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  • Validation of EDGE2D-EIRENE and DIVIMP for W SOL transport in JET
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    H.A. Kumpulainen; M. Groth; G. Corrigan; D. Harting; F. Koechl; A.E. Jaervinen; B. Lomanowski; A.G. Meigs; M. Sertoli

    Tungsten sputtering rates and density profiles predicted using the edge plasma codes EDGE2D-EIRENE and DIVIMP are found to agree within a factor of 4 with measurements of neutral and singly-ionized W spectral line emission in the JET low-field side (LFS) divertor, and within a factor of 2 with SXR, VUV, and bolometric calculations of the W density in the main plasma. The edge plasma W predictions are

  • Boron transport simulation using the ERO2.0 code for real-time wall conditioning in the large helical device
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    M. Shoji; G. Kawamura; J. Romazanov; A. Kirschner; A. Eksaeva; D. Borodin; S. Masuzaki; S. Brezinsek

    The three-dimensional Monte-Carlo impurity transport and plasma surface interaction code ERO2.0 is applied to a full-torus model for the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to find an optimum experimental condition for effective real-time wall conditioning (boronization) using an Impurity Powder Dropper (IPD), the toroidal and poloidal distribution of the boron flux density on the divertor components

  • First exploitation results of recently developed SXR GEM-based diagnostics at the WEST project
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Maryna Chernyshova; Didier Mazon; Karol Malinowski; Tomasz Czarski; Irena Ivanova-Stanik; Sławomir Jabłoński; Andrzej Wojeński; Ewa Kowalska-Strzęciwilk; Krzysztof T. Poźniak; Philippe Malard; Paweł Linczuk; Grzegorz Kasprowicz; Wojciech Zabołotny; Rafał D. Krawczyk; Piotr Kolasiński; Michał Gąska

    This contribution outlines the first preliminary acquisition data obtained by the GEM diagnostics on WEST. It was designed to monitor the radiation of impurities with a particular focus on the challenges of the elaborated plasma imaging technology in the area of SXR radiation. The details of the developed diagnostics and preliminary results obtained within the commissioning phase of the diagnostics

  • The transport of tungsten impurities induced by the intrinsic carbon during upper-single null discharge on EAST tokamak
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Qingrui Zhou; Chaofeng Sang; Guoliang Xu; Rui Ding; Xuele Zhao; Yilin Wang; Dezhen Wang

    The transport as well as accumulation of tungsten (W) impurity is one of the critical issues for the W divertor operation. The EAST tokamak with W and graphite divertor targets, provides a good platform for the investigation of W impurity behaviors. In this work, the production, transport and accumulation of W impurities are simulated via the SOLPS-DIVIMP modeling. The plasma background is obtained

  • In-situ assessment of the emissivity of tungsten plasma facing components of the WEST tokamak
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    J. Gaspar; M.-H. Aumeunier; M. Le Bohec; F. Rigollet; S. Brezinsek; Y. Corre; X. Courtois; R. Dejarnac; M. Diez; L. Dubus; N. Fedorczak; M. Houry; V. Moncada; P. Moreau; C. Pocheau; C. Talatizi; E. Tsitrone

    In this paper, a method was developed to estimate in-situ the emissivity of the W-coated graphite divertor tiles in the WEST tokamak. This method is based on the double heating method and take advantages of the divertor temperature increase after successive plasma experiments due to the inertial behavior of the plasma facing components. Photonic calculations have been used to disentangle the emitted

  • Modeling of COMPASS tokamak divertor liquid metal experiments
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    J. Horacek; R. Dejarnac; J. Cecrdle; D. Tskhakaya; A. Vertkov; J. Cavalier; P. Vondracek; M. Jerab; P. Barton; G. van Oost; M. Hron; V. Weinzettl; D. Sestak; S. Lukes; J. Adamek; A. Prishvitsin; M. Iafratti; Y. Gasparyan; R. Panek

