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  • Dust and PV Performance in Nigeria: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yusuf N. Chanchangi; Aritra Ghosh; Senthilarasu Sundaram; Tapas K. Mallick

    The accumulation of dust on photovoltaic (PV) devices has an adverse impact by degrading their performance. In this work, a review of the effects of dust accumulation on PV module performance and measures to mitigate them have been provided. Energy losses from PV due to dust is an issue which cannot be ignored and can be an obstacle to achieving renewable energy targets in Nigeria. However, this paper presents a number of mitigation techniques which are available to maintain a certain level of performance. There is a need for further conduct comprehensive research on the effects of dust in all geopolitical regions in Nigeria to acquire data that can be used for designing the PV module system considering the most suitable technique in reducing or preventing the effects of soiling in each specific area.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Energy decentralization in California and New York: Conflicts in the politics of shared solar and community choice
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    David J. Hess; Dasom Lee

    This study reviews the development of shared (community) solar and community choice aggregation in the U.S. states of California and New York. Both states are leaders in energy-transition policy in the U.S., but they have different trajectories for the two forms of energy decentralization. Shared solar is more advanced in New York, but community choice is more advanced in California. Using a field theory framework, the comparative review of the trajectories of energy decentralization shows how differences in restructuring and regulatory rules affect outcomes. Differences in the rules for retail competition and authority for utilities to own distributed generation assets, plus the role of civil society and the attention from elected officials, shape the intensity of conflict and outcomes. They also contribute to the development of different types of community choice in the two states. In addition to showing how institutional conditions associated with different types of restructured markets shape the opportunities for decentralized energy, the study also examines how the efforts of actors to gain support for and to legitimate their policy preferences involve reference to broad social values.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Storylines of (de)centralisation: Exploring infrastructure dimensions in the German electricity system
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    S. Funcke; C. Ruppert-Winkel

    The Energiewende (energy transition) in Germany is a major challenge from a technological and socio-political perspective. Among the contested issues is whether the transition should follow a more centralised or decentralised pathway. This contribution sets out to answer the question which storylines are propagated by three discourse coalitions concerning the centralisation or decentralisation of the German electricity infrastructure. For this, the storylines are defined with a focus on four infrastructure dimensions: (1) connectivity (grid level of power plants), (2) proximity (geographical distribution of generation), (3) flexibility (technologies for balancing supply and demand), and (4) controllability (control and coordination of generation and consumption). The coalition economic efficiency emphasises cost-efficient infrastructure and tends to support centralised solutions. The second coalition, renewables first, points towards the need for a rapid uptake of renewable energies to mitigate climate change and supports centralised as well as decentralised options towards that goal. The third coalition, citizen energy, supports a decentralised approach and also highlights non-technical issues like the involvement of citizens or regional economic effects. This research shows that while technological decentralisation is taking place to a certain degree and has received significant attention in practice as well as in scientific research, the support for it in storylines by discourse coalitions is limited. While the first two coalitions connect well to the existing electricity system and the issue of mitigating climate change, proponents of decentralised approaches have difficulties implementing their views on the federal level and in policy-making processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Assessing the socio-demographic, technical, economic and behavioral factors of Nordic electric vehicle adoption and the influence of vehicle-to-grid preferences
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Chien-fei Chen; Gerardo Zarazua de Rubens; Lance Noel; Johannes Kester; Benjamin K. Sovacool

    This study investigates the interconnected influence of socio-demographics, behavioral, economic, and technical factors associated with electric vehicle (EV) adoption interest and the influence of vehicle-to-grid mobility on preferences. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we examine the impacts of six dimensions relating to socio-demographic, technical, economic, and behavioral factors in a survey (n = 4885) across Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that younger males, with higher income, a higher number of children, and who had experiences with EVs, and generally hold sustainability values are positively related to potential EV adoption. Among electric mobility attributes, vehicle-to-grid capability and charging time are determined to be the influential predictors. Adding vehicle-to-grid capability can foster EV adoption in our analysis, considering it can add a revenue stream for EV owners. Individuals continue to use specific knowledge of conventional fuel vehicles when considering EVs and their attributes. Among all of our factors, the fuel economy, financial savings, and environmental value were the strongest predictors. In comparison, the driving range was ranked less critical to former EV owners than to a conventional car and current EV owners. Battery life was ranked more important to conventional fuel vehicle owners than current and former EV owners. Finally, former EV owners considered vehicle-to-grid to be more important than current EV and conventional car owners, implying that vehicle-to-grid could be the marginal incentive that would be the “tipping point.”

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Bright-Sun: A globally applicable 1-min irradiance clear-sky detection model
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jamie M. Bright; Xixi Sun; Christian A. Gueymard; Brendan Acord; Peng Wang; Nicholas A. Engerer

    Clear-sky detection (CSD) is a crucial process in numerous solar energy applications. Many CSD models have been proposed over the years, though model performance is generally found unsatisfactory for worldwide use. We demonstrate this qualitatively on 22 CSD models at five climatologically-diverse radiometric stations; all exhibit one or more limitations: (1) unreliability at high zenith; (2) unrealistic “clear” periods immediately before or after cloudy conditions; (3) relaxed (short-term false positives); (4) over-relaxed during clear conditions (longer-term false positives); (5) conservative (short-term false negatives); and (6) over-conservative during clear conditions (longer-term false negatives). A new globally applicable CSD methodology is proposed for a posteriori detection of apparent “cloudless sky” conditions on 1-min irradiance time series, named the Bright-Sun model. This new tool requires measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DIF), and consists of three stages: (1) clear-sky irradiance optimisation, (2) tri-component CSD analysis with the newly derived Modified-Reno method, and (3) a cascading durational filters to determine periods of apparent cloudless sky. Through qualitative evaluation and exploring sensitivity to clear-sky model selection, the Bright-Sun model does not suffer any of the aforementioned limitations at any of the five stations, despite their distinctive climates. Due to the significant influence of bright or dark clouds on DIF, which have much lower impact on GHI, the new model also exhibits extra discretionary power by including analysis on DIF and can thus identify apparently clear periods with zero or near-zero cloudiness. The Bright-Sun CSD model is coded in Matlab® and freely available (future releases in R and Python are anticipated). A script is attached as supplementary material in the original form. For a supported and version controlled release of the Bright-Sun model, as well as other CSD models mentioned within this document, the reader can refer to the CSD Library at https://jamiembright.github.io/csd-library/.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Prospective life cycle assessment of third-generation photovoltaics at the pre-industrial scale: A long-term scenario approach
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    M.L. Parisi; S. Maranghi; L. Vesce; A. Sinicropi; A. Di Carlo; R. Basosi

    The development of sustainable technologies for energy generation should necessarily undergo sustainability assessment. A well-recognized, valuable tool to accomplish this task is the life cycle assessment. In particular, prospective life cycle assessment can provide the useful methodological framework to calculate eco-profiles of third-generation photovoltaic technologies with a future-oriented perspective. In this paper, we present the life cycle assessment of a real semi-industrial production process of dye-sensitized solar modules performed by the Italian Dyepower consortium. Due to the unique availability of primary data at the semi-industrial scale, an extensive inventory is built and a long-term approach is implemented based on predictive scenarios featuring technological development and energy mix evolution. The aim is to evaluate of the potential of this technology from an environmental sustainability perspective as a renewable source for electricity generation in the future European energy market, namely, for building integrated applications. The results demonstrate the well-performing environmental footprint of the device and its pre-industrial fabrication process that, coupled with architectural versatility and remarkable performance in low intensity and diffuse light, make this technology suitable for different niches of the energy market. This analysis also highlights challenges in the fabrication process and identifies the technological improvements, alternative materials and engineering solutions that would further improve the environmental footprint of dye sensitized solar modules. Finally, the proposed life cycle assessment approach, provided that detailed and robust primary data are available, is valid for the investigation of the eco-profile of third generation photovoltaic technologies in terms of environmental sustainability in the European context.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Exploring the sustainability and sealing mechanisms of unlined ponds for growing algae for fuel and other commodity-scale products
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Rebecca A. Efroymson; Molly B. Pattullo; Melanie A. Mayes; Teresa J. Mathews; Shovon Mandal; Susan Schoenung

