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  • Dust and PV Performance in Nigeria: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yusuf N. Chanchangi; Aritra Ghosh; Senthilarasu Sundaram; Tapas K. Mallick

    The accumulation of dust on photovoltaic (PV) devices has an adverse impact by degrading their performance. In this work, a review of the effects of dust accumulation on PV module performance and measures to mitigate them have been provided. Energy losses from PV due to dust is an issue which cannot be ignored and can be an obstacle to achieving renewable energy targets in Nigeria. However, this paper presents a number of mitigation techniques which are available to maintain a certain level of performance. There is a need for further conduct comprehensive research on the effects of dust in all geopolitical regions in Nigeria to acquire data that can be used for designing the PV module system considering the most suitable technique in reducing or preventing the effects of soiling in each specific area.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Energy decentralization in California and New York: Conflicts in the politics of shared solar and community choice
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    David J. Hess; Dasom Lee

    This study reviews the development of shared (community) solar and community choice aggregation in the U.S. states of California and New York. Both states are leaders in energy-transition policy in the U.S., but they have different trajectories for the two forms of energy decentralization. Shared solar is more advanced in New York, but community choice is more advanced in California. Using a field theory framework, the comparative review of the trajectories of energy decentralization shows how differences in restructuring and regulatory rules affect outcomes. Differences in the rules for retail competition and authority for utilities to own distributed generation assets, plus the role of civil society and the attention from elected officials, shape the intensity of conflict and outcomes. They also contribute to the development of different types of community choice in the two states. In addition to showing how institutional conditions associated with different types of restructured markets shape the opportunities for decentralized energy, the study also examines how the efforts of actors to gain support for and to legitimate their policy preferences involve reference to broad social values.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Storylines of (de)centralisation: Exploring infrastructure dimensions in the German electricity system
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    S. Funcke; C. Ruppert-Winkel

    The Energiewende (energy transition) in Germany is a major challenge from a technological and socio-political perspective. Among the contested issues is whether the transition should follow a more centralised or decentralised pathway. This contribution sets out to answer the question which storylines are propagated by three discourse coalitions concerning the centralisation or decentralisation of the German electricity infrastructure. For this, the storylines are defined with a focus on four infrastructure dimensions: (1) connectivity (grid level of power plants), (2) proximity (geographical distribution of generation), (3) flexibility (technologies for balancing supply and demand), and (4) controllability (control and coordination of generation and consumption). The coalition economic efficiency emphasises cost-efficient infrastructure and tends to support centralised solutions. The second coalition, renewables first, points towards the need for a rapid uptake of renewable energies to mitigate climate change and supports centralised as well as decentralised options towards that goal. The third coalition, citizen energy, supports a decentralised approach and also highlights non-technical issues like the involvement of citizens or regional economic effects. This research shows that while technological decentralisation is taking place to a certain degree and has received significant attention in practice as well as in scientific research, the support for it in storylines by discourse coalitions is limited. While the first two coalitions connect well to the existing electricity system and the issue of mitigating climate change, proponents of decentralised approaches have difficulties implementing their views on the federal level and in policy-making processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Assessing the socio-demographic, technical, economic and behavioral factors of Nordic electric vehicle adoption and the influence of vehicle-to-grid preferences
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Chien-fei Chen; Gerardo Zarazua de Rubens; Lance Noel; Johannes Kester; Benjamin K. Sovacool

    This study investigates the interconnected influence of socio-demographics, behavioral, economic, and technical factors associated with electric vehicle (EV) adoption interest and the influence of vehicle-to-grid mobility on preferences. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we examine the impacts of six dimensions relating to socio-demographic, technical, economic, and behavioral factors in a survey (n = 4885) across Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Our results show that younger males, with higher income, a higher number of children, and who had experiences with EVs, and generally hold sustainability values are positively related to potential EV adoption. Among electric mobility attributes, vehicle-to-grid capability and charging time are determined to be the influential predictors. Adding vehicle-to-grid capability can foster EV adoption in our analysis, considering it can add a revenue stream for EV owners. Individuals continue to use specific knowledge of conventional fuel vehicles when considering EVs and their attributes. Among all of our factors, the fuel economy, financial savings, and environmental value were the strongest predictors. In comparison, the driving range was ranked less critical to former EV owners than to a conventional car and current EV owners. Battery life was ranked more important to conventional fuel vehicle owners than current and former EV owners. Finally, former EV owners considered vehicle-to-grid to be more important than current EV and conventional car owners, implying that vehicle-to-grid could be the marginal incentive that would be the “tipping point.”

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Bright-Sun: A globally applicable 1-min irradiance clear-sky detection model
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jamie M. Bright; Xixi Sun; Christian A. Gueymard; Brendan Acord; Peng Wang; Nicholas A. Engerer

    Clear-sky detection (CSD) is a crucial process in numerous solar energy applications. Many CSD models have been proposed over the years, though model performance is generally found unsatisfactory for worldwide use. We demonstrate this qualitatively on 22 CSD models at five climatologically-diverse radiometric stations; all exhibit one or more limitations: (1) unreliability at high zenith; (2) unrealistic “clear” periods immediately before or after cloudy conditions; (3) relaxed (short-term false positives); (4) over-relaxed during clear conditions (longer-term false positives); (5) conservative (short-term false negatives); and (6) over-conservative during clear conditions (longer-term false negatives). A new globally applicable CSD methodology is proposed for a posteriori detection of apparent “cloudless sky” conditions on 1-min irradiance time series, named the Bright-Sun model. This new tool requires measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DIF), and consists of three stages: (1) clear-sky irradiance optimisation, (2) tri-component CSD analysis with the newly derived Modified-Reno method, and (3) a cascading durational filters to determine periods of apparent cloudless sky. Through qualitative evaluation and exploring sensitivity to clear-sky model selection, the Bright-Sun model does not suffer any of the aforementioned limitations at any of the five stations, despite their distinctive climates. Due to the significant influence of bright or dark clouds on DIF, which have much lower impact on GHI, the new model also exhibits extra discretionary power by including analysis on DIF and can thus identify apparently clear periods with zero or near-zero cloudiness. The Bright-Sun CSD model is coded in Matlab® and freely available (future releases in R and Python are anticipated). A script is attached as supplementary material in the original form. For a supported and version controlled release of the Bright-Sun model, as well as other CSD models mentioned within this document, the reader can refer to the CSD Library at https://jamiembright.github.io/csd-library/.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Prospective life cycle assessment of third-generation photovoltaics at the pre-industrial scale: A long-term scenario approach
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    M.L. Parisi; S. Maranghi; L. Vesce; A. Sinicropi; A. Di Carlo; R. Basosi

    The development of sustainable technologies for energy generation should necessarily undergo sustainability assessment. A well-recognized, valuable tool to accomplish this task is the life cycle assessment. In particular, prospective life cycle assessment can provide the useful methodological framework to calculate eco-profiles of third-generation photovoltaic technologies with a future-oriented perspective. In this paper, we present the life cycle assessment of a real semi-industrial production process of dye-sensitized solar modules performed by the Italian Dyepower consortium. Due to the unique availability of primary data at the semi-industrial scale, an extensive inventory is built and a long-term approach is implemented based on predictive scenarios featuring technological development and energy mix evolution. The aim is to evaluate of the potential of this technology from an environmental sustainability perspective as a renewable source for electricity generation in the future European energy market, namely, for building integrated applications. The results demonstrate the well-performing environmental footprint of the device and its pre-industrial fabrication process that, coupled with architectural versatility and remarkable performance in low intensity and diffuse light, make this technology suitable for different niches of the energy market. This analysis also highlights challenges in the fabrication process and identifies the technological improvements, alternative materials and engineering solutions that would further improve the environmental footprint of dye sensitized solar modules. Finally, the proposed life cycle assessment approach, provided that detailed and robust primary data are available, is valid for the investigation of the eco-profile of third generation photovoltaic technologies in terms of environmental sustainability in the European context.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Exploring the sustainability and sealing mechanisms of unlined ponds for growing algae for fuel and other commodity-scale products
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Rebecca A. Efroymson; Molly B. Pattullo; Melanie A. Mayes; Teresa J. Mathews; Shovon Mandal; Susan Schoenung

