological semimetals, and finally provide a perspective of this area.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Challenges of the Circular Economy: A Material, Metallurgical, and Product Design Perspective
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Markus A. Reuter, Antoinette van Schaik, Jens Gutzmer, Neill Bartie, Alejandro Abadías-Llamas

    Circular economy's (CE) noble aims maximize resource efficiency (RE) by, for example, extending product life cycles and using wastes as resources. Modern society's vast and increasing amounts of waste and consumer goods, their complexity, and functional material combinations are challenging the viability of the CE despite various alternative business models promising otherwise. The metallurgical processing of CE-enabling technologies requires a sophisticated and agile metallurgical infrastructure. The challenges of reaching a CE are highlighted in terms of, e.g., thermodynamics, transfer processes, technology platforms, digitalization of the processes of the CE stakeholders, and design for recycling (DfR) based on a product (mineral)-centric approach, highlighting the limitations of material-centric considerations. Integrating product-centric considerations into the water, energy, transport, heavy industry, and other smart grid systems will maximize the RE of future smart sustainable cities, providing the fundamental detail for realizing and innovating the United Nation's Sustainability Development Goals.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Cold Sintering: Progress, Challenges, and Future Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Jing Guo, Richard Floyd, Sarah Lowum, Jon-Paul Maria, Thomas Herisson de Beauvoir, Joo-Hwan Seo, Clive A. Randall

    Cold sintering is an unusually low-temperature process that uses a transient transport phase, which is most often liquid, and an applied uniaxial force to assist in densification of a powder compact. By using this approach, many ceramic powders can be transformed to high-density monoliths at temperatures far below the melting point. In this article, we present a summary of cold sintering accomplishments and the current working models that describe the operative mechanisms in the context of other strategies for low-temperature ceramic densification. Current observations in several systems suggest a multiple-stage densification process that bears similarity to models that describe liquid phase sintering. We find that grain growth trends are consistent with classical behavior, but with activation energy values that are lower than observed for thermally driven processes. Densification behavior in these low-temperature systems is rich, and there is much to be investigated regarding mass transport within and across the liquid-solid interfaces that populate these ceramics during densification. Irrespective of mechanisms, these low temperatures create a new opportunity spectrum to design grain boundaries and create new types of nanocomposites among material combinations that previously had incompatible processing windows. Future directions are discussed in terms of both the fundamental science and engineering of cold sintering.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Iron Aluminides
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Martin Palm, Frank Stein, Gerhard Dehm

    The iron aluminides discussed here are Fe–Al-based alloys, in which the matrix consists of the disordered bcc (Fe,Al) solid solution (A2) or the ordered intermetallic phases FeAl (B2) and Fe3Al (D03). These alloys possess outstanding corrosion resistance and high wear resistance and are lightweight materials relative to steels and nickel-based superalloys. These materials are evoking new interest for industrial applications because they are an economic alternative to other materials, and substantial progress in strengthening these alloys at high temperatures has recently been achieved by applying new alloy concepts. Research on iron aluminides started more than a century ago and has led to many fundamental findings. This article summarizes the current knowledge of this field in continuation of previous reviews.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Materials for Automotive Lightweighting
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Alan Taub, Emmanuel De Moor, Alan Luo, David K. Matlock, John G. Speer, Uday Vaidya

    Reducing the weight of automobiles is a major contributor to increased fuel economy. The baseline materials for vehicle construction, low-carbon steel and cast iron, are being replaced by materials with higher specific strength and stiffness: advanced high-strength steels, aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites. The key challenge is to reduce the cost of manufacturing structures with these new materials. Maximizing the weight reduction requires optimized designs utilizing multimaterials in various forms. This use of mixed materials presents additional challenges in joining and preventing galvanic corrosion.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Mechanical Control of Magnetic Order: From Phase Transition to Skyrmions
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Jie Wang

    Topological magnetic structures such as domain walls, vortices, and skyrmions have recently received considerable attention because of their potential application in advanced functional devices. Tuning the magnetic order of the topological structures can result in emergent functionalities and thus lead to novel application concepts. Strain engineering is one promising approach with which to control magnetic order via magneto-elastic coupling in ferromagnets. By introducing lattice deformation, mechanical strain not only can trigger the magnetic phase transition but also can be used to manipulate topological magnetic orders in ferromagnets. The present review is based on magneto-elastic coupling as the coherent basis of the mechanical control of different topological magnetic orders. Following a description of magneto-elastic coupling, we review recent progress in the mechanical control of the magnetic phase transition and topological structures, including magnetic domain walls, vortices, and skyrmions. The review concludes by briefly addressing the future research directions in the field.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Time-Resolved X-Ray Microscopy for Materials Science
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Haidan Wen, Mathew J. Cherukara, Martin V. Holt