    Pond liners for large-scale cultivation of algae for biofuels and bioproducts are a significant source of capital cost and greenhouse gas emissions, both of which can be reduced by using unlined ponds. Concerns about using unlined ponds to cultivate algae focus on the potential for water and nutrient leakage and biological contamination. We review studies of sustainability and physical and biological sealing of unlined ponds and discuss the potential for use of unlined ponds for algae cultivation for commodity products, such as biofuels. Evidence from animal waste disposal, aquaculture, and algae cultivation shows that soils below ponds can develop self-sealing layers at the soil-water interface, termed bioclogging, which provides a solid basis for technology transfer to algae cultivation. The concept of unlined ponds for algal biofuels and bioproducts is tenable and deserves future research to further define acceptable environments for the use of unlined ponds. Further research is needed to determine the viability and longevity of self-sealing, unlined freshwater and saline algae ponds in various soils; the potential effects of the technology on algal productivity and biological contamination; and performance and economic outcomes from combining self-sealing ponds with limited deployment of liners.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Factors influencing public perceptions of hydropower projects: A systematic literature review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    A.M. Mayeda; A.D. Boyd

    Public opinion is a key factor in the development and deployment of energy systems. The perspectives of those living near current or proposed energy developments are particularly critical because these residents may have a strong interest in the project and their opinions could influence the siting of the technology. A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative empirical research published between 1980 and 2018 was conducted to synthesize and consolidate the results of studies that examined the factors that affected local residents’ perceptions of hydropower projects. The review involved searching databases and journals using multiple keywords and synonyms for hydropower and public perceptions. The initial search yielded 21,171 articles. Forty-nine of these articles met the criteria for inclusion and were examined further to assess the factors associated with the support for or opposition to hydropower developments. The primary factors that influenced locally affected public perceptions of hydropower projects included: (1) environmental and ecological impacts of the development; (2) local socio-economic impacts associated with the hydropower project; and (3) public participation and consultation practices associated with the development including availability of information. Differences in factors that influence public perceptions between developed and developing economies are also examined. The findings from this review provide insight into future research that may guide the development of more effective communication strategies and hydropower policy development.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Biomolecular photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: Recent developments and critical insights
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Hisham A. Maddah; Vikas Berry; Sanjay K. Behura
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Unpacking the complexity of community microgrids: A review of institutions’ roles for development of microgrids
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Martin Warneryd; Maria Håkansson; Kersti Karltorp

    Community microgrids implemented in existing electricity grids can meet both development targets set out in the Paris agreement: 1. mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through increased implementation of renewable energy sources, and 2. to adapt to climate related disturbances and risk of catastrophes. Community microgrids are, however, complex to implement and institutional change is needed to reach their full potential. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature and analyze institutional developments influencing the growth of community microgrids. The literature describes a concentration of microgrid activities in specific regions: USA, EU, Asia and Australia. Varying reasons for implementing community microgrids were found in the different regions but similar institutional developments occurred, albeit with differing emphasis due to contextual specificities. Formal directions do however influence informal institutions even though their aims differ. Power utilities stand out as a critical actor and both formal and informal institutions put pressure on utilities to update their traditional business models. This article illustrates how informal and formal institutions play a significant role in the growth of community microgrids in existing electricity grids and provide interesting examples which can be utilized by policymakers. Microgrid development is still in a formative phase and further institutional change in the form of updated regulations is needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The offshore-onshore conundrum: Preferences for wind energy considering spatial data in Denmark
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jacob Ladenburg; Pablo Hevia-Koch; Stefan Petrović; Lauren Knapp

    Installed wind energy capacity has been increasing steadily across the world and is expected to continue to do so in the future, in response to lowering costs of technology as well as increased renewable energy goals put forth by governments. Nonetheless, public opposition has been increasing and the discussion regarding siting wind turbines onshore or offshore is consistently present in public discourse. In combining a stated preference study with spatial data processed via GIS (Geographic Information Systems), spatial preferences for onshore and offshore wind turbines are explored while considering their visual impact and costs as well as controlling for the respondents' socioeconomic characteristics. In general, respondents state strong preferences towards offshore wind turbines as opposed to onshore. Furthermore, spatial data is found to be significant with regard to the preferences of the respondents, particularly respondents' distance to the coast and potential offshore wind farms and the number of wind turbines seen from the residence and the number of turbines in the postal area. As a secondary result, findings suggest socioeconomic characteristics such as age and income are significantly related to respondents’ preferences, in line with previous research.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Recent trends in applications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in bioenergy production: Review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    M.M. M'Arimi; C.A. Mecha; A.K. Kiprop; R. Ramkat

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are powerful methods that were traditionally used for treatment of hazardous materials. Based on their resourcefulness, these methods have recently found important applications in various processes of bioenergy production. Despite the growing interest in the application of AOPs in improving the production of bioenergy, there is no comprehensive documentation on how biofuels production operations have increasingly incorporated these oxidation processes. Therefore, the present study aims at reviewing the current state of the art and future prospects of applying AOPs in biofuels production. The usage of these processes in pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, excess sludge, organic effluents, solid wastes and other substrates for energy production was reviewed. It was noted that wet air oxidation has high potential in pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for production of various energy types while sonolysis is most effective in biosolids pretreatment. Ozonolysis and photocatalysis are mostly used to selectively remove the colorants in organic effluents. However electrochemical oxidation has good performance in post-treatment of bioenergy effluents. Documented studies indicate that AOPs can be used to enhance trans-esterification thereby boosting biodiesel production. Moreover, they can be used to improve oil extraction from bio-algae to increase biodiesel yields. Comparative studies involving AOPs and conventional processes are necessary to determine their suitability for these applications. The possibility of using AOPs to upgrade low value biofuels to bio-products of higher value should be part of future investigations. A summarized criterion for evaluating the suitability of different AOPs in the production of biofuels is proposed in this study as a guide for their future usage. The main limitation of applying AOPs in bioenergy sector include high process costs due to costly chemicals and energy requirements. Further studies should investigate the possibility of integration of AOPs with conventional methods aimed at improving the process cost-effectiveness.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A state-of-the-art review on the vibration mitigation of wind turbines
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Haoran Zuo; Kaiming Bi; Hong Hao

    Wind energy as one of the renewable energies is serving as an indispensable role in generating new electric power. The worldwide installation of wind farms has considerably increased recently. To extract more wind resources, multi-megawatt wind turbines are usually designed and constructed with large rotors and slender tower. These flexible structures are susceptible to external dynamic excitations such as wind, wave and seismic loads. The excessive vibrations can compromise the wind energy conversion, lead to the structural fatigue damage and even result in the catastrophic failure of wind turbines in harsh environmental conditions. Various control devices have been proposed and used to mitigate the unwanted vibrations of wind turbines to enhance their safety and serviceability. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of the current vibration control techniques and their applications to wind turbines. Firstly, the widely used control strategies in engineering structures are briefly introduced. Their applications to suppress the adverse vibrations of the structural components of wind turbines, mainly the tower and blades, are then reviewed and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the vibration mitigation of wind turbines is very challenging due to the fact that the dynamic behaviours of wind turbines are very complicated, which are associated with the aerodynamics, rotation of the blades, interaction between the tower and rotating blades, and soil-structure interaction, etc. Moreover, it is a challenge to straightforwardly use many of the conventional control devices because of the limited spaces in the tower and blades.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Recent development of hydrothermal liquefaction for algal biorefinery
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    X. Gu; J.S. Martinez-Fernandez; N. Pang; X. Fu; S. Chen
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Pathways to climate change mitigation and stable energy by 100% renewable for a small island: Jamaica as an example
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    A.A. Chen; A.J. Stephens; R. Koon Koon; M. Ashtine; K Mohammed-Koon Koon

