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  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Probing bias and power dependency of high-performance broadband Mg/ZnSnP2/Sn back-to-back Schottky junction photodetectors
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    S. Mukherjee; T. Maitra; A. Pradhan; S. Mukherjee; S. Bhunia; A. Nayak
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Enhanced thermal properties of hydrate salt/poly (acrylate sodium) copolymer hydrogel as form-stable phase change material via incorporation of hydroxyl carbon nanotubes
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yushi Liu; Kunyang Yu; Xiaojian Gao; Miao Ren; Minjie Jia; Yingzi Yang

    The collecting energy from solar radiation using phase change materials is significant in the field of thermal storage. In the current work, a novel MWCNT-modified hydrate salt/poly (acrylate sodium) copolymer hydrogel (MWCNT-GS/PAAS) form-stable composite PCM was well prepared using mechanical mixing method. The form-stable ability, microstructure, heat storage capacity, thermal stability and thermal-cycling reliability of the prepared MWCNT-GS/PAAS were investigated. The leakage experiment exhibited that the MWCNT-GS/PAAS containing 7 wt% PAAS can maintain original gel-structure without leakage in melting state of hydrate salt. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that the hydrate salt PCM was coated with densified hydrogel film. ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra results indicated that the hydrate salt PCM was encapsulated successfully within the network gel-structure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) suggested that the MWCNT-GS/PAAS composite possessed good thermal storage capacity, of which the latent heat reached up to 187.2 J/g. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the retention ratio of the crystal water in MWCNT-GS/PAAS is as high as 64.8 wt% at the temperature where the Glauber's salt completely dehydrated. The heat transfer performance suggested that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the MWCNT-GS/PAAS composite increased by 141.7% and 167.1% compared with those of the pure GS. Furthermore, being subjected to 500 thermal cycles, the prepared composite maintained favorable thermal and chemical stability. The obtained results indicated MWCNT-GS/PAAS composite was an outstanding candidate used for solar energy storage systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Enhanced thermal conductivity of polyurethane/wood powder composite phase change materials via incorporating low loading of graphene oxide nanosheets for solar thermal energy storage
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Xiang Lu; Bing Liang; Xinxin Sheng; Teng Yuan; Jinping Qu

    To improve the use efficiency and broaden the application fields of PCMs in solar thermal energy storage, the poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) based polyurethane (PU) /wood powder (WP)/graphene oxide (GO) composite shape-stabilized phase change materials (SSPCMs) with high thermal conductivity were successfully designed and prepared by using PEG as the phase change working substance, WP and GO nanosheets as the supporting matrix, and the GO nanosheets as the thermally conductive filler simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoemission spectrometer (XPS) reveal that the GO nanosheets were successful deposited on the WP surface via the simple impregnation process. With the increasing content of WP and GO, the thermal conductivity of PU/[email protected] SSPCMs was improved significantly. Meanwhile, the PU/[email protected] SSPCMs not only have excellent thermal properties, including good thermal storage properties, well thermal reliability and reusability and good thermal stability, but also exhibit reliable light-thermal conversion performance. Thus, the obtained novel PU/[email protected] SSPCMs with high thermal conductivity can improve the use efficiency of PCMs as solar light absorber and display a high potential application in the field of solar thermal energy storage.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Ultrathin silicon oxide prepared by in-line plasma-assisted N2O oxidation (PANO) and the application for n-type polysilicon passivated contact
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yuqing Huang; Mingdun Liao; Zhixue Wang; Xueqi Guo; Chunsheng Jiang; Qing Yang; Zhizhong Yuan; Dandan Huang; Jie Yang; Xinyu Zhang; Qi Wang; Hao Jin; Mowafak Al-Jassim; Chunhui Shou; Yuheng Zeng; Baojie Yan; Jichun Ye

    We develop a plasma-assisted nitrous-oxide (N2O) gas oxidation (PANO) method to prepare the ultrathin silicon oxide (SiOx) for polysilicon (poly-Si) passivated contact. The effects of preparation conditions, including the substrate temperature, processing time, and plasma power, are studied. Afterwards, we integrate the PANO SiOx into the polysilicon passivated contact and optimize the passivation and contact performances. Excellent surface passivation with the n-type poly-Si and PANO SiOx on the n-type c-Si wafer is achieved by 880 °C annealing, which shows competitive passivation quality to the one with NASO SiOx. Champion implied open-circuit voltage (iVoc) and single-sided recombination saturated current (J0) reach 730 mV and 4.3 fA/cm2 after crystallization; and they are further improved to 747 mV and 2.0 fA/cm2 (3 × 1015cm−3) after subsequent AlOx/SiNx hydrogenation. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we find that the thickness of PANO SiOx ranges 1.1–2.4 nm and the controlled nitric acid oxidized SiOx (NAOS) ranges 1.3–1.8 nm. The contact resistivity (ρc) is typically <10 mΩ cm2 with the annealing temperature of >820 °C. Also, the crystallinity, phosphorous in-diffusion profile, and current-leaking density of the passivated contacts are investigated. In general, the PANO SiOx and in-situ doping amorphous silicon precursor can be fabricated in one PECVD system without additional equipment or transfer procedures, which is favorable for the high-efficiency, low-cost industrial manufacture.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Surface free energy analysis for stable supercooling of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate with microcosmic-visualized methods
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Shuaiqiao Peng; Yanxin Hu; Jin Huang; Mengjie Song

    A novel method of microcosmic-visualizing was employed in investigating the supercooling stability of a phase change material (PCM). The supercooling behavior of the PCM under circumstances of different surface free energy was studied both dynamically and statically, and a theory analysis of how the surface free energy of the substrate affects the stable supercooling of PCM was carried out. The results showed that, the PCM droplets phase changed after a 20-cm free fall on substrate with larger surface free energy, while remained supercooled on substrate with lower surface free energy. The PCM in PTFE container initiated crystallization at −8.99 °C, withstood over 400% on hours at liquid state compared with the sample in glass container, while a large supercooling degree of over 57 °C was achieved. It indicated that containers made of materials with lower surface free energy could be considerably beneficial in stabilizing supercooling of PCMs, which could give a guide to the practical application on long-term energy storage of PCMs. What is more, the surface free energy theory also works on the air-liquid interface. The oil-covered PCM sample withstood a temperature of 5 °C for 10 months without crystalized in a refrigerator, showing great potential on supercooling stabilization.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Visible light-assisted instability of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4: What are the implications?
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-05
    Julia Kois; Svetlana Polivtseva; Damir Mamedov; Ali Samieipour; Smagul Zh Karazhanov

