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  • Influence of fuel ash on the recoverability of copper from the spent material of chemical looping combustion
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jinze Dai; Logan Hughey; Kevin J. Whitty

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an advanced energy production technology that inherently separates the CO2 generated. The oxygen needed for fuel conversion is supplied by the oxygen carrier. When using copper-based oxygen carriers, oxygen carrier attrition is a challenge to the process economics, unless the attrited copper that is mixed with fuel ash in the spent material can be recovered by, for instance, acid leaching. However, fuel ash may transform the attrited copper into certain complexes of low leachability (e.g., CuAl2O4), hindering the copper recovery. In this study, the copper content in the spent material was first evaluated. The effects of ash composition and copper content on the occurrence mode of copper in spent material were predicted by thermodynamic modeling. Redox cycles of simulated spent materials based on various coal ashes were performed to reveal the characteristics of CuAl2O4/CuFe2O4 formation. The CuO-Al2O3 reaction was investigated under the temperatures and solid residence times experienced in CLC. The materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results suggest that the fuel ash with a high Al/Ca ratio may lower the recoverability of copper when the temperature is above 925 °C. The slow formation of CuFe2O4 is not expected to affect the copper recovery.

  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Pelletization of Camellia oleifera Abel. shell after storage: Energy consumption and pellet properties
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Mengjiao Tan; Lin Luo; Zhiqiang Wu; Zhongliang Huang; Jiachao Zhang; Jing Huang; Yuan Yang; Xuan Zhang; Hui Li
  • Regenerable Co-ZnO-based nanocomposites for high-temperature syngas desulfurization
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Zehua Pan; Wei Ping Chan; Wen Da Oh; Andrei Veksha; Apostolos Giannis; Kumaran S/.O. Tamilselvam; Junxi Lei; Dara Khairunnisa Binte Mohamed; Haiming Wang; Grzegorz Lisak; Teik-Thye Lim

    H2S is a common impurity in the syngas derived from municipal solid waste gasification. For power generation using advanced technologies, such as gas engines/turbines or solid oxide fuel cells, reducing the H2S content to acceptable levels is required. This work investigated the desulfurization performance of bimetallic particles by adding different metals (Fe, Cr, Co, Ni) into ZnO-based nanocomposites. At 400 °C, the Co-ZnO demonstrated 26.3, 5.0, 1.7 times higher sulfur uptake from a model syngas (composed of 100 ppmv H2S, 15 vol% CO, 5 vol% CO2, 15 vol% H2, 15 vol% H2O and N2 (balance)) than pure ZnO, Cr-ZnO and Fe-ZnO, respectively. This could be attributed to the formation of p-n heterojunction between the n-type ZnO and p-type Co3O4, accelerating surface reaction kinetics. Although the Ni-ZnO showed a better performance at 400 °C, at an elevated temperature of 600 °C, the Co-ZnO demonstrated 1.2 times higher sulfur capacity compared to Ni-ZnO. Furthermore, the Co-ZnO nanocomposite was subjected to 3 cycles of high-temperature desulfurization (600 °C) and regeneration. The results showed that its high desulfurization efficiency was retained after the tests. This could enable a high-temperature desulfurization of hot syngas and hence an increase in the electrical efficiency of waste-to-energy facilities.

  • Enhanced SO2 tolerance of FeCeOx/CNTs catalyst for NO and Hg0 removal by coating shell SiO2
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Huawei Zhang; Mingzhu Zhang; Lifeng Hao; Juan Wang; Yaguang Ma; Yaqing Zhang; Tiantian Jiao; Wenrui Zhang; Shaojie Chen; Peng Liang
  • Investigation on the behavior of mercury across the flue gas treatment of coal combustion power plants using a lab-scale firing system
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ida Masoomi; Hiroyuki Kamata; Akinori Yukimura; Kiyohito Ohtsubo; Marc Oliver Schmid; Günter Scheffknecht
  • Pulp mill integration with alcohol-to-jet conversion technology
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Scott Geleynse; Zhihua Jiang; Kristin Brandt; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Michael Wolcott; Xiao Zhang
  • Interactions between vitrinite and solid additives including inertinite during pyrolysis for coke-making considerations
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Hammad Aziz; Sandra Rodrigues; Joan S. Esterle; Karen M. Steel

    Macerals (vitrinite and inertinite) were separated from a coal to understand the mechanism of interaction between them during coking. Macerals were blended in various ratios and their viscoelastic properties and expansion/contraction behaviour measured using rheometry. Inertinite increases the viscosity of vitrinite exponentially. To understand why, various solid additives were also blended with vitrinite. Additionally, the solid additives were mixed with a high viscosity liquid that does not generate volatiles (silicone oil). Results show that meso-porous solids increase viscosity exponentially, however, the exponent is far greater. Interestingly, the exponent for meso-porous and non-porous solids is the same for silicone oil, showing that volatiles are playing a role in viscosity development. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that far more volatiles are being retained for mesoporous solids, providing evidence to support the hypothesis that volatile adsorption is occurring. It is proposed that adsorption increases the driving force for liquid evaporation, which causes viscosity to increase. Only a small amount of adsorption occurred for the inertinite studied here and its effect on viscosity was mild and similar to graphite. The exponents in the viscosity vs % solid relationships could be used to evaluate solid additives, and hence, their effect on expansion/adhesion behaviour and pore structure development.

  • Synthesis of strained high-energy rocket bio-kerosene via cyclopropanation of myrcene
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yakun Liu; Chi Ma; Chengxiang Shi; Lun Pan; Junjian Xie; Si Gong; Yong-Chao Zhang; Genkuo Nie; Xiangwen Zhang; Ji-Jun Zou

    With the rapid development of spacecraft such as rocket, it is increasingly important to develop high-energy and sustainable fuels. Biofuels synthesized from biomass derivatives provide great convenience for sustainable development. In this work, we reported a route for synthesis of high-energy cyclopropane bio-kerosene by cyclopropanation of myrcene with zinc carbenoid. The reaction conditions including reaction time, reaction temperature, solvent and molar ratio were optimized. Finally, a tricyclic cyclopropane bio-kerosene was synthesized with 69.8% yield under optimum conditions (i.e. zinc carbenoid synthesis temperature of −15 °C, cyclopropanation temperature of 25 °C and solvent of dichloromethane). Importantly, this bio-kerosene possesses a high specific impulse of 328.25 s, much better than the commercial rocket kerosene RP-1, as well as a high net-heat-value of 43.4 MJ/kg and good low-temperature properties.

