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  • Enhancement of carbonate apatite scaffold properties with surface treatment and alginate and gelatine coating
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Fadilah Darus, Mariatti Jaafar

    Abstract Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) scaffolding has been widely used for bone repair and replacement due to its excellent osteoconductivity and resorbability in bone defects. However, the application of the porous scaffold has been limited by its brittleness. Here, CO3Ap scaffolds coated with 1, 3 and 5 wt% of sodium alginate (SA) and bovine gelatine (BG) were fabricated to improve the mechanical properties of the porous scaffold. Limited studies have been done on a CO3Ap scaffold coated with a natural polymer layer. Here, a CO3Ap scaffold was fabricated through the phase transformation from β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to CO3Ap using a hydrothermal method. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the presence of both SA and BG functional groups on the CO3Ap scaffold. Five wt% of SA and BG improved the compressive strength of the uncoated CO3Ap scaffold by 34% and 46%, respectively. The SA coating was found to enhance the compressive strength of the CO3Ap scaffold compared to the BG coating due to its high viscosity. Furthermore, the compressive strength of the scaffold increased by 40% after undergoing a silanization process and being coated with SA. These results indicate that the use of a silane treatment improved the chemical bonding between the CO3Ap scaffold and SA coating. This process increased the adhesion between the SA coating and the scaffold and improved the compressive strength.

  • Synthesis of MnO 2 modified porous carbon spheres by preoxidation-assisted impregnation for catalytic oxidation of indoor formaldehyde
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Changming Zhang, Yaqi Wang, Wen Song, Huitao Zhang, Xiaochao Zhang, Rui Li, Caimei Fan

    Abstract Resin-based porous carbon spheres with well dispersed MnO2 particles were sucessfully synthesised by steam activation and preoxidation-assisted impregnation of manganese nitrate salt. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), O2 temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD) and in-situ diffuse reflectance fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS) were applied to characterize the obtained porous carbon spheres, and the HCHO adsorption and stability performances were evaluated in a fixed bed reactor. The results demonstrated that surface chemical properties and HCHO removal performances were significantly enhanced after the modification of preoxidation-assisted impregnation. The optimal manganese nitrate loading value, and relative humidity were 6 and 50%, respectively. Moreover, the higher HCHO concentration showed a smaller breakthrough time. The HCHO removal efficiency of ACS–O-6% Mn remained 100% even after reaction for 20 h at room temperature, while the average HCHO removal efficiency only declines by 0.2% compared with the first adsorption after 10 regeneration cycles. The in-situ DRIFTS results showed the smaller accumulation and faster desorption of intermediate products over the ACS–O-6% Mn. The HCHO removal mechanism analysis indicated that the enriched Mn3+ and surface active chemisorbed oxygen accounted for the excellent catalytic oxidation activity and stability.

  • Nanoporous AlSBA-15 catalysed Claisen–Schmidt condensation for the synthesis of novel and biologically active chalcones
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Palani Elamathi, Govindasamy Chandrasekar, M.M. Balamurali

    Abstract Mesoporous AlSBA-15 catalysts (nSi/nAl ratios of 41, 129 and 210) were synthesized by sol–gel method. These materials were characterized by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, TPD-NH3, FESEM, EDX, and TEM analysis. XRD analysis of AlSBA-15 catalysts confirmed the existence of well-ordered crystalline structure having p6mm symmetry. N2 sorption isotherm of AlSBA-15 catalysts showed a type IV adsorption isotherm with H1 hysteresis loops. SEM analysis of AlSBA-15 (41) indicated worm-like particle morphology with a size range of 3 μm with co-occurrence of smaller particles of size ca. 1 μm. TEM analysis of AlSBA-15 (41) showed existence of uniform array of tubular nano-channels. The catalytic application of AlSBA-15 catalysts was tested on industrially important chalcones synthesis via Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction in environment friendly approach. The reaction parameters such as time, temperature, nSi/nAl ratio, catalyst amount, and catalyst stability were investigated. AlSBA-15 (41) catalyst showed an excellent catalytic performance with 98% 1-tetralone conversion with 100% selectivity of compound 1c (91% yield) within 120 min AlSBA-15 (129) and AlSBA-15 (210) catalysts. The anti-oxidant activity of the synthesised chalcones were investigated by various in-vitro procedures, including radical scavenging potentials-1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and ferric reducing potential assay. The new chalcone derivatives synthesised in this work showed a very good antioxidant activity and some were found to be more active than the parent chalcones, (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (compound 8c), and standard antioxidant (curcumin).

  • UZnCl 2 -DES assisted synthesis of phenolic resin-based carbon aerogels for capacitors
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Junqian Deng, Ling Chen, Shu Hong, Hailan Lian

    Abstract Herein we have reported the preparation of carbon materials for capacitors from phenolic resin in the presence of deep eutectic solvent (DES). Resole was used as carbon precursor and DES synthesized from ZnCl2 and urea in a molar ration of 3:10 served as pore former and mixed with the resole for the preparation of organic gels, which were then converted to carbon aerogels via carbonization. The physicochemical properties as well as the electrochemical properties of the obtained carbon products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Nitrogen absorption/desorption test, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectra. The results show that the formation of DES, rather than the solid mixture of ZnCl2 and urea, is more effective for the fast and low temperature preparation of phenolic resin-based carbon aerogels with higher specific surface area and enhanced electrochemical performance. After further activation, the carbon aerogel possesses a highest surface area of 1238.81 m2 g−1 and a highest specific capacitance of 179.6 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1.

  • Customized three-dimensional porous catalyst for Knoevenagel reaction
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yan Jiang, Fu-Quan Jiang, Xu Liao, Shi-Lin Lai, Shi-Bin Wang, Xing-Quan Xiong, Jun Zheng, Yuan-Gang Liu

    Abstract Despite the success in the fabrication of various arbitrary-sized one-dimensional architectures, researches still face specific disadvantages of uncontrollable porosity and disordered structures, leading to a deficiency in micro-sized porous for efficient catalytic performance. To improve these limitations, herein, fabricating controllable microstructures based on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was conducted for catalysis applications. Initially, a multi-channel organized structure printed by silica (SiO2) powder was as the support, onto which different organic functional groups were immobilized. Prior to exploring the catalytic efficiency, different techniques were used to investigate the characterization of 3D-SiO2 systematically. Amongst various immobilized functional groups, the 3D-SiO2 modified with diethylenetriamine showed the best catalytic activity for Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Moreover, the results showed that 3D-SiO2 enhanced catalytic activities of over 90% in only 30 min and could be reused more than ten times with high-performance efficiency while transforming various aldehydes in the presence of malononitrile.

  • Silver nanoparticle embedded anionic crosslinked copolymer hydrogels: an efficient catalyst
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Massomeh Ghorbanloo, Hannaneh Nosrati Fallah

    The present study aimed to synthesize poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propansulfonic acid-co-acrylic acid), p(AMPS-c-AA), embedded with silver nanoparticles and to investigate their potential in catalysis. The hydrogels were prepared from 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propansulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers via free radical polymerization reaction technique in the mild reaction condition and silver nanoparticles were fabricated within hydrogel by reducing Ag (I) ions using NaBH4 as reducing agent. The synthesized p(AMPS-c-AA) hydrogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Silver nanoparticles embedded in p(AMPS-c-AA) hydrogel were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The metal content of composites was estimated via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Applications of this synthesized hydrogel was also investigated by using as a catalyst in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and H2 generation from hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The activation energies, enthalpy, and entropy for 4-NP reduction and NaBH4 hydrolysis catalyzed by composite were determined. P(AMPS-c-AA)-Ag composite was also used as catalyst in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols by emphasizing the effects of different parameters such as temperature, substituent effect, etc. Finally, recycling of the poly(AMPS-c-AA) hydrogel fabricated with Ag nanoparticles was carried out for four consecutive cycles and no significant loss in catalytic activity was observed.

  • Synthesis of hybrid materials by immobilizing para-aminobenzoic acid complexes of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ in zeolite Y and their luminescent properties
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    K. S. Ambili, Jesty Thomas

    Abstract Two new lanthanide containing zeolite Y based luminescent hybrid materials were synthesized and characterized. Exchange of Na+ from zeolite Y with lanthanide ions (Eu3+ or Tb3+) was carried out by ultrasonication and annealing. Para-amino benzoic acid was introduced to the ion exchanged zeolite Y to form complex with the lanthanide ion. Characterizations of the materials were carried out using IR spectroscopy, PXRD, SEM, UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, TG–DTA and DSC analysis. Luminescence properties of these materials were studied using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Complex formation inside the zeolite cage increased the luminescence efficiency of the lanthanide ions through antenna effect. Tb3+ containing hybrid material showed efficient energy transfer due to the optimal energy level matching of the triplet level of ligand and the emissive level of Tb3+. Zeolite Y structure acts as a protective barrier against the degradation of organic part as is evident from the high thermal stability of the materials.