    This paper examines a pathway for small islands to replace fossil fuels by renewable sources, such as wind and solar, up to 100% to economically achieve energy security and satisfy The Paris Agreement to limit temperature rise as close as possible to 1.5 °C, in an economically beneficial manner. Using Jamaica, as an example, it is shown that the introduction of intermittent renewable energy to an island grid, which is electrically isolated, relying totally on itself for backup, causes serious frequency fluctuations and load shedding. Simulations show that a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) using Li-ion batteries can be employed to economically overcome these problems. It is also noted that the cost of batteries with longer discharge capacity is on the decline and their use is expected to be become economical in about 10 years. Looking at the reported pathway to satisfy The Paris Agreement, a 2-phase pathway is suggested. In the Phase 1 (2020–2030) 30% integration of intermittent renewables with BESS backup can be implemented in a manner that is not economically burdensome whilst the remaining fossil fuel system can provide the firm energy needed. In Phase 2 (2030–2055), more renewables can be implemented, provided sufficient long term storage, including batteries, can be added to provide firm energy. By 2030 the cost of such storage is expected to fall resulting in increased deployment without a financial burden to the islands. Ideally, during the period 2020 to 2055, there should be no new additions of fossil fuel plants and retiring plants should be replaced by renewable energy plants; although an account is necessary for plants already in the planning and development stages. The leeway period of 2020–2030 should be used for the preparation and planning of adding up to 100% renewables in all sectors.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Seasonal energy storage for zero-emissions multi-energy systems via underground hydrogen storage
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Paolo Gabrielli; Alessandro Poluzzi; Gert Jan Kramer; Christopher Spiers; Marco Mazzotti; Matteo Gazzani
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Integration of mitigation and adaptation in urban climate change action plans in Europe: A systematic assessment
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    S. Grafakos; G. Viero; D. Reckien; K. Trigg; V. Viguie; A. Sudmant; C. Graves; A. Foley; O. Heidrich; J.M. Mirailles; J. Carter; L.H. Chang; C. Nador; M. Liseri; L. Chelleri; H. Orru; K. Orru; R. Aelenei; R. Dawson

    Cities are major drivers of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions--the sources of anthropocentric climate change, whilst also concentrating people, buildings, and infrastructures and therefore potential risk and impacts of the latter. As a consequence, planning for climate change in urban areas does not only provide the opportunity but should necessitate considering interactions between mitigation and adaptation actions. However, existing research found that only a minority of urban areas consider both mitigation and adaptation in their climate action plans, i.e. 147 Climate Change Action Plans (CCAPs) were identified among a representative sample of 885 European cities. We investigate these 147 CCAPs to understand the degree of integration of adaptation and mitigation and draw implications for the maximization of synergies and co-benefits of such a combined approach. Using the developed scoring framework to evaluate the level of integration of CCAPs, the research finds that most of the plans reveal a ‘moderate’ level of integration. Moderate integration characterizes a plan that identifies sources of emissions and vulnerabilities to climate change, as well as some qualitative consideration of the synergies, but one that lacks a systematic consideration of potential integration opportunities. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that one of the main gaps of the evaluation and implementation of more integrated climate change actions in cities is the insufficient quantitative evaluation of the costs and funding schemes for adaptation and mitigation action implementation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A hybrid approach to prioritize risk mitigation strategies for biomass polygeneration systems
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Sue Lin Ngan; Bing Shen How; Sin Yong Teng; Wei Dong Leong; Adrian Chun Minh Loy; Puan Yatim; Michael Angelo B. Promentilla; Hon Loong Lam

    Biomass polygeneration system is one of the most attractive biomass technologies due to its technicality, feasibility and high associated investment returns. The synthesis, design and economic aspects of constructing a processing system using this technology are well-developed and have recently reached the stage of industrial implementation. Nonetheless, the early stage of technology development focuses on process and product safety and tends to ignore other risk aspects that are closely associated with the biomass value chain. Due to the complex nature of the biomass value chain, conventional risk mitigation strategies are ineffective in mitigating risks at the management level. More recent approaches, particularly stochastic programming methods, have yielded robust results in addressing technological risks and design uncertainties. However, such approaches are still unable to effectively consider non-quantitative risks such as business risks and regulatory risks. Hence, this study proposes a combined method of an analytical model and stochastic programming approach to prioritize risks and risk mitigation strategies for decision-making purposes. This work presents a novel multiple-criteria decision-making expert system based on fuzzy set theory, which is the Decision and Evaluation-based Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (DEFANP) method. The novel method functions to prioritize risk mitigation strategies within a network relationship of project goals, key components of the biomass industry and industrial stakeholders. As the stochastic risk mitigation counterpart, the fluctuations and uncertainties in operations, transportation, market supply-demand and price are modeled using the Monte Carlo simulation method. From this, risks of implementing biomass polygeneration systems can be mitigated by selecting a strategy that yields the highest analytical indicator while reconciling with the corresponding probabilities of achieving management goals. A palm biomass polygeneration system in Malaysia is presented as case study where the key implementation risks are regulatory risks, financing risks, technology risks, supply chain and feedstock risks, business risks, social and environmental risks.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A mechano-biocatalytic one-pot approach to release sugars from lignocellulosic materials
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Yuan Zhong; Henry Frost; Mauricio Bustamante; Song Li; Yan Susie Liu; Wei Liao

    A novel, mechano-biocatalytic one-pot process was developed by this study to efficiently release monosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials in an environmentally-friendly manner. The process synergistically integrates ball milling and enzymatic hydrolysis to complete pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials in a single step without chemical supplements. High sugar titer and conversion from lignocellulosic materials were simultaneously achieved. Among four studied feedstocks (solid digestate, corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus), corn stover demonstrated much better sugar concentration and conversion. Under the preferred reaction condition, the glucose concentration reached 55.20 g/L with a glucose conversion of 88.63%. The corresponding xylose concentration was 20.06 g/L with a xylose conversion of 67.34%. The energy and exergy analyses further indicate that the studied process had better energy and exergy profiles than the conventional combined hydrolysis process. The average energy consumption of the mechano-biocatalytic process for four feedstocks was 1.05 kWh-e/kg dry biomass that was 56% lower than the average energy consumption (2.37 kWh-e/kg dry biomass) of the conventional process. The corresponding average exergy efficiency of the mechano-biocatalytic process was 67% that was much higher than the average efficiency (52%) of the conventional process. These results show that the mechano-biocatalytic one-pot process as an environmentally friendly approach can significantly simplify the pretreatment and hydrolysis and enhance their efficiencies for advanced fuel and chemical production.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Renewable energy and geopolitics: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Roman Vakulchuk; Indra Overland; Daniel Scholten

    This article reviews the literature on the geopolitics of renewable energy. It finds that while the roots of this literature can be traced back to the 1970s and 1980s, most of it has been published from 2010 onwards. The following aggregate conclusions are extracted from the literature: renewable energy has many advantages over fossil fuels for international security and peace; however, renewable energy is thought to exacerbate security risks and geopolitical tensions related to critical materials and cybersecurity; former hydrocarbon exporters will likely be the greatest losers from the energy transition. Many of the reviewed publications share some weaknesses: a failure to define “geopolitics”; an unwarranted assumption that very little has been published in the field previously; limited use of established forecasting, scenario-building or foresight methodologies; a lack of recognition of the complexity of the field; a lack of theorisation. Most authors do not distinguish between the geopolitical risks associated with different types of renewable energy, and only a few distinguish clearly between the geopolitics of the transitional phase and the geopolitics of a post-energy transition world. A disproportionately large part of the literature is dedicated to critical materials and cybersecurity, while only a small part concerns the decline of former fossil fuel powers. Among those publications that do discuss the decline of fossil fuels, there is also an over-focus on oil producers and a lack of attention to the countries that rely heavily on coal, for example Australia, China, Germany, Indonesia, Poland and the United States.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Framework for developing a building material property database using web crawling to improve the applicability of energy simulation tools
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sungwoong Yang; Seunghwan Wi; Ji Hun Park; Hyun Mi Cho; Sumin Kim

    As the need to evaluate the energy performance of buildings has increased, the use of energy analysis tools has become more widespread and their results are now a key factor in building energy assessments. The current emphasis on the interpretation of building energy performance means that the enhancement of energy analysis tools and their ease of use is worthy of study. Based on analyses of building energy and the physical properties of materials, material properties essential to the analysis of building energy performance were selected. These properties were automatically extracted and stored using an algorithm to collect information from the internet. Based on the designed algorithms, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey and qualitative analysis to measure their convenience. From the analysis, the satisfaction level was found to exceed an average of 80%, resulting in a high level of satisfaction for practitioners using the energy analysis tool. It was also shown that the perceived convenience could be improved by reducing the duration of the search by at least 60% and by applying physical property information to the energy analysis application.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Regulatory stability and renewable energy investment: The case of Kazakhstan
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Anatole Boute