    Pond liners for large-scale cultivation of algae for biofuels and bioproducts are a significant source of capital cost and greenhouse gas emissions, both of which can be reduced by using unlined ponds. Concerns about using unlined ponds to cultivate algae focus on the potential for water and nutrient leakage and biological contamination. We review studies of sustainability and physical and biological sealing of unlined ponds and discuss the potential for use of unlined ponds for algae cultivation for commodity products, such as biofuels. Evidence from animal waste disposal, aquaculture, and algae cultivation shows that soils below ponds can develop self-sealing layers at the soil-water interface, termed bioclogging, which provides a solid basis for technology transfer to algae cultivation. The concept of unlined ponds for algal biofuels and bioproducts is tenable and deserves future research to further define acceptable environments for the use of unlined ponds. Further research is needed to determine the viability and longevity of self-sealing, unlined freshwater and saline algae ponds in various soils; the potential effects of the technology on algal productivity and biological contamination; and performance and economic outcomes from combining self-sealing ponds with limited deployment of liners.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Factors influencing public perceptions of hydropower projects: A systematic literature review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    A.M. Mayeda; A.D. Boyd

    Public opinion is a key factor in the development and deployment of energy systems. The perspectives of those living near current or proposed energy developments are particularly critical because these residents may have a strong interest in the project and their opinions could influence the siting of the technology. A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative empirical research published between 1980 and 2018 was conducted to synthesize and consolidate the results of studies that examined the factors that affected local residents’ perceptions of hydropower projects. The review involved searching databases and journals using multiple keywords and synonyms for hydropower and public perceptions. The initial search yielded 21,171 articles. Forty-nine of these articles met the criteria for inclusion and were examined further to assess the factors associated with the support for or opposition to hydropower developments. The primary factors that influenced locally affected public perceptions of hydropower projects included: (1) environmental and ecological impacts of the development; (2) local socio-economic impacts associated with the hydropower project; and (3) public participation and consultation practices associated with the development including availability of information. Differences in factors that influence public perceptions between developed and developing economies are also examined. The findings from this review provide insight into future research that may guide the development of more effective communication strategies and hydropower policy development.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Biomolecular photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: Recent developments and critical insights
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Hisham A. Maddah; Vikas Berry; Sanjay K. Behura
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Unpacking the complexity of community microgrids: A review of institutions’ roles for development of microgrids
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Martin Warneryd; Maria Håkansson; Kersti Karltorp

    Community microgrids implemented in existing electricity grids can meet both development targets set out in the Paris agreement: 1. mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through increased implementation of renewable energy sources, and 2. to adapt to climate related disturbances and risk of catastrophes. Community microgrids are, however, complex to implement and institutional change is needed to reach their full potential. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature and analyze institutional developments influencing the growth of community microgrids. The literature describes a concentration of microgrid activities in specific regions: USA, EU, Asia and Australia. Varying reasons for implementing community microgrids were found in the different regions but similar institutional developments occurred, albeit with differing emphasis due to contextual specificities. Formal directions do however influence informal institutions even though their aims differ. Power utilities stand out as a critical actor and both formal and informal institutions put pressure on utilities to update their traditional business models. This article illustrates how informal and formal institutions play a significant role in the growth of community microgrids in existing electricity grids and provide interesting examples which can be utilized by policymakers. Microgrid development is still in a formative phase and further institutional change in the form of updated regulations is needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The offshore-onshore conundrum: Preferences for wind energy considering spatial data in Denmark
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jacob Ladenburg; Pablo Hevia-Koch; Stefan Petrović; Lauren Knapp

    Installed wind energy capacity has been increasing steadily across the world and is expected to continue to do so in the future, in response to lowering costs of technology as well as increased renewable energy goals put forth by governments. Nonetheless, public opposition has been increasing and the discussion regarding siting wind turbines onshore or offshore is consistently present in public discourse. In combining a stated preference study with spatial data processed via GIS (Geographic Information Systems), spatial preferences for onshore and offshore wind turbines are explored while considering their visual impact and costs as well as controlling for the respondents' socioeconomic characteristics. In general, respondents state strong preferences towards offshore wind turbines as opposed to onshore. Furthermore, spatial data is found to be significant with regard to the preferences of the respondents, particularly respondents' distance to the coast and potential offshore wind farms and the number of wind turbines seen from the residence and the number of turbines in the postal area. As a secondary result, findings suggest socioeconomic characteristics such as age and income are significantly related to respondents’ preferences, in line with previous research.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Recent trends in applications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in bioenergy production: Review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    M.M. M'Arimi; C.A. Mecha; A.K. Kiprop; R. Ramkat

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are powerful methods that were traditionally used for treatment of hazardous materials. Based on their resourcefulness, these methods have recently found important applications in various processes of bioenergy production. Despite the growing interest in the application of AOPs in improving the production of bioenergy, there is no comprehensive documentation on how biofuels production operations have increasingly incorporated these oxidation processes. Therefore, the present study aims at reviewing the current state of the art and future prospects of applying AOPs in biofuels production. The usage of these processes in pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass, excess sludge, organic effluents, solid wastes and other substrates for energy production was reviewed. It was noted that wet air oxidation has high potential in pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for production of various energy types while sonolysis is most effective in biosolids pretreatment. Ozonolysis and photocatalysis are mostly used to selectively remove the colorants in organic effluents. However electrochemical oxidation has good performance in post-treatment of bioenergy effluents. Documented studies indicate that AOPs can be used to enhance trans-esterification thereby boosting biodiesel production. Moreover, they can be used to improve oil extraction from bio-algae to increase biodiesel yields. Comparative studies involving AOPs and conventional processes are necessary to determine their suitability for these applications. The possibility of using AOPs to upgrade low value biofuels to bio-products of higher value should be part of future investigations. A summarized criterion for evaluating the suitability of different AOPs in the production of biofuels is proposed in this study as a guide for their future usage. The main limitation of applying AOPs in bioenergy sector include high process costs due to costly chemicals and energy requirements. Further studies should investigate the possibility of integration of AOPs with conventional methods aimed at improving the process cost-effectiveness.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A state-of-the-art review on the vibration mitigation of wind turbines
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Haoran Zuo; Kaiming Bi; Hong Hao

    Wind energy as one of the renewable energies is serving as an indispensable role in generating new electric power. The worldwide installation of wind farms has considerably increased recently. To extract more wind resources, multi-megawatt wind turbines are usually designed and constructed with large rotors and slender tower. These flexible structures are susceptible to external dynamic excitations such as wind, wave and seismic loads. The excessive vibrations can compromise the wind energy conversion, lead to the structural fatigue damage and even result in the catastrophic failure of wind turbines in harsh environmental conditions. Various control devices have been proposed and used to mitigate the unwanted vibrations of wind turbines to enhance their safety and serviceability. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of the current vibration control techniques and their applications to wind turbines. Firstly, the widely used control strategies in engineering structures are briefly introduced. Their applications to suppress the adverse vibrations of the structural components of wind turbines, mainly the tower and blades, are then reviewed and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the vibration mitigation of wind turbines is very challenging due to the fact that the dynamic behaviours of wind turbines are very complicated, which are associated with the aerodynamics, rotation of the blades, interaction between the tower and rotating blades, and soil-structure interaction, etc. Moreover, it is a challenge to straightforwardly use many of the conventional control devices because of the limited spaces in the tower and blades.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Recent development of hydrothermal liquefaction for algal biorefinery
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    X. Gu; J.S. Martinez-Fernandez; N. Pang; X. Fu; S. Chen
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Pathways to climate change mitigation and stable energy by 100% renewable for a small island: Jamaica as an example
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    A.A. Chen; A.J. Stephens; R. Koon Koon; M. Ashtine; K Mohammed-Koon Koon

