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  • Emergent flat band electronic structure in a VSe 2 /Bi 2 Se 3 heterostructure
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Turgut Yilmaz; Xiao Tong; Zhongwei Dai; Jerzy T. Sadowski; Eike F. Schwier; Kenya Shimada; Sooyeon Hwang; Kim Kisslinger; Konstantine Kaznatcheev; Elio Vescovo; Boris Sinkovic

    Flat band electronic states are proposed to be a fundamental tool to achieve various quantum states of matter at higher temperatures due to the enhanced electronic correlations. However, materials with such peculiar electronic states are rare and often rely on subtle properties of the band structures. Here, by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show the emergent flat band in a VSe2

  • Extended gate field-effect-transistor for sensing cortisol stress hormone
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Shokoofeh Sheibani; Luca Capua; Sadegh Kamaei; Sayedeh Shirin Afyouni Akbari; Junrui Zhang; Hoel Guerin; Adrian M. Ionescu

    Cortisol is a hormone released in response to stress and is a major glucocorticoid produced by adrenal glands. Here, we report a wearable sensory electronic chip using label-free detection, based on a platinum/graphene aptamer extended gate field effect transistor (EG-FET) for the recognition of cortisol in biological buffers within the Debye screening length. The device shows promising experimental

  • Formation and annihilation of stressed deformation twins in magnesium
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Karim Louca; Hamidreza Abdolvand; Charles Mareau; Marta Majkut; Jonathan Wright

    The mechanical response of polycrystalline materials to an externally applied load and their in-service performance depend on the local load partitioning among the constituent crystals. In hexagonal close-packed polycrystals such load partitioning is significantly affected by deformation twinning. Here we report in-situ compression-tension experiments conducted on magnesium specimens to measure the

  • Stretchable micro-scale concentrator photovoltaic module with 15.4% efficiency for three-dimensional curved surfaces
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Daisuke Sato; Taizo Masuda; Kenji Araki; Masafumi Yamaguchi; Kenichi Okumura; Akinori Sato; Ryota Tomizawa; Noboru Yamada

    Stretchable photovoltaics are emerging power sources for collapsible electronics, biomedical devices, and buildings and vehicles with curved surfaces. Development of stretchable photovoltaics are crucial to achieve rapid growth of the future photovoltaic market. However, owing to their rigidity, existing thin-film solar cells based predominantly on silicon, compound semiconductors, and perovskites

  • Flexible organic thin-film transistor immunosensor printed on a one-micron-thick film
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Tsukuru Minamiki; Tsuyoshi Minami; Yi-Pu Chen; Taisei Mano; Yasunori Takeda; Kenjiro Fukuda; Shizuo Tokito

    Flexible and printed biosensor devices can be used in wearable and disposable sensing systems for the daily management of health conditions. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are promising candidates for constructing such systems. Moreover, the integration of organic electronic materials and biosensors is of extreme interest owing to their mechanical and chemical features. To this end, the molecular

  • Pressure-induced Anderson-Mott transition in elemental tellurium
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Jaime F. Oliveira; Magda B. Fontes; Marcus Moutinho; Stephen E. Rowley; Elisa Baggio-Saitovitch; Marcello B. Silva Neto; Carsten Enderlein

    Elemental tellurium is a small band-gap semiconductor, which is always p-doped due to the natural occurrence of vacancies. Its chiral non-centrosymmetric structure, characterized by helical chains arranged in a triangular lattice, and the presence of a spin-polarized Fermi surface, render tellurium a promising candidate for future applications. Here, we use a theoretical framework, appropriate for

  • Interaction of edge exciton polaritons with engineered defects in the hyperbolic material Bi 2 Se 3
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Robin Lingstädt; Nahid Talebi; Mario Hentschel; Soudabeh Mashhadi; Bruno Gompf; Marko Burghard; Harald Giessen; Peter A. van Aken

    Hyperbolic materials exhibit unique properties that enable intriguing applications in nanophotonics. The topological insulator Bi2Se3 represents a natural hyperbolic optical medium, both in the THz and visible range. Here, using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we demonstrate that Bi2Se3 supports room-temperature exciton polaritons and explore the behavior of

  • Microstructural degradation during the storage of biomass pellets
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Luis Cutz; Urša Tiringer; Hamid Gilvari; Dingena Schott; Arjan Mol; Wiebren de Jong

