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  • NIR-II Dye-Based Multifunctional Telechelic Glycopolymers for NIR-IIa Fluorescence Imaging-Guided Stimuli-Responsive Chemo-Photothermal Combination Therapy
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Shangyu Chen; Bo Sun; Han Miao; Gaina Wang; Pengfei Sun; Jiewei Li; Wenjun Wang; Quli Fan; Wei Huang
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • 更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Design Strategy for Robust Organic Semiconductor Laser Dyes
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Yuya Oyama; Masashi Mamada; Atul Shukla; Evan G. Moore; Shih-Chun Lo; Ebinazar B. Namdas; Chihaya Adachi
    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Observations of 3 nm Silk Nanofibrils Exfoliated from Natural Silkworm Silk Fibers
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Qi Wang; Shengjie Ling; Quanzhou Yao; Qunyang Li; Debo Hu; Qing Dai; David A. Weitz; David L. Kaplan; Markus J. Buehler; Yingying Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • High Spin Pro-Quinoid Benzo[1,2-c;4,5-c′]bisthiadiazole Conjugated Polymers for High-Performance Solution-Processable Polymer Thermoelectrics
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Teck Lip Dexter Tam; Gang Wu; Sheau Wei Chien; Shien Fuh Vincent Lim; Shuo-Wang Yang; Jianwei Xu
    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Effects of I2 on Cu2–xS Nanoparticles: Enabling Cation Exchange but Complicating Plasmonics
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Han K. D. Le; Huiyan Xiong; Bonnie A. Page; Luis F. Garcia-Herrera; Haley P. McAllister; Boxi Cameron Li; Haiying Wang; Katherine E. Plass
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Reductant-Activated, High-Coverage, Covalent Functionalization of 1T′-MoS2
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Ellen X. Yan; Miguel Cabán-Acevedo; Kimberly M. Papadantonakis; Bruce S. Brunschwig; Nathan S. Lewis
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Reducing Interfacial Resistance by Na-SiO2 Composite Anode for NASICON-Based Solid-State Sodium Battery
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Haoyu Fu; Qingyang Yin; Ying Huang; Huabin Sun; Yuwei Chen; Ruiqi Zhang; Qian Yu; Lian Gu; Jian Duan; Wei Luo
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Single Crystals: The Next Big Wave of Perovskite Optoelectronics
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Banavoth Murali; Hema Kumari Kolli; Jun Yin; Ravi Ketavath; Osman M. Bakr; Omar F. Mohammed

    Contemporary advancements in perovskite semiconductors are visibly impacting the progress of light conversion applications. These alluring photo absorbers have gained wide consideration owing to their simple processing and striking optoelectronic properties. Although polycrystalline perovskite thin films exhibit phenomenal performance in energy harvesting devices, they suffer from severe instabilities arising from morphological disorder and surface degradation under ambient conditions. Recent progress in perovskite single-crystals, which in theory should outperform their polycrystalline thin film counterparts, has been demonstrated to surmount these challenges due to the exceptional optoelectronic properties, such as low trap density, high mobility, low intrinsic carrier concentration and long carrier diffusion length. However, most of the growth approaches used for single-crystal syntheses produce very thick crystals and subsequently, the related optoelectronic applications are very limited. The potential of perovskite single-crystals to break a new path for optoelectronic devices, relies understanding sustainable issues arising from interfacial/integration losses and developing passivation strategies to achieve performance parity in open ambient. Therefore, the current review provides a comprehensive overview of the advantages, limitations, and challenges associated with growth methods of single-crystals and their chemical stability, device configurations, photophysics, charge carrier dynamics and photovoltaic applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Si-Based Water Oxidation Photoanodes Conjugated with Earth-Abundant Transition Metal-Based Catalysts
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Sol A Lee; Seokhoon Choi; Changyeon Kim; Jin Wook Yang; Soo Young Kim; Ho Won Jang
    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A Dense-Shell Macromolecular Scaffold for Catalyst- or Substrate-Guided Catalysis in a Cellular Environment
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Qing Lu, Silei Bai, Zhiyong Chen, Nan Zheng, Xinxin Feng, Yugang Bai
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Rational Design of Quasi-Zero-Strain NCM Cathode Materials for Minimizing Volume Change Effects in All-Solid-State Batteries
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Florian Strauss, Lea de Biasi, A-Young Kim, Jonas Hertle, Simon Schweidler, Jürgen Janek, Pascal Hartmann, Torsten Brezesinski