    The development of efficient photovoltaic devices utilizing durable and cost-effective materials such as CZTS and similar ones represents a big challenge. Here, the comparison of thermodynamic calculations and electrochemical experiments reveals detrimental degradation of CZTS regardless of pH values and potentials applied. Cathodic polarization yields to the full decomposition of CZTS, while anodic polarization stabilizes partly CZTS by passivation of its surface with less-active phases. The presence of water, in general, provokes the decomposition of CZTS to various undesired phases which most likely affect the device parameters. The possible mechanism for the degradation of CZTS is proposed considering its electronic structure. Certain similarities on unfavorable processes occurring with analogous materials are expected.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Advances in the development of latent heat storage materials based on inorganic lithium salts
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Y.E. Milian; S. Ushak; L.F. Cabeza; M. Grageda

    Recently, inorganic thermal energy (TES) storage materials to support renewable energy implementation are being developed, and lithium salts have been showing thermal properties suitable for latent storage applications. There are three main technologies to achieve TES: sensible, latent, and thermochemical energy storage. Latent heat storage materials or phase change materials (PCMs) can store large amounts of heat per volume and they can be applied at a certain temperature, depending on the desired application. Lithium compounds for sensible storage have been reviewed in previous publications. Their use in latent heat storage applications is increasing but scarcely documented; while new latent heat storage Li materials appear consistently, the information on them is still dispersed. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to discuss lithium compounds used, proposed or analyzed for latent heat storage (LHS) and their possible applications. Lithium salts thermophysical properties, such as density, melting temperature and latent heat were tabulated as found in literature. Binary salts presented attractive heat of fusion values over 130 kJ kg−1 in a wide range of temperatures. Moreover, the increase of stability of multi-component PCM systems due to the insertion of lithium compounds was confirmed. The technologies to produce lithium are improving and, if the demand increases, prices could decrease in the near future. Therefore, the availability of lithium materials was also analyzed in this study. Finally, potential applications of these thermal storage materials, such as heated underwater diver suits, portable thermal conditioning jackets, solar receiver space, Stirling engines, etc. were assessed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • A novel ZnS/SiO2 double passivation layers for the CdS/CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized solar cells based on zinc titanium mixed metal oxides
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jie Liu; Jianqiang Liu; Chenglei Wang; Zhongwei Ge; Dali Wang; Lixin Xia; Liang Guo; Na Du; Xiaotao Hao; Hongdi Xiao
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Development of a thermal storage type solar cooker for high temperature cooking using solar salt
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Atul G. Bhave; Chirag K. Kale

    High temperature cooking operations like frying, roasting and baking using solar energy are normally carried out at the focus of parabolic dish concentrators. This leads to heat discomfort, risk of burns or eye damage to the user. A device which stores latent heat in a phase changing eutectic mixture called “solar salt” was designed and tested, which would enable its storage in an insulated container, and cooking in the shade of a kitchen when needed. It was able to successfully store heat at its melting point of 220 °C in a charging time of 110 min. Frying temperature of 170 – 180 °C for the oil was easily obtained during indoor cooking and 0.25 kg of potato chips were fried in 17 min from one charge of heat, while a total of about 0.6 kg of rice was cooked in two successive batches from one charge, taking 20 min each.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Realizing efficient natural sunlight-driven photothermal selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by AlNx assisted W doped Fe2O3 nanosheets
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Xianhua Bai; Dachao Yuan; Yingqi Xu; Yaguang Li; Wen Lu; Shufang Wang; Guangsheng Fu; Yong Hu
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Flexible four-junction inverted metamorphic AlGaInP/AlGaAs/ In0.17Ga0.83As/In0.47Ga0.53As solar cell
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Xinping Huang; Junhua Long; Dongying Wu; Sai Ye; Xuefei Li; Qiangjian Sun; Zhiwei Xing; Wenxian Yang; Minghui Song; Yun Guo; Shulong Lu

    A flexible four-junction (4 J) AlGaInP/AlGaAs/In0.17Ga0.83As/In0.47Ga0.53As solar cell with the band gap energy of 1.92/1.53/1.18/0.82eV was fabricated. Taking advantages of aluminum (Al)-contained material as well as metamorphic growth, the design of multiple junction solar cells became much easier and more flexible. In order to accommodate lattice mismatch between two InGaAs sub cells, compositionally step-graded AlGaInAs buffer layers were applied to release the mismatch strain during the inverted metamorphic (IMM) 4 J solar cells growth. A flexible 4 J solar cell on a 50 μm thick polyimide (PI) film was successfully fabricated by using temporary bonding and epitaxial layer lift-off via selective wet chemical etching. A conversion efficiency of 25.76% (AM1.5G) with an open circuit voltage of 3.46V, a short-circuit current density of 9.07 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 82.14% was obtained without anti-reflection coating (ARC), and it would be higher than 32% by ARC integration. The mass density of the 4 J flexible solar cell was only 467 g/m2, and the specific power was up to 550 W/kg.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Scalable dual-layer film with broadband infrared emission for sub-ambient daytime radiative cooling
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Sheng Meng; Linshuang Long; Zuoxu Wu; Nicholas Denisuk; Yue Yang; Liping Wang; Feng Cao; Yonggang Zhu