    The use of biomass pellets as a source of renewable energy has increased in recent times. However, pellet storage during transportation can compromise their properties, due to fluctuating temperature and humid environments. Here, we show that extended storage of one month at 40 °C and 85% relative humidity causes significant biomass pellet degradation. This was evidenced by higher pellet porosity,

  • Moisture resistance in perovskite solar cells attributed to a water-splitting layer
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Min Kim; Antonio Alfano; Giovanni Perotto; Michele Serri; Nicola Dengo; Alessandro Mezzetti; Silvia Gross; Mirko Prato; Marco Salerno; Antonio Rizzo; Roberto Sorrentino; Enrico Cescon; Gaudenzio Meneghesso; Fabio Di Fonzo; Annamaria Petrozza; Teresa Gatti; Francesco Lamberti

    Commercialization of lead halide perovskite-based devices is hindered by their instability towards environmental conditions. In particular, water promotes fast decomposition, leading to a drastic decrease in device performance. Integrating water-splitting active species within ancillary layers to the perovskite absorber might be a solution to this, as they could convert incoming water into oxygen and

  • Shaping and silane coating of a diamine-grafted metal-organic framework for improved CO 2 capture
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Jong Hyeak Choe; Jeoung Ryul Park; Yun Seok Chae; Dae Won Kim; Doo San Choi; Hyojin Kim; Minjung Kang; Hwimin Seo; Yong-Ki Park; Chang Seop Hong

    Although metal-organic framework (MOF) powders can be successfully shaped by conventional methods, postsynthetic functionalization of the shaped MOFs remains almost unexplored, yet is required to overcome intrinsic limitations, such as CO2 adsorption capacity and stability. Here, we present a scalable synthesis method for Mg2(dobpdc) MOF and its shaped beads, which are obtained by using a spray dry

  • Large characteristic lengths in 3D chiral elastic metamaterials
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Tobias Frenzel; Vincent Hahn; Patrick Ziemke; Jonathan Ludwig Günter Schneider; Yi Chen; Pascal Kiefer; Peter Gumbsch; Martin Wegener

    Three-dimensional (3D) chiral mechanical metamaterials enable behaviors not accessible in ordinary materials. In particular, a coupling between displacements and rotations can occur, which is symmetry-forbidden without chirality. In this work, we solve three open challenges of chiral metamaterials. First, we provide a simple analytical model, which we use to rationalize the design of the chiral characteristic

  • Soil microbiomes mediate degradation of vinyl ester-based polymer composites
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-18
    Adam M. Breister; Muhammad A. Imam; Zhichao Zhou; Md Ariful Ahsan; Juan C. Noveron; Karthik Anantharaman; Pavana Prabhakar

    Polymer composites are attractive for structural applications in the built environment due to their lightweight and high strength properties but suffer from degradation due to environmental factors. While abiotic factors like temperature, moisture, and ultraviolet light are well studied, little is known about the impacts of naturally occurring microbial communities on their structural integrity. Here

  • High responsivity in MoS 2 phototransistors based on charge trapping HfO 2 dielectrics
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-18
    Roda Nur; Takashi Tsuchiya; Kasidit Toprasertpong; Kazuya Terabe; Shinichi Takagi; Mitsuru Takenaka

    2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides hold a promising potential in future optoelectronic applications due to their high photoresponsivity and tunable band structure for broadband photodetection. In imaging applications, the detection of weak light signals is crucial for creating a better contrast between bright and dark pixels in order to achieve high resolution images. The photogating effect has been

  • Transparent ferroelectric glass–ceramics for wastewater treatment by piezocatalysis
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Gurpreet Singh; Moolchand Sharma; Rahul Vaish

    In piezocatalysis the polarization field found in piezoelectric materials enables and enhances catalytic redox reactions. Here, we explore piezocatalytic dye degradation through transparent glass–ceramics containing piezoelectric crystals. 30SiO2–35Li2O–35Nb2O5 (in mol%) glass–ceramics containing varying amounts of LiNbO3 crystallites were fabricated by melt-quenching, followed by heat-treatment at

  • Author Correction: Recombinant collagen polypeptide as a versatile bone graft biomaterial
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Hideo Fushimi; Takahiro Hiratsuka; Ai Okamura; Yoshitaka Ono; Izumi Ogura; Ichiro Nishimura

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43246-020-00111-0

  • Future material demand for automotive lithium-based batteries
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Chengjian Xu; Qiang Dai; Linda Gaines; Mingming Hu; Arnold Tukker; Bernhard Steubing