    This paper examines a pathway for small islands to replace fossil fuels by renewable sources, such as wind and solar, up to 100% to economically achieve energy security and satisfy The Paris Agreement to limit temperature rise as close as possible to 1.5 °C, in an economically beneficial manner. Using Jamaica, as an example, it is shown that the introduction of intermittent renewable energy to an island grid, which is electrically isolated, relying totally on itself for backup, causes serious frequency fluctuations and load shedding. Simulations show that a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) using Li-ion batteries can be employed to economically overcome these problems. It is also noted that the cost of batteries with longer discharge capacity is on the decline and their use is expected to be become economical in about 10 years. Looking at the reported pathway to satisfy The Paris Agreement, a 2-phase pathway is suggested. In the Phase 1 (2020–2030) 30% integration of intermittent renewables with BESS backup can be implemented in a manner that is not economically burdensome whilst the remaining fossil fuel system can provide the firm energy needed. In Phase 2 (2030–2055), more renewables can be implemented, provided sufficient long term storage, including batteries, can be added to provide firm energy. By 2030 the cost of such storage is expected to fall resulting in increased deployment without a financial burden to the islands. Ideally, during the period 2020 to 2055, there should be no new additions of fossil fuel plants and retiring plants should be replaced by renewable energy plants; although an account is necessary for plants already in the planning and development stages. The leeway period of 2020–2030 should be used for the preparation and planning of adding up to 100% renewables in all sectors.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Seasonal energy storage for zero-emissions multi-energy systems via underground hydrogen storage
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Paolo Gabrielli; Alessandro Poluzzi; Gert Jan Kramer; Christopher Spiers; Marco Mazzotti; Matteo Gazzani
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Integration of mitigation and adaptation in urban climate change action plans in Europe: A systematic assessment
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    S. Grafakos; G. Viero; D. Reckien; K. Trigg; V. Viguie; A. Sudmant; C. Graves; A. Foley; O. Heidrich; J.M. Mirailles; J. Carter; L.H. Chang; C. Nador; M. Liseri; L. Chelleri; H. Orru; K. Orru; R. Aelenei; R. Dawson

    Cities are major drivers of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions--the sources of anthropocentric climate change, whilst also concentrating people, buildings, and infrastructures and therefore potential risk and impacts of the latter. As a consequence, planning for climate change in urban areas does not only provide the opportunity but should necessitate considering interactions between mitigation and adaptation actions. However, existing research found that only a minority of urban areas consider both mitigation and adaptation in their climate action plans, i.e. 147 Climate Change Action Plans (CCAPs) were identified among a representative sample of 885 European cities. We investigate these 147 CCAPs to understand the degree of integration of adaptation and mitigation and draw implications for the maximization of synergies and co-benefits of such a combined approach. Using the developed scoring framework to evaluate the level of integration of CCAPs, the research finds that most of the plans reveal a ‘moderate’ level of integration. Moderate integration characterizes a plan that identifies sources of emissions and vulnerabilities to climate change, as well as some qualitative consideration of the synergies, but one that lacks a systematic consideration of potential integration opportunities. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that one of the main gaps of the evaluation and implementation of more integrated climate change actions in cities is the insufficient quantitative evaluation of the costs and funding schemes for adaptation and mitigation action implementation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A hybrid approach to prioritize risk mitigation strategies for biomass polygeneration systems
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Sue Lin Ngan; Bing Shen How; Sin Yong Teng; Wei Dong Leong; Adrian Chun Minh Loy; Puan Yatim; Michael Angelo B. Promentilla; Hon Loong Lam

    Biomass polygeneration system is one of the most attractive biomass technologies due to its technicality, feasibility and high associated investment returns. The synthesis, design and economic aspects of constructing a processing system using this technology are well-developed and have recently reached the stage of industrial implementation. Nonetheless, the early stage of technology development focuses on process and product safety and tends to ignore other risk aspects that are closely associated with the biomass value chain. Due to the complex nature of the biomass value chain, conventional risk mitigation strategies are ineffective in mitigating risks at the management level. More recent approaches, particularly stochastic programming methods, have yielded robust results in addressing technological risks and design uncertainties. However, such approaches are still unable to effectively consider non-quantitative risks such as business risks and regulatory risks. Hence, this study proposes a combined method of an analytical model and stochastic programming approach to prioritize risks and risk mitigation strategies for decision-making purposes. This work presents a novel multiple-criteria decision-making expert system based on fuzzy set theory, which is the Decision and Evaluation-based Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (DEFANP) method. The novel method functions to prioritize risk mitigation strategies within a network relationship of project goals, key components of the biomass industry and industrial stakeholders. As the stochastic risk mitigation counterpart, the fluctuations and uncertainties in operations, transportation, market supply-demand and price are modeled using the Monte Carlo simulation method. From this, risks of implementing biomass polygeneration systems can be mitigated by selecting a strategy that yields the highest analytical indicator while reconciling with the corresponding probabilities of achieving management goals. A palm biomass polygeneration system in Malaysia is presented as case study where the key implementation risks are regulatory risks, financing risks, technology risks, supply chain and feedstock risks, business risks, social and environmental risks.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A mechano-biocatalytic one-pot approach to release sugars from lignocellulosic materials
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Yuan Zhong; Henry Frost; Mauricio Bustamante; Song Li; Yan Susie Liu; Wei Liao

    A novel, mechano-biocatalytic one-pot process was developed by this study to efficiently release monosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials in an environmentally-friendly manner. The process synergistically integrates ball milling and enzymatic hydrolysis to complete pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials in a single step without chemical supplements. High sugar titer and conversion from lignocellulosic materials were simultaneously achieved. Among four studied feedstocks (solid digestate, corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus), corn stover demonstrated much better sugar concentration and conversion. Under the preferred reaction condition, the glucose concentration reached 55.20 g/L with a glucose conversion of 88.63%. The corresponding xylose concentration was 20.06 g/L with a xylose conversion of 67.34%. The energy and exergy analyses further indicate that the studied process had better energy and exergy profiles than the conventional combined hydrolysis process. The average energy consumption of the mechano-biocatalytic process for four feedstocks was 1.05 kWh-e/kg dry biomass that was 56% lower than the average energy consumption (2.37 kWh-e/kg dry biomass) of the conventional process. The corresponding average exergy efficiency of the mechano-biocatalytic process was 67% that was much higher than the average efficiency (52%) of the conventional process. These results show that the mechano-biocatalytic one-pot process as an environmentally friendly approach can significantly simplify the pretreatment and hydrolysis and enhance their efficiencies for advanced fuel and chemical production.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Renewable energy and geopolitics: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Roman Vakulchuk; Indra Overland; Daniel Scholten

    This article reviews the literature on the geopolitics of renewable energy. It finds that while the roots of this literature can be traced back to the 1970s and 1980s, most of it has been published from 2010 onwards. The following aggregate conclusions are extracted from the literature: renewable energy has many advantages over fossil fuels for international security and peace; however, renewable energy is thought to exacerbate security risks and geopolitical tensions related to critical materials and cybersecurity; former hydrocarbon exporters will likely be the greatest losers from the energy transition. Many of the reviewed publications share some weaknesses: a failure to define “geopolitics”; an unwarranted assumption that very little has been published in the field previously; limited use of established forecasting, scenario-building or foresight methodologies; a lack of recognition of the complexity of the field; a lack of theorisation. Most authors do not distinguish between the geopolitical risks associated with different types of renewable energy, and only a few distinguish clearly between the geopolitics of the transitional phase and the geopolitics of a post-energy transition world. A disproportionately large part of the literature is dedicated to critical materials and cybersecurity, while only a small part concerns the decline of former fossil fuel powers. Among those publications that do discuss the decline of fossil fuels, there is also an over-focus on oil producers and a lack of attention to the countries that rely heavily on coal, for example Australia, China, Germany, Indonesia, Poland and the United States.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Framework for developing a building material property database using web crawling to improve the applicability of energy simulation tools
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sungwoong Yang; Seunghwan Wi; Ji Hun Park; Hyun Mi Cho; Sumin Kim