    X-ray microscopy has been an indispensable tool to image nanoscale properties for materials research. One of its recent advances is extending microscopic studies to the time domain to visualize the dynamics of nanoscale phenomena. Large-scale X-ray facilities have been the powerhouse of time-resolved X-ray microscopy. Their upgrades, including a significant reduction of the X-ray emittance at storage rings (SRs) and fully coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at free-electron lasers (FELs), will lead to new developments in instrumentation and will open new scientific opportunities for X-ray imaging of nanoscale dynamics with the simultaneous attainment of unprecedentedly high spatial and temporal resolutions. This review presents recent progress in and the outlook for time-resolved X-ray microscopy in the context of ultrafast nanoscale imaging and its applications to condensed matter physics and materials science.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix.
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2012-07-14
    Lin Han,Alan J Grodzinsky,Christine Ortiz

    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings.
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2011-11-08
    Bruce P Lee,P B Messersmith,J N Israelachvili,J H Waite

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering.
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-03-24
    Richard T Tran,Jian Yang,Guillermo A Ameer

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • First-Principles Calculations of Point Defects for Quantum Technologies
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Cyrus E. Dreyer, Audrius Alkauskas, John L. Lyons, Anderson Janotti, Chris G. Van de Walle

    Point defects in semiconductors and insulators form an exciting system for realizing quantum technologies, including quantum computing, communication, and metrology. Defects provide a platform that combines the environmental isolation necessary to maintain the coherence of quantum states with the ability to perform electrical and optical manipulation. First-principles calculations play a crucial role in identifying, characterizing, and developing defects for quantum applications. We review the first-principles methodologies for calculating the relevant structural, electronic, vibrational, optical, and magnetic properties of defects for quantum technologies. We illustrate the utility and accuracy of these techniques by using examples from the literature. We also point out areas in which further development of the computational techniques is desirable.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • First-Principles Statistical Mechanics of Multicomponent Crystals
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    A. Van der Ven, J.C. Thomas, B. Puchala, A.R. Natarajan

    The importance of configurational, vibrational, and electronic excitations in crystalline solids of technological interest makes a rigorous treatment of thermal excitations an essential ingredient in first-principles models of materials behavior. This contribution reviews statistical mechanics approaches that connect a crystal's electronic structure to its thermodynamic and kinetic properties. We start with a description of a thermodynamic and kinetic framework for multicomponent crystals that integrates chemistry and mechanics, as well as nonconserved order parameters that track the degree of chemical order and group/subgroup structural distortions. The framework allows for spatial heterogeneities and naturally couples thermodynamics with kinetics. We next survey statistical mechanics approaches that rely on effective Hamiltonians to treat configurational, vibrational, and electronic degrees of freedom within multicomponent crystals. These Hamiltonians, when suitably constructed, are capable of extrapolating first-principles electronic structure calculations within (kinetic) Monte Carlo simulations, thereby enabling first-principles predictions of equilibrium and nonequilibrium materials properties at finite temperature.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Design Considerations for Artificial Water Channel–Based Membranes
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Woochul Song, Chao Lang, Yue-xiao Shen, Manish Kumar

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are naturally occurring water channel proteins. They can facilitate water molecule translocation across cellular membranes with exceptional selectivity and high permeability that are unmatched in synthetic membrane systems. These unique properties of AQPs have led to their use as functional elements in membranes in recent years. However, the intricate nature of AQPs and concerns regarding their stability and processability have encouraged researchers to develop synthetic channels that mimic the structure and properties of AQPs and other biological water-conducting channels. These channels have been termed artificial water channels. This article reviews current progress and provides a historical perspective as well as an outlook toward developing scalable membranes based on artificial water channels.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Recent Advances in Zeolitic Membranes
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Robert Bedard, Chunqing Liu

    Zeolitic membranes have been an active area of research for at least 25 years. Continuous and creative improvements in the materials chemistry of membrane synthesis and in the understanding and predictability of membrane diffusion and separations have been achieved. Activity continues unabated and has increased with the introduction of new compositions such as metal-organic frameworks and other materials to the field. The economics of implementing today's best zeolitic membranes and the achievable improvements in zeolitic membrane systems are approaching commercial attractiveness, but many significant challenges remain as competing membrane technologies are also advanced.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • The Diversity of Layered Halide Perovskites
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Matthew D. Smith, Ethan J. Crace, Adam Jaffe, Hemamala I. Karunadasa

    The two-dimensional congeners of the well-known three-dimensional perovskites display new properties enabled by their reduced dimensionality. Here, organic molecules separate inorganic sheets, affording the properties of both discrete molecules and extended solids in single, well-defined materials. The choice of organic and inorganic components engenders a large range of structural motifs, which yield diverse properties such as electroluminescence, white-light emission, photoconductivity, porosity, and reactivity. Layered halide perovskites have been known for decades. Their recent resurgence compels us to understand the fundamental studies that set the stage for their current technological relevance. We are not providing a comprehensive review of this vast and rapidly growing field. Instead, we highlight some of the discoveries that have directed current research in this field. We hope to introduce new researchers to layered halide perovskites to bring fresh perspectives to study this venerable family of materials that continue to surprise us today.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Electrochemical and Chemical Insertion for Energy Transformation and Switching
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Yiyang Li, William C. Chueh