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Formation of Supraparticles and Their Application in Catalysis
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Ke Hou, Jianyu Han, Zhiyong Tang
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Chemical Lift-Off Lithography of Metal and Semiconductor Surfaces
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Kevin M. Cheung, Dominik M. Stemer, Chuanzhen Zhao, Thomas D. Young, Jason N. Belling, Anne M. Andrews, Paul S. Weiss
    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Crystal Synthesis and Frustrated Magnetism in Triangular Lattice CsRESe2 (RE = La–Lu): Quantum Spin Liquid Candidates CsCeSe2 and CsYbSe2
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Jie Xing, Liurukara D. Sanjeewa, Jungsoo Kim, G. R. Stewart, Mao-Hua Du, Fernando A. Reboredo, Radu Custelcean, Athena S. Sefat
    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • MXetronics: MXene-Enabled Electronic and Photonic Devices
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Hyunho Kim, Husam N. Alshareef
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • 更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Rigid Ladder-Type Porous Polymer Networks for Entropically Favorable Gas Adsorption
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Sai Che, Jiandong Pang, Alexander J. Kalin, Chenxu Wang, Xiaozhou Ji, Jongbok Lee, Dylan Cole, Jia-Luo Li, Xinman Tu, Qiang Zhang, Hong-Cai Zhou, Lei Fang
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Two-Dimensional Hierarchical Fe–N–C Electrocatalyst for Zn-Air Batteries with Ultrahigh Specific Capacity
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Ruilin Yuan, Wentuan Bi, Tianpei Zhou, Nan Zhang, Cheng’an Zhong, Wangsheng Chu, Wensheng Yan, Qian Xu, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Pentacyclic Ladder-Heteraborin Emitters Exhibiting High-Efficiency Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence with an Ultrashort Emission Lifetime
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Tomohiro Agou, Kyohei Matsuo, Rei Kawano, In Seob Park, Takaaki Hosoya, Hiroki Fukumoto, Toshio Kubota, Yoshiyuki Mizuhata, Norihiro Tokitoh, Takuma Yasuda
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Large Polaron Self-Trapped States in Three-Dimensional Metal-Halide Perovskites
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Walter P. D. Wong, Jun Yin, Bhumika Chaudhary, Xin Yu Chin, Daniele Cortecchia, Shu-Zee A. Lo, Andrew C. Grimsdale, Omar F. Mohammed, Guglielmo Lanzani, Cesare Soci
    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • 更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Self-Extinguishing Additive Manufacturing Filament from a Unique Combination of Polylactic Acid and a Polyelectrolyte Complex
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Thomas J. Kolibaba, Chin-Cheng Shih, Simone Lazar, Bruce L. Tai, Jaime C. Grunlan
    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Constructing a Phosphating–Nitriding Interface for Practically Used Lithium Metal Anode
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Siyuan Li, Qilei Liu, Xinyang Wang, Qian Wu, Lei Fan, Weidong Zhang, Zeyu Shen, Linyan Wang, Min Ling, Yingying Lu
    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Halide Perovskite High-k Field Effect Transistors with Dynamically Reconfigurable Ambipolarity
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Noelia Devesa Canicoba, Nicolò Zagni, Fangze Liu, Gary McCuistian, Kasun Fernando, Hugo Bellezza, Boubacar Traoré, Regis Rogel, Hsinhan Tsai, Laurent Le Brizoual, Wanyi Nie, Jared J. Crochet, Sergei Tretiak, Claudine Katan, Jacky Even, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Bruce W. Alphenaar, Jean-Christophe Blancon, Muhammad Ashraf Alam, Aditya D. Mohite
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Programming Accessibility of DNA Monolayers for Degradation-Free Whole-Blood Biosensors
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Mengying Deng, Min Li, Fan Li, Xiuhai Mao, Qian Li, Jianlei Shen, Chunhai Fan, Xiaolei Zuo
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Photon Upconversion from Near-Infrared to Blue Light with TIPS-Anthracene as an Efficient Triplet–Triplet Annihilator
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Naoyuki Nishimura, Victor Gray, Jesse R. Allardice, Zhilong Zhang, Anton Pershin, David Beljonne, Akshay Rao
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Direct Quantification of Cu Vacancies and Spatial Localization of Surface Plasmon Resonances in Copper Phosphide Nanocrystals
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Giovanni Bertoni, Quentin Ramasse, Rosaria Brescia, Luca De Trizio, Francesco De Donato, Liberato Manna
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Electrically Mediated Membrane Pore Gating via Grafted Polymer Brushes