    As the need to evaluate the energy performance of buildings has increased, the use of energy analysis tools has become more widespread and their results are now a key factor in building energy assessments. The current emphasis on the interpretation of building energy performance means that the enhancement of energy analysis tools and their ease of use is worthy of study. Based on analyses of building energy and the physical properties of materials, material properties essential to the analysis of building energy performance were selected. These properties were automatically extracted and stored using an algorithm to collect information from the internet. Based on the designed algorithms, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey and qualitative analysis to measure their convenience. From the analysis, the satisfaction level was found to exceed an average of 80%, resulting in a high level of satisfaction for practitioners using the energy analysis tool. It was also shown that the perceived convenience could be improved by reducing the duration of the search by at least 60% and by applying physical property information to the energy analysis application.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Recent advances on catalysts for improving hydrocarbon compounds in bio-oil of biomass catalytic pyrolysis
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    P.R. Bhoi; A.S. Ouedraogo; V. Soloiu; R. Quirino

    This paper reports the progress of catalysts for improving the hydrocarbon compounds in bio-oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. In addition, the effects of the other operating conditions, such as temperature, type of biomass, heating rate, vapors residence time, carrier gas, and hydrogen donor on the yield and properties of bio-oil have been briefly explored. Temperature and catalysts type were found to have major impact on the bio-oil yield and quality. TGA-DTA analysis of biomass revealed that major biomasses pyrolysis zone for high bio-oil yield is in the range of 400–600 °C. Pilot, semi-pilot and large-scale units reported an average temperature of 500 °C for pyrolysis of biomass. The development of advanced catalysts such as zeolite-based catalysts, supported transition and noble metal catalysts, and metal oxide catalysts have been designed to remove the undesired compounds and to increase the hydrocarbon yield in bio-oil. Noble metal supported catalysts produced bio-oil with a low content of oxygenated compounds compared to non-noble metal catalysts; however, their cost and accessibility favor the utilization of non-noble metal supported catalysts.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • 更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Regulatory stability and renewable energy investment: The case of Kazakhstan
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Anatole Boute

    To protect end-consumers from the financial impact of renewable energy subsidies, it is common for governments to radically change the level of support initially promised to investors. In reaction, investors can sue states before international arbitration tribunals. Based on a detailed analysis of recent (2017–2018) arbitration decisions in the renewable energy sector, this article identifies criteria of regulatory stability that states have to respect when reforming support schemes. The “regulatory stability model” developed in this article is then applied to the specific case of Kazakhstan – a country characterized with high regulatory risk and policy instability. The analysis highlights how a country with a risky investment environment can make stability commitments to mitigate investors’ concern of regulatory change. Paradoxically, too much regulatory stability can prevent the government from controlling the volume of subsidized renewable energy, which in turn can trigger radical policy change. This article concludes that, to limit regulatory risk for investors, it is insufficient to focus only on the protection of existing projects against regulatory change. A certain degree of regulatory flexibility must be integrated in support schemes to help governments limit the number of renewable energy projects eligible for support, and so limit the impact of subsidies on consumers.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Assessing the impact of climate change on building heating and cooling energy demand in Canada
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Umberto Berardi; Pouriya Jafarpur

    In recent years, the building sector has received increasing attention with attempts to limit its energy consumptions and GHG emissions. In fact, buildings account for more than 30% of the overall energy demand worldwide, with projections for increases in this quota due to climate changes, urbanization, and higher living comfort standards. This study investigates the effects of climate changes on the heating and cooling energy demand of buildings in the most populated urban region in Canada, i.e. the city of Toronto in Ontario. Statistical and dynamical downscaling methods are utilized to generate several future weather files, starting from different baseline climates including the old Canadian Weather Year for Energy Calculation CWEC (representing the 1959–1989 period) and the new CWEC 2016 (representing the 1998–2014 period). In dynamical downscaling, a regional climate model is used to obtain a finer resolution than traditional general circulation models. The generated future weather data sets are then used for simulating the energy demand of 16 building prototypes. The simulation results show an average decrease of 18%–33% for the heating energy use intensity, and an average increase of 15%–126% for the cooling energy use intensity by 2070, depending on the baseline climatic file of use and building typology. The forecasted GHG emissions of each building prototype are then discussed. The results demonstrate the need to perform building modelling with sensitivity analysis of future climate scenarios in order to design more resilient buildings.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The future of coal-fired power generation in Southeast Asia
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Richard Clark; Noah Zucker; Johannes Urpelainen

    As both China and India are moving away from coal in the power sector, Southeast Asia has emerged as arguably the most important region for future growth in coal-fired power generation. Here we use data from the January 2017 edition of the Global Coal Plant Tracker to understand coal’s fortunes in the region. More specifically, we manipulate three key policy levers – attrition rate, capacity factor, and plant lifespan – to provide a timely update on the future of coal in Southeast Asia. Using improved estimates of the attrition rate for planned power plants and capacity factors in different countries, we find that status-quo trends in Southeast Asian coal-fired power generation would significantly hamper the region’s ability to contribute to global efforts to limit warming to 1.5 or 2.0 degrees Celsius in line with international agreements, namely the 2009 Copenhagen and 2016 Paris Agreements. Though meeting these targets may be possible if policymakers limit the entry into service of new coal power capacity and reduce use of existing units, qualitative evidence suggests that there may be a lack of political will to do so.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Reaching net-zero carbon emissions in construction supply chains – Analysis of a Swedish road construction project
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Ida Karlsson; Johan Rootzén; Filip Johnsson

    Recent estimates suggest that the construction sector accounts for approximately one quarter of global CO2 emissions. This paper assesses the potential for reducing the climate impact of road construction. The study is structured as a participatory integrated assessment with involvement from key stakeholders in the supply chain, supported by energy and material flow mapping, an extensive literature review and a scenario analysis. The results indicate that it is technically possible to halve road construction CO2 emissions with today's best available technologies and practices, to abate more than three quarters of the emissions by 2030 and achieve close to net zero emissions by 2045. Realising the current potential would rely on sufficient availability of sustainably produced second-generation biofuels, indicating a need to speed up the implementation of alternative abatement measures, including optimization of material use and mass handling requirements, increased recycling of steel, asphalt and aggregates and enhanced use of alternative binders in concrete. Policy measures and procurement strategies should be aligned to support these measures with a clear supply chain focus. For deep decarbonization several key opportunities and obstacles for realisation of breakthrough technologies for basic industry are highlighted – including electrification and carbon capture for steel and cement, and hybridisation and electrification for heavy transport and construction equipment. There is a clear need to prepare for deeper abatement and associated transformative shifts already now and to carefully consider the pathway of getting there while avoiding pitfalls along the way, such as overreliance on biofuels or cost optimizations which cannot be scaled up to the levels required.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Hydrogen as an energy vector
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Zainul Abdin; Ali Zafaranloo; Ahmad Rafiee; Walter Mérida; Wojciech Lipiński; Kaveh R. Khalilpour

    Hydrogen is known as a technically viable and benign energy vector for applications ranging from the small-scale power supply in off-grid modes to large-scale chemical energy exports. However, with hydrogen being naturally unavailable in its pure form, traditionally reliant industries such as oil refining and fertilisers have sourced it through emission-intensive gasification and reforming of fossil fuels. Although the deployment of hydrogen as an alternative energy vector has long been discussed, it has not been realised because of the lack of low-cost hydrogen generation and conversion technologies. The recent tipping point in the cost of some renewable energy technologies such as wind and photovoltaics (PV) has mobilised continuing sustained interest in renewable hydrogen through water splitting. This paper presents a critical review of the current state of the arts of hydrogen supply chain as a forwarding energy vector, comprising its resources, generation and storage technologies, demand market, and economics.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Protection and grounding methods in DC microgrids: Comprehensive review and analysis
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    D.K.J.S. Jayamaha; N.W.A. Lidula; A.D. Rajapakse