    The world is shifting to electric vehicles to mitigate climate change. Here, we quantify the future demand for key battery materials, considering potential electric vehicle fleet and battery chemistry developments as well as second-use and recycling of electric vehicle batteries. We find that in a lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide dominated battery scenario, demand is estimated to increase by factors

  • Structural changes during glass formation extracted by computational homology with machine learning
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Akihiko Hirata; Tomohide Wada; Ippei Obayashi; Yasuaki Hiraoka

    The structural origin of the slow dynamics in glass formation remains to be understood owing to the subtle structural differences between the liquid and glass states. Even from simulations, where the positions of all atoms are deterministic, it is difficult to extract significant structural components for glass formation. In this study, we have extracted significant local atomic structures from a large

  • Deterioration mechanism of perovskite solar cells by operando observation of spin states
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Takahiro Watanabe; Toshihiro Yamanari; Kazuhiro Marumoto

    Perovskite solar cells are attractive because of their remarkably improved power conversion efficiency. In view of their application, however, it is important not only to increase the power conversion efficiency, but also to elucidate the deterioration mechanism. Here, we show operando direct observation of spin states in the cells using electron spin resonance, thereby investigating the operation

  • Synthesis of 14 C-labelled polystyrene nanoplastics for environmental studies
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Maya Al-Sid-Cheikh; Steven J. Rowland; Ralf Kaegi; Theodore B. Henry; Marc-André Cormier; Richard C. Thompson

    Available analytical methods cannot detect nanoplastics at environmentally realistic concentrations in complex matrices such as biological tissues. Here, we describe a one-step polymerization method, allowing direct radiolabeling of a sulfonate end-capped nano-sized polystyrene (nPS; proposed as a model nanoplastic particle representing negatively charged nanoplastics). The method, which produces nanoplastics

  • Continuously variable emission for mechanical deformation induced radiative cooling
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Xiaojie Liu; Yanpei Tian; Fangqi Chen; Alok Ghanekar; Mauro Antezza; Yi Zheng

    Passive radiative cooling, drawing heat energy of objects to the cold outer space through the atmospheric transparent window, is significant for reducing the energy consumption of buildings. Daytime and nighttime radiative cooling have been extensively investigated in the past. However, radiative cooling which can continuously regulate its cooling temperature, like a valve, according to human need

  • Large mobility modulation in ultrathin amorphous titanium oxide transistors
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Nikhil Tiwale; Ashwanth Subramanian; Zhongwei Dai; Sayantani Sikder; Jerzy T. Sadowski; Chang-Yong Nam

    Recently, ultrathin metal-oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) have shown very high on-off ratio and ultra-sharp subthreshold swing, making them promising candidates for applications beyond conventional large-area electronics. While the on-off operation in typical TFTs results primarily from the modulation of charge carrier density by gate voltage, the high on-off ratio in ultrathin oxide TFTs can be

  • Time limited self-organised criticality in the high rate deformation of face centred cubic metals
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Lewis Lea; Lawrence Brown; Andrew Jardine

    Plastic deformation is a fundamentally important physical process, ultimately determining how materials can be used. Metal plasticity is governed by dislocation dynamics and lattice twinning. Although many continuum constitutive models exist, plasticity is now known to occur in discrete events arising from the self-organisation of dislocations into ‘avalanches’ under applied stress. Here we extend

  • Laser-metal interaction dynamics during additive manufacturing resolved by detection of thermally-induced electron emission
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Philip J. DePond; John C. Fuller; Saad A. Khairallah; Justin R. Angus; Gabe Guss; Manyalibo J. Matthews; Aiden A. Martin

    In situ monitoring is required to improve the understanding and increase the reliability of additive manufacturing methods such as laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Current diagnostic methods for LPBF capture optical images, X-ray radiographs, or measure the emission of thermal or acoustic signals from the component. Herein, a methodology based on the thermal emission of electrons - thermionic emission

  • Enhanced dielectric constant and energy density in a BaTiO 3 /polymer-matrix composite sponge
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Gang Jian; Yong Jiao; Qingzhen Meng; Zhaoyu Wei; Jiaoxia Zhang; Chao Yan; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Ching-Ping Wong

    Polymer-matrix dielectric composites are promising for use in electrostatic energy storage devices due to the ultra-fast charge–discharge speed and the long service life. Here we report a strategy for designing BaTiO3 sponge polymer composites for energy storage. BaTiO3 sponges with tunable porosities are prepared from polymethyl methacrylate micro-sphere arrays. Liquid epoxy completely fills the pores