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Chia Miang Khor, Xiaobo Zhu, Marco S. Messina, Sidney Poon, Xuan Yu Lew, Heather D. Maynard, David Jassby
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Chabazite Zeolite SAPO-34 Membranes for He/CH4 Separation
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Shurraya Denning, Jolie Lucero, Carolyn A. Koh, Moises A. Carreon
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • A New Superionic Plastic Polymorph of the Na+ Conductor Na3PS4
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Theodosios Famprikis, James A. Dawson, François Fauth, Oliver Clemens, Emmanuelle Suard, Benoit Fleutot, Matthieu Courty, Jean-Noël Chotard, M. Saiful Islam, Christian Masquelier
    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Selective Lithiation–Expansion–Microexplosion Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Fluoride-Free Mxene
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Zemin Sun, Mengwei Yuan, Liu Lin, Han Yang, Caiyun Nan, Huifeng Li, Genban Sun, Xiaojing Yang
    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Substituent Regulation Improves Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution of Conjugated Polyelectrolytes
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Yichen Wu, Xi Zhang, Yetong Xing, Zhicheng Hu, Haoran Tang, Wei Luo, Fei Huang, Yong Cao
    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Aggregation-Induced Delayed Fluorescence Luminogens with Accelerated Reverse Intersystem Crossing for High-Performance OLEDs
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Jingwen Xu, Xiangyu Zhu, Jingjing Guo, Jianzhong Fan, Jiajie Zeng, Shuming Chen, Zujin Zhao, Ben Zhong Tang
    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Star Brush Block Copolymer Electrolytes with High Ambient-Temperature Ionic Conductivity for Quasi-Solid-State Lithium Batteries
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Tianyun Guan, Sijia Qian, Yakun Guo, Fangyi Cheng, Wangqing Zhang, Jun Chen
    更新日期:2019-10-29
  • Carboxylic Acid Functionalization Yields Solvent-Resistant Organic Electrochemical Transistors
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Brian V. Khau, Lisa R. Savagian, Michel De Keersmaecker, Miguel A. Gonzalez, Elsa Reichmanis
    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Bulk Assembly of Zero-Dimensional Organic Lead Bromide Hybrid with Efficient Blue Emission
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Haoran Lin, Chenkun Zhou, Maya Chaaban, Liang-Jin Xu, Yan Zhou, Jennifer Neu, Michael Worku, Ella Berkwits, Qingquan He, Sujin Lee, Xinsong Lin, Theo Siegrist, Mao-Hua Du, Biwu Ma
    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Mesogens with Aggregation-Induced Emission Formed by Hydrogen Bonding
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Marco Saccone, Meik Blanke, Constantin G. Daniliuc, Heikki Rekola, Jacqueline Stelzer, Arri Priimagi, Jens Voskuhl, Michael Giese
    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Realizing High Refractive Index Thiol-X Materials: A General and Scalable Synthetic Approach
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Marvin D. Alim, Sudheendran Mavila, David B. Miller, Sijia Huang, Maciej Podgórski, Lewis M. Cox, Amy C. Sullivan, Robert R. McLeod, Christopher N. Bowman
    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • An Ordered P2/P3 Composite Layered Oxide Cathode with Long Cycle Life in Sodium-Ion Batteries
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Muhammad Mominur Rahman, Jing Mao, Wang Hay Kan, Cheng-Jun Sun, Luxi Li, Yan Zhang, Maxim Avdeev, Xi-Wen Du, Feng Lin
    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Small-Molecule Sequestration Using Aptamer-Functionalized Membranes
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Misael A. Romero-Reyes, Jennifer M. Heemstra
    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Interview with Professor Susumu Kitagawa
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Bin Liu

    Susumu Kitagawa is a famous Japanese chemist working in the field of coordination chemistry, with a special focus on the development of porous coordination polymers (PCPs), also known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). He is currently a Distinguished Professor and the Director of Kyoto University’s Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS). He discovered the porosity of coordination polymers (PCPs), which can not only accommodate gas molecules with high selectivity in the lattice structure but also enable nanomodulated reactions in the confined space. This July, I (L.B.) visited him (S.K.) in Kyoto and had an opportunity to discuss, one-on-one, his vision of the future of the field of nanoporous materials and his curiosity about science. L.B.: What drives you to be so interested in MOF? S.K.: I have to tell you this interesting story. When I was a student, I read a very interesting book