  • Nickel hybrid nanoparticle decorating on alumina nanoparticle cluster for synergistic catalysis of methane dry reforming
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Teng-Yun Liang; Hsu-Hui Chen; De-Hao Tsai

    A gas-phase controlled synthesis method is demonstrated to prepare Ni-CeO2 nanocrystallites decorating on Al2O3 nanoparticle clusters (NPC) for synergistic catalysis of dry reforming of methane with CO2 (DRM). The method combines the principles of aerosol-phase evaporation-induced self-assembly with colloid-phase stabilization of Al2O3 nanoparticles in sprayed aqueous droplets. Hybrid NPC was successfully created with ultrafine Ni crystallites (<7 nm), tunable chemical composition, cluster size and surface state. A superior high catalytic performance achieved in comparison to the results reported in the literatures: low starting temperature (400 °C), high turnover frequency (2.6 s−1 at 550 °C; 4.0 s−1 at 700 °C), and high selectivity (H2/CO = 0.9). Hybridization with Al2O3 NPC and CeO2 nanoparticle significantly improved operation stability of Ni catalyst over 8-h reaction. The work demonstrates a facile route for gas-phase synthesis of hybrid nanocatalysts using Al2O3 NPC as support matrix for effective low-temperature operations of DRM.

  • Production of carbon-based biofuels by pyrolysis of exhausted Arthrospira platensis biomass after protein or lipid recovery
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Alessandro A. Casazza; Elena Spennati; Attilio Converti; Guido Busca
  • Conversion of furan over gallium and zinc promoted ZSM-5: The effect of metal and acid sites
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Juliana S. Espindola; Christopher J. Gilbert; Oscar W. Perez-Lopez; Jorge O. Trierweiler; George W. Huber

    The addition of gallium or zinc to ZSM-5 increases the aromatic selectivity and decreases the olefin selectivity for furan conversion. Both the benzene and naphthalenes selectivities increase with small amounts of gallium or zinc addition. At 5 wt% metal loading this effect is more pronounced with zinc promoted ZSM-5 having about 25% higher benzene selectivity than the gallium promoted ZSM-5. Additionally, the decarbonylation and methane formation reactions were both increased by adding zinc or gallium to the catalyst. As zinc or gallium loading is increased, the amount of Brønsted acid sites decrease, while the quantity of Lewis acid sites increase. This effect was more pronounced with zinc, as a result of its greater effectiveness to exchange with protons at the Brønsted acid sites. The aromatic yield appears to correlate with this increase in Lewis acidity. The addition of zinc to ZSM-5 also altered the reaction chemistry occurring during the hydrolysis of furan, lowering propylene and increasing methane yields as zinc loading increased.

  • Using Mn-Si oxygen carriers supported with CaO or Al2O3 for converting methane and syngas in chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Baoyi Wang; Patrick Moldenhauer; Henrik Leion

    Facing increasingly severe environmental problems and substantial energy demand, chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) is regarded as a highly promising technique to facilitate the application of carbon capture storage and utilization (CCS & U) due to its inherent gas separation. Thus, feasible oxygen carriers for continuous operation on the industry scale are essential. A combination of Mn and Si, which is not only economic but also has few adverse effects on the environment, has been tested and found to provide satisfactory CLOU behavior. But the results are relevant for several oxygen carrier applications. However, the mechanical properties of these Mn-Si oxygen carriers require further improvement. Thus, two kinds of support materials are chosen in this study, CaO and Al2O3, to enhance the physical strength of the Mn-Si oxides. Twelve samples with a CaO content ranging from 2 wt% to 41 wt% and twelve samples with an Al2O3 content, ranging from 2 wt% and to 36 wt%, were produced using spray-drying at three sintering temperatures, 1100 °C, 1150 °C, and 1200 °C. The aim is to identify oxygen carriers, which exhibit high reactivity and strong mechanical properties. The oxygen release ability and gas-fuel conversion of these oxygen carriers are examined. In general, the particles with a lower content of support materials (≤5 wt%) calcined from lower temperatures (≤1150 °C) show better CLOU behavior and higher reactivity, regardless of the support material. Attrition resistance was assessed with surprisingly good results for an oxygen carrier with a low content of support materials (≤5 wt%). The material with 74% Mn 24% Si and 2% Al was further tested in a continuous 300 W. This was done to test the oxygen carrier capability under more conditions closer to a real circulating CLOU unit. In the 300 W unit the material release oxygen in inert atmosphere and converted up to 99.98%, of the syngas and 70% of the methane. However, under certain conditions with syngas as fuel the physical structure of the oxygen carriers were destroyed as the particles degraded to fines.

  • 更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Multi-scale two-dimensional packed bed reactor model for industrial steam methane reforming
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Bhanu Vardhan Reddy Kuncharam; Anthony G. Dixon
  • Mechanism investigation on the formation of olefins and paraffin from the thermochemical catalytic conversion of triglycerides catalyzed by alkali metal catalysts
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Feng Long; Xiaolei Zhang; Xincheng Cao; Qiaolong Zhai; Yaoguang Song; Fei Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu
  • Dual catalyst-sorbent role of dolomite in the steam reforming of raw bio-oil for producing H2-rich syngas
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Beatriz Valle; Naiara García-Gómez; Aingeru Remiro; Javier Bilbao; Ana G. Gayubo

    The dual role that low-cost dolomite plays as a catalyst and CO2 sorbent in the steam reforming of raw bio-oil has been studied. The reactions were performed in a continuous regime at 700 °C and steam/carbon ratio of 3. The results show that calcined dolomite is a feasible catalyst for producing a H2-rich syngas from raw bio-oil, with efficient CO2 retention and positive impact on the CO2 global emissions balance. Reforming of oxygenates (mainly acids, alcohols and aldehydes) and cracking/hydrogenation of poly-substituted phenols are prevailing reactions during the effective CO2 capture, catalyzed by the CaO and MgO in the dolomite. Consequently, around 40% of bio-oil is converted into a CO2-free syngas with H2 and CO concentrations above 65 vol% and below 20 vol%, respectively, whereas the liquid product is primarily composed of phenol and alkyl-phenols. Products composition changes along reaction by two causes: i) saturation of dolomite by CaO carbonation, which drastically changes the liquid product composition leading to the formation of aromatics by alkyl-phenols hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), activated by the CaCO3 and Fe impurities; ii) coke deposition which involves a progressive decrease in H2/CO ratio (6–2.5 in 4 h) by deactivation of steam reforming and water-gas-shift reactions.