  • Layered double hydroxide–borate composites supported on magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and molecular dynamics simulations
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ahmet Nedim Ay, Birgul Zumreoglu-Karan, Andrey G. Kalinichev, Vicente Rives, Raquel Trujillano, Abidin Temel

    Magnetic nanocomposites involving tetraborate ion (TB)-intercalated Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) shell supported on magnesium ferrite core particles are synthesized, characterized, and compared with their non-magnetic analogues. The compositions of the obtained nanocomposites were determined and structural investigations were made by powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Particle characteristics were examined by size distribution, specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Room-temperature magnetic measurements were performed with a vibrating sample magnetometer. The dynamics and structure of the interlayer water molecules and borate ions were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Analytical and modeling studies verified that the TB ions were arranged between the LDH layers in oblique positions. The products were found to carry ca. 6% boron (1017 B atom/μg nanocomposite). The magnetic nanocomposite showed superparamagnetic properties and can potentially find applications in biomedical fields for the site-specific delivery of bio-potent boron agents.

  • A lithium–aluminosilicate zeolite membrane for separation of CO 2 from simulated blast furnace gas
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Priyanka Roy, Nandini Das

    Abstract In this study, for the first time, the small pore size (0.28 × 0.37 nm) Li–aluminosilicate zeolite membrane was synthesized for separation of CO2 from H2–CO2 and H2–CO2–N2–CO (simulated blast furnace gas) gas mixtures. Li–aluminosilicate membranes were prepared on porous clay alumina tubes by sonication mediated hydrothermal method using pre synthesized zeolite powders as seeds. The zeolite formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern and FESEM analysis. The scanning electron micrograph of the membrane, suggested the uniformity of the dense structure of the membrane. Single-gas and mixed-gas permeation experiments through membranes were carried out at 25 °C using H2, CO2 and N2 single-component gases and mixture of H2–CO2, H2–CO2–N2–CO for simulated blast furnace gas composition. Synthesized Li–aluminosilicate zeolite shows appreciable CO2 adsorption capacity at liquid nitrogen temperature compared with other reported zeolites. In case of single gas permeation, membrane shows usual pattern of permeation. For mixture gas, separation efficiency of Li–zeolite membrane increased abruptly compared to the other zeolite membranes. The maximum CO2–H2, CO2–N2 and CO2–CO separation selectivities were found to be 78, 8.7 and 67.3 respectively, with permeance of H2, CO2 and N2 2.21 × 10−7, 1.01 × 10−7 and 0.8 × 10−7 mol m−2 s−1 Pa−1 at 25 °C respectively.

  • KOH activation of solid residue of Japanese citron after extraction by microwave process and property as EDLC electrode
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Toshiki Tsubota, Yukina Hohshi, Teruhisa Ohno, Satoshi Kumagai

    Abstract The solid residue of Japanese citron after its compression to obtain juice and then the extraction of oil was used as the raw material of activated carbon in order to substantiate the cascading use of Citrease for several high value products. Most of the inorganic compounds in the carbonized samples were K4H2(CO3)3·1.5 H2O and CaCO3. Although the amount of these inorganic compounds was independent of the carbonization temperature, most of these inorganic compounds were removed by the KOH activation process. The BET specific surface area of the sample after the KOH activation increased with the increasing amount of KOH added for activation, and the value was greater than 1900 m2 g−1 when the amount of KOH was greater than 67 wt%. The pore sizes and pore volumes were calculated by several methods, such as the Langmuir, t method, αs method, MP method, BJH method, and INNES method, in order to analyze in detail the surface condition related to the pores. The capacitance value of the sample activated at KOH 75 wt% was 157 F g−1 at 1 mV s−1.

  • N-Doped ordered porous carbon decorated with WN and Ni nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic properties
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yiou Ma, Hu Guo, Hairong Xue, Tao Wang, Linghui Li, Hao Gong, Xiaoli Fan, Li Song, Bin Gao, Wei Xia, Cheng Jiang, Jianping He

    Abstract Design of non-noble metal-based nanocatalysts supported on N-doped porous carbon is very important for electrocatalytic applications. Herein, we propose a new transition metal nitrides (TMNs) catalyst through an in-situ synthesis, in which WN and Ni nanoparticles (NPs) are uniformly anchored in N-doped ordered porous carbon (WN–Ni/NPC). N-doped porous carbon with high surface area favors electrolyte infiltration and reactants diffusion, and its three-dimensional (3D) conductive network offers fast electron transport. Moreover, doping of N element together with uniformly distributed NPs further enhance the catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Benefiting from the above superiorities and synergistic effect between the WN and Ni NPs, the WN–Ni/NPC shows good catalytic performance for ORR in alkaline media. The present synthetic method is highly valuable for designing N-doped porous carbon supported TMNs-based catalysts.

  • A novel anionic surfactant as template for the development of hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite and its catalytic performance
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    R. Sabarish, G. Unnikrishnan

    A novel hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite was successfully prepared by utilizing soft mesotemplate by hydrothermal treatment. TPAOH was used as a structure directing agent to create micropores and anionic surfactant HDSS were used to generate additional mesopores in the zeolite framework. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR, 27Al and 29Si NMR, SEM, TEM, NH3-TPD, TGA and N2 adsorption methods. XRD and FT-IR analysis shows that the synthesized catalyst possesses pronounced crystallinity with characteristics MFI structure. Development of micro/mesoporosity in the samples was noted by SEM and is complementary to TEM and BET analysis. The thermal stability and acidity of the synthesized samples were confirmed by TGA and NH3-TPD technique. Catalytic activity of the synthesized ZSM-5 zeolites was examined for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The results reveal that the surfactant assisted samples offer higher conversion and selectivity compared to conventional zeolites.

  • Effect of Pt/HZSM-5 dealumination by high temperature reduction on glycerol oxidation
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Chaline Detoni, Aline Raymundo Pereira da Silva, Mariana M. V. M. Souza

    Glycerol oxidation was investigated using as catalyst an acid zeolite (H-ZSM-5) impregnated with different contents of Pt (1 and 3 wt%), and H2O2 and air as oxidants. Catalysts were characterized by XRD, XRF, FT-IR, 27Al MAS NMR, N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD, XPS and TEM. After calcination, catalysts were reduced at 1000 °C under H2 and this treatment lead to some dealumination that influenced catalyst acidity. The influence of acidity was evaluated in glycerol oxidation. All tested catalysts were able to oxidize glycerol, and the main products were 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, glyceric acid and glyceraldehyde.

  • One-step and template-free fabrication of hollow carbon-modified Fe 3 O 4 for catalyzing solvent-free aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yingqiu Gu, Pan Lu, Wenwen Zhan, Yadong Zhang, Liming Sun, Guojian Chen, Zhouyang Long

    A hollow carbon-modified Fe3O4 (H-C-Fe3O4) has been fabricated by a one-step and template-free solvothermal method with ethanol as the solvent. The catalytic activity of H-C-Fe3O4(ethanol) is investigated for solvent-free aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with O2. It is found that H-C-Fe3O4(ethanol) offer a superior benzaldehyde yield and selectivity. The good catalytic performance of H-C-Fe3O4(ethanol) benefits from the rich interfaces between the carbon and Fe3O4, plus the interspace voids introduced by its hollow structure. Besides, the target H-C-Fe3O4(ethanol) can be facilely recycled with a magnet and exhibits good potential for catalyst reuse.

  • Investigation of RAFT polymerization in mesoporous SBA-15 by using various monomers
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Yanning Zeng, Shuxin Liu, Yunqing Xu, Faai Zhang

    Reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization has attracted much attention, because its reaction mechanism has been well studied and it provides a facile approach to prepare the special functional polymer. Herein, mesoporous SBA-15 with pore size of 6 nm was employed as a “microreactor” for the RAFT solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or styrene (St) using a xanthate as a chain transfer agent and AIBN as the initiator. The structures, morphologies and properties of the obtained polymers and in-situ composites were fully characterized. XPS results confirm the presence of sulfur in the obtained polymers, which indicates a RAFT polymerization mechanism. XRD observation found that the in-situ composites exhibited the similar two-dimensional hexagonal pore structures intrinsic to SBA-15. However, the specific surface area, pore size, and pore volumes of the composites decreased dramatically compared with the intrinsic SBA-15 morphology. N2 adsorption studies of polymers synthesized from various monomer mixtures revealed differing properties with adsorption capacity in the order of GMA > MMA > St. The Mn and Mw of polymers produced from within SBA-15 were significantly higher than those produced external to the SBA-15 framework. Meanwhile, the molecular weight distributions of polymers constructed within the SBA-15 were narrower. Lastly, the thermal stability and glass transition temperature of the polymers constructed within the SBA-15 were notably enhanced.