titled The World of Genius, written by Nobel Laureate Professor Hideki Yukawa, a physicist. I was very impressed by the thoughts of an ancient Chinese philosopher Chuang Tsu in this book. In particular, what attracted me strongly is the notion, “the usefulness of useless”. Currently, most researchers focus on building so-called useful materials and publish many papers about them. However, the concept “the usefulness of useless” reminded me to explore some seemingly “useless” topics, for instance, porous structures. In the 1980s and early 1990s, the creation of solid functional materials using organic molecules was a hot goal, inspired by the high electrical conductivity and ferromagnetic properties of inorganic materials, such as metal oxides. Coordination network structures built up by the bonding of metal ions and organic molecules were considered the optimal path for electrical conduction and spin–spin interaction. Studying the pores seemed to be useless because most people were focusing on dense structures for functional solid-state materials. In order to obtain thermodynamically stable structures, people needed to have a dense structure as well. However, we envisioned that the space could be useful for the confinement, recognition, transport, and conversion of ions and molecules. Therefore, we focused on porous structures. At that time, it was common sense that organic materials could not make a stable porous structure. People thought we were doing “useless” research because they did not realize the potential of the seemingly trivial space inside the pores. Here in Kyoto University, we have a very strong trend in choosing scientific research topics—always find something that nobody could think of, nobody cares about, and try to open up a whole new field. In other words, this is the same as the concept of “the usefulness of useless”. L.B.: What is the new trend of MOF? S.K.: The fourth generation of MOFs. The concept of PCPs or MOFs was first introduced in the late 1990s for metal complex materials composed of organic molecules and inorganic metal ions. There were several important steps in the development of organic ligand-bridged coordination networks. The first generation lacks permanent porosity because of the unstable or highly dense structures. The noteworthy progression in the materials is the discovery of a stable porous structure comparable to that of zeolites, which currently we call PCP or MOF. At that time, I classified them as second generation materials. After the emergence, researchers were largely interested in topology of the spatial structure, porous surface area, and porosity. For the sake of consistency, I will refer to these materials as MOFs. The key of the third generation MOFs was to endow flexibilities in both porous and electronic structures to the materials. The functionality of the third generation MOFs has been greatly expanded to achieve broader impacts in applications, such as gas storage and separation, catalysis, as well as sensing. The keywords of the fourth generation materials are hybridization/hierarchy, asymmetry/anisotropy, and defects/disorder. The porous structures have been developed with even more complexity with diverse properties that could be altered by factors including the hierarchy and hybridization of materials, creating the anisotropy, controlling the number and nature of any defects and disorder in addition to the porous properties. For example, what is interesting is the discovery of phase transition from the common crystalline solid phase to liquid or amorphous phase in MOFs. Chemistry with signs of these attributes has been developed. L.B.: What is your journey in the MOF field? S.K.: It is a tough journey with a happy end. I founded the basic and applied chemistry of the functional spatial structure created by coordination bonds and named it “chemistry of the coordination space”. In Japan, I tried to get big funding in order to expand the chemistry. I submitted many research proposals about MOF materials in early days. One day, I was invited for a proposal interview, and I was very excited. However, it turned out all the judges thought our materials were unstable and useless. I was kicked out. Then, I started to reflect, why was that? The reason was, at that time, people were more fascinated about the stability of zeolites as a robust inorganic material. Therefore, I had to show the competency and advantages of our organic molecule-based materials and compare them with zeolites. That was challenging. However, since many researchers around the world were already involved in this chemistry, it was a matter of time to recognize that MOF is a stable and applicable porous material. I still couldn’t wipe off the feeling that this second generation (2G) MOF was not widely enough to be accepted as a new material. I asked to myself, “what is good about MOF?” As long as we stick to 2G MOF, we will not find any unique features. Then, I