    Insertion is a widely utilized process for reversibly changing the stoichiometry of a solid through a chemical or electrochemical stimulus. Insertion is instrumental to many energy technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage, and has been the subject of extensive investigations. More recently, solid-state switching devices utilizing insertion have drawn significant interest; such devices dynamically switch a material's chemical stoichiometry, changing it from one state to another. This review illustrates the fundamental properties and mechanisms of insertion, including reaction, diffusion, and phase transformation, and discusses recent developments in characterization in these fields. We also review new classes of recently demonstrated insertion devices, which reversibly switch mechanical and electronic properties, and show how the fundamental mechanisms of insertion can be used to design improved switching devices.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Hard X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Methods for Materials Studies
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Alec R. Sandy, Qingteng Zhang, Laurence B. Lurio

    Understanding and designing sophisticated new materials require measurements of not only their average structural properties but also their dynamic behavior. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) provides this information by characterizing fluctuations in condensed matter across a broad range of length scales and timescales. Over the past two decades, XPCS has provided a wide variety of results in the study of materials properties. In this review, we provide an overview of coherence, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the dynamic structure factor as well as information on the mechanics of XPCS experiments. We highlight the impact that this infrastructure has had on materials research and the bright future that is forthcoming with the anticipated upgrade of many third-generation synchrotron sources to fourth-generation multibend achromat sources.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • High-Performance Piezoelectric Crystals, Ceramics, and Films
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Susan Trolier-McKinstry, Shujun Zhang, Andrew J. Bell, Xiaoli Tan

    Piezoelectric materials convert between electrical and mechanical energies such that an applied stress induces a polarization and an applied electric field induces a strain. This review describes the fundamental mechanisms governing the piezoelectric response in high-performance piezoelectric single crystals, ceramics, and thin films. While there are a number of useful piezoelectric small molecules and polymers, the article focuses on inorganic materials displaying the piezoelectric effect. Piezoelectricity is first defined, and the mechanisms that contribute are discussed in terms of the key crystal structures for materials with large piezoelectric coefficients. Exemplar systems are then discussed and compared for the cases of single crystals, bulk ceramics, and thin films.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • High-Temperature Dielectric Materials for Electrical Energy Storage
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Qi Li, Fang-Zhou Yao, Yang Liu, Guangzu Zhang, Hong Wang, Qing Wang

    The demand for high-temperature dielectric materials arises from numerous emerging applications such as electric vehicles, wind generators, solar converters, aerospace power conditioning, and downhole oil and gas explorations, in which the power systems and electronic devices have to operate at elevated temperatures. This article presents an overview of recent progress in the field of nanostructured dielectric materials targeted for high-temperature capacitive energy storage applications. Polymers, polymer nanocomposites, and bulk ceramics and thin films are the focus of the materials reviewed. Both commercial products and the latest research results are covered. While general design considerations are briefly discussed, emphasis is placed on material specifications oriented toward the intended high-temperature applications, such as dielectric properties, temperature stability, energy density, and charge-discharge efficiency. The advantages and shortcomings of the existing dielectric materials are identified. Challenges along with future research opportunities are highlighted at the end of this review.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Materials for Gamma-Ray Spectrometers: Inorganic Scintillators
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Douglas S. McGregor

    Scintillation detectors constitute an important branch of radiation detection instrumentation. The discovery of the inorganic scintillating compound thallium-activated sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) in 1948 was key to the production of the first practical gamma-ray spectrometer. Since that time, numerous inorganic scintillators have been discovered and studied. Many of the more successful inorganic scintillators are described, including discussion of their properties and performance, in this article.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Optical Metasurfaces: Progress and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Shengyuan Chang, Xuexue Guo, Xingjie Ni

    A metasurface is an artificial nanostructured interface that has subwavelength thickness and that manipulates light by spatially arranged meta-atoms—fundamental building blocks of the metasurface. Those meta-atoms, usually consisting of plasmonic or dielectric nanoantennas, can directly change light properties such as phase, amplitude, and polarization. As a derivative of three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials, metasurfaces have been emerging to tackle some of the critical challenges rooted in traditional metamaterials, such as high resistive loss from resonant plasmonic components and fabrication requirements for making 3D nanostructures. In the past few years, metasurfaces have achieved groundbreaking progress, providing unparalleled control of light, including constructing arbitrary wave fronts and realizing active and nonlinear optical effects. This article provides a systematic review of the current progress in and applications of optical metasurfaces, as well as an overview of metasurface building blocks based on plasmonic resonances, Mie resonance, and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Property Engineering in Perovskites via Modification of Anion Chemistry
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Yoji Kobayashi, Yoshihiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Kageyama