  • Infrared response in photocatalytic polymeric carbon nitride for water splitting via an upconversion mechanism
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Zhengyuan Jin; Xiantao Jiang; Qitao Zhang; Shaolong Huang; Luhong Zhang; Lili Huang; Tingchao He; Han Zhang; Teruhisa Ohno; Shuangchen Ruan; Yu-Jia Zeng

    Broad-spectrum light activation in photocatalytic materials is considered vital for effective solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion. Here, we propose an upconversion process in oxygen-doped polymeric carbon nitride (C3N4) nanosheets, resulting in high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation from water splitting under infrared light irradiation. Due to the upconversion, the photoexcited electrons

  • Spin-polarized Weyl cones and giant anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic Heusler films
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Kazuki Sumida; Yuya Sakuraba; Keisuke Masuda; Takashi Kono; Masaaki Kakoki; Kazuki Goto; Weinan Zhou; Koji Miyamoto; Yoshio Miura; Taichi Okuda; Akio Kimura

    Weyl semimetals are characterized by the presence of massless band dispersion in momentum space. When a Weyl semimetal meets magnetism, large anomalous transport properties emerge as a consequence of its topological nature. Here, using in−situ spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations, we visualize the spin-polarized Weyl cone and flat-band surface states

  • Critical charge transport networks in doped organic semiconductors
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Andreas Hofacker

    Intrinsic organic small molecule and polymer materials are insulators. The discovery that polymers can be made highly conductive by doping has therefore sparked strong interest in this novel class of conductors. More recently, efficient doping of small molecule materials has also been achieved and is now a key technology in the multi-billion dollar organic light emitting diode industry. Nevertheless

  • Recombinant collagen polypeptide as a versatile bone graft biomaterial
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Hideo Fushimi; Takahiro Hiratsuka; Ai Okamura; Yoshitaka Ono; Izumi Ogura; Ichiro Nishimura

    Autografts and allografts are currently considered the gold standard for grafting surgery; however, to meet the growing demand in fast-aging societies, synthetic biomaterials will play an increasingly important role. Here we report a biodegradable scaffold material composed of recombinant polypeptide based on the human type I collagen alpha 1 chain (RCPhC1) as a source of hydrogel-based graft materials

  • Active-matrix monolithic gas sensor array based on MoS 2 thin-film transistors
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Sehwan Kim; Heekyeong Park; Sooho Choo; Seongho Baek; Yena Kwon; Na Liu; Jeong Yong Yang; Cheol-Woong Yang; Geonwook Yoo; Sunkook Kim

    Highly sensitive and system integrable gas sensors play a significant role in industry and daily life, and MoS2 has emerged as one of the most promising two-dimensional nanomaterials for gas sensor technology. In this study, we demonstrate a scalable and monolithically integrated active-matrix gas sensor array based on large-area bilayer MoS2 films synthesized via two-successive steps: radio-frequency

  • Extreme shear-deformation-induced modification of defect structures and hierarchical microstructure in an Al–Si alloy
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Bharat Gwalani; Matthew Olszta; Soumya Varma; Lei Li; Ayoub Soulami; Elizabeth Kautz; Siddhartha Pathak; Aashish Rohatgi; Peter V. Sushko; Suveen Mathaudhu; Cynthia A. Powell; Arun Devaraj

    Extreme shear deformation is used for several material processing methods and is unavoidable in many engineering applications in which two surfaces are in relative motion against each other while in physical contact. The mechanistic understanding of the microstructural evolution of multi-phase metallic alloys under extreme shear deformation is still in its infancy. Here, we highlight the influence

  • Prediction of structure and cation ordering in an ordered normal-inverse double spinel
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Ghanshyam Pilania; Vancho Kocevski; James A. Valdez; Cortney R. Kreller; Blas P. Uberuaga

    Spinels represent an important class of technologically relevant materials, used in diverse applications ranging from dielectrics, sensors and energy materials. While solid solutions combining two “single spinels” have been explored in a number of past studies, no ordered “double” spinels have been reported. Based on our first principles computations, here we predict the existence of such a double

  • Skyrmion lattice creep at ultra-low current densities
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Yongkang Luo; Shi-Zeng Lin; Maxime Leroux; Nicholas Wakeham; David M. Fobes; Eric D. Bauer; Jonathan B. Betts; Joe D. Thompson; Albert Migliori; Marc Janoschek; Boris Maiorov