  • Modeling of the catalytic cracking: Catalyst deactivation by coke and heavy metals
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Galina Nazarova; Elena Ivashkina; Emiliya Ivanchina; Alexandra Oreshina; Irena Dolganova; Mariya Pasyukova
  • 更新日期:2019-12-27
  • 更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Impact of load changes on the carbonator reactor of a 1.7 MWth calcium looping pilot plant
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    M.E. Diego; B. Arias

    This work analyses the performance of a Calcium Looping (CaL) carbonator reactor that captures CO2 from a power plant operating under large load changes. Several experimental campaigns have been conducted in La Pereda 1.7 MWth CaL pilot plant where the carbonator inlet flue gas velocity varied between 2.0 and 5.3 m/s, leading to large changes in the particles entrainment rate and the solids inventory. These tests showed that CaL systems using circulating fluidized bed reactors are highly flexible. Modest gas velocities translate into high CO2 capture efficiencies because circulation rates equivalent to CaO/CO2 molar ratios ~10–12 can still be maintained, while carbonator solids inventories are relatively large. Under high carbonator gas velocities, a sorbent with high CO2 carrying capacity is necessary to guarantee high CO2 capture efficiencies. In these conditions, the recirculation of a fraction of the exiting particles towards the bottom of the carbonator proved to be useful for moderating the solids circulation rate between reactors, increasing the particles residence time in the carbonator and sustaining high CO2 capture efficiencies. For load increases, staging the flue gas entering the carbonator helped to sustain high CO2 capture efficiencies thanks to maintaining the solids inventory at the bottom of the reactor.

  • Interaction of oxygen carriers with common biomass ash components
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Ivana Staničić; Malin Hanning; Robin Deniz; Tobias Mattisson; Rainer Backman; Henrik Leion

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been proposed as a bridging technology between the current energy production and a future renewable energy system. One promising carbon capture technology is chemical-looping combustion (CLC). In CLC the reactors are filled with metal oxide bed material called oxygen carriers. The interaction between oxygen carriers and biomass ashes is a poorly explored field. To make CLC a viable process, and thereby creating carbon emission reductions, more knowledge about the interactions between biomass ashes and oxygen carriers is needed. This study investigated solid-state reactions of three promising oxygen carriers, hematite, hausmannite and synthesised ilmenite with different biomass ash components. Oxygen carriers were exposed with the ash components: calcium carbonate, silica and potassium carbonate at 900 °C and at different reducing potentials. Crystalline phases of the exposed samples were determined using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the oxygen carriers hausmannite and hematite interact to a higher extent compared to synthesised ilmenite regarding both physical characteristics and detectable phases. Synthesised ilmenite formed new phases only in systems including potassium. Thermodynamic calculations were performed on the multicomponent system and compared with experimental results. The results suggest that optimisation of systems involving manganese and potassium should be performed.

  • Effect of combining water washing and carbonisation on the emissions of PM10 generated by the combustion of typical herbs
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Wenyu Wang; Chang Wen; Lichun Chen; Tianyu Liu; Changkang Li; Enze Liu; Yang Zhang

    To overcome the shortcomings of biomass, such as poor fuel characteristics and high alkali metal content, two typical herbs (rice straw and sesame stalk) were processed by pretreatments combining water washing and carbonisation (T-W: water washing after torrefaction; W-T: torrefaction after water washing; and HTC: hydrothermal carbonisation), and the effects on PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less) emissions were determined. For both biomasses, PM1 was mainly composed of K, Cl, and S, and all three pretreatments perform well in its reduction (HTC > W-T > T-W). The emission reduction effect on PM1 was determined by the removal extent of the above elements by various pretreatments. Regarding PM1–10, for rice straw, its emission only increased after HTC, and the other two pretreatments did not change substantially. As for sesame stalk, its emissions increased significantly after the three pretreatments. The change in the mineral content of the sample and the degree of fragmentation during combustion together determined the effect of pretreatment on PM1–10 emission. Based on equal energy input, the three pretreatments performed better on PM10 reductions for both typical herbs.

  • Chemisorption and physisorption of fine particulate matters on the floating beads during Zhundong coal combustion
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Jing Zhao; Yufeng Zhang; Xiaolin Wei; Teng Li; Yu Qiao

    Floating beads rich in silica-aluminum oxide are hollow glass microspheres that can be obtained from fly ash by flotation. Floating beads have the advantages of high yield, low cost and easy access in the power plants or industrial kilns and are used as the sorbent for reducing the fine particulate matter (PM) emissions during pulverized coal combustion in this work. The pulverized coals mixed with floating beads are burned in an electrically heated drop-tube furnace at 1573 K. The size distribution and yield of PM are analyzed by an electrical low pressure impactor (LPI). The results indicate that the internal mineral elements, especially Na/K, Ca, and S, form a large amount of PM during pulverized coal combustion and floating beads can efficiently reduce PM formation via chemisorption and physisorption. With floating beads addition, the yield of ultrafine mode particles (PM0.5), mainly consisted of Na/K and S, decreases by 55.76%, and the yield of central mode particles (PM0.5–7), mainly consisted of Ca, Fe and Si, decreases by 21.7%. The surface reaction (chemisorption) between mineral vapors and sorbent particles reduces the PM0.5 emissions, and PM0.5+ can be reduced by the particles colliding and coalescing (physisorption), resulting in aluminosilicates on the surface of the sorbents. The results gained from characterization tests show that floating beads have more active sites and free silicon dioxides due to the broken SiO and AlO bonds after high-temperature calcination, thereby promoting the capture of mineral vapors such as alkali metals.