    Two small liquid metal targets based on the capillary porous structure were exposed to the divertor plasma of the tokamak COMPASS. The first target was wetted by pure lithium and the second one by a lithium-tin alloy, both releasing mainly lithium atoms (sputtering and evaporation) when exposed to plasma. Due to poorly conductive target material and steep surface inclination (implicating the surface-perpendicular

  • Erosion and Screening of Tungsten during inter/intra-ELM Periods in the JET-ILW Divertor
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    A. Huber; S. Brezinsek; V. Huber; M. Sertoli; G. Sergienko; I. Borodkina; M. Baruzzo; A. Kirschner; D. Borodin; J. Mailloux; S. Aleiferis; P. Carvalho; K. Lawson; Ch. Linsmeier; A. Meigs; S. Menmuir; Ph. Mertens; E. Pawelec; A. Shaw

    Intra-ELM tungsten sources, which dominate the total W source, are quantified in the inner and outer divertor of JET-ILW. The amount of the sputtered W atoms for individual ELMs demonstrates a clear dependence on the ELM frequency. It decreases when the pedestal temperature is lower and, correspondingly, the ELM frequency is higher. Nevertheless, the entire gross erosion W source (the number of eroded

  • Continuous observation of filaments from the confined region to the far scrape-off layer
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-28
    M. Griener; E. Wolfrum; G. Birkenmeier; M. Faitsch; R. Fischer; G. Fuchert; L. Gil; G. Harrer; P. Manz; D. Wendler; U. Stroth

    The thermal helium beam diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade can access the whole plasma edge region simultaneously with a high spatiotemporal resolution. Manifold dynamics of plasma edge transport is observed for different plasma confinement regimes, comprising L- and H-mode scenarios with type-I and small ELMs as well as ELM free EDA regimes. The measurements show that the plasma dynamics in the confined

  • Observations with fast visible cameras in high power Deuterium plasma experiments in the JET ITER-like wall tokamak
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    U. Losada; A. Manzanares; I. Balboa; S. Silburn; J. Karhunen; Pedro J. Carvalho; A. Huber; V. Huber; Emilia R. Solano; E. de la Cal

    High speed visible imaging allows to visualize the 2-dimensional dynamics of fast phenomena in the boundary layer of fusion plasmas. Here we describe the two high speed visible cameras currently operating in the JET tokamak, enabling the simultaneous observation of a large fraction of the JET tokamak vacuum vessel with the appropriate configuration for many different plasma phenomena. As an example

  • Infrared constrained equilibria and application to snowflake divertor studies
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    J.T. Wai; P.J. Vail; A.O. Nelson; Z.A. Xing; C. Lasnier; E. Kolemen

    One of the challenges of the snowflake divertor (SFD) configuration is finding a reliable means of reconstructing the magnetic field geometry in the divertor. Since the SFD (and other advanced divertors) have multiple field nulls, there is a large region with shallow flux gradients that is difficult to resolve accurately using external diagnostics. In this work we present a technique that uses heat

  • Evaluation of Hydrogen Retention Behavior in Tungsten Exposed to Hydrogen Plasma in Quest
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Ayaka Koike; Moeko Nakata; Shota Yamazaki; Takuro Wada; Fei Sun; Mingzhong Zhao; Naoaki Yoshida; Kazuaki Hanada; Yasuhisa Oya

    The W (tungsten) samples were placed at Top, Equator and Bottom plasma facing walls of QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady-State-Spherical Tokamak) device and exposed to 754 shots of hydrogen plasma during 2017A/W (Autumn / Winter) campaign. Thereafter, their surface morphologies and chemical states were evaluated by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

  • Thermographic investigation of the effect of plasma exposure on the surface of a MAST upgrade divertor tile in Magnum-PSI
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    M.J. Dunn; T.W. Morgan; J.W. Genuit; T. Loewenhoff; A.J. Thornton; K.J. Gibson

    One of the issues faced by future fusion devices will be high divertor target heat loads. Alternative divertors can promote detachment, flux expansion and dissipation mechanisms to mitigate these heat loads. They have been investigated in several devices including TCV and DIII-D, and will be investigated on MAST-U. To evaluate their effectiveness, accurate target heat flux and power balance measurements