    To protect end-consumers from the financial impact of renewable energy subsidies, it is common for governments to radically change the level of support initially promised to investors. In reaction, investors can sue states before international arbitration tribunals. Based on a detailed analysis of recent (2017–2018) arbitration decisions in the renewable energy sector, this article identifies criteria of regulatory stability that states have to respect when reforming support schemes. The “regulatory stability model” developed in this article is then applied to the specific case of Kazakhstan – a country characterized with high regulatory risk and policy instability. The analysis highlights how a country with a risky investment environment can make stability commitments to mitigate investors’ concern of regulatory change. Paradoxically, too much regulatory stability can prevent the government from controlling the volume of subsidized renewable energy, which in turn can trigger radical policy change. This article concludes that, to limit regulatory risk for investors, it is insufficient to focus only on the protection of existing projects against regulatory change. A certain degree of regulatory flexibility must be integrated in support schemes to help governments limit the number of renewable energy projects eligible for support, and so limit the impact of subsidies on consumers.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Recent advances on catalysts for improving hydrocarbon compounds in bio-oil of biomass catalytic pyrolysis
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    P.R. Bhoi; A.S. Ouedraogo; V. Soloiu; R. Quirino

    This paper reports the progress of catalysts for improving the hydrocarbon compounds in bio-oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. In addition, the effects of the other operating conditions, such as temperature, type of biomass, heating rate, vapors residence time, carrier gas, and hydrogen donor on the yield and properties of bio-oil have been briefly explored. Temperature and catalysts type were found to have major impact on the bio-oil yield and quality. TGA-DTA analysis of biomass revealed that major biomasses pyrolysis zone for high bio-oil yield is in the range of 400–600 °C. Pilot, semi-pilot and large-scale units reported an average temperature of 500 °C for pyrolysis of biomass. The development of advanced catalysts such as zeolite-based catalysts, supported transition and noble metal catalysts, and metal oxide catalysts have been designed to remove the undesired compounds and to increase the hydrocarbon yield in bio-oil. Noble metal supported catalysts produced bio-oil with a low content of oxygenated compounds compared to non-noble metal catalysts; however, their cost and accessibility favor the utilization of non-noble metal supported catalysts.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Supply, operational, and market risk reduction opportunities: Managing risk at a cellulosic biorefinery
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Saleh Mamun; Jason K. Hansen; Mohammad S. Roni
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Kinetic study and performance evaluation of an integrated two-phase fixed-film baffled bioreactor for bioenergy recovery from wastewater and bio-wasted sludge
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Ehsan Ahmadi; Samira Yousefzadeh; Adel Mokammel; Mohammad Miri; Mohsen Ansari; Hossein Arfaeinia; Mojtaba Yegane Badi; Hamid Reza Ghaffari; Soheila Rezaei; Amir Hossein Mahvi
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • 更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Smart Energy Markets - Future electricity, gas and heating markets
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    P. Sorknæs, H. Lund, I.R. Skov, S. Djørup, K. Skytte, P.E. Morthorst, F. Fausto

    This paper introduces the concept of Smart Energy Markets. Sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy cannot be implemented without addressing the issue of how to re-design existing electricity and gas markets. Moreover, markets for heating and transport fuels will also be challenged. In recent years, the re-design of the electricity market has attracted a lot of attention and is an area of focus in research. However, the re-design of electricity markets should not be seen isolated from the re-design of other energy markets. By applying a 100% renewable energy system scenario, this paper illustrates and quantifies how future renewable heating, green gas and liquid fuel markets will influence the electricity markets and vice versa. Based on this scenario, it is found that annual average market prices on the future green gas and liquid fuel markets may potentially be affected by the electricity and heating markets by 60–120 EUR/MWh, and the heating, green gas and liquid fuel markets could influence the annual average electricity prices by up to 28 EUR/MWh. The concept of Smart Energy Markets expresses the point that mutual influences become essential in the design of future energy markets facilitating the transition into smart energy systems based on variable renewable energy.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Coke formation and deactivation during catalytic reforming of biomass and waste pyrolysis products: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Aitor Ochoa, Javier Bilbao, Ana G. Gayubo, Pedro Castaño

    Undoubtedly, hydrogen (H2) is a clean feedstock and energy carrier whose sustainable production should be anticipated. The pyrolysis of biomass or waste plastics and the subsequent reforming over base (transition) or noble metals supported catalysts allows reaching elevated H2 yields. However, the catalyst used in the reforming step undergoes a rapid and severe deactivation by means of a series of physicochemical phenomena, including metal sintering, metallic phase oxidation, thermal degradation of the support and, more notoriously, coke deposition. This review deals with the currently existing alternatives at the catalyst and reactor level to cope with catalyst deactivation and increase process stability, and then delves with the fundamental phenomena occurring during this catalyst deactivation. An emphasis is placed on coke deposition and its influence on deactivation, which depends on its location, chemical nature, morphology, precursors or formation mechanism, among others. We also discuss the challenges for increasing the value of the carbon materials formed and therefore, enhance process viability.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • A review on catalytic methane combustion at low temperatures: Catalysts, mechanisms, reaction conditions and reactor designs
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Li He, Yilin Fan, Jérôme Bellettre, Jun Yue, Lingai Luo

    Natural gas (with methane as its main component) provides an attractive energy source because of its large abundance and its high heat of combustion per mole of carbon dioxide generated. However, the emissions released from the conventional flame combustion (essentially NOx) have harmful impacts on the environment and the human health. Within the scope of rational and clean use of fossil energies, the catalytic combustion of natural gas appears as one of the most promising alternatives to flammable combustion. The presence of catalysts enables complete oxidation of methane at much lower temperatures (typically 500 °C), so that the formation of pollutants can be largely avoided. This work presents a literature review on the catalytic methane combustion. Various aspects are discussed including the catalyst types, the reaction mechanisms and kinetic characteristics, effects of various influencing operational factors and different reactor types proposed and tested. This paper may serve as an essential reference that contributes to the development of well-designed reactors, equipped with appropriate catalysts, and under well-handled operating conditions to realize the favorable (kinetic) performance, for their future applications and propagation in different industrial sectors.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Electric vehicles standards, charging infrastructure, and impact on grid integration: A technological review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    H.S. Das, M.M. Rahman, S. Li, C.W. Tan

    Transportation electrification is one of the main research areas for the past decade. Electric vehicles (EVs) are taking over the market share of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. The increasing popularity of EVs results in higher number of charging stations, which have significant effects on the electricity grid. Different charging strat2egies, as well as grid integration methods, are being developed to minimize the adverse effects of EV charging and to strengthen the benefits of EV grid integration. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the current situation of the EV market, standards, charging infrastructure, and the impact of EV charging on the grid is presented. The paper introduces the current EV status, and provides a comprehensive review on important international EV charging and grid interconnection standards. Different infrastructure configurations in terms of control and communication architectures for EV charging are studied and evaluated. The electric power market is studied by considering the participation roles of EV aggregators and individual EV owners, and different optimization and game based algorithms for EV grid integration management are reviewed. The paper specially presents an evaluation on how the future EV development, such as connected vehicles, autonomous driving, and shared mobility, would affect EV grid integration as well as the development of the power grid moves toward future energy Internet and how EVs would affect and benefit the development of the future energy Internet. Finally, the challenges and suggestions for the future development of the EV charging and grid integration infrastructure are evaluated and summarized.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • A review of steady-state thermal and mechanical modelling on tubular solar receivers
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Tim Conroy, Maurice N. Collins, Ronan Grimes

    Tower systems are forecast to become the dominant CSP technology in the future due to the potential to achieve high working fluid temperatures, thereby enhancing thermodynamic efficiency in the power block and facilitating dispatchable electricity through thermal energy storage. The receiver links the solar collector field and power conversion cycle in a tower plant, and is therefore a critical component that requires careful consideration. Tubular receivers represent the most prominent in commercial scale applications, with many research efforts devoted to the characterisation and modelling of such concepts. This article compiles literature engaged in steady-state thermal and mechanical modelling of tubular solar receivers. The discussion outlines contrasting approaches adopted by various authors, while also detailing some important findings from their investigations. Recent studies concerned with evaluating receiver thermal performance indicates a trend towards semi-empirical techniques, offering greater flexibility and accuracy than simplified analytical methods, without imposing a considerable computational expense that is inherent with more detailed numerical models. Such advantages allow for the screening of a large number of geometries, configurations, heat transfer media, tube materials, and operational scenarios at the receiver design stage. Mechanical reliability investigations generally consider thermal and pressure induced stresses, estimating potential damage of the component across its desired lifetime using design code guidelines or tube material data. The selection of thermal stress theory and damage evaluation method is critical to the overall mechanical life prediction, with different approaches presented.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • 更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Multiobjective optimal operations for an interprovincial hydropower system considering peak-shaving demands
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Jianjian Shen, Chuntian Cheng, Sen Wang, Xiaoye Yuan, Lifei Sun, Jun Zhang