  • Experimental investigation of thermal effect in coal pyrolysis process
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Tao Wang; Cheng Li; Binxuan Zhou; Yi Zhang; Man Zhang; Hairui Yang; Zhiqiang Wang

    The thermal effects of five coal types' pyrolysis processes at heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 °C/min in the temperature range of 30–1000 °C were systemically investigated by thermogravimetric - differential scanning calorimetry. The experimental results show that coal pyrolysis process can be roughly divided into four stages, namely the drying and dehydration stage S1, the degassing stage S2, the pyrolysis stage S3, and the polycondensation stage S4. S1, S2, and S3 are endothermic and S4 is exothermic. For a given coal, the temperature at which the process shifts from the endothermic stages (S1 + S2 + S3) to the exothermic stage (S4) increases with increasing heating rate. The heat absorbed in endothermic stages keeps invariable basically, while heat released in exothermic stage decreases with increasing heating rate. The entire pyrolysis process is exothermic when the heating rates are lower than 10 or 15 °C/min, and endothermic at heating rates higher than 15 or 20 °C/min. The temperature corresponding to the peak in the weight loss curve does not correspond to that in the heat flow curve. Therefore, the characterizations of the coal pyrolysis reaction process by weight loss and heat flow are inconsistent with each other.

  • 更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Assessing the chemical composition of heavy components in bio-oils from the pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin at slow and fast heating rates
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Zhe Xiong, Junhao Guo, Weerawut Chaiwat, Wei Deng, Xun Hu, Hengda Han, Yuanjing Chen, Kai Xu, Sheng Su, Song Hu, Yi Wang, Jun Xiang

    The certain challenge for the utilization of bio-oil is to investigate the nature and formation of reactive large molecular (heavy) components (>200 Da) in bio-oil. In order to investigate the chemical composition of the heavy components in the bio-oils from the pyrolysis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the molecular formulas of the heavy compounds and the large aromatic structures were obtained based on the results from the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) and the ultraviolet fluorescence (UV-F) spectrometer. The results indicated that both the oxygen content and yield of the heavy components showed the highest in the cellulose-oil and the lowest in the lignin-oil. The large molecular compounds were formed mainly via the recombination of the O-containing species, which could be changed at different temperatures and heating rates. Large amount of heavy saccharide and phenolic species existed in cellulose-oil and hemicellulose-oil, while almost no saccharide species and little phenolic species were detected in the lignin-oil. The main heavy components in the lignin-oil were lipids rather than the phenolic species. The heavy components in the bio-oil from the biomass should be mainly derived from the pyrolysis of the cellulose individually or the interactions among the three components.

  • Reactive molecular dynamic simulations of the CO2 gasification effect on the oxy-fuel combustion of Zhundong coal char
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Dikun Hong, Ting Si, Xiaoxia Li, Xin Guo

    In this paper, the effect of CO2 gasification on the oxy-fuel combustion of Zhundong coal char was studied by reactive molecular dynamic (ReaxFF-MD) method combined with experiments. The structural representation of Zhundong coal char was constructed based on experimental analysis. ReaxFF simulations of char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 environments at various conditions were carried out to investigate the effect of CO2 on the conversion of char. The flat-flame entrained flow experiments were also performed to compare with the ReaxFF MD simulations. The results showed that CO2 reduced the diffusion rate of O2 and thus inhibited the oxidation rate of char. However, the total carbon consumption of char was found to be increased by the CO2 gasification reaction, especially at low O2 concentration at high temperatures. The contributions of CO2 gasification to the total carbon consumption of char at 3500 K were 51.38%, 34.74% and 19.88% in 5%, 10% and 20% O2 concentrations, respectively. The activation energy of CO2 gasification was determined as 250 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 3000–3500 K. Finally, the detailed and dynamical description of CO2 gasification reaction pathways were revealed in atomic scale. CO2 molecule was initially adsorbed on the active carbon site, and then the CO bond broken resulting in the formation of CO.

  • Understanding catalytic hydrogenolysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) using carbon supported Ru catalysts
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Tai-Wei Tzeng, Chan-Yi Lin, Chih-Wen Pao, Jeng-Lung Chen, Rob Jeremiah G. Nuguid, Po-Wen Chung
  • Innovative NOx reduction from cement kiln and pilot-scale experimental verification
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Jun Cai, Huixing Wu, Qiangqiang Ren, Li Lin, Tuo Zhou, Qinggang Lyu
  • A review on the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for the bio-oil production with ZSM-5: Focus on structure
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Nishu, Ronghou Liu, Md. Maksudur Rahman, Manobendro Sarker, Meiyun Chai, Chong Li, Junmeng Cai
  • Regeneration performance of activated coke for elemental mercury removal by microwave and thermal methods
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Donghai An, Xiang Wang, Xingxing Cheng, Lin Cui, Xiaoyang Zhang, Ping Zhou, Yong Dong
  • 更新日期:2019-11-29
  • The effect of co-firing coal and woody biomass upon the slagging/deposition tendency in iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    H. Sefidari, C. Ma, C. Fredriksson, B. Lindblom, H. Wiinikka, L.O. Nordin, G. Wu, E. Yazhenskikh, M. Müller, M. Öhman

    Woody biomass is being considered a potential co-firing fuel to reduce coal consumption in iron-ore pelletizing rotary kilns. An important consideration is the slagging inside the kiln caused by ash deposition that can lead to process disturbances or shutdowns. In terms of ash chemistry, co-firing woody biomass implies the addition of mainly Ca and K to the Si- and Al-dominated coal-ash (characteristic of high-rank coals) and Fe from the iron-ore that are both inherent to the process. An alkali-laden gaseous atmosphere is also present due to the accumulation of alkali via the recirculation of flue gas in the system. The slagging propensity of blending woody biomass with coal in the grate-kiln process was studied based on the viscosity of the molten phases predicted by global thermochemical equilibrium modeling. This was carried out for variations in temperature, gaseous KOH atmosphere, and fuel blending levels. Results were evaluated and compared using a qualitative slagging indicator previously proposed by the authors where an inverse relationship between deposition tendency and the viscosity of the molten fraction of the ash was established. The results were also compared with a set of co-firing experiments performed in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) experimental combustion furnace. In general, the co-firing of woody biomass would likely increase the slagging tendency via the increased formation of low-viscosity melts. The fluxing behavior of biomass-ash potentially reduces the viscosity of the Fe-rich aluminosilicate melt and intensifies deposition. However, the results also revealed that there are certain conditions where deposition tendency may decrease via the formation of high-melting-point alkali-containing solid phases (e.g., leucite).