  • A quantitative risk assessment methodology based on CCDF risk curve for accidental releases from fusion reactors
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    Zhen Wang; Shanqi Chen; Daochuan Ge; Chao Chen; Zhibin Chen

    Fusion reactors are expected to be more safe and environmentally friendly in the development of nuclear energy systems. It is vital to fully understand the overall radiation risk level of fusion reactors in comparison with existing nuclear energy systems. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk assessment methodology for fusion reactor accidents, which is capable of quantifying the risk level

  • Study on creep-fatigue of heat sink in W/CuCrZr divertor target based on a new approach to creep life
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Peng Liu; Xinyuan Qian; Xin Mao; Wei Song; Xuebing Peng

    Reliability and security of the fusion device are severely affected by the failure of the divertor. It is necessary to have a reliable life prediction for heat sink in W/CuCrZr divertor target, especially during long-term high heat flux operation in future fusion devices in which the high temperature creep accelerates its fatigue failure. In this study, a new approach to creep life was applied to creep-fatigue

  • Size distribution of nano-tendril bundles with various additional impurity gases
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Rongshi Zhang; Dogyun Hwangbo; Shin Kajita; Hirohiko Tanaka; Noriyasu Ohno

    Nano-tendril bundles (NTBs) are generated on a tungsten surface by helium plasma exposure with various additional impurity gases, such as argon, nitrogen and neon. In this study, the formation condition of NTBs and the effect of incident ion energy, Ei, and impurity gas ratio, λg, are explored in detail. It is found that NTBs are easily formed at where the incident ion flux and fluence is enhanced

  • Lithium splashing from flowing liquid lithium limiter and its effect on high confinement plasma performance in EAST tokamak
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Z.L. Tang; G.Z. Zuo; C.L. Li; R. Maingi; X.C. Meng; W. Xu; Z. Sun; Y.Z. Qian; M. Huang; D.H. Zhang; D. Andruczyk; K. Tritz; X.L. Yuan; X.B. Zhang; J.S. Hu

    To study the potential applications of liquid lithium (Li) as plasma facing material, the third generation of flowing liquid Li (FLiLi) limiter has been designed and successfully tested in EAST tokamak H-mode discharges in the 2018 run campaign. The stability of liquid Li on FLiLi surface, and Li splashing and its effect on the plasma performance are investigated in detail. Li splashing was observed

  • Characterization on the melting failure of CuCrZr cooling tube of W/Cu monoblocks during plasma operations in EAST
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Changjun Li; Dahuan Zhu; Rui Ding; Baoguo Wang; Junling Chen; Binfu Gao; Yang Lei

    The behavior of ITER-like W/Cu plasma facing components under complex conditions in current tokamaks is one of the main concerns for ITER. EAST has installed a full upper W divertor with the ITER-like W/Cu monoblocks as targets since 2014. A melting failure of CuCrZr cooling tube of W/Cu monoblocks has occurred during the plasma campaigns in 2019. Due to the loss of cooling water, the leading edge-induced

  • Estimation of 2D distributions of electron density and temperature in the JET divertor from tomographic reconstructions of deuterium Balmer line emission
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    J. Karhunen; B. Lomanowski; V. Solokha; S. Aleiferis; P. Carvalho; M. Groth; H. Kumpulainen; K.D. Lawson; A.G. Meigs; A. Shaw

    Estimates for 2D distributions of electron density, ne, and temperature, Te, have been obtained using reflection-corrected tomographic reconstructions of deuterium Balmer line emission in the JET divertor. The solutions are obtained by a two-dimensional Monte Carlo optimization model, based on intensity ratios of the Balmer Dα, Dγ and Dε emission and the ADAS photon emission coefficients with additional

  • First impurity powder injection experiments in LHD
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    F. Nespoli; N. Ashikawa; E.P. Gilson; R. Lunsford; S. Masuzaki; M. Shoji; T. Oishi; C. Suzuki; A. Nagy; A. Mollen; N.A. Pablant; K. Ida; M. Yoshinuma; N. Tamura; D.A. Gates; T. Morisaki