    Perovskite-type oxides have proven to be a versatile class of compounds with systematic study of their structure and various properties. Further structural variations and properties can be added by adding a second anionic species other than oxide, such as hydride, fluoride, nitride, or others. The different charge, covalency, size, and new modes of local coordination offer convenient ways to further control carrier doping, magnetism, conductivity, and even chemical reactivity. In this review we examine the recent work concerning various mixed-anion perovskites and conclude with potential new directions for the further development of these materials.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Simulation of Crystallization of Biominerals
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Raffaella Demichelis, Alicia Schuitemaker, Natalya A. Garcia, Katarzyna B. Koziara, Marco De La Pierre, Paolo Raiteri, Julian D. Gale

    Biominerals are crucial materials that play a vital role in many forms of life. Understanding the various steps through which ions in aqueous environment associate to form increasingly structured particles that eventually transform into the final crystalline or amorphous poly(a)morph in the presence of biologically active molecules is therefore of great significance. In this context, computer modeling is now able to provide an accurate atomistic picture of the dynamics and thermodynamics of possible association events in solution, as well as to make predictions as to particle stability and possible alternative nucleation pathways, as a complement to experiment. This review provides a general overview of the most significant computational methods and of their achievements in this field, with a focus on calcium carbonate as the most abundant biomineral.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Control of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances in Metal Oxide Nanocrystals
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Ankit Agrawal, Robert W. Johns, Delia J. Milliron

    Metal oxides, when electronically doped with oxygen vacancies, aliovalent dopants, or interstitial dopants, can exhibit metallic behavior due to the stabilization of a substantial charge carrier concentration within the material. As a result, localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) occur in nanocrystals of conducting metal oxides. Through deliberate choice of both the host material and the defect, these resonances can be tuned across the entirety of the near- and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical modeling has revealed that the defects present have profound impacts on charge carrier mobility and electronic structure, and in some cases, choosing one dopant over another is an important trade-off for optimizing plasmonic performance. These materials are distinct from classical metals in that one can tune their LSPR in energy and intensity through their elemental composition independently of any particular size or nanocrystal morphology. In addition, the LSPR in these materials is highly modulable through external stimuli over substantial spectral windows. As a result, these materials uniquely provide a responsive plasmonic material that can offer optimal nanocrystal arrangements and morphology without compromising the intended resonance frequency for light concentration at any infrared wavelength.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • DNA-Driven Assembly: From Polyhedral Nanoparticles to Proteins
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Martin Girard, Jaime A. Millan, Monica Olvera de la Cruz

    Directed crystallization of a large variety of nanoparticles, including proteins, via DNA hybridization kinetics has led to unique materials with a broad range of crystal symmetries. The nanoparticles are functionalized with DNA chains that link neighboring functionalized units. The shape of the nanoparticle, the DNA length, the sequence of the hybridizing DNA linker, and the grafting density determine the crystal symmetries and lattice spacing. By carefully selecting these parameters, one can, in principle, achieve all the symmetries found for both atomic and colloidal crystals of asymmetric shapes as well as new symmetries and can drive transitions between them. A scale-accurate coarse-grained model with explicit DNA chains provides the design parameters, including the degree of hybridization, to achieve specific crystal structures. The model also provides surface energy values to determine the shape of defect-free single crystals with macroscopic anisotropic properties, which has potential for the fabrication of materials with specific optical and mechanical properties.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Harnessing Instabilities to Design Tunable Architected Cellular Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Katia Bertoldi

    Mechanical instabilities are traditionally regarded as a route toward failure. However, they can also be exploited to design architected cellular materials with tunable functionality. In this review, we focus on three examples and show that mechanical instabilities in architected cellular materials can be harnessed (a) to design auxetic materials, (b) to control the propagation of elastic waves, and (c) to realize reusable energy-absorbing materials. Together, these examples highlight a new strategy to design tunable systems across a wide range of length scales.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Negative-Poisson's-Ratio Materials: Auxetic Solids
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Roderic S. Lakes

    Poisson's ratio had long been considered to be an intrinsic material property, confined within a narrow domain and governed solely by the geometry of interatomic bonds. Materials with designed heterogeneity allow for control over the Poisson's ratio. Poisson's ratios of any value within the thermodynamically admissible domain may be attained, including negative Poisson's ratio (termed auxetic). In this article, we discuss the role of Poisson's ratio in elasticity, two-dimensional and three-dimensional materials, phase transformations, underlying causes in the microstructure, and other negative physical properties.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Sound Absorption Structures: From Porous Media to Acoustic Metamaterials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Min Yang, Ping Sheng