  • Heavy oil cracking in the presence of steam and nanodispersed catalysts based on different metals
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Petr M. Yeletsky, Olesya O. Zaikina, Gleb A. Sosnin, Roman G. Kukushkin, Vadim A. Yakovlev
  • Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous bulk catalysts with enhanced catalytic performance for thiophene hydrodesulfurization
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Guangjian Wang, Guoliang Chen, Wenpeng Xie, Wentai Wang, Liancheng Bing, Qinqin Zhang, Haitao Fu, Fang Wang, Dezhi Han

    The microstructure tuning of bulk catalysts would significantly influence their physical/chemical properties for the subsequent applications. In this work, the three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) bulk catalysts (CoMo, CoMoW and CoW) were successfully fabricated by employing the poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as hard template. The prepared bulk catalysts were characterized by means of techniques, such as TG/DTG, XRD, low-temperature N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, etc. The characterization and catalytic performance evaluation results indicated that the unique hierarchical pore system of the 3DOM bulk catalysts could not only supply more available surface area, thus more active sites, but also facilitate the diffusion of the reactants/products to/from the active sites of the bulk catalyst. Moreover, the 3DOM structure of the bulk catalysts was retained after the pre-sulfurization process and hydrodesulfurization reaction, illustrating the relatively high stability of prepared bulk catalysts in the experimental investigation. The 3DOM CoMo bulk catalyst exhibited superior catalytic performance with thiophene conversion of 99.2% at 360 °C in comparison with the CoW and CoMoW bulk catalysts.

  • Hierarchically porous biochar synthesized with CaCO3 template for efficient Hg0 adsorption from flue gas
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Qiqi Shi, Yuting Wang, Xiao Zhang, Boxiong Shen, Fumei Wang, Yanfang Zhang

    A hierarchical porous carbon sorbent was fabricated by pyrolysis of rice straw in the presence of nanoscale CaCO3 for effectively removal of Hg0 from flue gas. The hierarchical structure of the sorbent was generated by CaCO3 and shaped by using staged pyrolysis temperatures. Large numbers of oxygen-containing functional groups were generated with the hierarchical pore formation. Because of their hierarchical porous structures and large numbers of ligands, the efficiency of Hg0 removal by the hierarchical sorbent was higher than that of conventional biochar by 40% to 65% at temperature range from 80 to 180 °C. Mechanistic studies showed that Hg0 was adsorbed on the surfaces of the hierarchical pores with different binding energies, and the ratio of mesopores could be a more critical factor in the Hg0 adsorption capacity of adsorbents with hierarchical porous structures. Meanwhile, the Hg0 removal with the hierarchical sorbent showed better resistance toward flue gas components (SO2 and H2O) than that with traditional biochar probably because of better transfer of the complex components in the sorbent. The high-performance and cost-effective carbon adsorbent described in this paper has great promise for Hg0 removal from flue gas.

  • Support effects in the de-methoxylation of lignin monomer 4-propylguaiacol over molybdenum-based catalysts
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Song Song, Jiaguang Zhang, Ning Yan

    De-methoxylation of lignin-derived 4-propylguaiacol over molybdenum oxide catalysts on five common supports (SiO2, CeO2, Al2O3, TiO2 and active carbon (AC)) is investigated in a flow system. TEM, H2-TPR and TGA characterizations are conducted to understand the structural features of these Mo catalysts. Positive correlations between electronegativity of the cation in the support and catalyst activity is established, i.e., catalyst support with high cation electronegativity such as Si best promote the conversion of 4-propyiguaicaol into 4-propylphenol. Following this discovery, we further investigated the effect MoO3 loading on SiO2 and the reaction conditions to identify the most suitable parameters for the de-methoxylation of 4-propylguaiacol. The optimized MoO3/SiO2 catalyst constantly afforded >80% selectivity towards 4-propylphenol at >60% conversion for >10 h, and the lost activity could be regenerated by removing coke via simple high temperature calcination.

  • High-temperature and high-pressure thermophysical property measurements and thermodynamic modelling of an international oil standard: RAVENOL diesel rail injector calibration fluid
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Alexander R. Lowe, Bernadeta Jasiok, Vyacheslav V. Melent'ev, Olga S. Ryshkova, Vadim I. Korotkovskii, Anton K. Radchenko, Eugene B. Postnikov, Monika Spinnler, Ulkar Ashurova, Javid Safarov, Egon Hassel, Mirosław Chorążewski

    Presented here are the thermophysical characterization and thermodynamic modelling of RAVENOL Calibration Fluid 2.5 which is used for the calibration and preservation of diesel engine fuel injectors. Accurate knowledge of the standardized fluid properties is an important component for engineering modelling to deliver the correct dose of fuel into the combustion chamber of diesel engines while reducing the occurrence of cavitation phenomena. The liquid density and specific isobaric heat capacity measurements were carried out up to T = 423 K at ambient pressure. The speed of sound moving through the liquid was measured from T = (300 to 423) K from ambient pressure up to p = 200 MPa. This plays a crucial role in fuel injection timing. With the combination of these data with high pressure, it is possible to accurately calculate the liquid density, specific isobaric heat capacity, coefficient of isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility at elevated pressures. The data obtained at ambient pressure were used to confirm the accuracy of the high-pressure experimental data by comparing them with the predictions of the Fluctuation-Theory Equation-of-State. The calibration fluid has become the second ISO 4113 fluid to be characterized in this fashion.