    Magnetic skyrmions are well-suited for encoding information because they are nano-sized, topologically stable, and only require ultra-low critical current densities jc to depin from the underlying atomic lattice. Above jc skyrmions exhibit well-controlled motion, making them prime candidates for race-track memories. In thin films thermally-activated creep motion of isolated skyrmions was observed below

  • Misfit phase (BiSe) 1.10 NbSe 2 as the origin of superconductivity in niobium-doped bismuth selenide
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Machteld E. Kamminga; Maria Batuk; Joke Hadermann; Simon J. Clarke

    Topological superconductivity is of great contemporary interest and has been proposed in doped Bi2Se3, in which electron-donating atoms such as Cu, Sr or Nb have been intercalated into the Bi2Se3 structure. For NbxBi2Se3, with Tc ~ 3 K, it is assumed in the literature that Nb is inserted in the van der Waals gap. However, in this work an alternative origin for the superconductivity in Nb-doped Bi2Se3

  • Enhanced hole injection assisted by electric dipoles for efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Xiangtian Xiao; Kai Wang; Taikang Ye; Rui Cai; Zhenwei Ren; Dan Wu; Xiangwei Qu; Jiayun Sun; Shihao Ding; Xiao Wei Sun; Wallace C. H. Choy

    Enhanced hole injection is essential to achieve high performance in perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, a strategy is introduced to enhance hole injection by an electric dipole layer. Hopping theory demonstrates electric dipoles between hole injection layer and hole transport layer can enhance hole injection significantly. MoO3 is then chosen as the electric dipole layer between PEDOT:PSS

  • Redox-structure dependence of molten iron oxides
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Caijuan Shi; Oliver L. G. Alderman; Anthony Tamalonis; Richard Weber; Jinglin You; Chris J. Benmore

    The atomic structural arrangements of liquid iron oxides affect the thermophysical and thermodynamic properties associated with the steelmaking process and magma flows. Here, the structures of stable and supercooled iron oxide melts have been investigated as a function of oxygen fugacity and temperature, using x-ray diffraction and aerodynamic levitation with laser heating. Total x-ray structure factors

  • Controlled steric selectivity in molecular doping towards closest-packed supramolecular conductors
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Shinya Kohno; Yu Yamashita; Naotaka Kasuya; Tsubasa Mikie; Itaru Osaka; Kazuo Takimiya; Jun Takeya; Shun Watanabe

    Recent developments in molecular doping technologies allow extremely high carrier densities in polymeric semiconductors, exhibiting great diversity because of the unique size, conformation, and steric effect of molecular dopants. However, it is controversial how steric effects can limit the doping efficiency and to what extent dopants can be accommodated in polymers. Here, we employ two distinct conjugated

  • Long-distance coupling and energy transfer between exciton states in magnetically controlled microcavities
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Maciej Ściesiek; Krzysztof Sawicki; Wojciech Pacuski; Kamil Sobczak; Tomasz Kazimierczuk; Andrzej Golnik; Jan Suffczyński

    Coupling of quantum emitters in a semiconductor relies, generally, on short-range dipole-dipole or electronic exchange type interactions. Consistently, energy transfer between exciton states, that is, electron-hole pairs bound by Coulomb interaction, is limited to distances of the order of 10 nm. Here, we demonstrate polariton-mediated coupling and energy transfer between excitonic states over a distance

  • Nacre toughening due to cooperative plastic deformation of stacks of co-oriented aragonite platelets
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Hyun-Chae Loh; Thibaut Divoux; Bernd Gludovatz; Pupa U. P. A. Gilbert; Robert O. Ritchie; Franz-Josef Ulm; Admir Masic

    Nacre’s structure-property relationships have been a source of inspiration for designing advanced functional materials with both high strength and toughness. These outstanding mechanical properties have been mostly attributed to the interplay between aragonite platelets and organic matrices in the typical brick-and-mortar structure. Here, we show that crystallographically co-oriented stacks of aragonite

  • Constraint-free wavelength conversion supported by giant optical refraction in a 3D perovskite supercrystal
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Ludovica Falsi; Luca Tartara; Fabrizio Di Mei; Mariano Flammini; Jacopo Parravicini; Davide Pierangeli; Gianbattista Parravicini; Feifei Xin; Paolo DiPorto; Aharon J. Agranat; Eugenio DelRe