rediscovered that MOF is made of organic molecules and metal ions, and thus, I thought that MOF could possess a flexible structure. This is unique and interesting as porous materials because it occurs even in a crystalline state. I predicted the existence of flexible MOF, the third generation (3G), in a review article (1998). Soon after flexible MOFs were reported by several researchers including myself, many research groups are working on the 3G MOFs, currently I call them soft porous crystals. But, this is not enough. As mentioned, to achieve both the structural stability and flexibility, as well as the high capacity in applications, we need to have the control over hierarchy and hybridization, phase transition from solid crystalline to liquid and amorphous, defects and disorders. Therefore, the current trend of 4G MOFs is ramping up. If we can control it, we will have the fundamental understandings regarding the methodologies to handle MOF materials, and subsequently, open up new research fields. Most importantly, we will be able to invite more people from diverse fields, such as biologists, physicists and so on to empower the applications of 2–4G MOFs. L.B.: I heard that you had very difficult times when you brought up the concept of PCPs. How did you overcome the barrier? S.K.: It is a long story. To me, 50 is a magic age. Before my age of 50s, my research was not recognized in all the areas of chemistry, and I did not even receive any big research funds. I strongly believe that if we invent something which draws the attention and interests of researchers, a new field will grow. In 1997, when I was 46, I published the first paper on robust MOF without any recognition. Hereafter, I was quickly accepted by the chemistry community because of our research on MOFs. Globally, many researchers followed this chemistry because of its simplicity. After my age of 50s, I received quite a lot of research funding. During my difficult time, I was grateful for the funding from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). I got financial support from JSPS that wasn’t enough but enough to do my research. The JSPS funding supported me continuously such that I could constantly pursue what I believed and what I wanted to achieve. Luckily, after I got bigger achievements and more good publications, naturally I won bigger funds to support our research. The funding agency was later changed from JSPS to Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). L.B.: What makes you so successful in your career? S.K.: The most important trait is teamwork and people management skills. This is very important in Japan. Back then, we only had assistant and associate professors, and we didn’t have the funding system to hire fulltime postdocs or researchers. PhD students were also supported by their parents. With this kind of limited human resources, teamwork means all the members must see the value of what we are doing and work hard towards the same goal to achieve something. It was not easy to convince other people to join the team. Let me tell you why I can manage and organize people well. After I got my PhD degree from Kyoto University, I started my academic career in Kindai University in Osaka, in which I stayed for 13 years. In the private university, I had a tough time in doing research. The research facility was not very good, and to make it worse, I had many teaching duties and miscellaneous matters related to department management. I was doing experiments, writing papers, and teaching 13 undergraduates at the same time, which was a very hard time for me. This was my working norm in the private university. Then I moved to Tokyo Metropolitan University, not a national university but a municipal university. The number of students was even smaller, and there were several students in my laboratory who had a mind of independence. I learned a lot to make a teamwork when I tried to manage these students. Later, I moved back to Kyoto University, where most of the students were very smart but not so obedient. Nevertheless, over the years in Kyoto University, I have built a very strong team by persuading many good students, postdocs, and scholars to work together to achieve excellent results. I experienced different university cultures, from private, municipal to national university, and this enriched my body and soul in my researcher life. I had accumulated much management know-how for laboratory management, binding professors and conducting research toward a common target, in addition to teaching experiences. That was very beneficial and valuable to my later career. L.B.: What makes you a good leader in research? S.K.: To be a good leader, vision is very important. In academic research, a good leader is someone who can do excellent research with a clear and fantastic vision. My case is very simple—I do good fundamental chemistry research and I am interested in exploring the unnoticed direction that will potentially