    Injection of impurities in the form of sub-millimeter powder grains is performed for the first time in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma, employing the Impurity Powder Dropper (IPD) (Nagy et al., 2018), developed and built by PPPL. Controlled amounts of boron (B) and boron nitride (BN) powder are injected into the helical plasma. Visible camera imaging, UV and charge exchange spectroscopy measurements

  • Currents structure in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    V. Rozhansky; E. Kaveeva; I. Senichenkov; D. Sorokina; E. Vekshina; D. Coster; P. McCarthy; N. Khromov

    Currents structure in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a tokamak is analyzed. It is demonstrated that poloidal currents measured in the experiments are a combination of several current types of different physical nature. Besides known Pfirsch-Schlüter (PS) currents and thermoelectric currents, so-called PCC (plate closing currents) flowing to/from the divertor plates are also analyzed. The latter close

  • Impact of liquid metal surface on plasma-surface interaction in experiments with lithium and tin capillary porous systems
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    V.P. Budaev; I.E. Lyublinsky; S.D. Fedorovich; A.V. Dedov; A.V. Vertkov; A.T. Komov; A.V. Karpov; Yu.V. Martynenko; G. Van Oost; M.K. Gubkin; M.V. Lukashevsky; A.Yu. Marchenkov; K.A. Rogozin; G.B. Vasiliev; A.A. Konkov; A.V. Lazukin; A.V. Zakharenkov; Z.A. Zakletsky

    The lithium and tin capillary-porous systems (CPSs) were tested with steady-state plasma in the PLM plasma device which is the divertor simulator with plasma parameters relevant to divertor and SOL plasma of tokamaks. The CPS consists of tin/lithium tile fixed between two molybdenum meshs constructed in the module faced to plasma. Steady-state plasma load of 0.1 – 1 MW/m2 on the CPS during more than

  • Impurity Control Study of Radiative Tungsten Divertor in EAST Tokamak
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    YiPing Chen; Dongrui Zhang; Ling Zhang; Liqun Hu; EAST team

    EAST was equipped with W-coated divertor plates and dome for the upper divertor, the remaining plasma facing components include the plasma facing components at lower divertor consisted of Carbon materials, at the baffles and main chamber walls consisted of Molybdenum materials. In order to study the control of W impurity on EAST with W divertor by an additional radiation losses, the radiative tungsten

  • The role of drifts on the isotope effect on divertor plasma detachment in JET Ohmic discharges
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-07
    V. Solokha; M. Groth; S. Brezinsek; M. Brix; G. Corrigan; C. Guillemaut; D. Harting; S. Jachmich; U. Kruezi; S. Marsen; S. Wiesen

    Experiments in JET-ILW Ohmic confinement mode plasmas show that the line-averaged detachment onset density in deuterium discharges is approx. 10% lower than in hydrogen discharges. The magnitude of the isotope effect on the detachment onset density depends on the divertor geometry, the magnetic configuration and the throughput of the sub-divertor/divertor cryopump system. Simulations with the edge

  • Exploration of Sn70Li30 alloy as possible material for flowing liquid metal plasma facing components
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    A. de Castro; C. Moynihan; S. Stemmley; M. Szott; D. Andruczyk; D.N. Ruzic

    As an advanced alternative to solid materials, Liquid Metals (LM) may offer more resilient and feasible Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). Particularly, regarding the unavoidable material erosion/degradation produced by particle/heat fluxes in future fusion devices where much longer duty cycles are expected. Furthermore, configurations that propose a flowing LM surface can add the advantage of a continuously

  • Numerical analysis of fatigue behaviors for tungsten armor of ITER divertor
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    Shuming Wang; Ye Wang; Qingzhi Yan; Changchun Ge

    Thermal responses and fatigue behaviors of the tungsten armor of monoblock divertor under steady-state and transient high heat flux (HHF) loads as well as the coupling of the two were simulated and analyzed by the finite element method. It was found that, under the action of thermal cycle loads, the earliest fatigue failure area of tungsten armor is on the surface, and with the increasing of HHF load