    Large-scale power transmission in China poses a challenge for the operation of an interprovincial hydropower system (IHS) connected by ultrahigh-voltage direct current (UHVDC) lines. This study develops a multiobjective optimization model for the monthly operation of an IHS considering daily peak-shaving demands. This model is first transformed into a sequence of single-objective subproblems with different peak-to-valley ratio constraints. A multiphase multigroup coordination strategy is proposed in which the plant group for each month is determined based on the hydrological seasons of the different rivers. A multidimensional search method is then utilized to optimize the monthly generation schedules, where the energy target for a typical day is proportional to the daily load share in each month. Finally, a load-reconstruction-based strategy is used to determine feasible hourly generation schedules and obtain the peak-to-valley ratios to evaluate the monthly operation schemes. The above model and method are applied to a real-world IHS related to the Xiluodu-Zhejiang UHVDC power transmission project. The obtained Pareto solutions reveal the interaction between the energy production and peak-shaving objectives and show a significant improvement in peak shaving with a small decrease in energy production. Moreover, in typical inflow scenarios, all operation schemes enhance the total energy generation from local hydropower plants while leaving that from Xiluodu almost unchanged compared with the conventional operation results.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A systematic review of energy systems: The role of policymaking in sustainable transitions
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Fiona Robertson Munro, Paul Cairney

    The language of systems can be highly useful when defined clearly. It can help make sense of the interconnectedness of key actors, the ‘emergence’ of outcomes from large numbers of interactions, and the proposed transformation – by many governments - towards sustainable energy systems. However, ‘whole systems analysis’ and ‘systems thinking’ is often too vague to guide this project well. To explore these issues in depth, we show how they arise frequently in UK energy policy research and its impact on policymaking. First, our systematic review shows how researchers present patchy or inconsistent stories, in which the role of policy and policymaking is unclear, when they describe energy systems. Second, UK and devolved governments often use the language of systems to propose paradigmatic energy policy change, but refer to a metaphor rather than academic insights. Third, we outline three ways to make clearer sense of energy transitions and policy with reference to socio-technical, complex, and social-ecological systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Initial metal contents and leaching rate constants of metals leached from end-of-life solar photovoltaic waste: An integrative literature review and analysis
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Preeti Nain, Arun Kumar

    The photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the fastest growing renewable and environmental friendly sources of electricity. However, this huge deployment rate is associated with generation of end-of-life (EoL) PV waste containing particularly, carcinogenic metals, once their operation phase ends. This study attempted to address this upcoming waste issue by systematically reviewing about 300 review/theoretical/case/research papers/books/patents published between 2000 and 2018. The information was compiled and synthesized on: (i) initial metal concentration/content (IMC) for silicon-PV, amorphous-PV, CIGS and CdTe PVs; ii) statistical characterisation and distribution of compiled IMCs; iii) leached metal concentrations (mg/l) from various PVs in water-based leaching solutions, as per standard waste characterisation methods, in acid leaching and landfill matrix; iv) metal leaching rate constants (LRC) by fitting exponential model on reported plots of leached metal concentration values versus time using the GetData software; v) feasible application of compiled IMC and LRC data for: a) Leachate Pollution Index (LPI) determination of an MSW landfill dumped with solar-PV waste, b) human health risk assessment (HHRA) for exposure to lead leached from solar PV waste in an MSW landfill; vi) data/knowledge gaps from literature review and highlight the required future research actions. The range of IMC values for top three solar PV-associated carcinogens, arsenic, cadmium and lead (% weight) were obtained to be: 0.00–0.001, 0.0001–19.84, and 0.003–5.09, respectively. Further, the range of LRC of solar PV-associated leached arsenic, cadmium and lead were obtained to be (per day): 0.00–0.129, 0.001–0.031, and 0.003–0.041, respectively. Leaching of Cd, Pb and Se from PVs have been mostly studied in acidic conditions (pH 3.0–6.5), whereas, fate of solar PVs in landfill conditions was not observed to be studied much. The estimation of contribution of solar PV in leachate pollution potential of an existing MSW landfill at T90 values (i.e., time required for 90% leaching of metals) showed an increase of 5.15% in pollution potential of landfill if landfill were to be dumped with EoL PV waste as well. HHRA for exposure to groundwater contaminated with leachate from a landfill dumped with lead containing solar PV waste did not pose any significant risk, however, the carcinogenic effects due to other metals under this scenario cannot be neglected. Out of 85 studies selected for content analysis, only 2.39% of them investigated the fate of PVs in landfill stimulating conditions. To address the fate of EoL solar waste and reduce uncertainty in present work, following future research actions need to be initiated: (i) conduct experimental studies to obtain data on metal leaching under realistic dumping scenarios and landfill conditions (intact solar panels with bigger size in MSW landfill); (ii) revise the expression of LPI for including solar PV-based LPI with critical parameters, like carcinogenic metals (cadmium); (iii) investigate suitability of existing standard hazardous waste characterizing methods (TCLP or WET) for PV waste.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Thorough state-of-the-art analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle powertrains: Topologies and integrated energy management strategies
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Dai-Duong Tran, Majid Vafaeipour, Mohamed El Baghdadi, Ricardo Barrero, Joeri Van Mierlo, Omar Hegazy

    Hybrid and electric vehicles have been demonstrated as auspicious solutions for ensuring improvements in fuel saving and emission reductions. From the system design perspective, there are numerous indicators affecting the performance of such vehicles, in which the powertrain type, component configuration, and energy management strategy (EMS) play a key role. Achieving an energy-efficient powertrain requires tackling several conflicting control objectives such as the drivability, fuel economy, reduced emissions, and battery state of charge preservation, which make the EMS the most crucial aspect of powertrain system design. Accordingly, in the present study, various powertrain systems and topologies of (plug-in) hybrid electric vehicles and full-electric vehicles are assessed. In addition, EMSs as applied in the literature are systematically surveyed for a qualitative investigation, classification, and comparison of existing approaches in terms of the principles, advantages, and drawbacks through a comprehensive review. Furthermore, potential challenges considering the gaps in research are addressed, and directives paving the way toward further development of powertrains and EMSs in all respects are thoroughly provided.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • China's carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) policy: A critical review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Kai Jiang, Peta Ashworth, Shiyi Zhang, Xi Liang, Yan Sun, Daniel Angus

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), has been deemed an essential component for climate change mitigation and is conducive to enabling a low-carbon and sustainable future. Since the 12th Five-year Plan, China has included this technology as part of its future national carbon mitigation strategies. China's policy framework in relation to CCUS has had a strong influencing role in the technology's progress to date. This paper employs the “policy cycle” to analyze China's existing CCUS regulatory framework at the national and provincial level, evaluate its performance and clarify its shortcomings in light of the comparisons of policy movements undertaken in other countries. The results indicate that China's CCUS policy is insufficient for further development of the technology and many issues remain to be solved. This includes the lack of an enforceable legal framework, insufficient information for the operationalization of projects, weak market stimulus, and a lack of financial subsidies. These factors may be the reason we have seen low participation rates of Chinese companies in CCUS and little public understanding of what the technology offers. To overcome these challenges, suggestions are provided for improving China's CCUS legal and policy framework.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Pathways for integrated concentrated solar power - Desalination: A critical review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Amr Omar, Amir Nashed, Qiyuan Li, Greg Leslie, Robert A. Taylor