  • Evaluation of a bauxite cement-bonded Fe-based oxygen carrier during a hundred of cycles under coal-fueled chemical looping combustion conditions
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Fang Liu, Xin Wu, Li Yang, Hengfeng Bu, Xi Zhang

    The development of cost effective oxygen carriers (OCs) is one of the key factors for chemical looping combustion (CLC) to become a viable technology for controlling CO2 emissions from fossil fueled power plants, especially those using coal. Although bauxite cement-bonded Fe-based OCs have been identified as a potential candidate for CLC implementation, few studies have examined their long-term stability and process effectiveness under conditions of coal fueled power. Hence, this study examined long-term effectiveness of a bauxite cement-bonded Fe-based OC for conversion of coal and production of CO2-enriched off-gases under cycled processing typical to CLC technology. During reduction and oxidation cycles, the exhaust gas and samples of the OC were extracted from a laboratory scale, coal burning fluidized bed reactor to enable their characterization and provide insight into the process performance and physical attributes of the OC conducive to its application. The results show that the bauxite cement-bonded OC maintained high reactivity and regeneration capacity, and the mechanical strength integrity to withstand the mechanical and chemical stresses associated with fluidized bed and solids transfer typical to CLC.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effects of coal interactions during cokemaking on coke properties under simulated blast furnace conditions
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Xing Xing

    The cokes produced from single coals and blends of these coals were investigated under the simulated blast furnace (BF) conditions. Comparison of the weighted average values of single coal cokes and the measured values of cokes from blends revealed the coal interactions during carbonisation and the effects of these interactions on coke properties under the simulated BF conditions. Blending coals together resulted in a significant fluidity reduction from the expected values. The large amount of volatile matter released from the low rank coal provided better conditions of crystallites growth for other coal components in the blends, thereby resulting in the pervasively higher measured graphitization degree. Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the higher measured graphitization degree was mainly contributed by the lenticular and ribbon microtextures. Although the caking properties of the blends were remarkably reduced from the expected values, the measured microstrength did not have a significant difference from the calculated values. However, the measured macrostrength were higher than the calculated values. The differences in the softening and resolidification temperatures of coals restricted the dilatation but promoted the contraction of the blends, which resulted in a reduced porosity development from the expected value, thereby improving the strength of the produced cokes.

  • Detailed kinetic modeling of H2S formation during fuel-rich combustion of pulverized coal
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Honghe Ma, Sichen Lv, Lu Zhou, Jia Wei Chew, Jun Zhao

    The paper presents a detailed kinetic study on H2S formation during fuel-rich combustion of pulverized coal via tube furnace experiment and kinetic analysis with Chemkin. A new detailed kinetic model involving 34 species and 115 reactions was developed, with emphasis on CS2 as a source for H2S. The novel model was validated using experimental data with respect to the concentration distributions of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, SO2, H2S, COS and CS2. Sensitivity analysis shows that H2S concentration was very sensitive to reactions (2) H2S + H = SH + H2, (89) SO2 + CO = SO + CO2, (104) COS + H2O = H2S + CO2, (62) HOSO (+M) = H + SO2 (+M), (103) CS2 + H2O = H2S + COS, etc. Also, SH, S, and SO were the key free radicals for H2S production. Rate of production analysis (ROP) were also performed, which indicate that SH was the most important precursor of H2S. Based on the detailed kinetic model and ROP analysis, the simplified reaction path of H2S formation was constructed. Finally, the new model was compared with the Leeds University sulfur chemistry model. The two models have the same key free radicals and four major elementary reactions. The main difference is that CS2 was a notable source for H2S in our model targeted for coal combustion, and should be given special attention.

  • The role of polar ethanol induction in various iso-octane ethanol fuel blend during single droplet combustion
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Budi Waluyo, ING Wardana, Lilis Yuliati, Mega Nur Sasongko, Muji Setiyo

    This study aims to disclose the role of molecular interactions of iso-octane ethanol blend during droplet combustion. The iso-octane ethanol composition which has the potential to form molecular clusters was analyzed using integer interaction modeling with mole ratio. Comparison of mole-based compositions was converted to a volume base to verify empirically using the single droplet burning method. The molecular interaction analysis gave the composition close to the molecular cluster composition was 10, 15, 25, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% v/v. Ethanol fractions of 20% and 30% v/v were also tested using the same method as a mixture that do not form the molecular cluster. This study shows that the total molecular interaction forces on molecular clusters are inversely proportional to puffing events during single droplet combustion. The number of free molecules that do not form molecular clusters tends to produce micro-explosions at the final stage of single droplet combustion. The research also revealed that the increasing ethanol fractions in molecular clusters tends to reduce the combustion rate constant exponentially.

  • Tar conversion of biomass syngas in a downstream char bed
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    D. Fuentes-Cano, L. von Berg, A. Diéguez-Alonso, R. Scharler, A. Gómez-Barea, A. Anca-Couce

    The catalytic conversion of biomass-derived tars over char during long tests (over 6 h) is studied. The syngas is generated in a steam-blown fluidized-bed gasifier employing wood pellets and conducted to a second tubular reactor where non-activated char particles are fluidized. The gasifier operated at 750 °C whereas the temperature of the secondary reactor was varied between 750 °C and 875 °C. The evolution of the tar conversion, gas composition and internal structure of the used catalysts were studied. At 750 °C, the initial catalytic activity of the char was low and deactivation occurs rapidly. However, as the reactor temperature increased, the catalytic activity of the char improved significantly. At 875 °C, the initial conversion of tar was above 70% and over 64% after 5 h of operation. Moreover, the conversion of the heaviest tars was above 80% during the entire test. At this temperature, the decrease in tar conversion is attributed to the consumption of the char by steam gasification since its catalytic activity increased during of the test. In these conditions the char bed with an initial weight of 32 g converted approximately 12 g of tars (benzene not included) after 5 h of operation.

  • Emissions from the combustion of torrefied and raw biomass fuels in a domestic heating stove
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    D. Maxwell, B.A. Gudka, J.M. Jones, A. Williams

    Biomass (pellets, briquettes, logs) are a key contributor to many countries' strategies for decarbonising heat, particularly in domestic applications. The emissions from these small devices can be high and severely impact air quality, but their levels depend on the design, control, abatement and fuel options. This paper is concerned with the last case. A comparative study shows the emissions from a domestic wood stove for three biomass fuels and their torrefied counterparts. The fuels were burned in a multi-fuel stove along with two reload batches creating continuous combustion cycles: the initial cold start data is presented but not included in averaging and calculation of emission factors. Measurements were made using an FTIR instrument for carbon and nitrogen based gaseous emissions, particulates were measured using a smoke meter with micro-quartz filters as well as a size-selective impactor to obtain the particle size distribution. Particulate emissions were significantly reduced from the torrefied fuels and this is thought to be related to their pyrolysis fingerprint, which was investigated by pyrolysis-GC–MS. NOx was slightly reduced, despite increased fuel-N after torrefaction. In addition, the reduced moisture in the torrefied fuels decreases emissions of CO and CH4 because of increased time of flaming combustion.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Methods to improve properties of fuel pellets obtained from different biomass sources: Effect of biomass blends and binders
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Shailendrasingh P. Rajput, Sachin V. Jadhav, Bhaskar N. Thorat