    As a passive cooling method with no energy input, radiative cooling has great potential in applications like building energy saving. The key to effective radiative cooling lies in selectively controlling the radiative properties in both solar and mid-infrared spectrums, and simple structures based on polymer materials attract growing attentions due to their overwhelming advantages of low cost and large-scalable fabrication. In this study, a dual-layer film consisting of polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) layer and Ag coating is proposed to act as an efficient daytime radiative cooler with low solar absorption and broadband infrared emission. An outdoor test demonstrates that sub-ambient daytime cooling is successfully achieved by the proposed cooler with an equilibrium temperature 2 °C below the ambient under solar irradiation of 950 W/m2. Due to better durability and better performance in anti-staining and corrosion protection than other polymer materials, the demonstrated cooling performance based on the PVF film would facilitate radiative cooling principle in much broader applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Performance enhancement of mesoscopic perovskite solar cells with GQDs-doped TiO2 electron transport layer
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Marzieh Ebrahimi; Ahmad Kermanpur; Masoud Atapour; Siavash Adhami; Reyhaneh Haji Heidari; Elahe Khorshidi; Neda Irannejad; Behzad Rezaie

    Electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) plays an important role on transferring electrons from perovskite layer to transparent conductive oxide layer, strongly affecting PSC performance. In the present study, effects of adding graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as a dopant to the mesoscopic TiO2 (mp-TiO2) ETL on performance of a PSC were investigated. Different amounts (1.25, 2.5 and 5 vol%) of GQDs were directly added to the TiO2 precursor solution which was subsequently applied as the doped ETL by spin coating. The results showed that Jsc, Voc and FF of the 2.5 vol% GQDs-doped cell were 21.92 mA/cm2, 0.97 V and 0.63, respectively, corresponding to a PCE of 14.36% (champion cell), approximately 50% improvement compared to the un-doped cells (best PCE 9.55%). The perovskite film in the GQDs-doped cell was dense with fewer pinholes which facilitated electron extraction, and accelerated charge mobility in TiO2 layer, consequently promoting Jsc and Voc. Based on EIS results, GQDs doping into the TiO2 ETL significantly suppressed the recombination processes, resulting in a higher FF. Interestingly, the PSC based on 2.5 vol% GQDs-doped TiO2 ETL maintained ~88% of its initial PCE (champion cell), after 500 h under ambient conditions; whereas, the conventional PSC based on pure TiO2 ETL maintained only 61% of its initial PCE under the same conditions, suggesting a dramatic improvement in the device stability. The findings clearly showed that GQDs doping to TiO2 ETL could be a potential and confident approach for improving performance and stability of the mesoscopic PSCs.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Preliminary study of radiative cooling in cooling season of the humid coastal area
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Junwei Liu; Debao Zhang; Shifei Jiao; Zhihua Zhou; Zhuofen Zhang; Feng Gao
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Strongly enhanced upconversion in trivalent erbium ions by tailored gold nanostructures: Toward high-efficient silicon-based photovoltaics
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Jeppe Christiansen; Joakim Vester-Petersen; Søren Roesgaard; Søren H. Møller; Rasmus E. Christiansen; Ole Sigmund; Søren P. Madsen; Peter Balling; Brian Julsgaard
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Durability of ionomer encapsulants in photovoltaic modules
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jared Tracy; Nick Bosco; Chris Delgado; Reinhold Dauskardt

    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) has for decades been the material of choice for photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation. However, while it is relatively inexpensive and initially adheres well to module components, EVA discolors with age and—as interfacial adhesion degrades—becomes susceptible to delamination, ultimately resulting in reduced module efficiency and shortened service lifetimes. As potential replacements for EVA, ionomer thermoplastic materials cure faster, are more resistant to discoloration and potential induced degradation, and do not evolve corrosive acetic acid, making them compatible with new device materials such as perovskites. Since there is limited information on ionomer durability for PV module applications, a series of field and accelerated laboratory aging studies were conducted to assess ionomer interface stability in the presence of terrestrial environmental stressors. It is shown that adhesion to the glass and cell interfaces of PV modules is inferior to EVA, both before and after aging, rendering ionomers particularly susceptible to delamination after short timeframes. Potential solutions to improve ionomer adhesion are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Engineering interfacial modification on nanocrystalline hematite photoanodes: A close look into the efficiency parameters
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Dereck N.F. Muche; Saulo A. Carminati; Ana F. Nogueira; Flavio L. Souza

    This work describes an approach to direct evaluate the role of selected modifier added over hematite photoanode interfaces for light assisted water splitting. Hematite photoanodes with thickness varying from 25 up to 130 nm were designed via spin coating deposition of polymeric precursor that provides mesoporous planar morphology. The photoelectrochemical data analyzed in terms of global efficiency parameter (ηglobal) revealed a close dependence with hematite thickness for unmodified photoanode, which large number of interfaces associated with high charge recombination rate led to drop the electrode performance. To address this issue and manipulate the large number of interfaces due to the planar morphology, Sn4+ ions (1 and 3% molar ratio) were deposited over the hematite surface leading to enhance the electronic transport with a cost of creation of surface states at the solid-liquid interface. Then, a second modification process was done by photoelectrodeposition of Ni/Fe based material to suppress or minimizing the effect of surface state created by the Sn4+ ions addition. The results show that the interfacial traps were mitigated for the thinner hematite photoanodes, where the presence of Sn4+ and Ni/Fe significantly increases the ηglobal. The present find, highlights the importance of morphology design that allows a combination of modifier insertion to work in synergy for enhancing the overall photoanode performance.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • An intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy study of the charge carrier dynamics of WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction systems
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ingrid Rodríguez-Gutiérrez; Essossimna Djatoubai; Jinzhan Su; Alberto Vega-Poot; Geonel Rodríguez-Gattorno; Flavio L. Souza; Gerko Oskam