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants provide the means to generate dispatchable, renewable electricity in high direct normal incidence (DNI) locations around the world. Due to the strong inverse correlation between DNI resources and freshwater resources, most of the best potential CSP sites also lack sufficient freshwater resources. Thus, an attractive natural symbiotic pathway exists for developing CSP plants integrated with desalination (D) technology, particularly for sites in proximity to large bodies of salty water (e.g., seawater or saline groundwater). As such, this review critically explores the potential for five CSP-D designs proposed in the literature. Overall, this critical review compares and contrasts the major integration designs on the basis of common merits and limitations. A key finding of this review is that the choice of the most feasible CSP desalination integration is not a straightforward process. It was found that the details surrounding where energy extraction takes place from the CSP cycle can make a significant impact on the feasibility of the plant. In general, waste heat coupling and electrical-driven reverse osmosis integration were found to provide the best technical and economical results. However, no clear-cut ‘winning’ design could be concluded from this review. In fact, the water and energy losses of the condenser were found to significantly shift the results between the two designs. As such, we hope that this review will help guide researchers and engineers towards CSP-D development which has the highest chance of commercial uptake.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Improved urea-water solution spray model for simulations of selective catalytic reduction systems
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Rafał Rogóż, Łukasz Jan Kapusta, Jakub Bachanek, Joseph Vankan, Andrzej Teodorczyk

    Successive diesel engine emissions’ regulations impose increasingly tighter limits on the automotive industry. A well-established method to meet nitrogen oxides emissions’ requirements is selective catalytic reduction with a urea-water solution injection. State-of-the-art designs are based on close-coupled exhaust architecture which suffers from a lack of space for a proper decomposition of a urea-water solution. The optimization of such systems is very challenging and is always intensively supported by numerical simulations. Within this work a two-zone spray representation for a urea-water solution injection is proposed. The two-zone approach captures a non-uniform droplet distribution inside the spray cone while maintaining a reasonable calculation time, since it is still based on a Lagrangian method. The proposed model was applied into exhaust system simulations and tested against a standard spray representation. The results revealed that uniform spray representation led to a smaller wall film formation and different mass balance. Ammonia distribution at the catalyst inlet was not directly affected significantly; however, in real systems one could expect catalyst clogging due to wall film formation, followed by a decrease of ammonia distribution uniformity. The results clearly show that uniform spray representation may lead to misestimation of the selective catalytic reduction system’s performance and the novel two-zone approach should be used instead.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • A comparative review of municipal energy business models in Germany, California, and Great Britain: Institutional context and forms of energy decentralization
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Laura Brinker, Andrew J. Satchwell

    There is widespread agreement in policy and academic circles that energy systems in many jurisdictions are becoming more decentralized. Energy decentralization may be occurring among US and European municipal governments as they establish energy companies to serve customers and promote energy sector decarbonization. This paper reviews different forms of energy decentralization identified in the literature. It then reviews and compares municipal energy company development and activity in three jurisdictions with different legal and regulatory frameworks. Differences in institutional context, we argue, explain much of the variation in municipal energy business models and, by extension, the ways in which energy decentralization is occurring. Specifically, we show that the opportunity to take on monopoly functions where municipal companies are not competing with other market players, and thereby face fewer financial and operational risks, enable municipal energy companies to promote energy decentralization in business activities. On the contrary, these opportunities are limited where municipal energy companies must compete in markets with other players. The findings confirm that public policy institutions play a critical role in energy decentralization and demonstrate how studying commercial activities through a business model lens can help reveal decentralization dynamics. The results are also intended for cities considering new municipal ventures, especially where cities are trying to learn lessons from international examples. They suggest an explicit consideration of differences in policy and regulatory contexts.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Minimization of energy demand in slaughterhouses: Estimated production of biogas generated from the effluent
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Amanda Junkes Vilvert, Joaquim Carlos Saldeira Junior, Ivonete Rossi Bautitz, Dilcemara Cristina Zenatti, Maurício Guy Andrade, Eliane Hermes

    Many studies have evaluated agroindustrial effluent treatment systems. However, the use of quality control tools in this area is still not widespread, while reports of the use of such tools to monitor slaughterhouse waste treatment systems are practically non-existent. Investigation of exploitation of the energy potential of waste produced within these industries is a strategically important issue, considering the current drive to minimize environmental impacts and to generate power from renewable sources. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to monitor the biological treatment of effluents, using control charts, as well as to estimate the potential production of methane and biogas in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil. Wastewater samples were collected weekly and measurements were made of ambient and liquid temperatures, pH, solids (total and volatile), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oils and greases (OG), nitrogen, and phosphorus. The potential for methane and biogas production was estimated using the average daily effluent flow rate and the average organic load removal in the anaerobic pond. The effluent treatment system was evaluated by means of the construction of control charts, using the measured variables. This enabled the identification of factors that influenced the effluent treatment process, such as changes in the affluent load, environmental conditions, waste characteristics, and mechanical and human parameters. In terms of energy potential, the use of a covered pond (biodigester) would partially meet the energy demand of the industry, which consumed approximately 66 m3 of firewood per month, hence requiring 42969 m3 of biogas per month to supply all its needs. According to theoretical data, the waste could generate around 6790 m3 of biogas, which would supply 16% of the energy demand, besides providing environmental advantages such as improved efficiency of the treatment system and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Catalytic routes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to aviation fuel range hydrocarbons
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Hongliang Wang, Bin Yang, Qian Zhang, Wanbin Zhu

    The catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to aviation fuel is identified as a key strategy to alleviate high operating costs and serious environmental pollution caused by using petroleum-derived fuels. Aviation fuel with stringent end-use requirements consists of several specific hydrocarbon compositions, and the conversion of lignocellulose to aviation fuel is more challenging than that to other fuels. In this study, the latest cutting-edge innovations on the catalytic conversion of lignocellulose to aviation fuel was summarized. Promising routes for the catalytic conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and their derivatives were elaborated, with emphasis on those catalytic approaches including depolymerization of C–O bonds, formation/rearrangement of C–C bonds, and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) removal of oxygen-containing functional groups. Innovations on reaction mechanism exploration, catalyst development, solvent screening, and reaction condition optimization were introduced. It revealed that a 100% biomass-derived aviation fuel could be produced by catalytic methods with the full utilization of all lignocellulosic compositions. Straight and branched paraffins in aviation-fuel range could be generated from cellulose and hemicellulose via various intermediates including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, levulinic acid, and γ−valerolactone. The degradation and HDO conversion of lignin could yield aromatics and cycloparaffins in aviation range. The development of hydrothermal stable catalysts for the controllable formation of C–C bonds among platform chemicals from carbohydrates as well as for the efficient HDO conversion of fuel precursors is particularly important.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • The production of biodiesel from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) oil as a potential feedstock and its usage in compression ignition engine: A comprehensive review
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Murat Kadir Yesilyurt, Cüneyt Cesur, Volkan Aslan, Zeki Yilbasi

    Nowadays, energy consumption is progressively boosting in all sectors because of the rising in population and enhancing lifestyle. The dependency over fossil-based fuels has been increasing due to the ever-growing need for energy. The declining characterization of such energy sources and the increment nature of energy demand have led to vital apprehensions of energy regarding future energy safety. Keeping this in mind, the usage of alternative fuels such as biodiesel can be one of the possible solutions in order to accomplish the future energy demand. In this context, the biodiesel production is an attractive way for researchers. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable fuel that can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and also their wastes by applying different techniques. Contrary to the advantages, the biggest disadvantage of biodiesel is that costs are largely dependent on the feedstock. Although it has the nature of the food, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) can be utilized as a feedstock for biodiesel production because its oil consumption is limited and it can be grown in arid and dry areas all over the world. This review paper has presented a detailed overview of safflower plant, the physicochemical properties of safflower oil and its biodiesel, the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the safflower oil biodiesel when used in a diesel engine. The findings of the present work revealed that biodiesel production from safflower oil is possible and the observations from the literature resulted in comparable fuel properties, engine performance and emission parameters with those of diesel.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • A review of waste heat recovery from the marine engine with highly efficient bottoming power cycles
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Sipeng Zhu, Kun Zhang, Kangyao Deng