    The recent advent of acoustic metamaterials has initiated a strong revival of interest on the subject of sound absorption. The present review is based on the physics perspective as the coherent basis of this diverse field. For conventional absorbers, viscous dissipation and heat conduction at the fluid-solid interface, when expressed through micro-geometric parameters, yield an effective medium description of porous media and micro-perforated panels as effectual sound absorbers. Local resonances and their geometric and symmetry constraints serve as the framework for surveying a variety of acoustic metamaterial absorbers that can realize previously unattainable absorption spectra with subwavelength-scale structures. These structures include decorated membrane resonators, degenerate resonators, hybrid resonators, and coiled Fabry-Pérot and Helmholtz resonators. As the acoustic response of any structure or material must obey the causality principle, the implied constraint—which relates the absorption spectrum of a sample to its required minimum thickness—is presented as a means to delineate what is ultimately possible for sound-absorbing structures. The review concludes by describing a recently reported strategy for realizing structures that can exhibit custom-designed absorption spectra, as well as its implementation in the form of a broadband absorber with a thickness that is close to the minimum value as dictated by causality.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Structured X-Ray Optics for Laboratory-Based Materials Analysis
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Carolyn A. MacDonald

    Metamaterials provide a challenge for materials analysis, as large-scale 3D geometries confound traditional methods. X-ray optics that allow for novel beam geometries and for more efficient use of conventional X-ray sources can be important in defect and structure analysis to close the loop between design and performance. Fortunately, metamaterials have also provided a new variety of array and structured X-ray optics. Because X-rays barely interact with materials, their index of refraction in any material is only slightly different from unity, so it is very difficult to make the sort of refractive optics that are used for visible light. Instead, diffraction can be used to control the direction or wavelength of X-rays. Structured diffractive optics include transmission gratings, artificial multilayers, and arrays of curved crystals. X-rays also have very high reflectivity at grazing incidence. This phenomenon allows for reflective arrays such as multipore and polycapillary optics.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Synchrotron X-Ray Optics
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Albert T. Macrander, XiangRong Huang

    Most X-ray optics for use at synchrotron beamlines are structured to achieve a desired performance level. The fabrication steps needed to achieve a certain structure usually limit the final performance, such as for energy resolution and focus size. This review illustrates this point for monochromators, mirrors, multilayers, and zone plates, with a special emphasis on focusing optics because these provide some of the best examples of structuring. Elliptically shaped mirrors, Fresnel zone plates, and multilayer Laue lenses are reviewed.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Active Crystal Growth Techniques for Quantum Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Julian L. Schmehr, Stephen D. Wilson

    We review recent advances in crystal growth techniques, focusing on the development of novel quantum materials. Recent progress in instrumentation design, opening new avenues in bulk crystal growth of oxide and intermetallic compounds, is highlighted. Specifically, we illustrate leading techniques that allow for the active control of crystal nucleation/growth and provide platforms for the realization of single crystals with ultrahigh purity and minimized defects. Advances in the postgrowth manipulation of crystals, as well as the impact of purification techniques on the stabilization of delicate quantum phases, are also discussed. Throughout, we highlight new scientific avenues opened by access to high-purity single-crystal samples.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Atomic-Scale Structure-Property Relationships in Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Zhenzhong Yang, Lin Gu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li

    Li ion batteries are important components of portable devices, electric vehicles, and smart grids owing to their high energy density, excellent cyclic performance, and safe operation. However, further development of electrode materials for these batteries is needed to satisfy continually increasing performance demands. Typically, both the charge/discharge kinetics and structural stability of these electrode materials depend on the transport and storage properties of the Li ions. High-spatial-resolution information on structural changes and on the strong interaction between electrons and ions is essential for a better understanding of the electrochemical performance of rechargeable batteries. In this article, we review the known atomic-scale structural changes of these electrode materials during the charge/discharge process, with special emphasis on ion/electron interactions.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Atomistic Simulations of Activated Processes in Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    G. Henkelman

    Activated processes in materials are important for many of the properties that make them function. Batteries and catalysts are examples for which understanding how the component materials function on a timescale of milliseconds to seconds is critical to making improvements in a rational way. Modeling materials over these long timescales, relative to the timescale of atomic vibrations, is one of the grand challenges of the field. Transition state theory is central to bridging this timescale gap, and in the materials community, the harmonic approximation and the determination of saddle points to quantify reaction rates are ubiquitous. In this review, single- and double-ended methods for saddle point finding are discussed, as well as how finding saddle points can be used in the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to model materials properties on the timescale of activated processes. Applications of surface diffusion and chemistry, phase boundary migration, and solid-solid phase transitions are presented.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Deformation of Crystals: Connections with Statistical Physics
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    James P. Sethna, Matthew K. Bierbaum, Karin A. Dahmen, Carl P. Goodrich, Julia R. Greer, Lorien X. Hayden, Jaron P. Kent-Dobias, Edward D. Lee, Danilo B. Liarte, Xiaoyue Ni, Katherine N. Quinn, Archishman Raju, D. Zeb Rocklin, Ashivni Shekhawat, Stefano Zapperi