    DC microgrids (DCMGs) presents an effective means for the integration of renewable-based distributed generations (DGs) to the utility network. DCMGs have clear benefits such as high efficiency, high reliability, better compatibility with DC sources and loads, and simpler control, over its AC equivalent system. While advantages of DCMGs are considerable, of particular concern are the associated protection challenges, such as lack of phasor and frequency information, rapid fault current rise, breaking DC arc and certainly the lack of standards, guidelines and practical experience. This paper presents an extensive review of fault characteristics of DCMGs and the protection challenges. Innovative protection techniques proposed to solve these issues, and comparative analysis of these techniques are presented outlining the strengths and drawbacks of each. Possible improvements to the current technologies and future directions for research, which could enhance the protection of DCMGs, are outlined in this paper.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Assessment techniques of the impact of grid-tied rooftop photovoltaic generation on the power quality of low voltage distribution network - A review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    A. Kharrazi; V. Sreeram; Y. Mishra

    Many countries have experienced a surge in the level of the penetration of solar PV systems in the last decade. A huge portion of the newly deployed PV systems are connected to low voltage Grid. High Penetration of PVs at this level could potentially disrupt the normal operation of distribution network. A major concern is the impact of these units on power quality indices. Namely, photovoltaic panels could increase the level of voltage and current unbalance, deteriorate harmonic distortion and cause the voltage rise. These concerns may prohibit higher pentation levels of PVs. Thus, proper assessment techniques are vital for network operators for the planning and decision-making process. On the other hand, many characteristics of PV system are inherently uncertain. These uncertainties should be properly modeled in assessment framework. The main effort of research communities is to propose new methodologies that could model the uncertainty of solar power generation and stochastic assessment methods that could accurately estimate the state of the operation of the network with different levels of penetration of solar photovoltaics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of recent publications and trend of research activities regarding methods of representing uncertain variables and stochastic assessment techniques for power system quality analysis.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Quantifying the integration of renewable energy sources in West Africa's interconnected electricity network
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Omotola Adeoye; Catalina Spataru

    The West African Power Pool (WAPP) aims to provide access to affordable electricity to all countries in the region by installing electricity interconnections between countries and creating an integrated electricity market. In this study, we develop a multi-regional economic dispatch model of the West African power system, and quantify the impact of increasing cross-border electricity trading and renewable energy sources on: electricity generation cost, carbon emission, electricity supply and rapidly growing demand. Our results indicate that increasing cross-border electricity trading significantly reduces unserved electricity demand that comes from load shedding in the region. However, in the 2030 scenario where only existing and currently planned generation plants are operational, increased cross-border electricity trading increases electricity generation from heavy fuel and diesel power plants by 16% and 8% respectively. Consequently, this results in an increase in total electricity generation cost and carbon emission in the region. In two scenarios where all fourteen countries in the region are interconnected, average marginal costs in most of the net importing and net exporting countries decrease and increase respectively, due to insufficient generation capacities in several countries. A key finding from our study is that most of the planned interconnections by WAPP could be underutilized in 2030, thus providing an opportunity to integrate unexplored hydro and solar resources in the region.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Graphene materials in green energy applications: Recent development and future perspective
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-15
    Chi Him Alpha Tsang; Haibao Huang; Jin Xuan; Huizhi Wang; D.Y.C. Leung

    Graphene, composed of single-layered sp2 graphite, with its superb physical and chemical properties, has attracted scientists in different areas, including electronics, medicine, and chemicals. Its applications in green energy were extensively studied in the past two decades. Results from different studies show that graphene-based products with different structures (2D and 3D graphene) can effectively enhance green energy conversion and storage compared to traditional energy materials like metal and metal oxides. This review focuses on the historical development of graphene, the variation of graphene products, and mainstream researches in graphene-based green energy applications carried out in recent years, such as fuel cell, solar cell, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), supercapacitor, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), and photoelectrochemical water-splitting cell. The development of graphene-based materials integrated with different 3D printing technology and the application of their products in green energy are also discussed together with a forecast on the development of graphene-based materials in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Combined heat and power from hydrothermal geothermal resources in Germany: An assessment of the potential
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    S. Eyerer; C. Schifflechner; S. Hofbauer; W. Bauer; C. Wieland; H. Spliethoff
    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Inactivation of pathogens in anaerobic digestion systems for converting biowastes to bioenergy: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Y. Jiang; S.H. Xie; C. Dennehy; P.G. Lawlor; Z.H. Hu; G.X. Wu; X.M. Zhan; G.E. Gardiner
    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Electricity for all: The contribution of large-scale planning tools to the energy-access problem
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Pedro Ciller; Sara Lumbreras

    There is a huge need for investment for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. Any effective approach to this enormous task requires strategic planning that combines diverse electrification modes: grid extension, mini-grids, and stand-alone systems. Advanced computer tools are necessary to support planners. This paper reviews the existing techniques, software tools, and approaches that can contribute to this job. We propose a comprehensive but compact mathematical formulation of rural electrification planning as an optimization problem. This general formulation establishes a common ground for a critical review of the different tools and solution methods and allows the identification of the primary research needs in this field.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Enabling smallholder farmers to sustainably improve their food, energy and water nexus while achieving environmental and economic benefits
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Mahesh K. Gathala; Alison M. Laing; T.P. Tiwari; J. Timsina; Md. S. Islam; A.K. Chowdhury; C. Chattopadhyay; A.K. Singh; B.P. Bhatt; R. Shrestha; N.C.D. Barma; D.S. Rana; Tamara M. Jackson; B. Gerard

    Traditional cropping practices in the Eastern Gangetic Plains, South Asia, are resource intensive, requiring large inputs of water, energy and human labor. They are also inefficient, with relatively low productivity for the inputs used although the climate, soil and water resources of the region indicate that greater productivity is achievable. In on-farm experiments conducted across three countries (Bangladesh, India, Nepal) we compared the performance of traditional and improved management practices to understand which better facilitated the production of food-grain crops while reducing energy and water demands, thus improving the sustainability of cropping system energy requirements. Benefits of improved over traditional management practices included increases of up to 10% in crop grain yields; up to 19% in water productivity; up to 26% in energy productivity; and reductions of up to 50% in labor. These metrics combined to reduce the cost of production under improved management by up to 22% and to increase gross margins by up to 100% (although in most instances gross margins increased by 12–32%). CO2-equivalent emissions reduced by 10%–17% compared to traditional practices. The principles behind the improved management practices, which we demonstrate improve the food-energy-water nexus while concurrently promoting more sustainable use of energy resources, are applicable across smallholder farming systems throughout South Asia and in many emerging-economy countries. These improvements to traditional management practices combined with our approach of supporting farmers through the implementation of new methods has widespread applications and the potential to assist many countries transitioning to low-energy, sustainable food production.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Techno-economic assessment and environmental impact of concentrating solar power plants in Iran
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Kamran Hirbodi; Mahboubeh Enjavi-Arsanjani; Mahmood Yaghoubi

    This study aims to assess the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of parabolic trough and solar tower power plants under the climatic conditions of south-central regions of Iran with an average direct normal irradiation of about 6 kWh/m2/day. The effects of power plant capacity, cooling system, solar multiple, and hours of thermal energy storage on the techno-economic performance of the power plants are examined. In addition, the environmental metrics including reduction of CO2 emissions, fossil fuel saving, and energy payback time are evaluated. Four power plant capacities of 20, 50, 100, and 200 MWe along with two cooling options, including dry and wet are investigated. Besides, the solar multiple and capacity of thermal energy storage are varied from 1.0 to 4.0 with a step of 0.1, and from 0 to 18 h with a step of 1 h, respectively. The ground weather data from the meteorological organization of Iran are used as input data in the System Advisor Model software. Based on the results, the optimal configurations for the studied power plants concerning the techno-economic parameters are determined. It is revealed that the dry-cooled solar tower power plant with a capacity of 100 MWe, 14 h storage system, and solar multiple of 3.0 is the most efficient configuration under the studied climatic conditions. For this concentrating solar power plant, the levelized cost of electricity and solar-to-electricity efficiency are 11.3 ¢/kWhe and 14.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the energy payback time is about 15 months, annual CO2 emissions reduction is 399 kilotons, and annual fossil fuel saving is 190 million cubic meters of natural gas.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Smart home technologies in Europe: A critical review of concepts, benefits, risks and policies
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Benjamin K. Sovacool; Dylan D. Furszyfer Del Rio