    Nonlinear response in a material increases with its index of refraction as n4. Commonly, n ~ 1 so that diffraction, dispersion, and chromatic walk-off limit nonlinear scattering. Ferroelectric crystals with a periodic 3D polarization structure overcome some of these constraints through versatile Cherenkov and quasi-phase-matching mechanisms. Three-dimensional self-structuring can also lead to a giant

  • Making EuO multiferroic by epitaxial strain engineering
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Veronica Goian; Rainer Held; Eric Bousquet; Yakun Yuan; Alexander Melville; Hua Zhou; Venkatraman Gopalan; Phillipe Ghosez; Nicola A. Spaldin; Darrell G. Schlom; Stanislav Kamba

    Multiferroics are materials exhibiting the coexistence of ferroelectricity and ideally ferromagnetism. Unfortunately, most known magnetoelectric multiferroics combine ferroelectricity with antiferromagnetism or with weak ferromagnetism. Here, following previous theoretical predictions, we provide clear experimental indications that ferroelectricity can be induced by epitaxial tensile strain in the

  • Large spin-Hall effect in non-equilibrium binary copper alloys beyond the solubility limit
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Hiroto Masuda; Rajkumar Modak; Takeshi Seki; Ken-ichi Uchida; Yong-Chang Lau; Yuya Sakuraba; Ryo Iguchi; Koki Takanashi

    Non-magnetic materials exhibiting large spin-Hall effect (SHE) are eagerly desired for high-performance spintronic devices. Here, we report that non-equilibrium Cu-Ir binary alloys with compositions beyond the solubility limit are candidates as spin-Hall materials, even though Cu and Ir do not exhibit remarkable SHE themselves. Thanks to non-equilibrium thin film fabrication, the Cu-Ir binary alloys

  • Accelerated discovery of high-strength aluminum alloys by machine learning
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Jiaheng Li; Yingbo Zhang; Xinyu Cao; Qi Zeng; Ye Zhuang; Xiaoying Qian; Hui Chen

    Aluminum alloys are attractive for a number of applications due to their high specific strength, and developing new compositions is a major goal in the structural materials community. Here, we investigate the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy system (7xxx series) by machine learning-based composition and process optimization. The discovered optimized alloy is compositionally lean with a high ultimate tensile strength

  • Nanographitic coating enables hydrophobicity in lightweight and strong microarchitected carbon
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Akira Kudo; Federico Bosi

    Metamaterials that are lightweight, stiff, strong, scalable and hydrophobic have been achieved separately through different materials and approaches, but achieving them in one material is an outstanding challenge. Here, stereolithography and pyrolysis are employed to create carbon microlattices with cubic topology and a strut width of 60–70 µm, with specific strength and stiffness of up to 468.62 MPa cm3 g−1

  • Piezoelectricity in perovskite-type pseudo-cubic ferroelectrics by partial ordering of off-centered cations
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Yoshihiro Kuroiwa; Sangwook Kim; Ichiro Fujii; Shintaro Ueno; Yuki Nakahira; Chikako Moriyoshi; Yukio Sato; Satoshi Wada

    A large piezoelectric response in ferroelectric ceramics is typically associated with extrinsic contributions from ferroelectric domain structures. However, such domain structures cannot be expected in systems with pseudo-cubic symmetry. In this study, we determine the mechanism of significant piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in 0.3BaTiO3–0.1Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3–0.6BiFeO3 ceramic with a perovskite-type

  • Improved gravimetric energy density and cycle life in organic lithium-ion batteries with naphthazarin-based electrode materials
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Masaru Yao; Noboru Taguchi; Hisanori Ando; Nobuhiko Takeichi; Tetsu Kiyobayashi

    Replacing the scarce metal-based positive electrode materials currently used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries with organic compounds helps address environmental issues and might enhance gravimetric electrochemical capacity. The challenge has been to find organic materials with both high capacity and long-cycle life. Here, we study the naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) skeleton as

  • Dynamic observation of manganese adatom mobility at perovskite oxide catalyst interfaces with water
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Gaurav Lole; Vladimir Roddatis; Ulrich Ross; Marcel Risch; Tobias Meyer; Lukas Rump; Janis Geppert; Garlef Wartner; Peter Blöchl; Christian Jooss

    Real time in-situ microscopy imaging of surface structure and atom dynamics of heterogeneous catalysts is an important step for understanding reaction mechanisms. Here, using in-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), we directly visualize surface atom dynamics at manganite perovskite catalyst surfaces for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which are ≥20 times faster in water than

  • Interrogating helical nanorod self-assembly with fractionated cellulose nanocrystal suspensions
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Camila Honorato-Rios; Jan P. F. Lagerwall