    This study evaluates the effect biomass blending and binder addition on the strength, calorific value (CV), and durability by biomass pellets. Blended biomass materials (0 to 60 wt% additive) and three binders (2 to 6 wt%) (i.e.) recovered polyvinyl alcohol (rPVA); waste cooking oil (WCO) and waste lubricating oil (WLO) were used to make biomass pellets. Ground nut shell (GNS) pellets exhibited the highest CV but lowest strength which was improved by the addition of saw dust (SWD) and Leaf litter waste (LLW) additives. Contrarily, LLW pellets exhibited good strength but the minimum CV which was improved by GNS audition. The LLW biomass contributed as strength improver and GNS served as CV enhancer. The SWD biomass provided both strength and CV to the pellets. In case of binders, a significant increase in the strength of GNS pellets was observed on rPVA addition in comparison to LLW pellets and SWD pellets, whereas WCO and WLO showed a marginal reduction in strength of all the biomass pellets. The rPVA material worked as strength improving binder whereas WCO and WLO were responsible to increase the CV of the pellets.

  • Effects of infinitely fast chemistry on combustion behavior of coaxial diffusion flame predicted by large eddy simulation
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Shota Akaotsu, Ryoma Ozawa, Yohsuke Matsushita, Hideyuki Aoki, Weeratunge Malalasekera

    Large eddy simulations (LES) based on turbulent combustion models aid the design and optimization of combustors. Of the various combustion models available, the eddy break up (EBU) model is widely used because it assumes an infinitely fast chemistry. However, omitting the actual chemical kinetics can cause unexpected behavior, and the characteristics of the combustion models need to be elucidated. Here, the effects of an infinitely fast chemistry on the combustion behavior of a coaxial diffusion flame as predicted by an LES were analyzed. Although the EBU model captured the overall behavior of the chemical species as well as the flow field, the gas temperature and mass fractions of the combustion products in the mixing region of the fuel and oxidizer streams were overestimated. In contrast, the flamelet/progress variable (FPV) model yielded results that were in better agreement with the experimental data, because while the EBU model assumes an infinitely fast chemistry, the look-up tables used in the FPV model are based on the actual chemical kinetics. As these models can be used for the CFD simulations of coal and spray combustion, the results of this study should be useful for efficiently simulating practical combustion systems.

  • Heating strategies for the system of PP and Spherical Activated Carbon during microwave cracking for obtaining value-added products
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Xiaodong Jing, Hao Wen, Xuzhong Gong, Zhihong Xu

    Microwave catalytic cracking of waste plastics is a promising technology. However, how to mix effectively microwave absorber, catalyst and feedstock, and reuse microwave absorbers and catalysts is obviously a challenge. This study has focused on the heat transfer performance and reuse of microwave absorber and the influence of heating strategies on cracked products. Commercial Spherical Activated Carbon (SAC), containing some catalysts, has been used for microwave cracking of polypropylene. The effect of heating strategies on product distribution has been studied. Meanwhile, SAC has been reused many times to test the possibility of industrialization of the system. The results show that the heating strategies such as reducing the input power, choosing appropriate intermittent heating time and co-cracking of PP-Wax are beneficial to the formation of light oil. Compared with the first use, the subsequent heating rate of SAC will decrease, but the average heating rate shows a certain stability in the subsequent multiple use (the change range <1 °C/min at 32% input power). From the point of view of heat transfer and reuse, SAC has obvious advantages as microwave absorber. However, the catalytic performance is not significant and needs to be improved in the next study.

  • Primary and secondary reactions in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether over a Pd-Zn-HZSM-5/Al2O3 catalyst
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    A.L. Maximov, M.V. Magomedova, E.G. Galanova, M.I. Afokin, D.A. Ionin

    The synthesis of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether in an atmosphere of synthesis gas, over a Pd-Zn-HZSM-5/Al2O3 catalyst, under flow-circulation conditions, at a pressure of 10.0 MPa, was investigated. It was found that the resulting hydrocarbon fractions were characterized by a low concentration of aromatic compounds and high concentrations of iso- and cycloalkanes. The dependence of the yields of the main groups of products and individual components on the contact time was explained in terms of the occurrence of methylation, oligomerization, hydrogenation, H-transfer, and hydroisomerization reactions. The role of Pd and Zn in the formation of the products was evaluated.

  • Methanol steam reforming for hydrogen generation: A comparative modeling study between silica and Pd-based membrane reactors by CFD method
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    K. Ghasemzadeh, J.N. Harasi, T.Y. Amiri, A. Basile, A. Iulianelli

    Pd-based membranes are the most studied in applications of membrane reactors in the field of high grade hydrogen production. The main issues of Pd-membranes such as high cost and relatively low hydrogen permeability limit their wide development at larger scale, favoring other inorganic materials such as silica to be used as membrane for hydrogen generation/purification. Therefore, this theoretical study aims to evaluate the performance of silica (4 mm of thickness and 5 cm of active length) and PdAg (50 μm thick and 5 cm of active length) membrane reactors exercised at the same operating conditions and using the same reaction kinetics to produce hydrogen from methanol steam reforming reaction. Furthermore, an equivalent traditional reactor is studied for comparison. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed, firstly validating the former with experimental literature data. The effects of reaction pressure and temperature on the reactors performance in terms of hydrogen yield, methanol conversion and CO selectivity were hence studied and discussed. The simulations via CFD method indicated that the silica membrane reactor results to be the best solution over the PdAg MR and the TR as well, presenting the best simulation results at 513 K, 10 bar, sweep-factor = 6, GHSV = 6000 h−1 and feed molar ratio = 3/1 with CO selectivity equal to 0.04%, methanol conversion and hydrogen yield >90%.