    Synergistic effects as a result of combining different photoactive materials provide a promising pathway to improve the photoelectrochemical performance in heterojunction devices for solar water splitting. The photoelectrochemical characteristics of tungsten trioxide (WO3) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) have been studied, comparing the single-phase materials with two heterojunction systems based on a WO3 underlayer and a thin, spin-coated BiVO4 top layer, using two types of underlayer: (i) a nanorod-based WO3 substrate prepared by hydrothermal methods (nr-WO3/BiVO4); and (ii) a spin-coated thin, compact WO3 substrate (pl-WO3/BiVO4). Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) was used to determine the charge separation efficiency, internal and external quantum efficiencies, and process time constants for the four systems in a phosphate buffer at pH 7, both without and with an added hole scavenger, Na2SO3. The heterojunction systems show excellent performance, which is ascribed to the superior capability of WO3 to extract photogenerated electrons from the BiVO4 film that acts as the main absorber. IMPS convincingly shows that the heterojunction configuration prevents surface recombination at the BiVO4 /electrolyte interface, as well as the detrimental surface modification generally observed for WO3 photoelectrodes. The improved electron transport properties of the nr-WO3 substrate and the large area of the heterojunction interface result in better performance for nr-WO3/BiVO4, where at 455 nm water photo-oxidation is quantitative. For the single-phase BiVO4 photoelectrodes, an interesting photocurrent switching phenomenon is observed in the presence of the hole scavenger, indicating the intricate interplay between electron trapping and hole charge transfer; this phenomenon is prevented by the heterojunction structure because of the rapid electron extraction by WO3. These results show that IMPS gives detailed information on the reasons for the excellent performance of heterojunction systems, providing opportunities to design new, more efficient solar water splitting systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Influence of Ge/(Ge+Sn) composition ratio in Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 thin-film solar cells on their physical properties and photovoltaic performances
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Haruki Hayashi; Jakapan Chantana; Yu Kawano; Takahito Nishimura; Takashi Minemoto

    Effect of Ge/(Ge + Sn) composition ratio of Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 (CTGS) films is examined. The CTGS films are fabricated by sulfurization of the 700-nm-thick Cu–SnS2/Ge stacked precursors on Mo-coated soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates. It is revealed that the thickness of Ge precursor (Ge thickness) from 0 to 420 nm enhances the Ge/(Ge + Sn) composition ratio in the CTGS thin films from 0 to about 0.58, thereby increasing bandgap energy (Eg) from approximately 0.97 (Cu2SnS3: CTS) to 1.23 eV (CTGS), respectively. Not only does Ge precursor act as Ge source to form the CTGS films but also it prevents the formation of undesirable MoS2 secondary phase. In addition, the CTGS solar cells with a structure of SLG/Mo/CTGS/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al/Ni/Al are fabricated with the Ge thickness from 0 to 420 nm. It is found that the optimized Ge thickness of 200 nm resulting in the Ge/(Ge + Sn) composition ratio of about 0.32 eliminates the excessive MoS2 secondary phase and increases the Eg, thereby increasing conversation efficiency (η) to 5.6% of the CTGS solar cell, higher than that (3.6%) of the CTS solar cell. However, the η is reduced when the Ge thickness over 200 nm because CTGS quality observed by Urbach energy is deteriorated and the conduction band offset at the CdS/CTGS interface demonstrates the large cliff type heterostructure, thus increasing the open-circuit voltage deficit.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • A visible-to-infrared broadband flexible electrochromic device based polyaniline for simultaneously variable optical and thermal management
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Gaoping Xu; Leipeng Zhang; Bo Wang; Xi Chen; Shuliang Dou; Mengyao Pan; Feifei Ren; Xiaobai Li; Yao Li
    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Liquid Metal Gallium in Metal Inserts for Solar Thermal Energy Storage: A Novel Heat Transfer Enhancement Technique
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Srikanth Salyan; Praveen B; Harjit Singh; S. Suresh; A. Sarath Reddy
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • 更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Energy yield of bifacial textured perovskite/silicon tandem photovoltaic modules
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Jonathan Lehr; Malte Langenhorst; Raphael Schmager; Fabrizio Gota; Simon Kirner; Uli Lemmer; Bryce S. Richards; Chris Case; Ulrich W. Paetzold
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Efficient and flexible solar cells with improved stability through incorporation of a multifunctional small molecule at PEDOT:PSS/perovskite interface
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Shuang Ma; Xuepeng Liu; Yunzhao Wu; Ye Tao; Yong Ding; Molang Cai; Songyuan Dai; Xiaoyan Liu; Ahmed Alsaedi; Tasawar Hayat
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Theory of light-induced degradation in perovskite solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Hamid Shahivandi; Majid Vaezzadeh; Mohammadreza Saeidi
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • High-efficiency perovskite solar cell using cobalt doped nickel oxide hole transport layer fabricated by NIR process
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Pei-Huan Lee; Bo-Ting Li; Chia-Feng Lee; Zhi-Hao Huang; Yu-Ching Huang; Wei-Fang Su
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Bifacial n-type silicon solar cells with selective front surface field and rear emitter
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    H.P. Yin; K. Tang; J.B. Zhang; W. Shan; X.M. Huang; X.D. Shen

    To meet the challenge that Si wafer based industrial n-type solar cells are more complicated to manufacture as compared to producing p-type Si solar cells, a simplified cell fabrication process to make n-type silicon solar cells has been developed in which boron-doped rear emitter and phosphorus-doped front surface field (FSF) are formed in one high-temperature step. By adding a selective FSF structure the conversion efficiency of the n-type solar cells can be further improved. Our proposal enables the doping concentration of the emitter and the FSF to be adjustable independently without affecting the ohmic contacts on both sides. A champion batch conversion efficiency of 22% was obtained by optimizing the contact ratio of the emitter and thermal drive-in duration.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Cascaded band alignments of PbS heterojunction layers for improved performance of PbS quantum dot solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Dasom Park; Sanggyu Yim