  • Two Schiff-base complexes of copper and zirconium oxide supported on mesoporous MCM-41 as an organic–inorganic hybrid catalysts in the chemo and homoselective oxidation of sulfides and synthesis of tetrazoles
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Mohsen Nikoorazm, Ziba Rezaei, Bahman Tahmasbi

    Abstract A simple and efficient procedure was reported for the synthesis of tetrazole derivatives, the chemo and homoselective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides in the presence of two Schiff-base complexes of zirconium oxide and copper anchored on MCM-41 as mesoporous and organometallic catalysts under green conditions. All the products were obtained in excellent yields with high TOF values indicating the high activity of the synthesized catalysts. These catalysts were characterized by XRD, TGA, SEM, EDS, FT-IR, TEM, WDX, BET and AAS techniques and can be recycled for several times without significant loss in catalytic activity. The recovered catalysts were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and AAS analysis which shown an excellent agreement with fresh catalysts.

  • Tunable catalytic activity of gold nanoparticle decorated SBA-15/PDMAEMA hybrid system
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Riyasudheen Nechikkattu, Chang-Sik Ha

    Abstract A temperature responsive smart catalytic system based on SBA-15/poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) decorated with gold nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared. The surface graft polymerization of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate on well-structured mesoporous silica NPs was done by atom transfer radical polymerization technique in aqueous alcohol media. In situ generation of gold NPs was achieved in controlled condition. The catalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol at various temperatures. The catalytic activity of the NPs showed a deviance from the expected Arrhenius trend at different temperatures. Above the cloud point of the grafted polymer at a given pH condition, the rate constant of the catalytic reaction dropped sharply due to shrinkage of the polymer and transition to hydrophobic state.

  • An efficient metal-free catalyst derived from waste lotus seedpod for oxygen reduction reaction
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Bo Zheng, Jiaxin Wang, Zhaorui Pan, Xiaofeng Wang, Shaoxian Liu, Shiqing Ding, Leiming Lang

    The sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has severely impeded the application of fuel cell technology. Developing economical and efficient biomass-based catalysts derived from natural waste to replace the expensive noble metal catalysts is becoming an attractive strategy. However, biomass materials often have geographical and seasonal characteristics. Thus, developing diversified and available biomass-derived catalysts is significant for different regions. In this work, N, P-dual doped porous carbon materials derived from waste lotus seedpod with tunable specific surface areas and porous structure are skillfully fabricated. The optimized sample exhibits excellent oxygen reduction reaction activity with an onset potential of 0.87 V vs. RHE and a Tafel slope of 81 mV dec−1, showing the 4e‒ electrons transfer path in alkaline solution. It also exhibits much better stability and methanol tolerance than commercial Pt/C. High ORR performance is considered to be ascribed to the abundant N, P dispersion and the hierarchical porous structure.

  • Modernization of the bulk Co 3 O 4 to produce meso-porous Co 3 O 4 nano-particles with enhanced structural and morphological characteristics
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    E. H. Shamma, S. Said, M. Riad, S. Mikhail, A. E. H. Ismail

    Ordered meso-porous Co3O4 (meso-Co3O4) was prepared via the nano-casting route using three-dimensionally (3D) ordered meso-porous silica (KIT-6) as a hard template, whereas the bulk Co3O4 was prepared by the precipitation method for comparison. The prepared meso- and bulk Co3O4 were used as supports to prepare V2O5 (6 wt%) loaded catalysts by conventional wetness impregnation technique. The structural and morphological characterizations of the prepared samples were investigated by XRD, N2-physisorption, TEM–EDX, H2-TPR, and FT-IR analyses. The result informed that the meso-Co3O4 retains small particle size, high surface area, rich surface adsorbed oxygen species, and low temperature reducibility as compared with the bulk one. These characters are responsible for the better dispersion of vanadium onto the meso-Co3O4 support.

  • Urea metal-organic frameworks as a highly selective fluorescent sensor for the explosive nitroaromatics and carbonyl compounds
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Masoomeh Sharafizadeh, Javad Mokhtari, Hamid Saeidian, Zohreh Mirjafary

    Abstract Currently, urea containing frameworks assumed to have a prominent role in the developing field of Y shapes anion detection such as TNP, TNT and their derivatives owing to their capability to act as double H-bond donors. Developing new and highly efficient sensors for detection of trace concentration of these explosives is remaining challenge. The immobilization of organic–functional struts within the pore wall of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is one of the new strategies to develop highly sensitive and selective receptors. Decoration of MOF skeleton with urea moiety can be helpful in effective recognizing of these specific guests for two reasons, (i) incorporation of urea strut in the framework prevents their inherent self-assembly and (ii) urea can form positive double hydrogen bond donation site which can act as a promising receptor for anionic moieties. A 3D, urea functionalized, TMU-18, has successfully synthesized as a chemosensor for selective detection by fluorescence signaling towards explosive nitroaromatics and carbonyl compounds. TMU-18 due to its special and porous structure and available functional group shows strong luminescence emission, and could be effectively used for sensitive detection of Trinitrophenol (TNP) with a 10 µM limit of detection (LOD).

  • Removal of heavy metals using sorbents derived from bark
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Ho-Jin Song, Sungpyo Kim, Yunchul Cho

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the sorption properties of low-cost sorbents derived from bark for heavy metals such as copper and cadmium at different pH and ionic strength conditions. Three different bark-derived sorbents such as untreated, acid treated, and alkaline treated barks were prepared. The acid treated and alkali treated barks were obtained through chemical treatments using 0.1 HCl and 0.1 NaOH solutions, respectively. Morphology, elemental composition, and specific surface area of different bark-derived sorbents were characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), EDS (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area measurements, respectively. Batch isotherm tests were carried out to examine the sorption properties of bark-derived sorbents. The results showed that alkali treated bark had high affinity for both copper and cadmium. At pH 7.0 sorption capacity of alkali treated bark for copper (1.43 mg/g) was greater than untreated and acid treated barks, which corresponded to a removal efficiency of around 95%. Also, sorption capacity of alkali treated bark for cadmium was greater than the other bark-derived sorbents, which corresponded to removal efficiency of around ~ 98.5%. In case of pH effect, sorption affinity of untreated bark for both copper and cadmium increased with the increase of pH. On the other hand, for ionic strength effect, sorption affinities of three different bark-derived sorbents for copper decreased with increase of ionic strength. Therefore, the alkali treated bark could be a cost-effective sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater.

  • Facile synthesis of hydrothermally stable mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite from Al- SBA-16 via steam assisted crystallization
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    M. S. M. Kamil, K. K. Cheralathan

    In this work, Al grafted SBA-16 (Al-SBA-16) is converted into a fully crystalline hierarchical mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite with hydrothermal stability by steam assisted crystallization under controlled conditions. The secondary mesoporosity is due to reorganization and recrystallization events happening upon steaming the precursor. Two mesoporous aluminosilicates (Al-SBA-16s) are used as the precursors of zeolites. The precursors are obtained by post-synthetic Al grafting on the silica walls of SBA-16 with aluminium isopropoxide and sodium aluminate. Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites obtained from the Al-SBA-16 precursors and commercial ZSM-5 are characterized using XRD, XRF, FT-IR, TEM, N2 adsorption, 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR, and TPD of NH3. The results indicated the presence of intraparticle mesoporosity in the prepared mesoporous zeolites and they have comparable crystallinity with commercial ZSM-5. Catalytic activity of the synthesized mesoporous zeolites in benzylation of mesitylene is found to be comparatively more than commercial ZSM-5, which shows existence of micro/meso hierarchical structure in the mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites. The aluminium sources, aluminium isopropoxide and sodium aluminate have a remarkable influence on the textural, acidity, and hydrothermal stability characteristics of the synthesized mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites.

  • Thermal conductivity-structure-processing relationships for amorphous nano-porous organo-silicate thin films
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Hari Harikrishna, Scott T. Huxtable, Ira Ben Shir, Shifi Kababya, Asher Schmidt, Dhanadeep Dutta, Ming Liu, David Gidley, William A. Lanford, Niklas Hellgren, Canay Ege, Ebony Mays, Jeff Bielefeld, Sean W. King

    While numerous thermal conductivity investigations of amorphous dielectrics have been reported, relatively few have attempted to correlate to the influence of processing conditions and the resulting atomic structure. In this regard, we have investigated the influence of growth conditions, post deposition curing, elemental composition, atomic structure, and nano-porosity on the thermal conductivity for a series of organo-silicate (SiOCH) thin films. Time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) was specifically utilized to measure thermal conductivity while the influence of growth conditions and post deposition curing on composition, mass density, atomic structure, and porosity were examined using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), and positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Analytical models describing the thermal conductivity dependence on mass density and vol% porosity were found to generally over-predict the measured thermal conductivity, but improved agreement was obtained when considering only the heat carrying network density determined by FTIR. Ashby’s semi-empirical relation, which assumes only 1/3 of the heat carrying bonds are aligned to the heat transport direction, was also found to reasonably describe the observed trends. However, the thermal conductivity results were best described via a model proposed by Sumirat (J Porous Mater 9:439 (2006)) which considers the effect of both vol% porosity and phonon scattering by nanometer sized pores. Post-deposition curing was additionally observed to increase thermal conductivity despite an increase in nano-porosity. This effect was attributed to an increase in the Si–O–Si network bonding produced by the cure.