    We give a bird's-eye view of the plastic deformation of crystals aimed at the statistical physics community, as well as a broad introduction to the statistical theories of forced rigid systems aimed at the plasticity community. Memory effects in magnets, spin glasses, charge density waves, and dilute colloidal suspensions are discussed in relation to the onset of plastic yielding in crystals. Dislocation avalanches and complex dislocation tangles are discussed via a brief introduction to the renormalization group and scaling. Analogies to emergent scale invariance in fracture, jamming, coarsening, and a variety of depinning transitions are explored. Dislocation dynamics in crystals challenge nonequilibrium statistical physics. Statistical physics provides both cautionary tales of subtle memory effects in nonequilibrium systems and systematic tools designed to address complex scale-invariant behavior on multiple length scales and timescales.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Heusler 4.0: Tunable Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Lukas Wollmann, Ajaya K. Nayak, Stuart S.P. Parkin, Claudia Felser

    Heusler compounds are a large family of binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds that exhibit a wide range of properties of both fundamental and potential technological interest. The extensive tunability of the Heusler compounds through chemical substitutions and structural motifs makes the family especially interesting. In this article we highlight recent major developments in the field of Heusler compounds and put these in the historical context. The evolution of the Heusler compounds can be described by four major periods of research. In the latest period, Heusler 4.0 has led to the observation of a variety of properties derived from topology that includes topological metals with Weyl and Dirac points; a variety of noncollinear spin textures, including the very recent observation of skyrmions at room temperature; and giant anomalous Hall effects in antiferromagnetic Heuslers with triangular magnetic structures. Here we give a comprehensive overview of these major achievements and set research into Heusler materials within the context of recent emerging trends in condensed matter physics.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Physical Dynamics of Ice Crystal Growth
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Kenneth G. Libbrecht

    We examine ice crystallization from liquid water and from water vapor, focusing on the underlying physical processes that determine growth rates and structure formation. Ice crystal growth is largely controlled by a combination of molecular attachment kinetics on faceted surfaces and large-scale diffusion processes, yielding a remarkably rich phenomenology of solidification behaviors under different conditions. Layer nucleation plays an especially important role, with nucleation rates determined primarily by step energies on faceted ice/water and ice/vapor interfaces. The measured step energies depend strongly on temperature and other factors, and it appears promising that molecular dynamics simulations could soon be used in conjunction with experiments to better understand the energetics of these terrace steps. On larger scales, computational techniques have recently demonstrated the ability to accurately model the diffusion-limited growth of complex structures that are both faceted and branched. Together with proper boundary conditions determined by surface attachment kinetics, this opens a path to fully reproducing the variety of complex structures that commonly arise during ice crystal growth.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Silicate Deposit Degradation of Engineered Coatings in Gas Turbines: Progress Toward Models and Materials Solutions
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    David L. Poerschke, R. Wesley Jackson, Carlos G. Levi

    Modern gas turbines rely on ceramic coatings to protect structural components along the hot gas path. These coatings are susceptible to accelerated degradation caused by silicate deposits formed when ingested environmental debris (dust, sand, ash) adheres to the coatings. This article reviews the current understanding of the deposit-induced failure mechanisms for zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings and silicate environmental barrier coatings. Details of the debris melting and crystallization behavior, the nature of the chemical reactions occurring between the deposits and coatings, and the implications for the thermocyclic durability of the coatings are described. Given the challenges posed in understanding how prospective coating materials and architectures will respond to a broad range of deposit compositions, it is proposed to develop an integrated framework linking thermochemical and thermomechanical models to predict coating durability. Initial progress toward developing this framework, and the requisite research needs, are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Structural and Functional Fibers
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Huibin Chang, Jeffrey Luo, Prabhakar V. Gulgunje, Satish Kumar

    Historically, fibers are known to be relatively passive materials and are used primarily in textiles. Today, however, fibers with a range of functionalities such as electrical and thermal conductivity, superparamagnetic properties, temperature regulation, energy harvesting, and biomedical capability provide many possibilities. Most man-made fibers today are derived from petroleum, but there is increasing emphasis on making fibers biorenewable. Fibers are also the strongest structural materials available today. Different fiber fabrication technologies, available properties, and some near-term future prospects are discussed.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Synthetic Two-Dimensional Polymers
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Marco Servalli, A. Dieter Schlüter