    This paper aims at presenting an extensive review of waste heat recovery (WHR) from the marine engine with highly efficient bottoming power cycles which include the steam Rankine cycle, organic Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle and CO2-based power cycles. After detailed introductions and comparisons of the bottoming power cycles, the design and selection of system components are reviewed. An in-depth survey of the WHR systems operating under off-design conditions is then conducted, followed by a summary of technoeconomic evaluation. Finally, challenges and opportunities of integrating the WHR systems with other emission reduction technologies are discussed. According to the literature, trade-offs between working fluid characteristics, cycle configuration, size, cost and WHR potential should be made in designing an optimal bottoming power cycle, and fuel savings ranging from 4% to 15% can be expected. The payback time of installing a bottoming WHR system lies typically in the range from 3 to 8 years, depending on the fuel price, ship type, heat and power demands and component costs. The high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation technology is superior to other NOx reduction technologies due to its high potential of recovering waste heat from the high-temperature recirculated gas. Ship's operational profiles, engine tuning and slow steaming as well as other emission reduction technologies are recommended to be fully considered for future research on WHR systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Review of wind generation within adequacy calculations and capacity markets for different power systems
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Lennart Söder, Egill Tómasson, Ana Estanqueiro, Damian Flynn, Bri-Mathias Hodge, Juha Kiviluoma, Magnus Korpås, Emmanuel Neau, António Couto, Danny Pudjianto, Goran Strbac, Daniel Burke, Tomás Gómez, Kaushik Das, Nicolaos A. Cutululis, Dirk Van Hertem, Hanspeter Höschle, Julia Matevosyan, Laurens de Vries

    The integration of renewable energy sources, including wind power, in the adequacy assessment of electricity generation capacity becomes increasingly important as renewable energy generation increases in volume and replaces conventional power plants. The contribution of wind power to cover the electricity demand is less certain than conventional power sources; therefore, the capacity value of wind power is smaller than that of conventional plants. This article presents an overview of the adequacy challenge, how wind power is handled in the regulation of capacity adequacy, and how wind power is treated in a selection of jurisdictions. The jurisdictions included in the overview are Sweden, Great Britain, France, Ireland, United States (PJM and ERCOT), Finland, Portugal, Spain, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Unlocking the potential of walnut husk extract in the production of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Zahra Khounani, Homa Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Abdul-Sattar Nizami, Alawi Sulaiman, Sayed Amir Hossein Goli, Elham Tavassoli-Kafrani, Akram Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali Rajaeifar, Ki-Hyun Kim, Ahmad Farhad Talebi, Mortaza Aghbashlo, Meisam Tabatabaei

    Biodiesel has a lower oxidation stability index (OSI) than mineral diesel fuel. Its consequential oxidation products and deteriorated physical and chemical properties of fuel are associated with engine operation challenges such as the formation of insoluble gums that can plug fuel filters. Given the fact that oxidation leads to barriers for commercial use of biodiesel, addition of appropriate antioxidants into biodiesel is a promising and cost-effective approach to overcome this challenge. Although synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG) are frequently used to counter the oxidation process of biodiesel, PG is a designated carcinogen. In light of that, this study was conducted aiming at introducing walnut husk methanolic extract (WHME) as a more sustainable antioxidant to replace PG in waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl esters. Moreover, to facilitate the commercialization of the new product, a comprehensive environmental investigation and comparison with the conventional counterpart, i.e., PG, was performed using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. To enhance the eco-friendly features of the natural antioxidant, a solar photovoltaic-driven extraction process based on methanol (as reagent) was used in extracting polyphenols from walnut husk. The results showed that the induction period of WCO methyl esters was prolonged from 1.2 h to more than 3 h (meeting the ASTM D6751 standards) using 5000 ppm and 250 ppm of WHME and PG, respectively. More specifically, 20-fold more natural antioxidants would be required to meet the international standards. However, since walnut-producing countries are responsible for 42.4% of global biodiesel production on one hand and the cost-effectiveness of walnut husks on the other hand, their valorization could attract the attention of the global biodiesel industry. Moreover, this study highlights the considerable environmental and health benefits of turning this bio-waste product into a value-added antioxidant fuel additive. The LCA results showed that the developed bio-antioxidant was more effective in different damage categories compared with PG, i.e., 0.32% in ecosystem quality, 12.13% in human health, 8.37% in climate change, and 614% in resource. Overall, the WHME obtained through solar photovoltaic-driven extraction process could outcompete PG from the environmental perspective.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • GIS-based modeling of residual biomass availability for energy and production in Mexico
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Diego Fabián Lozano-García, José Ezequiel Santibañez-Aguilar, Francisco J. Lozano, Antonio Flores-Tlacuahuac

    Energy demand in Mexico is expected to increase in the foreseeable future; however, recently adopted national policies require that Mexico reduces its dependence on fossil fuel-based energy resources. In order to identify areas with a high potential for renewable energy production, based on agricultural by-products a geographic information system-based model was constructed. The model considered a set of enablers' layers (agriculture residue, roads, electrical network, population, land use) and a set of restrictors' layers (slope, natural protected areas, water bodies, natural vegetation, populated areas, airports, and historical sites). Eight crops were selected: maize, wheat, sugarcane, barley, sorghum, agave, paddy rice, and pecan nut. These were selected based on their residue production, as well as being the ones with sizable production volume in several regions across Mexico, as well as the characteristics of their residual biomass that can be used for generating energy or chemicals, without altering the primary intention for these crops, which is human and animal feed. Four models were developed using a weighted overlay algorithm to construct the enablers' layer while the restrictors' layer was created by selecting features with a given characteristic or by generating buffers from the layer's features. The results show that it is possible to generate up to 70,951 MWh of electricity or 18,373 Gg of Fischer–Tropsch liquids using only 60% of the residual biomass. The distribution of these energy sources in the country is highly variable depending on the type of crop selected with a concentration of the crop residues along the lowlands of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean and the central states of Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Queretaro. The study covers a very ample set of municipalities throughout the country, therein their relevance.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • A comparative analysis on performances of flat plate photovoltaic/thermal collectors in view of operating media, structural designs, and climate conditions
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Wei Pang, Yanan Cui, Qian Zhang, Gregory.J. Wilson, Hui Yan

    It is well known the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules decreases with an increase in operating temperature. In this paper, we have investigated this phenomenon through classification of the flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector into four configurations (air-type, water-type, nanofuid-type and bi-fluid-type), according to the media used for operation. Benefits of using the different operation media were assessed and an optimum for high overall efficiency of the PV/T collector was achieved. Considering different variation trends in electrical and thermal efficiency of the PV/T collector, the effects of operation media, structural designs and climatic conditions on performances of flat plate PV/T collectors were discussed in consideration of relevant literature reports. Results demonstrated that the overall efficiency of a water-type PV/T collector was greater than an air-type PV/T collector, benefitting from the higher specific heat capacity of water yet with a complex structure. The nanofluid-type PV/T collector presented a higher overall efficiency than the others, due to the high thermal conductivity of dispersing nanoparticles in a base fluid and the colloidal stability of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the glass cover (with or without), absorber structure and relative location between the absorber and the fluid influenced the overall performance of the PV/T collector. In addition, the primary climatic conditions to influence performance were solar radiation and environmental temperature, with a dependence on the geographical installation region. Future studies were considered through progression of advanced PV/T technologies, when the PV/T collector could be integrated with residential and public buildings.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Evaluation of the potential of classic and electric bicycle commuting as an impetus for the transition towards environmentally sustainable cities: A case study of the university campuses in Liege, Belgium
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    ModesteKameni Nematchoua, Caroline Deuse, Mario Cools, Sigrid Reiter

    To address the negative effects of car use, conventional and electric bicycles are often proposed as environment-friendly alternatives. The aim of this research is to identify the prospects of a modal shift towards conventional and electric bicycles based on a case study analysing the mobility generated by the three main campuses of the University of Liège in Belgium. In the theoretical part of this paper, the known factors and strategies that affect most of the bicycle use in Europe are summarised and the need for a deeper understanding of the elements that promote a modal shift from bus and car users to the use of electric bicycles is highlighted. Consequently, the results of a survey conducted among the university population of the University of Liège(students, PhD students, and staff members; including 1496 questionnaire responses)are presented and analysed in detail. The Net Promoter Score (NPS), as an indicator of the user satisfaction, confirms that the bicycle has the best NPS compared with the main modes of transport (car and bus) and that the electric bicyclehas a greater NPS than the conventional bicycle. The importance of many factors affecting the use of cycling is lower if we consider the electric bicycleinstead of the conventional bicycle. Considering the current travel patterns in terms of the distances travelled, the potential for the use of conventional bicycles only reaches 23% of the university users, whereas that of electric bicycles reaches 70%. In the pursuit of a modal report, the most imminent factor is the development of safe bike paths, where a potential increase in the bicycle use is acknowledged by 74% of the students, 62% of the staff members, 62% of the car users, and 82% of the bus users. Finally, because the lack of safe cycle lanes remains the major obstacle with respect to the use of both bicycle types, the development and/or improvement of a comfortable and secure infrastructure for cyclists within a radius of 12 km from the main school and work places, especially in the main residential and commercial areas, should be prioritised to promote the use of both types of bicycles.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • A decision tree method for explaining household gas consumption: The role of building characteristics, socio-demographic variables, psychological factors and household behaviour
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Maliheh Namazkhan, Casper Albers, Linda Steg