  • Minireview of pentatomic cations in sodalite cavities
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Dae Jun Moon, Woo Taik Lim

    Centered-tetrahedral cationic clusters are frequently found in the sodalite cavities of zeolites and in the cavities of analogues of the mineral sodalite. Examples are Mn4S6+, Fe4Te6+, Zn4Se6+, Cd4S6+, Cu4Cl7+, Na4Cl3+, Na4I3+, Na54+, In57+, Ga57+, and Sn512+.

  • Fabrication and characterization of bioactive chitosan microspheres incorporated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    A. M. Hezma, Tarek A. Elkhooly, Gamal S. El-Bahy

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared using sol–gel method. Chitosan-MSNs microspheres scaffold loaded with ciprofloxacin also prepared via an ionotropic gelation method. The prepared samples were characterized using FE-SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The pore volume and mean pore diameter for MSNs was determined by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. The in vitro drug test was evaluated by using UV–Vis spectrophotometry at λmax of 275 nm. The estimated (measured) MSNs pore volume and pore diameter were 0.9227 cm3/g and 2.6058 nm, respectively. The Chitosan-MSNs loaded with ciprofloxacin show a spherical surface with good and uniform distribution of the MSNs in the microspheres. The in vitro drug release confirms that the MSNs containing beads shows a retarding release (≈ 90% in 9 h) than beads without MSNs (≈ 90% in 2 h). In the light of these findings, the developed delivery system scaffold holds great potential for bone regeneration by control drug release used in activation osteoblast cells.

  • Synthesis of chitin/graphene oxide composite aerogel beads for lipase immobilization
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Meng Chen, Haoming Wu, Zhentao Li, Keke Wu, Yanpeng Jiao, Changren Zhou

    Chitin/graphene oxide (Ch/GO) composite aerogel beads were fabricated by a simple and environmentally friendly method for lipase immobilization. The morphology and specific surface area of these beads were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), respectively. The results revealed that the prepared beads showed three-dimensional porous structure, and GO was successfully bound to chitin with enhanced surface area and mechanical strength. Candida rugose lipase (CRL) was immobilized on Ch/GO aerogel beads under optimum conditions by adsorption and subsequent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde which is added in the presence of the unbound proteins by conjugation. The maximum immobilization capacity of Ch, Ch/GO-5, Ch/GO-10 were 129.9, 141.1, 151.9 mg/gsupport. The immobilized lipases exhibited good temperature and thermal stability in comparison to free CRL. After recycling 5 times, the immobilized lipases remained more than 90% of their initial activity and the activity of Ch/GO-10 could remain 84.2% of free CRL. With these desired characteristics, the design of Ch/GO composite aerogel beads for lipase immobilization may have potential applications in various lipase-based industrial processes.

  • The conversion of wood residues, using pilot-scale technologies, into porous activated biochars for supercapacitors
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Flavia Lega Braghiroli, Andrés Cuña, Elen Leal da Silva, Gisele Amaral-Labat, Guilherme F. B. Lenz e Silva, Hassine Bouafif, Ahmed Koubaa

    In this study, activated biochar was produced using pilot-scale technologies of fast pyrolysis and activation to create desirable morphology, surface chemistry, and adsorptive properties for application in supercapacitors. First, residues from white birch were converted into biochar by fast pyrolysis (~ 450 °C). Then, physical (using CO2) or chemical (using KOH) activation was carried out in a homemade pilot-scale furnace at 900 °C. These synthesized materials presented distinct porosity structures: micro-/mesoporous (CO2 material) and highly microporous (KOH material), reaching surface areas of up to 1700 m2 g−1. Electrochemical results showed that KOH-activated biochar had higher specific electrical capacitance in both acidic and neutral electrolytes with a maximum specific capacitance value of 350 and 118 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, respectively; while, for CO2-activated biochar, the maximum obtained values were 204 and 14 F g−1. The greater proportion of oxygenated and nitrogenated functional groups on the surface of the KOH activated biochar, along with its high surface area (with wider porosity), improved its performance as a supercapacitor electrode. Specifically, the low proportion of ultramicropores was determinant for its better electrochemical behavior, especially in the neutral electrolyte. Indeed, these results are similar to those found in the literature on the electrical capacitance of carbonaceous materials synthesized in a small-scale furnace. Thus, the chemical-activated biochar made from wood residues in pilot-scale furnaces is a promising material for use as electrodes for supercapacitors.

  • Rich nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon synthesized by copolymerization of PMDA and ODA with SBA-15 as a template for high-performance supercapacitors
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Tingting Ma, Wei Yang, Zongjian Wu, Kangzhou Lei, Jingzhou Lin, Hanbo Zou, Shengzhou Chen

    Polyimide-based nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon was successfully synthesised utilising SBA-15 as a hard template. By controlling the molar ratio of 4,4′-oxydianiline to pyromellitic dianhydride during copolymerising and carbonisation, nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (NOMCx) with various nitrogen content and pore distribution were obtained. When the molar ratio of 4,4′-oxydianiline to pyromellitic dianhydride was 6, NOMC6 presented the highest content of nitrogen (7.94 wt%) and moderate specific surface area (890 m2 g−1). Accordingly, NOMC6 showed a high specific capacitance of 282 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1, and excellent cycle stability (no capacitance loss over 10,000 cycles) in 1 M H2SO4. The synthesised ordered mesoporous carbons do not show a significant decrease of capacitive performance in the current density range of 2 to 20 A g−1. Furthermore, a symmetrical supercapacitor consisting of two NOMC6 electrodes exhibited an energy density of 4.77 Wh kg−1 at power density of 500 W kg−1 (1 A g−1).

  • Simple synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon with developed graphene domains for high performance supercapacitors
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Chengbiao Wei, Jiankang Xu, Qingchao Fan, Ruihui Gan, Yan Song, Chang Ma, Jingli Shi

    Hierarchical porous carbons with localized graphene structure, high specific surface area and large pore volume are simply synthesized by the means of short-time pyrolysis at moderate temperatures and acid-washing. Citric acid and cobalt acetate were used as carbon source and template precursor, the effect of mass ratio of citric acid/cobalt acetate on the microstructures of the hierarchical porous carbon, including morphology, crystal structure, porosity, specific surface area and surface chemistry, have been investigated. The resultant hierarchical porous carbons possess high specific surface area of 1411 m2/g, a large pore volume of 2.34 cm3/g. Both three-electrode and two-electrode test were conducted to evaluate capacitive performance of the hierarchical porous carbon. The test of three-electrode system with 6 M KOH aqueous solution as electrolyte, the hierarchical porous carbon shows superior specific capacitance up to 239 F/g at 0.1 A/g. In 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Moreover, the hierarchical porous carbon based two-electrode supercapacitors presents gravimetric energy density of 11.6 Wh/kg and power density of 250 W/kg. This work developed a facile way for high surface areas and large pore volume electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  • Cleaner continuous flow production of mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate as a potential biomaterial
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Chun Hui Zhou, Shu Ting Xia, Sridhar Komarneni, Freeman Bwalya Kabwe, Gui Chen Jin, Mao Quan Chu

    Dolomite is an abundant, naturally occurring carbonate mineral, but the conventional processes of converting dolomite to new materials are time-consuming and energy-intensive. In addition, products from dolomite such as magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, which are used as adsorbents and additives, are mostly low value-added. Here, we demonstrated the conversion of dolomite to a mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate (m-CMS) using a green and efficient continuous-flow synthesis method. The samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The material possessed mesoporosity and exhibited high a specific surface area of 629 m2/g and a pore volume of 0.66 cm3/g. The maximum water absorptivity of the sample was 52.6%. After the m-CMS immersing in Tris–HCl solution for 56 days, the weight loss ratio reached 30 wt%, indicating its good potential biodegradability. Hydroxyapatite was formed on the surfaces after the m-CMS was immersed in simulated body fluids. The m-CSM provided nucleation sites, and subsequently supplied Ca2+ for hydroxyapatite crystal growth, indicating that the material has potential bone conduction capability. This work suggests that m-CMS can be synthesized from dolomite and tetraethyl orthosilicate through a quick continuous process, and that the m-CMS could be used as a biomaterial.