    Efficient energy band alignment of heterojunction layers in colloidal quantum dot (CQD)-based solar cells is a crucial factor to govern the charge transport characteristics and device performance. In this work, we develop novel cascaded-junctions of lead sulfide (PbS) CQD triple layers consisting of an alkylammonium iodide (AMI)-treated PbS bilayer and a 1,3-propanedithiol (PDT)-treated single layer. The two AMIs, i.e. triethylamine hydroiodide (tri-EAHI) and tetraethylammonium iodide (TEAI), are less hindered and have superior passivation performance compared to tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), the most commonly used AMI. In addition, the band positions of the PbS-TEAI and PbS-tri-EAHI layers are deeper by 0.26 and 0.46 eV, respectively, than those of the PbS-PDT layer, and hence the sequential stacking of these three layers enable an effective cascaded band alignment. The various benefits of the improved band alignment such as increased built-in potential, reduced trap states, widened depletion region, enhanced charge transport and suppressed charge recombination lead to a significant improvement in the device parameters, and the best power conversion efficiency of 10.46% is obtained for the cascaded PbS-tri-EAHI/PbS-TEAI/PbS-PDT-based device.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Remarkably promoted photoelectrochemical water oxidation on TiO2 nanowire arrays via polymer-mediated self-assembly of CoOx nanoparticles
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Jia Yuan, Chunmei Li, Tianhao Li, Maoxiang Jing, Weiyong Yuan, Chang Ming Li
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Reducing transition temperature and diluting brown-yellow color of VO2 films via embedding Ag particles periodic arrays
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Zhangyang Zhou, Jun Li, Zhengwei Xiong, Linhong Cao, Yajun Fu, Zhipeng Gao

    In most previous investigations on VO2 smart windows, a low transition temperature (Tc) and desirable color have not been taken simultaneously, considering that they have not received enough study as yet. Here Ag particles periodic arrays (PPAs) were successfully embedded into monoclinic VO2(M) via self-assembly hexagonal-close-packed polystyrene templates. With the increase of Ag PPAs specific area, the Tc was reduced from 68 to 57.5 °C and the carrier density was increased. The mechanism of Tc reduction of Ag PPAs/VO2 composite films was clearly explained: more free electrons injected into VO2(M) films induces the larger absorbing energy at the nanometal-semiconductor junction. By changing the Ag PPAs specific area, the strong absorption of light in the ~630–730 nm (brown-yellow) band was achieved, thereby diluting the influence of the inherent brown-yellow color of the VO2(M) film. A low Tc and diluted color of the VO2(M) were simultaneously achieved by tuning Ag PPAs specific area, benefiting for the smart window application.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Influence of PECVD deposition temperature on phosphorus doped poly-silicon passivating contacts
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Wenhao Chen, Thien N. Truong, Hieu T. Nguyen, Christian Samundsett, Sieu Pheng Phang, Daniel MacDonald, Andres Cuevas, Lang Zhou, Yimao Wan, Di Yan

    This paper describes the influence of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) deposition temperature on heavily doped silicon based (doped-Si/SiOx) passivating contacts for silicon solar cells. The doped-Si films are obtained by PECVD intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si) and a subsequent thermal POCl3 diffusion process. By changing the deposition temperature of PECVD, a-Si films with different degrees of crystallinity and density can be obtained. These differences between the a-Si films result in different properties of the passivating contacts in terms of passivation quality and carrier selectivity. By exploring a range of PECVD deposition temperatures from 250 °C to 470 °C, the best passivation quality is obtained at a temperature of 420 °C. On the other hand, the contact resistivity decreases with increasing deposition temperature. After studying the a-Si properties and the resulting passivating contact properties, we obtain optimal passivating contacts with a high implied open-circuit voltage (iVoc) of 742 mV and a low contact resistivity ρc of 6.4 mΩ∙cm2.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • High-performance CaO-based composites synthesized using a space-confined chemical vapor deposition strategy for thermochemical energy storage
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Rui Han, Jihui Gao, Siyu Wei, Yanlin Su, Chengzhi Su, Junfeng Li, Qingling Liu, Yukun Qin
    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Conductively monolithic polypyrrole 3-D porous architecture with micron-sized channels as superior salt-resistant solar steam generators
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Yukang Fan, Wei Bai, Peng Mu, Yanning Su, Zhaoqi Zhu, Hanxue Sun, Weidong Liang, An Li
    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • 更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Application of polycrystalline silicon carbide thin films as the passivating contacts for silicon solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Zhiyu Xu, Ke Tao, Shuai Jiang, Rui Jia, Wei Li, Ying Zhou, Zhi Jin, Xinyu Liu

    In this paper, silicon rich polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiCx) thin films were prepared for passivating contact of silicon solar cells. The effect of different carbon doping ratios R [methane flow (sccm)/silane flow (sccm)] and the annealing temperatures on the passivation quality was investigated. The lifetime test showed that, given a lower annealing temperature, the passivation quality of poly-SiCx thin films was very poor at R over 0.2, and it can be improved by elevating the annealing temperature. The effective lifetime of over 1.8 ms can be obtained with implied open-circuit voltages (iVoc) of 715 mV and saturated dark current (J0) of 18 fA/cm2. The microstructure and optical property of poly-SiCx films was studied by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed that the incorporation of carbon lowered the crystalline fraction of poly-SiCx and a higher annealing temperature was needed to achieve high crystallinity. The optical band gap of poly-SiCx was widened with increase in R, and got up to 2.3eV when R was 0.4. A proof-of-concept top/rear TOPCon solar cells, featuring a N+-poly-SiCx (R = 0.2) front contact, was fabricated to demonstrate the potential of this SiCx passivation contact. The decrease in the parasitic absorption of light at the front side resulted in higher photogenerated current. And the conversion efficiency of 20.17% was achieved.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Fatty amines as a new family of organic phase change materials with exceptionally high energy density
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Tao Chen, Hanxue Sun, Peng Mu, Zhaoqi Zhu, Junru An, Weidong Liang, An Li
    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Integrated electrochromic supercapacitors with visual energy levels boosted by coating onto carbon nanotube conductive networks
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Kun Xu, Qianqian Zhang, Zhendong Hao, Yanhui Tang, Hao Wang, Jingbing Liu, Hui Yan

    Conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) demonstrates potential applications in developing integrated smart energy devices based on the bi-functional electrochromic optical modulation and electrochemical energy storage. One challenge is to improve the structural stability of PANI films in response to repeating doping and dedoping of anions during the electrochemical redox process. Herein, a facile and effective approach is developed for improving the electrochemical performance of PANI by coating onto the carbon nanotube (CNT) conductive networks. The introduction of CNT firstly provides multiple directions for electron transfer and thus enhances the charge capacity of PANI. Then, the polymerization of PANI onto the CNT (PANI@CNT) contributes to the formation of a 3D network film, which effectively reduces the structural failure caused by anions intercalation and extraction. Compared with compact PANI film, a substantial promotion of bi-function achieves in the porous PANI@CNT one, whose optical transmittance modulation increases to over 40% and the specific capacitance of the initial cycle is almost tripled. On the basis of reversible and stable chromatic transitions between different charged states, the PANI@CNT electrode is further developed to be a smart electrochromic supercapacitor exhibiting visual energy storage level. We expect that this work may lead to new designs of robust smart energy storage devices.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Low reabsorption and stability enhanced luminescent solar concentrators based on silica encapsulated quantum rods
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Shang Li, Haochen Liu, Wei Chen, Ziming Zhou, Dan Wu, Rui Lu, Bingxin Zhao, Junjie Hao, Lei Yang, Hongcheng Yang, Rui Cai, Bing Xu, Kai Wang, Xiao Wei Sun
    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • A new low-cost high-temperature shape-stable phase change material based on coal fly ash and K2CO3
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Tieying Wang, Tianying Zhang, Guizhi Xu, Chao Xu, Zhirong Liao, Feng Ye

    The shape stable phase change materials (SSPCMs) consisting of coal fly ash (CFA) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3) are promising candidates for high temperature thermal storage applications, owing to their low price, high melting enthalpy and low corrosivity of K2CO3. Nevertheless, the chemical reactions between K2CO3 and CFA at high temperature limit its application. To solve this problem, in this work, a new two-step method for preparing SSPCMs containing K2CO3 and CFA was proposed. Firstly, the CFA was successfully modified by K2CO3 with a mass ratio of 3:2. The main phase of the modified CFA was changed into potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO4). Then the SSPCMs were synthesized using the modified CFA and K2CO3. The latent heat and thermal conductivity of the prepared SSPCMS increased with the increase of salt content. The SSPCMs with potassium carbonate contents of 50 wt% (SSPCM-55) and 60 wt% (SSPCM-46) maintained good shape without cracks after the sintering processes. In addition, they showed a good cyclic stability in the 150 times thermal cycle tests in terms of mass, latent heat and chemical compatibility. The SSPCM-46 showed the best performance considering both heat transfer and energy storage density, and is promising to be used as a low-cost high-temperature PCM.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Thermal durability of solar selective absorbers consisting of β-FeSi2 with low emissive Ag layers on stainless steel
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Yoshiki Okuhara, Tomohiro Kuroyama, Daisaku Yokoe, Takeharu Kato, Masasuke Takata, Takuhito Tsutsui, Kazuto Noritake
    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Daytime radiative cooling with silica fiber network
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Refet Ali Yalçın, Etienne Blandre, Karl Joulain, Jérémie Drévillon

    Daytime radiative cooling under sunlight can be achieved by embedding micro-sized objects into a binder. In the present article, by carrying out a numerical study of daytime radiative cooling material design using statistical Monte Carlo method, we demonstrate that a silica (SiO2) fiber network can efficiently reflect sunlight via backscattering and efficiently emit infrared thermal radiation. Using a fiber network removes the necessity of the presence of a binder, thus unlike spheres, fibers can be suspended in air. As a consequence, fibers can scatter sunlight efficiently due to the high refractive index difference between air and silica, and efficiently emit thermal radiation due to mitigation of internal reflection losses that arise at the binder air interface. As a result, we show that such a silica fiber network can achieve a net radiative cooling power of 178 W m−2.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Improving the efficiency and stability of inverted perovskite solar cells by CuSCN-doped PEDOT:PSS
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Ligang Xu, Yifan Li, Chi Zhang, Yan Liu, Chao Zheng, WenZhen Lv, Mingguang Li, Yonghua Chen, Wei Huang, Runfeng Chen
    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Universal defects elimination for high performance thermally evaporated CsPbBr3 perovskite solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Tianxing Xiang, Yulong Zhang, Han Wu, Jing Li, Long Yang, Kangwei Wang, Jianlong Xia, Zhao Deng, Junyan Xiao, Wei Li, Zhiliang Ku, Fuzhi Huang, Jie Zhong, Yong Peng, Yi-Bing Cheng
    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Improved thermal energy storage of nanoencapsulated phase change materials by atomic layer deposition
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Nuria Navarrete, Damiano La Zara, Aristeidis Goulas, David Valdesueiro, Leonor Hernández, J. Ruud van Ommen, Rosa Mondragón

    Renewable energy has become of great interest over the past years in order to mitigate Global Warming. One of the actions gaining attention is the enhancement of the thermal energy storage capacity of Concentrated Solar Power plants. The addition of nanoencapsulated phase change materials (core-shell nanoparticles) to the already used materials has been proposed for that purpose, due to the possibility of increasing thermal storage through the contribution of both core latent heat and sensible heat. In this work, Atomic Layer Deposition has been used to synthesise SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoscale coatings on tin nanoparticles. The multi-encapsulated phase change materials have been characterised in terms of chemical composition, crystalline structure, particle size, thermal stability and thermal storage capacity. Sn@Al2O3 nanoparticles present the best thermal behaviour as they show the lowest reduction in the phase change enthalpy over 100 cycles due to the oxidation barrier of the coating. Moreover, the specific heat of both nanoparticles and solar salt-based nanofluids is increased, making the nanoencapsulated phase change material suitable for thermal energy storage applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Thermal stability improvement of metal oxide-based contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Jinyoun Cho, Hariharsudan Sivaramakrishnan Radhakrishnan, Rajiv Sharma, Maria Recaman Payo, Maarten Debucquoy, Arvid van der Heide, Ivan Gordon, Jozef Szlufcik, Jef Poortmans