    Smart home technologies refer to devices that provide some degree of digitally connected, automated, or enhanced services to building occupants. Smart homes have become central in recent technology and policy discussions about energy efficiency, climate change, and the sustainability of buildings. Nevertheless, do they truly promote sustainability goals? In addition, what sorts of benefits, risks, and policies do they entail? Based on an extensive original dataset involving expert interviews, site visits to retailers, and a comprehensive review of the literature, this study critically examines the promise and peril of smart home technologies. Drawing on original data collected in the United Kingdom, which has access to European markets, the study first examines definitions of smart homes before offering a new classification involving 13 categories of smart technology covering 267 specific options commercially available from 113 companies. It situates these different technology classes alongside six degrees or levels of smartness, from the basic or traditional home to the fully automated and sentient home. It then elaborates on the 13 distinct benefits smart homes may offer alongside potential 17 risks and barriers, before introducing seven policy recommendations from the material. It lastly suggests three areas of future research on the demographics and behavior of actual smart home adopters, rethinking the duality of “control,” and looking beyond “homes” towards socio-technical systems, practices, and justice.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Energy decentralization in South Africa: Why past failure points to future success
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    A. Lawrence

    South Africa's energy transition has stalled on two related fronts: its rollout of renewable energy (RE) sources has suffered interruptions and delays, proceeding too slowly; and its extension of reliable and affordable electricity has been hampered by both irregularities of coal-generated supply, as well as austerity-driven delivery policies. This paper argues however that the concurrence of two, previously sequential historical events – fiscal crisis and intra-regime schism – currently augur more auspiciously for a more concerted move toward ED. After explaining the logic of tipping points and critical junctures, it shows why prior attempts at decentralization failed, how centralised RE has disempowered local communities, and why this may change with the planned unbundling of the country's energy parastatal, Eskom.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Fast frequency control ancillary services: An international review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Daniel Fernández-Muñoz; Juan I. Pérez-Díaz; Ignacio Guisández; Manuel Chazarra; Álvaro Fernández-Espina

    This paper describes the frequency control ancillary services (FCAS) that value the response speed of the frequency control resources and/or can only be provided, without curtailing available renewable energy, by inverter-coupled generation or storage technologies, which have, to date, been implemented or proposed all over the world. These services are referred to in the paper as fast frequency control ancillary services (FFCAS). The paper describes, among others, the following characteristics of the identified FFCAS: maximum response time, minimum time during which the response must be sustained, markets (if any) in which the agents can/must submit bids to provide the service, characteristics of the offers, whether the service is remunerated for the reserved capacity and/or the energy delivered, whether or not the service payment is performance-based, formulas used to determine the service payment, whether or not there exists a specific regulation signal for fast-acting resources, evolution of the service price. In addition, the paper describes a few FCAS which, though cannot be strictly speaking considered FFCAS, have a particularly demanding response time requirement.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Effect of membrane properties on tilted panel performance of microalgae biomass filtration for biofuel feedstock
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Allen K.S. Lau; M.R. Bilad; N.A.H.M. Nordin; Kajornsak Faungnawakij; Thanitporn Narkkun; David K. Wang; T.M.I. Mahlia; Juhana Jaafar

    Efficient membrane-based technology for microalgae harvesting can be achieved via application effective membrane fouling control coupled with appropriate membrane materials. This study explores the combined impact of membrane properties and the tilted panel system on filterability of Euglena sp broth, a potential source of biofuel feedstock. Four membranes from polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polysulfone (PSF) of PVDF-1, PVDF-3, PSF-1 and PSF-3 were evaluated. Generally, increasing aeration rate, tilting angle and lowering switching period enhance the system performance for all the tested membranes to give the highest permeances of 660, 724, 743 L/m2 h bar, respectively. Those values are among the highest reported in literature. The magnitude of the effect is affected by the membrane properties, mainly by pore size. Tilting without switching configuration is desirable for the membrane with a large pore size (PVDF-1, 0.42 μm) which produced the highest panel permeability of 724.3 (L/m2 h bar), which is >23% higher than the tilted with switching. For this membrane, intermittent aeration applied under switching mode worsened the pore blocking. Membranes with low pore sizes (0.11, 0.04 and 0.03 μm for PVDF-3, PSF-1 and PSF-3, respectively) excelled under switching mode since they are less prone to pore blocking due to smaller pore apertures. Overall results suggest that to gain the full benefit of the tilted panel, operational system of either one-sided without switching or two-sided involving switching must be tailored in conjunction with the desirable properties of the membranes. This finding can help to lower the energy input for microalgae-based biofuel production.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • From bioethanol containing fuels towards a fuel economy that includes methanol derived from renewable sources and the impact on European Union decision-making on transition pathways
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    T.B. Bonenkamp; L.M. Middelburg; M.O. Hosli; R.F. Wolffenbuttel

    Decision-making on the optimum transition pathway to an energy economy that meets agreed carbon reduction goals in the European Union (EU) by 2050 is challenging, because of the size of the infrastructural legacy, technological uncertainties, affordability and assumptions on future energy demand. This task is even more complicated in transportation because of additional issues, such as minimum travel range at acceptable impact on payload and ensuring hazzle-free long-distance driving in case of regionally varying fuel economies. Biofuels were the first viable option for a large-scale partly renewable fuel economy. E10 and B7 fuels have been successfully and remarkably smoothly introduced, owing to the fact that these are liquid and can be used in conventional combustion engines with little impact on full-tank travel range. In contrast, the decision-making process on biofuels in the EU has been particularly turbulent, with an initially favourable assessment changing into controversial. Here the compatibility between the fuel economies of member states and avoidance of disruptive social effects are considered as essential pre-requisite of a viable transition pathway. Rebalancing three different aspects of the social dimension of sustainability is used to demonstrate that a succession of infrastructures based on liquid fuels, with biofuels as an interlock towards an economy that includes methanol-based eFuel, has the potential to bring continuity, reduce dependence on anticipated technological advances and improve cost management. Awareness of this underexposed prospect of biofuel may positively affect the assessment on its role in a low-carbon fuel economy, potentially influencing the current decision-making process on biofuels.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Impacts of variable renewable energy on wholesale markets and generating assets in the United States: A review of expectations and evidence
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Andrew D. Mills; Todd Levin; Ryan Wiser; Joachim Seel; Audun Botterud

    We synthesize available literature, data, and analysis on the degree to which growth in variable renewable energy (VRE) has impacted or might in the future impact bulk power system assets, pricing, and costs in the United States. Most studies of future scenarios indicate that VRE reduces wholesale energy prices and capacity factors of thermal generators. Traditional baseload generators are more exposed to these changing market conditions than low-capital cost and more flexible intermediate and peak-load generators. From analysis of historical data we find that VRE is already influencing the bulk power market through changes in temporal and geographic patterns areas with higher levels of VRE. The most significant observed impacts have concentrated in areas with significant VRE and/or nuclear generation along with limited transmission, with negative pricing also often occurring during periods with lower system-wide load. So far, however, VRE, has had a relatively modest impact on historical average annual wholesale prices across entire market regions, at least in comparison to other drivers. The reduction of natural gas prices is the primary contributor to the decline in wholesale prices since 2008. Similarly, VRE impacts on thermal plant retirements have been limited and there is little relationship between the location of recent retirements and VRE penetration levels. Although impacts on wholesale prices have been modest so far, impacts of VRE on the electricity market will be more significant under higher VRE penetrations.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Understanding solar resource variability: An in-depth analysis, using Chile as a case of study
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Armando Castillejo-Cuberos; Rodrigo Escobar