    The helical self-assembly of cholesteric liquid crystals is a powerful motif in nature, enabling exceptional performance in many biological composites. Attempts to mimic these remarkable materials by drying cholesteric colloidal nanorod suspensions often yield films with a non-uniform mosaic-like character, severely degrading optical and mechanical properties. Here we show—using the example of cellulose

  • Untethered and ultrafast soft-bodied robots
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Xu Wang; Guoyong Mao; Jin Ge; Michael Drack; Gilbert Santiago Cañón Bermúdez; Daniela Wirthl; Rico Illing; Tobias Kosub; Lothar Bischoff; Changan Wang; Jürgen Fassbender; Martin Kaltenbrunner; Denys Makarov

    Acting at high speed enables creatures to survive in their harsh natural environments. They developed strategies for fast actuation that inspire technological embodiments like soft robots. Here, we demonstrate a series of simulation-guided lightweight, durable, untethered, small-scale soft-bodied robots that perform large-degree deformations at high frequencies up to 100 Hz, are driven at very low

  • Proton-assisted electron transfer and hydrogen-atom diffusion in a model system for photocatalytic hydrogen production
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Yuanzheng Zhang; Yunrong Dai; Huihui Li; Lifeng Yin; Michael R. Hoffmann

    Solar energy can be converted into chemical energy by photocatalytic water splitting to produce molecular hydrogen. Details of the photo-induced reaction mechanism occurring on the surface of a semiconductor are not fully understood, however. Herein, we employ a model photocatalytic system consisting of single atoms deposited on quantum dots that are anchored on to a primary photocatalyst to explore

  • The role of valve stiffness in the insurgence of deep vein thrombosis
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Zoe Schofield; Hosam Alden Baksamawi; Joana Campos; Alessio Alexiadis; Gerard B. Nash; Alexander Brill; Daniele Vigolo

    Deep vein thrombosis is a life-threatening development of blood clots in deep veins. Immobility and blood flow stagnancy are typical risk factors indicating that fluid dynamics play an important role in the initiation of venous clots. However, the roles of physical parameters of the valves and flow conditions in deep vein thrombosis initiation have not been fully understood. Here, we describe a microfluidics

  • Water droplet friction and rolling dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Matilda Backholm; Daniel Molpeceres; Maja Vuckovac; Heikki Nurmi; Matti J. Hokkanen; Ville Jokinen; Jaakko V. I. Timonen; Robin H. A. Ras

    Superhydrophobicity is a remarkable surface property found in nature and mimicked in many engineering applications, including anti-wetting, anti-fogging, and anti-fouling coatings. As synthetic superhydrophobic coatings approach the extreme non-wetting limit, quantification of their slipperiness becomes increasingly challenging: although contact angle goniometry remains widely used as the gold standard

  • Two-photon photocurrent in InGaN/GaN nanowire intermediate band solar cells
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Ross Cheriton; Sharif M. Sadaf; Luc Robichaud; Jacob J. Krich; Zetian Mi; Karin Hinzer

    Intermediate band solar cells hold the promise of ultrahigh power conversion efficiencies using a single semiconductor junction. Many current implementations use materials with bandgaps too small to achieve maximum efficiency or use cost-prohibitive substrates. Here we demonstrate a material system for intermediate band solar cells using InGaN/GaN quantum-dot-in-nanowire heterostructures grown directly

  • Mechanistic study of superlattice-enabled high toughness and hardness in MoN/TaN coatings
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Rainer Hahn; Nikola Koutná; Tomasz Wójcik; Anton Davydok; Szilárd Kolozsvári; Christina Krywka; David Holec; Matthias Bartosik; Paul H. Mayrhofer

    Machining and forming tools exposed to challenging environments require protective coatings to extend their lifetime and reliability. Although transition metal nitrides possess excellent strength and resistance against chemical attacks, they lack ductility and are prone to premature failure. Here, by investigating structural and mechanical properties of MoN-TaN superlattices with different bilayer

  • Relaxation and transfer of photoexcited electrons at a coplanar few-layer 1 T′/2H-MoTe 2 heterojunction
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Aiqin Hu; Xiaolong Xu; Wei Liu; Shengnan Xu; Zhaohang Xue; Bo Han; Shufeng Wang; Peng Gao; Quan Sun; Qihuang Gong; Yu Ye; Guowei Lu