  • Superhydrophobic, enhanced strength and thermal insulation silica aerogel/glass fiber felt based on methyltrimethoxysilane precursor and silica gel impregnation
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Sameera Shafi, Yaping Zhao

    Silica aerogel was often reinforced with glass fiber and changed to hydrophobicity via a surface modification to overcome its fragile and hygroscopic nature for practical application. However, though the mechanical and hydrophobic performances of the silica aerogel were improved, its unique ultra-low thermal conductivity was compromised. In order to prepare the hydrophobic silica aerogel felt while maintaining its excellent mechanical and insulation performances, the tetraethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as co-precursors, glass fiber as felt, and silica gel as a filling agent were selected to make the felt. An approach of the two-step sol–gel process followed by supercritical CO2 drying was applied. The morphology, structure, and properties of the felt were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and a thermal constants analyzer, etc. It was found that the felt showed excellent mechanical, thermally insulating, and hydrophobic performance. Also, it maintained low density and had higher thermal stability, due to the addition of silica gel and MTMS in the felt. The former enhanced the combination of silica aerogel with glass fiber and improved the microstructure of the felt. The latter endowed the felt excellent hydrophobicity, flexibility, and thermal stability.

  • Correction to: Effective adsorptive performance of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core shell spheres for methylene blue: kinetics, isotherm and mechanism
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Fazle Subhan, Sobia Aslam, Zifeng Yan, Mawaz Khan, U. J. Etim, Muhammad Naeem

    The article Effective adsorptive performance of Fe3O4@SiO2 core shell spheres for methylene blue: kinetics, isotherm and mechanism, written by Fazle Subhan, Sobia Aslam, Zifeng Yan, Mawaz Khan, U. J. Etim, Muhammad Naeem was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 18 March 2019 with open access.. With the author(s)’ decision to step back from Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on April 2018 to © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of copyright.

  • The construction of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co)/LaMnO 3 with controllable gelation rate and their catalytic combustion properties
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Chao Ren, Zhihua Zhang, Renchun Yang

    The gelation rate of LaMnO3 colloid was successfully modulated by introducing trace of tartaric acid and nitric acid simultaneously to construct 3DOM LaMnO3. To enhance surface oxygen vacancies, Fe, Zn, Cu and Co metal oxides were introduced on the surface of 3DOM LaMnO3 to modulate their surface composition, respectively. The morphology, crystalline, composition and reducibility of the prepared catalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS and TPR, respectively. The results showed that the surface oxygen defects can be enhanced distinctly with the introduction of metal oxides. Among the four metal oxides modified LaMnO3, the Co/LaMnO3 sample exhibited highest oxygen defects content and lowest reduction temperature. The catalytic properties of the five samples follow as the order: LaMnO3 < Fe/LaMnO3 < Zn/LaMnO3 ≈ Cu/LaMnO3 < Co/LaMnO3, which is consisted with that of their surface oxygen vacancies content, indicating that oxygen vacancies content is a crucial factor on catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate.

  • Role of the type of grafting solvent and its removal process on APTES functionalization onto SBA-15 silica for CO 2 adsorption
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
    Jéssica de O. N. Ribeiro, Eduardo H. M. Nunes, Daniela C. L. Vasconcelos, Wander L. Vasconcelos, Jailton F. Nascimento, Wilson M. Grava, Peter W. J. Derks

    In this work, silica-based CO2 adsorbents were successfully prepared by the sol–gel method. These materials were chemically modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using the grafting technique. Two synthesis parameters were investigated in this study, namely the solvent used in the grafting step (toluene against ethanol) and the process employed for removing the solvent (filtration against evaporation). The influence of these parameters on pore structure, surface chemistry and CO2 capture performance were evaluated and discussed on the basis of a series of experimental tests, including FTIR, TG-MS, nitrogen adsorption tests, XRD, TEM and CO2 adsorption. The use of ethanol led to samples with a NH2 concentration of about 1.20 ± 0.05 mmol g−1. On the other hand, samples obtained using toluene showed amine concentrations two times higher than the specimens prepared with ethanol. Samples obtained by evaporation exhibited blocked pores and a low CO2 adsorption capacity when compared to those obtained by filtration. The sample prepared using toluene as the solvent and a filtration step displayed a CO2 adsorption capacity as high as 6.3 wt% at 30 °C and 1 bar.

  • Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of imidazole-functionalized Ag/MIL-101(Cr)
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Majid Hajibabaei, Mostafa M. Amini, Rezvan Zendehdel, Mohamad Javad Nasiri, Amir Peymani

    Nowadays, nanomaterials have rapidly developed as a new generation of antibacterial agents. However, high local aggregation and concentration, and possible toxicity due to excess leaching are disadvantages of nanoparticles. Unique features of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) such as coordinately unsaturated centers, high surface area and facile synthesis attracted attention to overcome the above-mentioned problems. In this context, Ag/MIL-101(Cr)/IMI was synthesized, and after characterization by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM–EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and BET surface area, TG–DTA was used as an antibacterial agent. Imidazole-functionalized Ag/MIL-101(Cr)/IMI presented a synergistic effect of imidazole and silver NPs against Escherichia coli (ATCC25292) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25293) bacteria. The best antibacterial activity as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 6.2 µg/mL and 24.78 µg/mL of silver content against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. There were 81 and 144.9 mg of Ag and imidazole per each gram of Ag/MIL-101(Cr)/IMI, which leaching rates of Ag, imidazole and Cr were 150, 828 and 153 µg/L, respectively. This leaching level of imidazole was lower than the amount recommended by Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) from NIOSH, while the leaching levels of silver NP and chromium is tended to be around the standard of WHO and U.S.EPA.

  • Degradation of tetracycline by a novel MIL-101(Fe)/TiO 2 composite with persulfate
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Lei He, Yaqin Zhang, Yane Zheng, Qingming Jia, Shaoyun Shan, Yanan Dong

    An effective catalyst of MIL-101(Fe)/TiO2 composite was synthesized by solvothermal method. The resultant MIL-101(Fe)/TiO2 was used for advanced oxidation degradation of tetracycline (TC) for the first time. The results indicated that the MIL-101(Fe)/TiO2 showed higher TC degradation efficiency than pure MIL-101(Fe) or TiO2 with the persulfate. Using 1 g L−1 MIL-101(Fe)/TiO2 and persulfate at pH 7, 90.15% degradation rate was achieved under xenon lamp irradiation in 5 min for 20 mg L−1 TC. TiO2 introduced in the composite played an important role in the degradation process, in which TiO2 had a synergetic effect with Fe3+ to generate Fe2+, Ti3+ and radicals. Fe2+ reacted with persulfate to produce Fe3+ and a number of ·OH to degrade TC. This reaction process was so fast that MIL-101(Fe)/TiO2 with persulfate could degrade TC fairly rapidly. A novel TiO2-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) composite was more efficient for degrading pharmaceutical wastewater.

  • MIL-101(Cr)/graphene hybrid aerogel used as a highly effective adsorbent for wastewater purification
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-18
    Pengchao Hou, Guangjian Xing, Dan Han, Yan Zhao, Gang Zhang, Hao Wang, Chang Zhao, Chunna Yu

    MIL-101(Cr)/graphene aerogel (MIL-101(Cr)/GA) was synthesized using a two-step synthesis and used as a high efficient adsorbent for wastewater purification. The as-prepared MIL-101(Cr)/GA was characterized using XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, XPS and FESEM to investigate its structure, composition and morphology. MIL-101(Cr)/GA exhibited a 3D interconnected macroporous framework comprised of graphene sheets, on which MIL-101(Cr) particles were dispersed uniformly. Dyes, organic solvents and oils were used to evaluate the adsorption performance of MIL-101(Cr)/GA, which exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity for both anionic methyl orange (331.5 mg g−1) and cationic rhodamine B (345.7 mg g−1) as well as 51–101 times its own weight of various solvents/oils. In addition, the MIL-101(Cr)/GA showed superior recycling stability for dyes and a rapid adsorption rate for solvents/oils. The excellent adsorption performance was attributed to a synergistic effect between MIL-101 and the graphene aerogel. The kinetic behavior for adsorption observed for MIL-101(Cr)/GA was well-fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. It is envisaged that MIL-101(Cr)/GA will be a promising adsorbent for the removal of pollutants and wastewater purification.

  • Tailoring porous carbon aerogels from bamboo cellulose fibers for high-performance supercapacitors
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Xi Yang, Xinge Liu, Min Cao, Yuxi Deng, Xianjun Li

    The synthesis and electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) application of hierarchical porous bio-carbons with micropores to macropores have attracted considerable attention due to the limited fuels and environmental issues. The dependence of EDLC performance on the microstructure, pore texture, electrical conductivity and surface functionality of porous carbon aerogels (PCAs) originating from bamboo cellulose, were investigated. The result demonstrates that the highest stability EDLC has excellent cycle life with 100% capacitance retention at 30,000th cycle, which is mainly attributed to a hierarchically porous structure of owning a large micropore volume and a small mean pore size instead of the highest specific surface area. The superior capacitance and rate capability are highly dependent on the surface area and pore volume of PCAs, which are improved by increasing both activation temperature and KOH mass. These results provide another view for developing renewable and high-stable supercapacitors based on porous carbon aerogels with a large micropore volume.