    Short-term solar radiation variability is a key parameter to understand the solar resource, as it is concerned with describing the dynamic characteristics of irradiance, that have significant transient effects in solar system performance. Worldwide installed solar capacity is consistently increasing and it can considerably affect the dynamics of electric systems. An understanding of resource dynamics and how it affects power forecasts will become paramount for appropriate handling of the solar resource. Chile showcases this scenario, as solar installed capacity is close to 10% of the nationwide total and energy curtailment is occurring mainly due to transmission restrictions. Although several metrics are available in the literature to assess solar resource variability, consensus needs to be stablished, as well as a common framework to evaluate results obtained through the different metrics. This work analyses 1-min resolution data for several years at eight locations in Chile to assess short-term solar radiation variability using 6 well-stablished metrics, compares the information provided by each one and develops correlations to compare results among them. Additionally, high-speed transient phenomena are analyzed and a new metric is defined to assess the solar resource with respect to its quality in static and dynamic terms. Finally, four day classification schemes are developed and evaluated, and results for Chile are shown in the context of its geography and climatological classification.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • 更新日期:2019-12-26
  • The optimum daily direction of solar panels in the highlands, derived by an analytical method
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Rauf Gardashov; Murad Eminov; Gökhan Kara; Esma Gül Emecen Kara; Tural Mammadov; Xedce Huseynova

    It is well known, that for the efficient usage of solar energy the choosing the optimal location and direction of solar panels is one of most important issues. Finding the correct solution for this problem is especially significant in mountain regions that have a complex topography. A new method for the determination of the optimal daily panel direction is presented. The method is based on a simple mathematical model of solar radiation, which determines the amount of solar energy for any instant of time and any point taking into account shadowing of the Sun caused by surrounding relief. The optimal direction of the solar panel is determined analytically, as a solution of the derived system of equations. An algorithm for the determination of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual optimal directions is realised. The results of calculations and measurements for the chosen site are presented and the adequacy of the method is tested. The method can be especially useful for the smart determination of optimal direction and installation of panels in mountain regions which have high touristic potential and require clean energy usage.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Everything must change in order to stay as it is. The impossible decentralization of the electricity sector in France
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    F.-M. Poupeau

    Driven by many actors, the issue of energy decentralization has reappeared on the French political agenda. Celebrated in the past for its capacity to modernize and electrify territories, the centralized model now appears in crisis and is disputed for its inability to meet the new challenges of energy transition. On the contrary, local authorities are put forward, given the strengths they may have, in terms of knowledge of territories, proximity to citizens or synergy. Symbolizing this growing interest, the reference to “territories”, to “local authorities”, to “decentralization” has now become unavoidable in legal texts, giving rise to an abundant academic literature. There is a significant gap, in France, between this new rhetoric and the institutional reality, and the centralized model remains firmly established. We propose to explain this permanence by using a multilevel analysis approach mobilizing the concept of “policy networks”. We first draw a mapping of the different forces involved in the issue of energy decentralization, highlighting ideas and interests they defend, as well as the resources they can mobilize. In a second part, we show how these different networks have shaped an institutional framework in which the role of local authorities remains highly controlled. In the energy industry sector, it is essentially reduced to the distribution segment. In other areas where energy is involved (housing, urban and regional planning, etc.), this role is more important, since local authorities are more perceived as allies by centralizing forces, able to territorialise the energy policy objectives they defend.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Thermal transport properties of boron nitride based materials: A review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Vaishali Sharma, Hardik L. Kagdada, Prafulla K. Jha, Piotr Śpiewak, Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski

    The era of thermoelectric materials has begun in the search of clean, green and renewable anticipated energy resources. Thermoelectric materials are attracting a lot of spotlights by directly converting waste heat in electricity and could be a valuable part in world's energy emergence. Present review provides an insight into the emerging boron nitride (BN) structures on the basis of their thermoelectric properties. In the recent years, advances in the synthesis of boron nitride based structures which are analogous to carbon, have attracted significant interest by the researchers. The electronic, optical and vibrational properties of boron nitride structures are widely studied, while the thermoelectric properties have not been thoroughly investigated. However, over the past years, a significant effort has been directed towards the enhancement of their thermoelectric properties. The higher the value of figure of merit (ZT), the greater is the production of electricity. Different technologies were adopted by researchers in developing the thermoelectric efficiency. Due to the interconnection between thermoelectric parameters it is difficult to achieve ZT up to 2 or 3. Commercially existing Pb–Te and Bi–Te based thermoelectric materials provide good thermoelectric efficiency but are toxic, denser and of high cost. Therefore, there is a need of environment friendly, reusable and low cost thermoelectric materials. An extensive review of the thermoelectric characteristics of bulk phases of BN (like a-BN, c-BN, and w-BN), hexagonal-BN (h-BN), boron nitride nanotube (BNNT), boron nitride nanoribbon (ABNNR and ZBNNR), boron nitride quantum dots and boron nitride composites is presented. This evolution in boron nitride based materials will elucidate their potential for developing high-performance next-generation thermoelectric devices.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Hydrogen vehicles in urban logistics: A total cost of ownership analysis and some policy implications
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    J. Jones, A. Genovese, A. Tob-Ogu

    Freight transport accounts for 8–15% of total traffic flow in urban areas within the European Union. The majority of these deliveries are undertaken by diesel-powered vehicles with extremely disproportionate levels of CO2, NOx and particulate matter emissions. Accordingly, a variety of strategic options have been advanced as key solutions for addressing fossil fuel demand and emissions in urban freight transport. This paper progresses the discourse on hydrogen vehicles as viable strategic options for addressing sustainability concerns in urban logistics by undertaking a comprehensive total cost of ownership analysis. Outcomes from this study not only support the economic competitiveness of hydrogen vehicles, but also analyse implications of several future policy and market scenarios.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Review of Thermal-Hydraulic Issues and Studies of Lead-based fast reactors
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Yan Zhang, Chenglong Wang, Zhike Lan, Shiying Wei, Ronghua Chen, Wenxi Tian, Guanghui Su

    The lead-based reactor is one of the fourth-generation nuclear energy systems with excellent development prospects. It has attracted much attention because of its unique advantages in fuel transmutation and breeding, passive safety, and economic efficiency. In this study, the main features of typical lead-based fast reactors (LFRs) worldwide are reviewed and current challenges in their development are pointed out. Moreover, the research progress in four main thermal-hydraulic aspects is overviewed and discussed, including the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the coolant, thermal-hydraulic analysis of the reactor core, lead pool and reactor system. These aspects are further divided into specific issues according to the developing needs of LFR. For each issue, up-to-date research findings, existing difficulties, and future trends are presented. This study can serve as a reference for the design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of LFRs.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A review on rapid responsive energy storage technologies for frequency regulation in modern power systems
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Umer Akram, Mithulananthan Nadarajah, Rakibuzzaman Shah, Federico Milano

    A paradigm shift in power generation technologies is happening all over the world. This results in replacement of conventional synchronous machines with inertia less power electronic interfaced renewable energy sources (RES). The replacement by intermittent RES, i.e., solar PV and wind turbines, has two-fold effect on power systems: (i) reduction in inertia and (ii) intermittent generation, lead to the degradation of the frequency stability. In modern power system, the frequency regulation (FR) has become one of the most crucial challenges compared to conventional system because the inertia is reduced and both generation and demand are stochastic. The fast responsive energy storage technologies, i.e., battery energy storage, supercapacitor storage technology, flywheel energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage are recognized as viable sources to provide FR in power system with high penetration of RES. The important aspects that are required to understand the applications of rapid responsive energy storage technologies for FR are modeling, planning (sizing and location of storage), and operation (control of storage). This paper comprehensively reviews these important aspects to understand the applications of fast responsive storage technologies more effectively for FR services. In addition, based on the real world experiences this paper highlights the gaps and limitations in the state-of-the-art practices. Moreover, this study also provides recommendations and future directions for researchers working on the applications of storage technologies providing FR services.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Prospects in anode materials for sodium ion batteries - A review
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Tahira Perveen, Muhammad Siddiq, Nadia Shahzad, Rida Ihsan, Abrar Ahmad, Muhammad Imran Shahzad
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Heat transfer enhancement, intensification and optimisation in heat exchanger network retrofit and operation
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Qiu-Wang Wang, Petar Sabev Varbanov, Min Zeng, Hon Huin Chin, Nathan Sanjay Lal, Nian-Qi Li, Bohong Wang, Xue-Chao Wang, Timothy Gordon Walmsley