    Fundamental dynamic processes at the electronic contact interface, such as carrier injection and transport, become pivotal and significantly affect device performance. Time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (TR-PEEM) with high spatiotemporal resolution provides unprecedented abilities of imaging the electron dynamics at the interface. Here, we implement TR-PEEM to investigate the electron

  • Single-sulfur atom discrimination of polysulfides with a protein nanopore for improved batteries
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Fanny Bétermier; Benjamin Cressiot; Giovanni Di Muccio; Nathalie Jarroux; Laurent Bacri; Blasco Morozzo della Rocca; Mauro Chinappi; Juan Pelta; Jean-Marie Tarascon

    Research on batteries mostly focuses on electrodes and electrolytes while few activities regard separator membranes. However, they could be used as a toolbox for injecting chemical functionalities to capture unwanted species and enhance battery lifetime. Here, we report the use of biological membranes hosting a nanopore sensor for electrical single molecule detection and use aqueous sodium polysulfides

  • Face-selective tungstate ions drive zinc oxide nanowire growth direction and dopant incorporation
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Jiangyang Liu; Kazuki Nagashima; Hiroki Yamashita; Wataru Mizukami; Jun Uzuhashi; Takuro Hosomi; Masaki Kanai; Xixi Zhao; Yoshinori Miura; Guozhu Zhang; Tsunaki Takahashi; Masaru Suzuki; Daiki Sakai; Benjarong Samransuksamer; Yong He; Tadakatsu Ohkubo; Takao Yasui; Yuriko Aoki; Johnny C. Ho; Yoshinobu Baba; Takeshi Yanagida

    Tailoring the elemental doping of inorganic nanowires remains an important challenge due to complex dopant incorporation pathways. Here we report that the face-selectivity of tungstate ions controls growth direction and dopant incorporation of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowires. The introduction of tungstate ions on nanowire surface during synthesis unexpectedly enhances nucleation at sidewall \(\left\{

  • Experimental and theoretical confirmation of an orthorhombic phase transition in niobium at high pressure and temperature
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Daniel Errandonea; Leonid Burakovsky; Dean L. Preston; Simon G. MacLeod; David Santamaría-Perez; Shaoping Chen; Hyunchae Cynn; Sergey I. Simak; Malcolm I. McMahon; John E. Proctor; Mohamed Mezouar

    Compared to other body-centered cubic (bcc) transition metals, Nb has been the subject of fewer compression studies and there are still aspects of its phase diagram which are unclear. Here, we report a combined theoretical and experimental study of Nb under high pressure and temperature. We present the results of static laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments up to 120 GPa using synchrotron-based

  • Stabilization of a honeycomb lattice of IrO 6 octahedra by formation of ilmenite-type superlattices in MnTiO 3
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Kei Miura; Kohei Fujiwara; Kei Nakayama; Ryo Ishikawa; Naoya Shibata; Atsushi Tsukazaki

    In quantum spin liquid research, thin films are an attractive arena that enables the control of magnetic interactions via epitaxial strain and two-dimensionality, which are absent in bulk crystals. Here, as a promising candidate for the development of quantum spin liquids in thin films, we propose a robust ilmenite-type oxide with a honeycomb lattice of edge-sharing IrO6 octahedra artificially stabilised

  • High performance crystalline nanocellulose using an ancestral endoglucanase
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Borja Alonso-Lerma; Leire Barandiaran; Lorena Ugarte; Izaskun Larraza; Antonio Reifs; Raquel Olmos-Juste; Nerea Barruetabeña; Iban Amenabar; Rainer Hillenbrand; Arantxa Eceiza; Raul Perez-Jimenez

    Improving the efficiency of enzymes towards decomposing substrates has been one of the central goals in the biotechnology industry. However, the modification of enzymes for upgrading natural materials to high-value performant materials is largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that the ancestral form of a Cel5A bacterial endoglucanase, unlike its modern descendant from Bacillus subtilis, was able

  • Two-dimensional superconductivity and magnetotransport from topological surface states in AuSn 4 semimetal
    Commun. Mater. Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Dong Shen; Chia Nung Kuo; Tien Wei Yang; I Nan Chen; Chin Shan Lue; Li Min Wang

    Topological materials such as Dirac or Weyl semimetals are new states of matter characterized by symmetry-protected surface states responsible for exotic low-temperature magnetotransport properties. Here, transport measurements on AuSn4 single crystals, a topological nodal-line semimetal candidate, reveal the presence of two-dimensional superconductivity with a transition temperature Tc ~ 2.40 K. The

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