  • Binder-free supercapacitor electrodes: Optimization of monolithic graphitized carbons by reflux acid treatment
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    A. Gomez-Martin, A. Gutierrez-Pardo, J. Martinez-Fernandez, J. Ramirez-Rico

    The rational design of electrodes mimicking the cellular structure of natural bio-resources has been a matter of increasing interest for applications in energy storage. Due to their anisotropic and hierarchical porosity, monolithic carbon materials from natural wood precursors are appealing as electrodes for supercapacitor applications due to their interconnected channels, relatively low cost and environmentally friendly synthesis process. In this work, a liquid-phase oxidative treatment with refluxing nitric acid at 100 °C for 8 h was performed to enhance the surface properties of beech-derived graphitized carbons treated with an iron catalyst. Microstructural, textural and surface investigations revealed that this strategy was successful in removing amorphous carbon and in functionalizing their surfaces. The crystallinity, accessible surface area, micropore volume and surface functionality of beech-derived carbons were increased upon the reflux treatment. The resulting porous carbon materials were evaluated as binderless monolithic electrodes for supercapacitors applications in aqueous KOH electrolyte. A maximum specific capacitance of 179 F·g−1 and a volumetric capacitance of 89 F·cm−3 in galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments were reached. Monolithic electrodes exhibited good cycling stability, with a capacitance retention over 95% after 10,000 cycles.

  • Carbonaceous aerosols emission reduction by using red mud additive in coal briquette
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Yue Zhang, Zhenxing Shen, Bin Zhang, Jian Sun, Tian Zhang, Xin Wang, Tianshu Wang, Hongmei Xu, Pingping Liu, Tao Wang
  • Improvement of bark pyrolysis oil and value added chemical recovery by pervaporation
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Tobias M. Brueckner, Peter G. Pickup, K.A. Hawboldt

    Pyrolysis oil produced from forestry residues is used as a low-grade fuel in applications such as heating oil. However, the high water and acid content can lead to fuel instability, phase separation, poor lubrication, and corrosion. In this work, pervaporation has been studied as a process to simultaneously upgrade a pyrolysis oil produced from Canadian softwood bark to meet a boiler fuel standard and extract value-added chemicals. Commercial polyacrylonitrile-supported polyvinyl alcohol membranes from DeltaMem AG were used at temperatures of 60 and 80 °C to separate water and volatile organic components, including methanol, acetic acid, and acetol. A design of experiment study was used to define the range of operating conditions. A temperature of 80 °C and a low feed flow rate of 0.1 mL min−1 resulted in the highest quality oil. The upgraded pyrolysis oil (pervaporation retentate) showed an increased heating value from incomplete combustion to 16.07 MJ kg−1 and the water content was lowered from 70.2 wt% in the feedstock to 21.4 wt%, demonstrating the potential for this process on a larger scale.

  • Synthesis of methyl lactate from cellulose catalyzed by mixed Lewis acid systems
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Ken-ichi Tominaga, Koji Nemoto, Yusuke Kamimura, Yoshiaki Hirano, Tsukasa Takahashi, Hideaki Tsuneki, Kazuhiko Sato
  • Improved combustion and emission characteristics of ethylene glycol/diesel dual-fuel engine by port injection timing and direct injection timing
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Peng Zhang, Jingjing He, Hao Chen, Xuan Zhao, Limin Geng

    In this study, the performance of a diesel–ethylene glycol (DEG) dual-fuel engine with four low EG energy ratios (named EG0, EG5, EG10 and EG15 respectively) is tried to improve by port injection timing (PIT) and direct injection timing (DIT). The combustion results show that combustion process is even highly affected by DIT than by PIT. Peak cylinder pressure, peak heat release rates (PHRRs) and pressure rise rate increase with the augmentation of EG energy ratios and advanced DIT. Combustion duration decreases with the increase of EG energy ratios and advanced DIT. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) can be improved 19.45% by raising EG energy ratios and advancing DIT. In consideration of emission, the emissions of NOx, THC, CO2 and soot decrease followed by the rise of EG energy ratio at the same time, while CO emission increases. The emission is more obviously affected by DIT than PIT. The emission of soot and THC decreases with advanced DIT, while the emission of CO2 and NOx increases. Advanced DIT can reduce PM, and EG can decrease the average diameter of PM. Overall, the advanced DIT, suitable EG energy ratio and proper PIT are expected to achieve optimization on DEG dual-fuel engine in the aspect of performance and emissions.

  • Effect of Biodiesel impurities (K, Na, P) on non-catalytic and catalytic activities of Diesel soot in model DPF regeneration conditions
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Hailong Zhang, Jishuang He, Shanshan Li, Eduard Emil Iojoiu, Maria Elena Galvez, Haifeng Xiong, Patrick Da Costa, Yaoqiang Chen
  • Biodiesel-mediated biodiesel production: A recombinant Fusarium heterosporum lipase-catalyzed transesterification of crude plant oils
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Emmanuel Quayson, Jerome Amoah, Nova Rachmadona, Shinji Hama, Ayumi Yoshida, Akihiko Kondo, Chiaki Ogino
  • An experimental investigation into the effect of flue gas recirculation on ash deposition and Na migration behaviour in circulating fluidized bed during combustion of high sodium Zhundong lignite
    Fuel Process. Technol. (IF 4.507) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Zhuo Liu, Jianbo Li, Mingming Zhu, Fangqin Cheng, Xiaofeng Lu, Zhezi Zhang, Dongke Zhang

    The effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on ash deposition and Na migration in a laboratory-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) burning Zhundong lignite was investigated. The CFB dense phase was maintained at temperature 950 °C, whereas that of the furnace exit was adjusted to 730 and 680 °C respectively by manipulating the FGR flow rate. Two ash deposition probes maintained at 550 °C were installed in the furnace chamber (P1) and cyclone outlet (P2). The deposited ashes along with the bottom and fly ash were collected and analysed by using XRD, SEM-EDX and ICP-OES. Results showed that the P1 deposit consisted of sintered Ca/Mg/Na sulphates and aluminosilicates at 730 °C, but became granular Na2SO4/CaSO4 at 680 °C. The P2 deposit and fly ash were sintered and rich in CaSO4 and Na2SO4 at 730 °C, but did not show signs of sintering at 680 °C. The bottom ash was enriched in CaSiO3 and NaAlSi3O8 at 730 °C, but were dominated by Na6(AlSiO4)6 at 680 °C. Na in the bottom ash increased from 31.7 to 35.2 mg g−1 as FGR flow rate increased, leading to severe bed particle agglomeration consequently. The FGR thus exerted a trade-off effect on the sintering and deposition propensity of fly ash and agglomeration of bed materials.

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上海纽约大学William Glover