  • Water-glass based silica aerogel: unique nanostructured filler for epoxy nanocomposites
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    S. Salimian, A. Zadhoush

    Due to the unique properties such as 3-dimensional nanoporous structure and high surface area, silica aerogel is a promising candidate for replacing the conventional micron-sized silica to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy-based nanocomposites. In the present study, the water-glass based silica aerogel was first synthesized by the low-cost sodium silicate and cheap ambient pressure drying method and then used as the filler in the epoxy system. Finally, rheological and mechanical properties of the silica aerogel-epoxy nanocomposite were investigated. The introduction of silica aerogel powders impacted the rheological properties of epoxy dispersion and improved the mechanical performance of the corresponding nanocomposite. The dispersion microstructure has been characterized by its rheological properties and has been used to determine the critical silica aerogel weight fraction of the network formation (φ*) for the silica aerogel-epoxy dispersion. At the critical filler concentrations (φ*), the overall mobility of the polymer chains is restricted in both dispersion and solid nanocomposites. Therefore, the network structure and the interface surrounding nanoparticles increases and this results in an improvement of the mechanical properties. Mechanical tests showed improvements in flexural modulus and strength by ~ 80% and ~ 40% respectively as compared with those of pure epoxy. Based on this study, water-glass based silica aerogel hold great promise as a low-cost filler in polymer composite.

  • Synthesis of core–shell ZSM-5 zeolite with passivated external surface acidity by b-oriented thin silicalite-1 shell using a self-assembly process
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Dezhi Yi, Xin Xu, Xuan Meng, Naiwang Liu, Li Shi

    A core–shell HZSM-5@silicalite-1 zeolite coated with a relatively continuous b-oriented thin silicalite-1 shell has been synthesized by a self-assembly method of reversing the negative surface charge of ZSM-5 crystals before the secondary hydrothermal crystallization. The growth orientation of shell crystals is confirmed by electron microscopy technology. N2 adsorption–desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning transmission electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (STEM-EDS) measurements reveal that the core ZSM-5 crystals are coated with a relatively continuous monocrystal-thick silicalite-1 shell. The surface acidity analysis (Pyridine-FTIR and 2,4,6-collidine-FTIR) combined with the two probe chemical reactions using molecules that are either too large or adequately sized to access MFI pores has confirmed the passivation of external surface acid sites without hindering the intrinsic activity of the parent HZSM-5, which is consistent with the results from the electron microscopy and textural analysis.

  • Characterization and catalytic performance evaluation of a novel heterogeneous mesoporous catalyst for methanol–acetic acid esterification
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Veli Şimşek, Samet Şahin

    In this study, a novel heterogeneous catalyst based on silicotungstic acid (STA) has been synthesised using hydrothermal and wet-impregnation methods for methanol–acetic acid esterification. Active compound STA was loaded on MCM-48 support material to compose proposed catalysis. Tungsten (W) to silica (Si) molar ratios were set as 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Characterizations of MCM-48 and STA/MCM-48 catalysts were performed using BET, XRD, FT-IR, DRIFT, TGA/DTA, SEM, and EDX mapping analysis. Results showed successful synthesis of the novel catalyst with good thermal stability and formation of both Brønsted acid and Lewis acid sites. The catalytic activity was also investigated in methyl acetate esterification reaction and it was shown that temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of the reactants had significant effect on conversion rate. The highest catalytic activity was obtained as 84% with 20% catalyst at feed ratio of 1:3 (metanol:acetic acid, 353 K, 27 h).

  • Magnetic iron oxide modified MIL-101 composite as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for methylene blue degradation
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Huynh Thi Minh Thanh, Nguyen Thi Thanh Tu, Nguyen Phi Hung, Tran Ngoc Tuyen, Tran Xuan Mau, Dinh Quang Khieu

    In this study, a facile hydrothermal method was used to prepare Fe3O4/MIL-101 composite as a photocatalyst. The resulting composite was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The Fe3O4/MIL-101 composite possesses a large surface area and mesoporous structure and exhibits a good photocatalytic activity for the MB degradation in the visible light region. A kinetic model for dye degradation over this heterogeneous catalyst was proposed by combining the parameters of the Langmuir isotherms and the kinetics of the unimolecular reaction. The proposed model fixes well with the experimental data. The mechanism of MB photocatalytic degradation is also addressed. The catalyst is stable after three recycles, which makes it a potential candidate for environmental restoration.

  • Stable fluorinated 3D isoreticular nanotubular triazole MOFs: synthesis, characterization and CO 2 separation
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Sha Chen, Da-Wei Wang, Su-Juan Wang, Ji-Jun Jiang, Cheng-Yong Su

    Much of the efficient efforts have been largely devoted to enhancing the CO2 binding affinity in MOFs. In this paper, three isoreticular triazolate frameworks with the formula LIFM-1(TAZ).solvents, LIFM-1(MTAZ).solvents and LIFM-1(AmTAZ).solvents (TAZ = 1,2,4-triazole; MTAZ = 3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole; AmTAZ = 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole) have been prepared by using divalent zinc ions with the ligands of TAZ and its amino and methyl substituted derivatives for comparison of their sorption properties. High thermal stability and phase purity of the three MOFs were verified by thermogravimetric analysis and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. Single component adsorption isotherms of N2, CO2 and H2 were also measured experimentally. Virial method shows that the porous frameworks of LIFM-1(AmTAZ) display high selectivity of CO2 over N2.

  • A review on the taxonomy, factors associated with sound absorption and theoretical modeling of porous sound absorbing materials
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Kishor Kalauni, S. J. Pawar

    The sound is the pressure disturbance created over air particles above and below atmospheric pressure. It is a mechanical wave which requires a medium to propagate. The sound can generate from a source, then travels through a medium and finally is received by the receiver. The noise is an unpleasant or unwanted sound that is undesired by the receiver. This unwanted sound is absorbed by the sound absorbing (SA) materials. This paper presents a complete comprehensive literature survey for the SA materials and organized the information in the following manner. First, the phenomenon behind SA mechanism is being explained, then the detailed information of existing SA materials with their classification is reported. After that, the factors associated with the sound absorption that influences the sound absorption coefficient (SAC) is being presented. Finally, the theoretical models for porous materials are being discussed followed by the details of price comparison of natural and synthetic fiber-based sound absorbers and the applications of SA materials of various acoustical products. There are a lot of researches going on to develop new acoustic materials and hence this paper will help the researchers to know about the existing SA materials and also help them to develop new acoustic materials by considering significant information related to sound absorption.

  • CO 2 capture using amine incorporated UiO-66 in atmospheric pressure
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-22
    Suresh Mutyala, Ya-Dong Yu, Wei-Guang Jin, Zhi-Shuo Wang, Deng-Yue Zheng, Chun-Rong Ye, Binbin Luo

    Composite material, tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) incorporated UiO-66 was prepared by impregnation method to study CO2 capture in a fixed bed reactor, atmospheric pressure. All synthesized adsorbents were characterized using PXRD, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, FT-IR, TGA, SEM, and Elemental analysis. Characterization results have revealed that incorporated TEPA was present within pores of UiO-66. CO2 adsorption was higher on TEPA incorporated UiO-66 compared to UiO-66. It was due to the chemical interaction between –NH2 and CO2. High CO2 adsorption capacity 3.70 mmol g−1 was obtained on 30TEPA/UiO-66 at 75 °C, 1 bar. Because of more flexibility and high dispersive nature of TEPA at this temperature. The same CO2 adsorption capacity was obtained in each adsorption cycle without decomposition of the amine on 30TEPA/UiO-66. Avrami adsorption kinetic model has suggested adsorption of CO2 on composite material was chemical adsorption and deactivation model suggested an initial rate of adsorption was higher on TEPA incorporated UiO-66.

  • The preparation and photocatalytic activities of Z-scheme pillared composites composed of Zr-EDTA and 2D titanate nanosheets
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Dongya Sun, Zhenyong Lin, Shengfu Xiao, Qinwen Yin, Liwen He

    To fabricate mesoporous photocatalysts with delaminated structures, the exfoliated and layered titanate in an aqueous solution was reassembled in the presence of a Zr-EDTA complex suspension by using an exfoliation-restacking route. Powder X-ray diffraction and HR-TEM clearly revealed that the Zr-EDTA complexes were intercalated into the interlayer of titanate sheets, and the present nanocomposite possessed an enhanced specific surface area (~ 193 m2 g−1) with a diameter of 4.32 nm. The XPS and UV–Vis spectra showed interaction between the titanate nanosheets and the guest complex in the pillared system, where in the guest accepted and transported photo-generated carriers, and titanate nanosheets provided active reactive sites. The result nanohybrids exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation, as attributed to the expansion of the surface area, the narrowing of the band-gap, and an ohmic contact of Z-scheme between the guest and the host.