    Synthetic two-dimensional polymers (2DPs) are an emerging subclass of 2D materials that are accessible by mild and rational synthesis procedures. Because of their structure, which is reminiscent of a molecular fisherman's net, 2DPs strongly differ from conventional linear polymers. They are expected to show applications in fields such as gas separation, nonlinear optics, and miniaturization of optical devices. The article sketches the historic development that led to the first fully proven representatives, describing each case in detail and comparing the current main access routes. Insights into some application aspects are also given. Alternative synthesis routes are also presented, together with the critical analytical issues. Structure analysis is perhaps the greatest challenge in this field, which arises with regard to proving the periodic structure of a 2DP. This article intends to stimulate the interest of an interdisciplinary community to join forces to develop this promising field even more quickly.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Transparent Perovskite Barium Stannate with High Electron Mobility and Thermal Stability
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Woong-Jhae Lee, Hyung Joon Kim, Jeonghun Kang, Dong Hyun Jang, Tai Hoon Kim, Jeong Hyuk Lee, Kee Hoon Kim

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) have become necessary materials for a variety of applications in the information and energy technologies, ranging from transparent electrodes to active electronics components. Perovskite barium stannate (BaSnO3), a new TCO or TOS system, is a potential platform for realizing optoelectronic devices and observing novel electronic quantum states due to its high electron mobility, excellent thermal stability, high transparency, structural versatility, and flexible doping controllability. This article reviews recent progress in the doped BaSnO3 system, discussing the wide range of physical properties, electron-scattering mechanism, and demonstration of key semiconducting devices such as pn diodes and field-effect transistors. Moreover, we discuss the pathways to achieving two-dimensional electron gases at the interface between BaSnO3 and other perovskite oxides and describe remaining challenges for observing novel quantum phenomena at the heterointerface.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Visualization of Atomic-Scale Motions in Materials via Femtosecond X-Ray Scattering Techniques
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Aaron M. Lindenberg, Steven L. Johnson, David A. Reis

    We review current progress with respect to ultrafast, atomic-scale resolution X-ray scattering studies of materials. In the last decade, advances in sources and techniques have opened up new possibilities for probing the dynamics of how materials change in situ and in real time. These developments have enabled direct measurements of the first primary steps in how complex/functional materials transform and the flow of energy between different degrees of freedom. Unique insight into the mechanisms underlying how materials function is obtained through these studies. An outlook on future developments and new opportunities is also presented.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • X-Ray Tomography for Lithium Ion Battery Research: A Practical Guide
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Patrick Pietsch, Vanessa Wood

    X-ray tomography has emerged as a powerful technique for studying lithium ion batteries, allowing nondestructive and often quantitative imaging of these complex systems, which contain solid components with length scales spanning orders of magnitude and which are in-filled with liquid electrolyte. Over the past decade, X-ray tomography has allowed interrogation of structure and material composition, providing quantitative or qualitative insight into battery operation and degradation. In this review, we first provide an overview of X-ray tomography and explore what types of experiments can yield insight into open questions in the lithium ion battery research field. In the second half of the review, we discuss the aspects a researcher must consider, and we summarize challenges and approaches to sample preparation, experimental setup, and data analysis. Finally, we describe both outstanding challenges and promise in using X-ray tomography for lithium ion battery research.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Ultraincompressible, Superhard Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Michael T. Yeung, Reza Mohammadi, Richard B. Kaner

    The search for new ultraincompressible, superhard materials has been performed largely through trial and error. Despite the difficulties in synthesizing such materials, interest in this field has blossomed with recent experimental and theoretical results. Such progress has led to the development of superhard metal borides, ultraincompressible nitrides, and strong carbides. Our previous parameters of high electron density and high covalent bond density had served us well in synthesizing ultraincompressible, superhard metals, but after a decade of research, a more detailed understanding is needed. By studying the origin of strength from previously discovered incompressible, hard materials, we hope to gain new insight into this rapidly growing field. In particular, we propose a focus on bonding and structure to understand why some materials are ultraincompressible and superhard.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Thermal Boundary Conductance: A Materials Science Perspective
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Christian Monachon, Ludger Weber, Chris Dames

    The thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of materials pairs in atomically intimate contact is reviewed as a practical guide for materials scientists. First, analytical and computational models of TBC are reviewed. Five measurement methods are then compared in terms of their sensitivity to TBC: the 3ω method, frequency- and time-domain thermoreflectance, the cut-bar method, and a composite effective thermal conductivity method. The heart of the review surveys 30 years of TBC measurements around room temperature, highlighting the materials science factors experimentally proven to influence TBC. These factors include the bulk dispersion relations, acoustic contrast, and interfacial chemistry and bonding. The measured TBCs are compared across a wide range of materials systems by using the maximum transmission limit, which with an attenuated transmission coefficient proves to be a good guideline for most clean, strongly bonded interfaces. Finally, opportunities for future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Synthetic Micro/Nanomotors and Pumps: Fabrication and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Flory Wong, Krishna Kanti Dey, Ayusman Sen

    Synthetic active systems capable of autonomous motion or driving fluid flow are of great current interest owing to their potential applications in nanomachinery, cargo capture and delivery, reversible assemblies, and chemical/biochemical sensing. Designing self-powered micro/nanomotors and understanding their propulsion mechanisms and ensemble behavior are now areas of great interest in low-Reynolds-number mechanics. In this article, we classify prototypes of existing small-scale motors on the basis of the materials used in synthesis and fabrication, with the aim of understanding the importance of material selection in designing functional motors for futuristic applications.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Recent Advances in Superhard Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Zhisheng Zhao, Bo Xu, Yongjun Tian