bring high value to the society. In my group, my vision is to create new functions from the assembly of molecules. It is not something super fancy, but I hope people can understand it and be focused on discovering new things with intellectual freedom. Do you know how many proteins are there in your body? Numerous. If you take a closer look at proteins, there are only 20 amino acids. That means you do not always need to synthesize new molecules. Of course, synthetic chemistry is also an important research topic, but in my group, you do not need to create new molecules, we just assemble ordinary molecules and ions, to create new structures and functions. Toward this goal, we will achieve functional space chemistry utilizing coordination bonds. We make our life very simple and we stay focused. L.B.: In addition to teamwork and great vision, what else is important for a successful career? S.K.: You need to be very patient, and you must never give up. Particularly, at my age of 40s, I discovered porous materials. When I was 47, I published the first MOF paper. At that time, there was no one in the chemistry community for me to share the excitement of what I discovered with porous materials. No one cared about this type of research because they all thought organic materials were very unstable and useless. In those early days, I had many discouraging moments. I attended a Gordon conference, my colleagues told me that people in the conference were very friendly and for sure I would enjoy it. However, after I finished my presentation, several people raised their hands and asked questions to doubt the results and, moreover, at breakfast the next day, came to my table to express their opposition. After many years, I could still remember those people who were strongly against my chemistry. This kind of experience was very discouraging for me, but I was extremely patient and I never gave up. Gradually, people started to follow us to synthesize porous materials, and it worked perfectly well for them, which let them believe this is indeed decent and elegant chemistry. Therefore, after my age of 50, the trend of MOF ramped up. Then I published my first Science paper in 2002, when I was 51, where I demonstrated regular oxygen molecular arrays confined in one-dimensional nanochannels using an MOF crystal. Until then, there have been few examples of X-ray single crystal-structure analysis showing the regular assembly structure of gas molecules occluded into the nanospace. This is realized for the first time using MOF instead of zeolite or activated carbon. After that, I submitted grant proposals and I was able to get grants more easily comparing with the old days. I got more and more big grants with publications in top journals. Before my age of 50s, I never expected that I could publish in top journals one after another. Besides patience, collaboration is very important. For instance, in that 2002 Science paper, I collaborated with physicists, not chemists. Physicists offered me great help because they can assemble equipment according to our purpose, model the core structures with their theory, and measure magnetic properties. I think this paper is the first in-situ observation X-ray diffraction experiment of MOF using synchrotron radiation facilities in SPring-8, by which we obtained dynamic observation of oxygen adsorption. Through such interdisciplinary collaborations, I could get very beautiful data from completely different angle of views. L.B.: How did you attract and, more importantly, motivate your students for great research discovery? S.K.: In Japan, as a director, a group leader, I have to work as a role model to the young people. To convince students to work with me, usually I do not need to advertise, as we do good research and obtain good results; good students would naturally come to my group. I can publish excellent chemistry with new concepts in high quality papers, which is the dream of every researcher—they want to pioneer a certain academic field and become a leader, and for the purpose, to publish good papers in top journals. When they join my group, it means they should have exactly the same target—to create new materials and generate novel concepts and theory. Therefore, it was not so difficult to convince students to work with me. For me, top students in Kyoto University are not those who get high scores in classes. They are those very active ones with huge curiosity and great motivation. This is my standard of top students, in particular, who is suitable for research. I often give appreciations to my students if they discover something interesting, not only during one-to-one sessions, but also in front of many people. I praise them in the public, so that all the rest will work very hard because they want the same appraisal. I do not want to be the emperor to let everyone fear me, which is not productive. I want to encourage my students to do research with independent thinking, design