    Metal oxides are interesting materials for use as carrier-selective contacts for the fabrication of doping-free silicon solar cells. In particular, MoOx and TiOx have been successfully used as hole and electron selective contacts in silicon solar cells, respectively. However, it is of paramount importance that good thermal stability is achieved in such contacts. In our work, we combined i-a-Si:H/MoOx based hole contacts with electron contacts featuring i-a-Si:H/TiOx/low work function metal (ATOM) to fabricate doping-free cells, termed MolyATOM cells. We found that the thermal stability of the ATOM contact was improved when the i-a-Si:H was annealed (300 °C for 20 min in N2) before depositing TiOx (i.e. pre-TiOx annealing), which reduces the hydrogen content in i-a-Si:H by about 27 %rel, and thereby the H-related degradation of the ATOM contact characteristics. Moreover, it was found that reducing the thickness of the low-work function metal on top of the TiOx enhanced the thermal stability of the ATOM contact. With these adaptations, the MolyATOM cell efficiency was improved by 3.5 %abs, with the highest efficiency of 17.6%. Moreover, the cells show improved thermal stability after the above-mentioned pre-TiOx annealing, which is confirmed by annealing tests at cell level as well as damp-heat tests at module level. The insights of this study could be used to tailor other metal-oxide based electron or hole contacts.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • NiCr–MgF2 spectrally selective solar absorber with ultra-high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Yuping Ning, Jian Wang, Chunhui Ou, Changzheng Sun, Zhibiao Hao, Bing Xiong, Lai Wang, Yanjun Han, Hongtao Li, Yi Luo

    NiCr–MgF2 spectrally selective solar absorber, which consists of the tandem films of Au, high-metal-volume-fraction (HMVF) NiCr–MgF2, low-metal-volume-fraction (LMVF) NiCr–MgF2 and MgF2, is designed and fabricated for ultra-high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance. The performance of Au/NiCr–MgF2 (HMVF)/NiCr–MgF2 (LMVF)/MgF2 is simulated using the effective medium theory and film matrix method, and the optimized NiCr–MgF2 spectrally selective solar absorber has a normal solar absorptance (αsn) of 0.981 and a normal thermal emittance (εn) of 0.042 at 25 °C. The tandem films of Au/NiCr–MgF2 (HMVF)/NiCr–MgF2(LMVF)/MgF2 are fabricated by magnetron sputtering and measured by UV-VIS-IR spectrometer, and it has an ultra-high near normal solar absorptance of αsn = 0.976 and a low near normal thermal emittance of εn = 0.045 at 25 °C, which approaches very closely to the simulated limit. Furthermore, NiCr–MgF2 spectrally selective solar absorber allows a wide incident angle (θ) with its angular solar absorptance αs(θ)≥0.957 and angular thermal emittance ε(θ)≤0.054 if θ ≤ 50°. Such spectrally selective solar absorber is an outstanding candidate for solar thermal applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • The stability, optical properties and solar-thermal conversion performance of SiC-MWCNTs hybrid nanofluids for the direct absorption solar collector (DASC) application
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Xiaoke Li, Guangyong Zeng, Xinyu Lei

    Hybrid nanofluids have an advanced application prospect in the community of heat transfer fluids and particularly for the direct absorption solar collectors (DASCs). Therefore, stable ethylene glycol-based SiC-MWCNTs nanofluids with mass fractions ranging from 0.01% to 1% were prepared in this study. Combined with the unique properties of these two nanomaterials, the studied hybrid nanofluids displayed excellent stability, optical properties and photothermal conversion properties. The purpose of this paper is to simultaneously achieve the enhanced stability and high solar-thermal conversion efficiency of hybrid nanofluids used for DASC applications. The stability of hybrid nanofluids was confirmed. In addition, the hybrid nanofluids displayed an excellent solar irradiation absorption capacity in both visible and near-infrared regions (200–1100 nm). The fact proved that the hybrid nanofluid was effective working fluid in DASCs, where 0.5 wt% SiC-MWCNTs nanofluids could absorb 99.9% solar energy at only 1 cm path length. In addition, the solar-thermal conversion efficiency of hybrid nanofluids increased with the mass concentration. The maximum value of solar-thermal conversion efficiency was found to be 97.3% on 1 wt% SiC-MWCNTs nanofluid at 10 min, which was 48.6% higher than that of pure EG. The application potentials of SiC-MWCNTs hybrid nanofluids in low-temperature DASCs system were presented.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Enhanced electron transport induced by a ferroelectric field in efficient halide perovskite solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Hamaneh Zarenezhad, Masoud Askari, Mohammad Halali, Navid Solati, Timucin Balkan, Sarp Kaya

    Perovskite solar cells have been appearing as a superior photovoltaic device owing to their high photovoltaic performance and low cost of fabrication. The formation of a compact and uniform perovskite layer with large crystal size is a significant factor to get the best device performance. In this work, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) was used as a ferroelectric polymer additive to fabricate high-performance mesoporous CH3NH3PbI3-xClx mixed-halide perovskite solar cells in a sequential deposition method. Power conversion efficiency has been enhanced from 10.4 to 16.51% in an ambient atmosphere in the presence of an optimized amount of PVDF assuring continuous and smooth layers with large grain size. Besides morphological improvements, this progress in the photovoltaic performance is attributed to the dipole field exerted by PVDF that leads to enhanced charge separation. Further improvements in efficiency (18.60%) have been achieved by directing the dipoles under an external field.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Solution-derived monolithic thin films with low adhesion surface
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Jaehyeung Park, Jaswinder Sharma, Monojoy Goswami, Dmitry Voylov, Gyoung Gug Jang, Matthew G. Lassiter, Andres Marquez-Rossy, Georgios Polizos

    Nanostructured thin films were synthesized using a silica-based sol-gel method. The morphology of the films was tailored by controlling the hydrolysis and crosslinking mechanisms of the tetraethyl orthosilicate precursor. Silica nanoparticle self-assembled structures and linear silica chains were crosslinked and formed monolithic nanostructured films. The self-assembly mechanism was investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulation. Three nanostructured configurations were synthesized and studied to optimize the surface features of the films and minimize the adhesion of sand particles. Surface microscopy imaging and adhesion force measurements using atomic force microscopy with an attached silica particle on the cantilever tip were performed to correlate the adhesion force and the surface structure. The solar specular reflectance of coated solar mirror samples was measured across the solar spectrum before and after the soiling test of the samples. The mechanical properties of the thin films were evaluated using nanoindentation measurements on coated substrates. The solution-derived thin film coatings can provide anti-soiling protection of solar glass in desert environments and increase the efficiency of photovoltaic and concentrated solar power installations.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Impact of rough substrates on hydrogen-doped indium oxides for the application in CIGS devices
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Darja Erfurt, Takashi Koida, Marc D. Heinemann, Chen Li, Tobias Bertram, Jiro Nishinaga, Bernd Szyszka, Hajime Shibata, Reiner Klenk, Rutger Schlatmann