  • Microtubular carbon fibers derived from bamboo and wood as sustainable anodes for lithium and sodium ion batteries
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Xiang Zhang, Jingbo Hu, Xiaoyi Chen, Mei Zhang, Qinyuan Huang, Xiaoqing Du, Yuan Liu, Xianjun Li

    Herein, a brief and scalable strategy to convert bamboo and woods into uniform hollow cellulose fibers with micrometer-size through a simple delignification process in nitric acid solutions is presented. Next, these cellulose fibers are further transformed into individual microtubular carbon fibers by a carbonization treatment. The evolved carbon fibers show an amorphous organization, large interlayer distances (0.39–0.40 nm) and narrow pore size distributions (0–10 nm), consequently exhibit superior electrochemical performance (vs. Li/Li+) in comparison with practical graphite anode. A high reversible capacity of 435 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1, as well as competitive rate capacity (up to 150 mA h g−1 at 2 A g−1) and stability over long-term cycling (76% capacity retention at 500 mA g−1 after 500 cycles) is achieved. Furthermore, a majority of reversible capacity was delivered by these carbon fibers at an obvious low discharging-charging potential plateau (0–0.1 V) as lithium ion battery anodes. When the carbon fibers derived from bamboo and paulownia are tested vs. Na/Na+, reversible capacities of 320 and 302 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1 are delivered, respectively.

  • Facile template-free synthesis of hierarchically porous NiO hollow architectures with high-efficiency adsorptive removal of Congo red
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Hanmei Hu, Chonghai Deng, Mei Sun, Kehua Zhang, Man Wang, Jiayi Xu, Huirong Le

    Hierarchically porous NiO hollow architectures (HPHAs) were synthesized via a one-pot facile chemical bath deposition method and followed by a calcination process. The crystal structure, component and morphology of the products were characterized by various techniques. The results revealed that hierarchical architectures with hollow interior are composed of mesoporous NiO nanoflakes with thickness of about 8 nm. Interestingly, the as-synthesized NiO HPHAs have the unusual three-ordered porous features including a microscale hollow interior and two mesoscale pores which are attributed to the holes on the surface of nanoflakes with an average diameter of about 3.9 nm and the cavities on the wall of microsphere in the range of 20–40 nm in diameter formed by interconnecting nanoflakes. These comprehensive hierarchically porous structures are beneficial for the adsorption performance towards Congo red in water. The absorptive capacity over NiO HPHAs achieved about 1.8 and 4.0 times as high as that of the precursor β-Ni(OH)2 hollow microspheres (HSs) and the commercial activity carbon (AC) under the same conditions. The studies of adsorption kinetics illustrated that the adsorption behavior perfectly obeyed the pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption isotherm fits the Langmuir adsorption assumption well. The maximum adsorption capacities were calculated to be 490.2 mg g−1 according to the Langmuir equation, which is excellent result compared to NiO absorbents. The high-efficiency adsorption capacities for NiO HPHAs are attributed to the large specific surface area, the synergistic effect of micro-mesoporous structure and the electrostatic interaction of NiO with CR molecules. Additionally, NiO HPHAs can be easily renewed and has good chemical stability, indicating a great promising absorbent in the application for the removal of diazo organics in wastewater.

  • A wide range sensor of a 3D mesoporous silica coated QCM electrodes for the detection of volatile organic compounds
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Mohamad M. Ayad, Nagy L. Torad, Islam M. Minisy, Raja Izriq, El-Zeiny M. Ebeid

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode coated with high surface area mesoporous silica KIT-6 films was designed as a sensor for the detection of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as aliphatic alcohols, aliphatic amines, benzene and toluene at room temperature. A thin film of KIT-6 coating on Au-electrode of QCM was prepared by a simple drop-coating approach. The mesoporous silica KIT-6 was characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), low-angle X-ray difraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrocsopy (FT-IR) and N2 sorption isotherm. The frequency shifts (Δf) of the QCM coated with mesoporous silica KIT-6 films were measured as a function of time after injection of different VOCs vapors. Δfs were found to be increased linearly with the injected chemical vapor concentration. The results definitely showed an enhanced detection sensitivity and a fast response of the QCM sensor. The sensor showed an unusual high sensitivity and selectivity for amine compounds and the equilibrium was achieved within few seconds. The adsorption kinetics and relaxation time of methanol and ethanol vapors were carefully studied.

  • Efficient synthesis of high silica SSZ-13 zeolite via a steam-assisted crystallization process
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Yuping Li, Rui Liu, Qingping Guo, Huimin Bian, Aidong Lan, Xiaofeng Li, Peide Han, Tao Dou

    High silica SSZ-13 zeolite was synthesized by an efficient and green steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method under a low alkalinity and low organic templates amount system. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption–desorption, TG–DTG and NH3-TPD. The results showed that the SAC method can not only remarkably improve zeolite yield but also enhance the crystallization rate of SSZ-13 zeolite compare to conventional hydrothermal route. Meanwhile, it was also found that the various content of the organic structure directing agent (N,N,N-trimethyladamantammonium hydroxide, TMAdaOH) in the dry gel can adjust flexibly the crystal size, morphology and acidity of samples. The zeolite samples with smaller particles and more strong acidity amount were more likely obtained under the higher TMAdaOH/SiO2 ratio (0.2) condition. In addition, the catalytic evaluation in methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction showed that the high silica SSZ-13 catalysts synthesized by SAC method exhibited longer lifetime and comparative selectivity to ethylene and propene than those of the SSZ-13s obtained by conventional hydrothermal route. Thus, the SAC route is believed to be a competitive strategy to synthesize high silica SSZ-13 zeolites with improved MTO catalytic performance.

  • Effect of various synthesis parameters on styrene–divinylbenzene copolymer properties
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-04-27
    Vasu Chaudhary, Sweta Sharma

    Suspension polymerization technique was used to synthesize porous polystyrene polymer cross-linked with divinylbenzene. The effects of various synthesis parameters (amount of initiator, cross-linker and diluent, type of diluent and agitation speed) were evaluated for average particle size, particle size distribution and surface morphology. The results analyzed by SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR and sieving showed that average particle size decreases with increasing initiator amount. Optimum uniformity was obtained at low initiator amount and high cross-linker amount. The results also showed that type of diluent does not affect average particle size, while particle distribution and surface morphology were affected by agitation speed.

  • Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from water by adsorption on aluminum pillared clay
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Manisha Chauhan, Vipin K. Saini, Surindra Suthar

    The natural layered clay-based materials offer a sustainable approach for removal of emerging pollutants from the environment. Their low-capacity and poor-selectivity for pollutants often limit their uses. This limitation is addressed in this study with the help of Al-oxide pillaring approach. Here microporous aluminum-pillared clay (Al-PILC) was prepared from locally available Smectite clay (montmorillonite, MMT), by intercalation of Al-oxide pillars into the interlayer structure. The method increased the surface area of natural clay to 258 m2 g−1 and its porosity to 0.16 cm3 g−1. The adsorptive removal properties of prepared Al-PILC was evaluated on two selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) viz. amoxicillin (AMOX) and imipramine (IMP). The results of the removal of these PPCPs were compared as a function of contact time (0–180 min), solution pH (2–12), initial concentration (0–100 mg L−1), and temperature (298–318 K). The Al-PILC adsorbs 332% more IMP and 681% more AMOX as compared to natural clay, and the maximum adsorption amounts on Al-PILC follows the order IMP > AMOX with 59.8 and 7.7 mg g−1, respectively. The kinetics of adsorption of both AMOX and IMP follow pseudo-second-order model, with intraparticle diffusion as rate-determining step. The incorporated acidic sites in clay (in form of Al2O3 pillars) enhanced its adsorption properties. These sites interacted with protonated amine and –OH groups of AMOX and the tertiary amine group of IMP. The Al-PILC exhibit effective regeneration and was reused up to three consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. All in all, this study is expected to expand the application of Al-PILC on the adsorptive removal of the emerging pollutant from contaminated water.

  • Preparation and catalytic application of sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol-Al-pillared α-zirconium phosphate (SPV-AZP) hybrid material towards synthesis of 4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2(1H)-ones
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Dibyananda Majhi, Krishnendu Das, Ranjit Bariki, Payal Sahu, Y. P. Bhoi, B. G. Mishra

    In this study, a series of new hybrid catalysts were prepared by dispersing sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) in the porous matrix of Al-pillared α-zirconium phosphate. Initially, the α-zirconium phosphate (ZP) was prepared by reflux method, which was subsequently intercalated with [Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ cationic clusters to prepare Al-pillared α-zirconium phosphate (AZP). A significant improvement in interlayer space, surface area and porosity of the parent zirconium phosphate was noticed due to bilayer intercalation of Al137+ species into the interlayer region. The ZP and AZP materials were used as host lattice for dispersion of sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, TGA-DTA, FTIR, UV–Vis, TPD and XPS analytical techniques. The polymeric species were decorated as crystalline nanoparticles in the periphery of ZP particles, whereas they occurred in a well dispersed in the AZP lattice. TPD study revealed a significant improvement in the number of medium and strong acidic sites after dispersion of the SPVA polymer in the AZP matrix. The hybrid materials were used as efficient heterogeneous catalysts for multicomponent one pot synthesis of 4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2(1H)-ones by condensation of aryl aldehydes, ketones and urea using ethanol as solvent. Structurally diverse diarylpyrimidinones were synthesized in high yield and purity in a short span of time. The enhanced catalytic activity of the hybrid material has been ascribed to the well dispersion of the polymeric species and improved accessibility of the acidic sites due to expanded interlayer space of AZP material.