    In superhard materials research, two topics are of central focus. One is to understand hardness microscopically and to establish hardness models with atomic parameters, which can be used to guide the design or prediction of novel superhard crystals. The other is to synthesize superhard materials with enhanced comprehensive performance (i.e., hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal stability), with the ambition of achieving materials harder than natural diamond. In this review, we present recent developments in both areas. The microscopic hardness models of covalent single crystals are introduced and further generalized to polycrystalline materials. Current research progress in novel superhard materials and nanostructuring approaches for high-performance superhard materials are discussed. We also clarify a long-standing controversy about the criterion for performing a reliable indentation hardness measurement.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Ado Jorio, Antonio G. Souza Filho

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes–anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Hiroshi Ichikawa

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Physics of Ultrathin Films and Heterostructures of Rare-Earth Nickelates
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    S. Middey, J. Chakhalian, P. Mahadevan, J.W. Freeland, A.J. Millis, D.D. Sarma

    The electronic structure of transition metal oxides featuring correlated electrons can be rationalized within the Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen framework. Following a brief description of the present paradigms of electronic behavior, we focus on the physics of rare-earth nickelates as an archetype of complexity emerging within the charge transfer regime. The intriguing prospect of realizing the physics of high-Tc cuprates through heterostructuring resulted in a massive endeavor to epitaxially stabilize these materials in ultrathin form. A plethora of new phenomena unfolded in such artificial structures due to the effect of epitaxial strain, quantum confinement, and interfacial charge transfer. Here we review the present status of artificial rare-earth nickelates in an effort to uncover the interconnection between the electronic and magnetic behavior and the underlying crystal structure. We conclude by discussing future directions to disentangle the puzzle regarding the origin of the metal-insulator transition, the role of oxygen holes, and the true nature of the antiferromagnetic spin configuration in the ultrathin limit.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Material Evaluation by Infrared Thermography
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Stephen D. Holland, Ricky S. Reusser

    Infrared thermography uses the temperature-imaging capability of modern thermal cameras to characterize materials and detect flaws. An energy source—whether a pulse of light from a laser or flash lamp, an induction coil, or some other source—induces heat flow in a material, and the resulting temperature patterns are imaged with the thermal camera. In flash thermography, the most widely used form of quantitative thermography, a pulse of light is used as the energy source, and then the surface cooldown is imaged with the thermal camera. Calculations based on an elementary theory of 1D heat conduction can determine thickness (or, equivalently, thermal diffusivity), and nonuniformity in the cooldown will identify defects. This article reviews the methods, approaches, and models of thermography. It focuses on illustrating and identifying the materials, thicknesses, and flaw conditions under which thermography is an effective material characterization technique.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • Dealloying and Dealloyed Materials
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Ian McCue, Ellen Benn, Bernard Gaskey, Jonah Erlebacher

    A successful working model for nanoporosity evolution during dealloying was introduced 15 years ago. Since that time, the field has rapidly expanded, with research groups from across the world studying dealloying and dealloyed materials. Dealloying has grown into a rich field, with some groups focusing on fundamentals and mechanisms of dealloying, other groups creating new porous metals and alloys, and even more groups studying their properties. Dealloying was originally considered only in the context of corrosion, but now it is considered a facile self-organization technique to fabricate high-surface-area, bicontinuous nanoporous materials. Owing to their high interfacial area and the versatility of metallic materials, nanoporous metals have found application in catalysis, sensing, actuation, electrolytic and ultracapacitor materials, high-temperature templates/scaffolds, battery anodes, and radiation damage–tolerant materials. In this review, we discuss the fundamental materials principles underlying the formation of dealloyed materials and then look at two major applications: catalysis and nanomechanics.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
  • The Chemistry and Applications of π-Gels
    Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (IF 16.816) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Samrat Ghosh, Vakayil K. Praveen, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh

    π-Gels are a promising class of functional soft materials formed out of short π-conjugated molecules. By utilizing the chemistry of noncovalent interactions, researchers have created a wide range of π-gels that are composed of supramolecular polymers. During the last two decades, supramolecular gel chemistry has been pursued with the hope of developing new materials for applications in, for example, organic electronics, energy harvesting, sensing, and imaging. The high expectations for π-gels were centered mainly around their electronic properties, such as tunable emission, energy transfer, electron transfer, charge transport, and electrical conductivity; such properties are amenable to modulation through size and shape control of molecular assemblies. Although a large number of exciting publications have appeared, a major technological breakthrough is yet to be realized. In this review, we analyze the recent advancements in the area of functional π-gels and their scope in future applications.

    更新日期:2017-06-21
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