    Indium oxide based transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are promising contact layers in solar cells due to their outstanding electrical and optical properties. However, when applied in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 or Si-hetero-junction solar cells the specific roughness of the material beneath can affect the growth and the properties of the TCO. We investigated the electrical properties of hydrogen doped and hydrogen-tungsten co-doped indium oxides grown on rough Cu(In,Ga)Se2 samples as well as on textured and planar glass. At sharp ridges and V-shaped valleys crack-shaped voids form inside the indium oxide films, which limit the effective electron mobility of the In2O3:H and In2O3:H,W thin films. This was found for films deposited by magnetron sputtering and reactive plasma deposition at several deposition parameters, before as well as after annealing and solid phase crystallization. This suggests universal behavior that will have a wide impact on solar cell devices.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Biomimetic diodon-skin nanothorn polymer antireflection film for solar cell applications
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Chaolong Fang, Zhitong Yang, Jian Zhang, Youyi Zhuang, Siyuan Liu, Xin He, Yaoju Zhang

    A biomimetic diodon-skin nanothorn (DSNT) epoxy resin antireflection (AR) film was presented to reduce the incident reflection loss of Si solar cell and thus improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). The fabricated epoxy resin DSNT film, designed using finite-difference time-domain method, was added on bare Si substrate using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with soft imprint lithography. Optical characteristics showed the reflection was reduced in wavelength range of 300–1100 nm from 40.0% of bare Si substrate to 15.8% of epoxy resin DSNT film/Si substrate. In addition, we found the designed DSNT structure can be facilely transferred onto any flat substrates without deformation into unexpected shapes using soft imprint lithography. Moreover, the epoxy resin DSNT film exhibited superior hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. By introducing the epoxy resin DSNT film on top of Si solar cell, the reflection loss of the Si solar cell was reduced by 7.8% and thus the PCE was increased from 18.99% to 19.88%. Thus, the epoxy resin DSNT film is a good candidate of AR film for photovoltaic application.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Experimental study on burning and toxicity hazards of a PET laminated photovoltaic panel
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Baisheng Liao, Lizhong Yang, Xiaoyu Ju, Yang Peng, Yuxing Gao

    Currently, photovoltaics have been used on a large scale for commercial and civilian use. Aging short circuit, fire and other reasons will bring great security risks. In this paper, an experimental study of burning and toxic hazards was carried out on a widely used, flammable photovoltaic panel with a sample size of 180 mm*180 mm at atmospheric conditions. Combustion experiments were performed on the early stage fire characteristics bench of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science in China. Several important combustion parameters were investigated by oxygen consumption method under four representative external thermal (15 kW/m2,20 kW/m2,30 kW/m2,40 kW/m2), including Ignition Time, Heat Release Rate, Mass Loss Rate and Total Heat of Combustion. The results of experimental combustion heat were consistent with the thermodynamic calculation data of various organic matter in the sample. Several dangerous toxic gases have been detected, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen cyanide and a small amount of VOCs, of which the concentration of sulfur dioxide is relatively high. In the case of higher external radiant heat, there is a higher risk.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Polymer solar filter for enabling direct daytime radiative cooling
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Erik Torgerson, Josh Hellhake

    Passive radiative daytime cooling is a low-cost solution to improve human comfort and reduce the energy demands of cooling on a global scale. We present the first demonstration of direct full-sun daytime radiative cooling using an all-polymer filter that blocks solar irradiance while maintaining high transmittance in the long-wave infrared (LWIR). Warm objects and surfaces radiatively transfer heat through the polymer solar filter to the cold sink of space, decreasing temperatures up to 10 °C during day and night. The polyethylene (PE) filter exploits scattering by size-controlled air pores to maximize reflection of solar photons, while preserving the LWIR transparency inherent to PE. We demonstrated cooling power of over 110 W/m2 for an emissive surface placed beneath the solar filter. Scalable, low-cost manufacturing of a radiative cooling polymer solar filter allows direct full-sun daytime cooling of heat-emitting surfaces in a variety of settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • First application of CoO nanorods as efficient counter electrode for quantum dots-sensitized solar cells
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Qiu Zhang, Zhanbin Jin, Fengyan Li, Zhinan Xia, Yi Yang, Lin Xu
    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Nitrogen doped ultrathin calcium/sodium niobate perovskite nanosheets for photocatalytic water oxidation
    Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (IF 6.019) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Muhammad Shuaib Khan, Zhidan Diao, Minoru Osada, Shaohua Shen

    The present study combines the advantages of chemical exfoliation and elemental doping to have enhanced surface area, better charge carrier separation and extended light absorption in N3−/Nb4+ co-doped nanosheets, which were employed for the first time to study their O2 evolution response. The Dion-Jacobson phase, KCa2NaNb4O13 perovskite was calcined under NH3 environment at various reaction durations (5 hr, 6 hr, 7 hr) to yield N3−/Nb4+ co-doped layered structures and subsequently exfoliated into ultrathin nanosheets. The N3−/Nb4+ co-doped nanosheets realized superior visible light absorption and bandgap narrowing as determined from UV–visible spectroscopy profiles. The synthesis of bulk materials and ultrathin morphology of exfoliated nanosheets were confirmed through XRD, SEM and AFM. The chemical states of the elements were examined by XPS measurements. The optimized N3−/Nb4+ co-doped CNNO--6hr nanosheets demonstrated excellent O2 evolution of 903 μmol g-1 after 4 h compared to N3−/Nb4+ co-doped CNNO--5hr (510 μmol g-1), N3−/Nb4+ co-doped CNNO--7hr (528 μmol g-1) and non-doped CNNO- nanosheets (381 μmol g-1). Our study paves a way on the feasibility of combining various chemical strategies for advanced photocatalyst design.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
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