    The improvement of heat recovery in the industry has traditionally been approached from two different viewpoints – Process Intensification and Process Integration. Many of the developments took the form of Heat Transfer Enhancement or Heat Integration within Heat Exchanger Networks, developing in parallel. In the past decade, however, there have been successful applications of both approaches together, resulting in cost benefits for heat-integrated retrofits. Heat Integration literature has continued to provide a variety of network modelling and retrofit approaches. Recent reviews of the area show that the mathematical-based and thermodynamic-based approaches have reached maturity within the current modelling paradigm. There are indications that the modelling concepts and frameworks need a further step-change to bridge the gap between the solutions to heat recovery problems offered by the current methods and the practical implementation in terms of real retrofit actions, leading to economically feasible reduction of energy use and emissions. The current paper takes these indications as a departure point and reviews the history and the recent developments in the areas of Heat Transfer Enhancement and the retrofit of Heat Exchanger Networks, providing a critical analysis from the viewpoint of obtaining practical solutions with positive cash flows, while minimising the issues related to operability – emissions, flexible operation and control. The analysis clearly shows the need to focus future research and development efforts on increasing model fidelity and practicality, addressing operability issues, and most importantly – development of flexible and efficient tools for communicating optimisation results to industrial practitioners and plant managers who would implement the process retrofit recommendations.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • A review of Nigerian energy access studies: The story told so far
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    B. Ugwoke, O. Gershon, C. Becchio, S.P. Corgnati, P. Leone

    Nigeria has been accorded the largest economy in Africa and one of Africa's burgeoning economies. However, a high percentage of the population lives in extreme poverty and is largely rural, accounting for about 51% of the total, approximately 96 million people in 2016. This glaring reality is most evident in the undisputed urban and rural divide with a huge mass of the population living in these rural areas characterised by underdevelopment and limited access to electricity and modern energy services. Energy access is an indispensable instrument such that can be used to achieve great strides in human development, better the economy and enable sustainable development. The present work reviews the state of the art on Nigerian energy access studies and provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature spanning energy planning, electrification planning, rural electrification, renewable resource potential, energy & electricity access impact, and policies & reforms. It delineates the narrative in existing literature and propounds a new trajectory for future work. This study was facilitated by an extensive systematic literature review which has resulted in an analysis of 90 relevant articles out of a total of 104 articles from a period of 1978–2019. The review reveals no consensus on a standardized framework to synergize the already available strategies and methodologies for improving Nigeria's energy access. An integrated framework that embodies a multi-disciplinary study is introduced and forms the foundation upon which the authors of this paper are conducting further research to conceptualize a unified road map for energy planning, system design, and operation with renewable energy integration geared towards improving localized energy access in Nigeria.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Biomass for energy: A review on supply chain management models
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    L.J.R. Nunes, T.P. Causer, D. Ciolkosz

    The present study reviews the status of research on biomass supply chain modeling. Biomass has become increasingly important as a renewable alternative energy source. One of the most critical aspects associated with the use of biomass is its supply chain and all the elements that are part of it. Indeed, in order for the use of this type of energy resource to become viable, its supply chain, from collection and transport to storage and distribution, needs to be well structured and optimized. Modeling is a critical step in developing understanding that leads to improved supply chain efficiency. Thus far, investigations that utilize supply chain models have focused on assessing specific supply chain scenarios, usually with an objective of minimizing cost. Significant opportunity exists to improve and expand the modeling process to allow for efficient supply chain design and operation. During this article will be analyzed several models presented by recent research that approach different situations and scenarios. At the end it is shown that biomass for energy supply chain models must include the analysis of several different variables and include the main disadvantages of its use as well.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Examining the decreasing share of renewable energy amid growing thermal capacity: The case of South America
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    S. Arango-Aramburo, J.P. Ríos-Ocampo, E.R. Larsen

    Concerns about climate change have required energy policy to be reconsidered around the world. The transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy has the potential to contribute significantly to the goals of the Paris Agreement (2015), particularly in the developing world. The recent evolution of total installed capacity of electricity mix in eight South American countries and the current renewable energy policy is considered. Indications of an energy paradox are seen: the installed share of thermal capacity increases as energy demand grows, decreasing the share of renewable energy despite the government's stated policy and commitment to increasing renewables in electricity generation through incentives and regulations. The share of installed hydro compared to thermal generation declined from 2007 to 2017 in Chile, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, South American countries are unlikely to reach the aforementioned share of renewables in the energy matrix, with the exception of Uruguay. Thus, organic growth of renewables may not be enough in a region with high potential and a long history of low emissions from electricity. It may be necessary for governments to more actively prioritize, regulate, and support inclusive subsidies for both public and private investors in the electricity sector to reduce the risk of climate change and achieve greenhouse gas reduction goals.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • An assessment of wind energy potential in the Beibu Gulf considering the energy demands of the Beibu Gulf Economic Rim
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Xinping Chen, Aoife Foley, Zenghai Zhang, Kaimin Wang, Kieran O'Driscoll

    The Beibu Gulf Economic Rim of China is a key economic region in China as demonstrated by the “Beibu Gulf Cities Development Project” (2017) that plans to build a “Blue Livable Gulf” to balance environmental protection while providing sustainable economic development. This region has significant energy needs and is predicted to exhibit rapid growth in the future. By means of meteorological observations located at seven islands, a comprehensive statistical analysis on wind energy potential in the northern coastal part of the Beibu Gulf is conducted in this study. Specifically, wind speed, Weibull parameters, wind power density, as well as wind directions on various timescales are analyzed. The analysis shows that annual mean wind power density during 2010–2017 at 100 m above mean sea level was, respectively, 605.6, 542.0, 368.0, 282.0, 265.6, 87.6 and 321.5 W m-2 at the seven sites, with average value of 353.2 W m-2. Evidently, wind power potential demonstrates intra-annual variability, with greatest values occurring in December, while another peak value is observed in July. Wind speeds are lowest in May with another trough occurring in August. The data also display weak inter annual variability. The prevailing wind directions in the rim are mainly from opposing directions of N (winter and autumn) and S (summer).

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Stochastic economic and environmental footprints of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Linnaeus in the different federal states of Nepal
    Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. (IF 10.556) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Nawa Raj Baral, Pratikshya Neupane, Bhakta Bahadur Ale, Carlos Quiroz-Arita, Shishir Manandhar, Thomas H. Bradley

    This study presents a set of essential parameters specific to geography, climate, soil conditions, and irrigation, which can be used to classify commercially feasible Jatropha farming land, globally. The results are demonstrated considering Nepal as a representative case and including system-level economic feasibility and environmental sustainability analyses for each of the Federal States of Nepal. Probabilistic results describe a distribution of the minimum selling price and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of Jatropha-based biodiesel, respectively, with an average of $1.35/L and 46.51 gCO2e/MJ-biodiesel, and the 95% likelihood to be less than $4.57/L and 127.67 gCO2e/MJ-biodiesel. Considering direct, and then both direct and indirect land use changes increase the GHG emissions relative to the baseline by 3.5 and 8 times, respectively. Jatropha oil yield, biodiesel yield and recovery rates, and Jatropha seed production rates were found to be the most influential factors on the selling price of biodiesel and associated GHG emissions. The results imply that at the Jatropha oil yield of 50 wt%, a Jatropha seed yield of at least 3.9 t/ha and 5 t/ha are required to achieve a market-competitive biodiesel selling price of $1/L, and GHG emissions including direct land use change effects below the petroleum baseline of 87.2 gCO2e/MJ. Avoiding the disturbance of forest lands in favor of Jatropha afforestation is one of the identified strategies to minimize the impacts from land use changes. These methods demonstrate a pathway towards addressing current challenges and developing an environmentally and commercially viable Jatropha-based biodiesel industry in many countries including Nepal.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
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