and prepare new material with a clear target, and then, a novel concept will follow them. L.B.: It looks like peer pressure to me, does it work all the time? S.K.: Maybe it works only in Japan. In the global academic system, professors or universities often pay for PhDs and Postdoctoral Fellows. But in our system decades ago, we could barely support or pay anything to our students, and we could also not hire postdocs. At that time, researchers need to manage their lives by themselves. Only those with real curiosity towards scientific research will be aspired to pursue this path. With a good vision, I was able to push and support my team to achieve our common goals. Now, we follow the US and European system. We pay the salary of postdocs and sometimes students, and it becomes the relationship between employer and employee. Now several students in a laboratory tend to always say that I do this or that is because my professor told me to do, but not out of their own curiosity. I really wish young researchers and students focus on what interests them. I really enjoy working with researchers who think about nothing else but simply driven by curiosity of science. L.B.: As a prolific scientist, would you like to share with young researchers on how to publish and what to publish? S.K.: Maybe I can share some stories on manuscript writing. It takes a long time for anyone to pick up good scientific writing skills. In my laboratory, writing drafts is of utmost importance. My rule is, if a person writes a draft, he/she can get the first authorship, no matter whether he/she is a student, postdoc, or assistant professor. Students will then have motivations to write papers. Motivation to write papers is not enough. You need to continuously practice and learn from constructive feedback. The first draft from a student is usually of bad quality. I just quickly browse through and reject it with several general comments and suggestions. The second time, I will still reject it but with more detailed comments. Going to the third time, the quality would usually be decent. At most, we could have 20–25 revisions of a single manuscript. From my point of view, manuscript revision is one of the most crucial steps in the process of publications. After students submit drafts to professors, many professors take several weeks or even longer to feedback until the students get disappointed and discouraged. In my case, I am always on time, meaning that after they submit the draft to me, I will give feedback the next day. How can I do this? I live in suburbs of Osaka next to Kyoto city. I commute by trains every day. It takes me 1 h for a one-way trip from the station near by my house to that of university every day. The key is not to use express train but a local one. Usually I can get a seat on the train, and I will utilize my time on the train to revise the manuscripts. I like to commute by trains. Many professors like driving, but I think driving is a waste of time. Everyday there are traffic jams, and you get nothing to do but to listen to music, that’s too bad. L.B.: Being a professor, what do you enjoy the most? S.K.: My hobbies are walking and riding bicycles. While doing that, I can not only come up with good ideas in research but also find solutions for difficult problems in the director’s job. I also like to drink wine. I enjoy drinking with my staffs and students. Often, I am very busy but will make efforts to find opportunities to discuss individually with group members. This kind of flat organizational structure is very important. Flat means I directly interact with every one of my students, postdocs, and the assistant professors. I treat everybody, male or female, the same with no bias. During daytime, I do not have time to educate my students with different skills, such as public speaking. So at night, during drinking time or when we have a party, we will set up a speech stand, where I ask all the group members to stand up and say something. That is very important. Most students have no experience speaking in front of many people. The first time they join my group, they might be shy and only talk for less than 20 seconds. One year later after the training, they can speak 20 min or even longer. This kind of skills are important for their future interviews in both academia and industry. Views expressed in this editorial are those of the author and not necessarily the views of the ACS. This article has not yet been cited by other publications.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
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    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-09
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  • Impact of Oxygen on the Electronic Structure of Triple-Cation Halide Perovskites
    ACS Mater. Lett. Pub Date : 2019-10-07
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    更新日期:2019-10-25
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