  • Catalytic decomposition of methane into hydrogen and carbon nanotubes over mesostructured silica nanoparticle-supported nickel catalysts
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Nur Shamimie Nadzwin Hasnan, Sharifah Najiha Timmiati, Manoj Pudukudy, Zahira Yaakob, Kean Long Lim, Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    Hydrogen is an alternative source of renewable energy that can be produced by methane decomposition without any COx formation. In this work, an impregnation method was used to prepare a set of Ni-based catalysts (5% to 50%) supported on mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for its application in methane decomposition. The use of MSN as an effective support for nickel in methane decomposition was reported here for the first time. The physical, chemical and structural properties of the catalysts was studied and the results indicated that NiO was the active species in the fresh catalyst that were effectively distributed on the mesoporous surface of MSN. The reduction temperature of Ni/MSN catalysts were shifted to low temperatures with increased loading of nickel. The hydrogen yield increased with the increment of Ni amount in the catalysts. The catalytic activity of the 50% Ni/MSN catalyst showed that this catalyst was highly efficient and stable compared with other catalysts. The catalyst showed the highest hydrogen yield of 68% and remained more or less the same during 360 min of reaction. Approximately 62% of hydrogen yield was observed at the end of reaction. Further analysis on the spent catalysts confirmed that carbon nanotubes was formed over Ni/MSN catalyst with high graphitization degree.

  • Fabrication of aluminum foam with complex shapes using pin screen mold and effect of arrangement of pins on its surface morphology
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Yoshihiko Hangai, Keita Takahashi, Ryohei Nagahiro, Kenji Amagai, Takao Utsunomiya, Nobuhiro Yoshikawa

    In this study, a pin screen mold was proposed for fabricating Al foam with complex shapes. A pin screen mold can easily form a complex surface simply by moving the pins upward and downward. First, the effect of the interval between the pins and the downward force against the heads of the pins on the surface morphology of the obtained Al foam was investigated. Little protrusion of the Al foam through the gaps between the pins was observed for the minimum interval between the pins even though a downward force was applied. The extent of protrusion increased as the interval between the pins increased, and this tendency became more apparent as the downward force increased. There is a limit to the interval between the pins for which the shape of the Al foam is retained without collapse. The porosities of the obtained Al foam were between 75 and 84% and the pores were homogeneously distributed in the obtained Al foam. Moreover, the star-shaped Al foam with homogeneously distributed pores was fabricated by preparing a pin screen mold with a star-shaped cavity. In addition, the Al foam with a star-shaped outline and homogeneously distributed pores was fabricated by preparing a star-shaped gap in the pin screen mold.

  • Oxidative desulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene over short titanate nanotubes: a non-classical shape selective catalysis
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Yue Yao, Miaoguo Zuo, Peipei Shao, Xiaoqiao Huang, Jianxin Li, Yongsheng Duan, Hualan Zhou, Lijun Yan, Shuxiang Lu

    A non-classical shape selective catalyst of short-H-TiNTs was synthesized by the hydrothermal method at 150 °C for 48 h and acid-assisted treatment of HCl solution (0.01–0.4 mol/L) The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption and Raman spectroscopy analyses, and their catalytic performances were studied in the presence of 1-octylene, methylbenzene, or cyclohexane in the model oil. These catalysts were able to remove almost all the sulfur-containing complex in diesel for 30 min with high selectivity, at 45 °C, n(H2O2) /n(4,6-DMDBT) molar ratio of 4, and v(oil)/v(methanol) = 1:1. And the improved catalytic active sites of Ti-η1-hydroperoxo complexes in short-H-TiNTs were supposed to the key reason of the high selectivity just like a shape selective catalyst.

  • Fabrication and characterization of Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 hybrid nanostructure and used its as photocatalyst for degradation of rhodamine B under visible light
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Guihong Zuo, Anqi Wang, Ying Yang, Hailiang Huang, Fangbiao Wang, Hongwei Jiang, Lei Zhang, Youjin Zheng

    Recently, Ag/AgCl has been widely researched by various methods and used as photocatalyst to degrade organic dyes due to its excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light. In this paper, a novel visible-light-driven plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 was successfully prepared by depositing AgCl nanoparticles into the ZIF-8 crystals, and then reducing partial Ag+ ions of AgCl nanoparticles to Ag0 species under UV light irradiation. All as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activity of all as-synthesized samples was evaluated by degradation RhB solution under visible light irradiation. The results show that AgCl nanoparticles are well dispersed and inlaid in the body of ZIF-8 crystals, and partial Ag+ ions of AgCl nanoparticles are reduced into Ag0 species after 30 min of UV light irradiation.The as-synthesized Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 keeps the high surface area of ZIF-8 and holds the excellent photo-properties of Ag/AgCl. The photocatalytic activity of all as-synthesized sample were evaluated by degradation RhB solution under visible light irradiation. Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 exhibited the highest photocatalystic activity, which could degrade 99.12% RhB. The synergistic effect of Ag/AgCl and ZIF-8 makes Ag/AgCl@ZIF-8 possible to be used for the degradation of organic dye by using sunlight.

  • Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 –reduced graphene oxide composite decorated with Ag nanoparticles as electrochemical sensor and self-cleaning material for organic pollutants
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Thomas Abraham, K. R. Rejil, Jaise Mariya George, Arun Antony, Suresh C. Pillai, Steven J. Hinder, Beena Mathew

    The successful synthesis of silver incorporated Fe3O4–rGO ternary nanocomposite for the accurate detection of toxic phenolic isomeric compounds by electrochemical sensing along with self-cleaning ability of photo degradation of the organic dirts is described in this paper. The salient feature of this work is the high sensitivity of the synthesized sensor up to the nanomolar level. The detection limit of the phenolic isomeric compounds such as hydroquinone and catechol are found to be 37.5 nM and 335.4 nM respectively. The synthesized nanohybrid possessing large surface area and mesoporosity also aims to the effective photodegradation of various industrial acidic and basic dyes which may impair electrochemical sensing nature. The photo degradation capacity of the ternary composite was studied and found that a high reduction percentage of above 95 is obtained for these toxic industrial dyes. The dual applications of the ternary nanohybrid as an efficient electrochemical sensor with better photocatalytic self-cleaning property opened a new platform in the various analytical and industrial fields.

  • Synthesis of hydrophobic silica aerogel and its composite using functional precursor
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Jiayue Zhang, Yong Kong, Xing Jiang, Ya Zhong, Ying Chen, Xiaodong Shen

    Hydrophobic silica aerogel (HSA) was synthesized by a facile sol–gel method and ambient pressure drying with methyltrimethoxysilane as precursor. The effect of precursor concentration on the sol–gel behavior, structure, and thermal conductivity of HSA was investigated. HSA with apparent density of 0.088 g/cm3 showed a thermal conductivity of 0.018 W/(m·K), a specific surface area of 502 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.66 cm3/g. The hydrophobic groups in HSA had a good thermal stability up to 450 °C. Polypropylene felt was used to synthesize hydrophobic silica aerogel composite (HSAC). The effect of sol loading on the structure and thermal conductivity of HSAC was investigated. HSAC with equivalent sol loading exhibited a low shrinkage of 2.5% and a low thermal conductivity of 0.020 W/(m·K). Finally, the preparation method of the HSA is facile and environmentally friendly, and the resulting composite is a promising candidate for thermal insulation under humid environments.

  • Synthesis of mesoporous α-Fe 2 O 3 nanostructures via nanocasting using MCM-41 and KIT-6 as hard templates for sensing volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    J. Porous Mater. (IF 1.947) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Meenakshi Dutt, Ayushi Kaushik, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Vaishali Singh

    The work describes the synthesis of mesoporous α-Fe2O3 using two different forms of mesoporous silica MCM-41 and KIT-6 as hard templates employing nanocasting technique. The structural features of fabricated mesoporous α-Fe2O3 were studied using small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface properties of the oxides with porous morphology were studied by N2 sorption isotherms and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mesoporous α-Fe2O3 oxides were then tested for detection of volatile organic compounds namely acetic acid, ethanol and formaldehyde. The α-Fe2O3 prepared from KIT-6 shows sensitivity of 45.21 towards acetic acid at temperature of 110 °C, much lower as compared to the temperatures reported in literature with short response and recovery times. The sensitivity obtained for acetic acid is over eight times higher than that for ethanol and formaldehyde making it a potentially selective sensor for acetic acid detection.

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上海纽约大学William Glover