    This research aims to develop a decision tree model for understanding actual gas consumption in residential buildings. Extending previous studies, this study examined to what extent four different type of factors, building characteristics, socio-demographics, psychological factors and household behaviour can explain actual gas consumption of Dutch households in 2017 and 2018. Data were collected from 601 households. A novel approach, a decision tree method, revealed that household gas consumption was related to building characteristics, socio-demographics, and psychological factors, while energy-related behaviour in households was not uniquely related to gas consumption. Specifically, house size, building age and residence type (building characteristics), household income and employment status (socio-demographics), and most notably egoistic values, hedonic values, environmental self-identity, perceived corporate environmental responsibility of the energy provider, and social norm (psychological factors) predicted total actual household gas consumption. These results illustrate that the novel integrated framework introduced in the paper yields a better understanding of actual household gas consumption. The results have important practical implications and suggest that it would be important to target these three type of factors in policy aimed to reduce household gas consumption.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • The socio-economic impacts of solar water heaters compared across two communities: A case study of Cato Manor
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    A. Naidoo

    There has been a global increase in greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities such as deforestation and urbanisation. In South Africa, the main source of greenhouse gases is the burning of coal for electricity generation. The South African government has implemented a solar water heater initiative into the Reconstruction and Development Programme, a programme established by the African National Congress government to construct low cost housing for previously disadvantaged citizens. These Reconstruction and Development Programme houses have been retrofitted with solar water heaters as part of an energy-saving initiative which reduces dependency on the grid and provides additional socio-economic benefits to improve the lives of its users. This study examined the socio-economic impacts associated with the use of solar water heaters in low-income households as well as their attitudes and perceptions towards using solar water heaters. The primary data was collected using questionnaires which yielded qualitative and quantitative data. The study area consisted of two low-income communities in South Africa. A holistic understanding of energy use and its impacts on households was gained. The study found that the solar water heaters had a variety of socio-economic impacts such as providing additional monetary savings that could be used towards livelihood strategies and benefits allowing households to spend more time on productive activities. In order to ascertain the community's perception and attitudes towards the technology, statistical analyses were performed. An overall positive perceived performance of the solar water heaters was found, however residences did experience an abundance of negatives.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Layered perovskite oxides and their derivative nanosheets adopting different modification strategies towards better photocatalytic performance of water splitting
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Yuchao Hu, Liuhao Mao, Xiangjiu Guan, Kevin Andrew Tucker, Huling Xie, Xuesong Wu, Jinwen Shi
    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Investigation of biogas production potential from mechanical separated municipal solid waste as an approach for developing countries (case study: Isfahan-Iran)
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Noorbakhsh Dehkordi, Ahmad Reza Taghipour Jahromi, Ali Ferdowsi, Mohammad Shumal, Ali Dehnavi
    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Review on carbon emissions of commercial buildings
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Mengxue Lu, Joseph Lai

    The building sector accounts for one-third of energy-related carbon emissions. For commercial buildings, their energy use has been widely studied but research on their carbon emissions has not been common. To provide a state-of-the-art portrait of carbon emissions of commercial buildings, a study was conducted. Through an extensive review of official datasets, government statistics, authoritative website information and 101 journal articles that are germane to the study, it was found that the global carbon emission has continued to rise although many places have introduced incentive or subsidy schemes for carbon mitigation. Carbon emission has become a major evaluation aspect of the renowned building environmental rating methods such as BREEAM and Green Star, but it remains merely an evaluation criterion under the energy analysis category of both LEED and BEAM Plus. Whereas the first international standard (ISO 16745) on carbon emission calculation and carbon metrics for existing buildings was not referenced in any of the studies reviewed, following this standard to pursue carbon studies in future can enable comparisons of study results on the same basis. Rather than simulation studies, more empirical research using operational data of existing buildings should be carried out in order to obtain real and definite findings. Despite the wide range of efforts made, the growth of carbon emission remains a live issue. How this issue could be resolved should be the focus of future research in this area.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • A review on municipal solid waste-to-energy trends in the USA
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    C. Mukherjee, J. Denney, E.G. Mbonimpa, J. Slagley, R. Bhowmik
    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Effectiveness of an ‘open innovation’ approach in renewable energy: Empirical evidence from a survey on solar and wind power
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Juliana Subtil Lacerda, Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh

    Driven by a rapid development of the so-called ‘open innovation’ paradigm, previous studies have provided broad evidence of the positive effects of external knowledge sources on innovation. Yet, little is known about the impact of external knowledge sources on innovative activities in the renewable energy sector. Based on an analysis of original survey results involving R&D organisations, we examine the role of different knowledge sourcing strategies for innovation in two technology fields, namely solar and wind power. The link between external knowledge sourcing and innovation performance is found to depend on sourcing strategies and technology fields. Our results contribute to the evaluation of strategy design by showing that solar power innovation benefits from a broad search strategy drawing on a large number of external knowledge sources, while wind power innovation tends to thrive through intensive use of a more limited number of external sources. We derive implications for innovation and energy policy.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Patent landscape review on biodiesel production: Technology updates
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    T.M.I. Mahlia, Z.A.H.S. Syazmi, M. Mofijur, A.E. Pg Abas, M.R. Bilad, Hwai Chyuan Ong, A.S. Silitonga

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Compared with fossil fuels, it has the potential to alleviate environmental pressures and achieve sustainable development. In this paper, 1660 patents related to biodiesel production were reviewed. They were published between January 1999 and July 2018 and were retrieved from the Derwent Innovation patent database. The patents were grouped into five categories depending on whether they related to starting materials, pre-treatment methods, catalysts, reactors and processing methods, or testing methods. Their analysis shows that the availability of biodiesel starting materials depends on climate, geographical location, local soil conditions, and local agricultural practices. Starting materials constitute 75% of overall production costs and, therefore, it is crucial to select the best feedstock. Pre-treatment of feedstock can improve its suitability for processing and increase extraction effectiveness and oil yield. Catalysts can enhance the solubility of alcohol, leading to higher reaction rates, faster biodiesel production processes, and lower biodiesel production costs. Moreover, the apparatus and processes used strongly affect the oil yield and quality, and production cost. In order to be commercialized and marketed, biodiesel should pass either the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards or European Standards (EN). Due to increases in environmental awareness, it is likely that the number of published patents on biodiesel production will remain stable or even increase.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Island energy transition: Assessing Hawaii's multi-level, policy-driven approach
    Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. (IF 10.556 ) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Taedong Lee, Mark B. Glick, Jae-Hyup Lee

    Islands are characterized by isolated energy systems and a reliance on fossil fuel imports which comes with significant economic and environmental consequences and difficulties. Specifically, climate change, energy security and reliability, and price volatility are contributing factors to transformational socio-technical change in energy systems. This study applied a sustainability transition management framework to conceptualize an island energy transition as a multi-level and purposive policy-driven sustainability and self-sufficiency socio-technical intervention. Using this contextual approach, we reviewed the means and scope of change, taking into consideration the prerequisites for developing an intelligent energy region from the inception of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative in 2008 to date. Based on a case study with document analysis and in-depth interviews with energy stakeholders, we assess progress on Hawaii's energy system transformation and associated socio-technical innovations. Through the lens of the multilevel perspective analytical framework, the case study results demonstrate how regime-level policies have stimulated actions at the niche-level to overcome significant policy and technological hurdles. Regime and niche-level actions in Hawaii's energy transition can inform potentially replicable sustainable energy policies in other islands as well as inland communities, states, and nations. This research contributes to energy policy literature by providing (1) a conceptual framework of an island energy transition; (2) a review of policy and technology solutions at the state and local level to support change; (3) a case study of a first-of-its kind energy innovation collaboration; and (4) policy implications for emerging island energy transition efforts worldwide.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
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