  • Tungsten fuzz: Deposition effects and influence to fusion devices
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-01
    Shin Kajita; Naoaki Yoshida; Noriyasu Ohno

    Helium (He) plasma irradiation to tungsten leads to formation of He bubbles and fiberform nanostructures called fuzz on the surface. Although the fuzz growth condition and growth rate have been well investigated, deposition of W together with He ions can change the He effect significantly. For example, the deposition leads to large-scale structures such as nano-tendril bundles and mm-thick large-scale

  • EMC3-EIRENE modelling of the toroidally asymmetric heat flux distribution with neon impurity injection on EAST
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    B. Liu; S.Y. Dai; G. Kawamura; L. Zhang; Z.S. Yang; Y. Feng; D.Z. Wang

    The heat flux deposition on the divertor targets with neon impurity injection has been investigated for EAST tokamak with the help of three-dimensional (3D) edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE. The parameter studies of the upstream electron density, neon impurity injection flux and injected neon atom energy have been conducted to check their impacts on the extent of the toroidal asymmetry of heat load

  • Experimental verification of X-point potential well formation in unfavorable magnetic field direction
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    M. Wensing; H. de Oliveira; J. Loizu; C. Colandrea; O. Février; S. Gorno; H. Reimerdes; C. Theiler; A. Smolders; B.P. Duval; C.K. Tsui; M. Wischmeier; D. Brida; S. Henderson; M. Komm

    Recent TCV experiments confirm the predicted formation of an electric potential well, below the magnetic X-point, in configurations with unfavorable Bt field direction (ion ∇B drift away from the divertor), that substantially reshapes the typical divertor E×B flow pattern. The local charge balance ∇⋅j in the private flux region (PFR) of diverted tokamak plasmas has been previously argued to be dominated

  • Deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten alloys exposed to pure and impurities seeding deuterium plasma
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-31
    Hong Zhang; Xuexi Zhang; Li Qiao; Peng Wang

    Polycrystalline tungsten (W) and four kinds of tungsten alloys were exposed to pure and impurities seeding deuterium (D) plasma to investigate the deuterium retention behaviour. The results show that D retention in W increases with the increasing fluence and incident energy, and decreases with the increase of temperature. The doping of alloying element and compounds, such as Re, La2O3, and ZrC, suppress

  • Numerical benchmark of transient pressure-driven metallic melt flows
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-31
    L. Vignitchouk; A. Khodak; S. Ratynskaia; I.D. Kaganovich

    Fluid dynamics simulations of melting and crater formation at the surface of a copper cathode exposed to high plasma heat fluxes and pressure gradients are presented. The predicted deformations of the free surface and the temperature evolution inside the metal are benchmarked against previously published simulations. Despite the physical model being entirely hydrodynamic and ignoring a variety of plasma–surface

  • Evaluation of axial decay length of plasma pressure in detached plasma
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    H. Tanaka; N. Ohno; S. Kajita; H. Takano; S. Hattori; Y. Imaeda

    This study proposes a method for evaluating the axial decay length of the plasma pressure in detached helium plasmas with a fixed-point laser Thomson scattering and spectroscopic measurements in the linear divertor plasma simulator NAGDIS-II. By controlling the neutral gas pressure, the highly volume-recombining region called the “recombination front” was moved along the magnetic field. The differential

  • Effects of a nitrogen seeded plasma on nanostructured tungsten films having fusion-relevant features
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Andrea Uccello; Francesco Ghezzi; Laura Laguardia; Roberto Caniello; David Dellasega; Fabio dell’Era; Davide Della Torre; Riccardo Donnini; Gustavo Granucci; Ernesto Mesto; Daniele Minelli; Matteo Passoni; Matteo Pedroni; Andrea Pezzoli; Daria Ricci

    Nitrogen (N) seeding is routinely applied in tokamaks with tungsten (W) walls to control the power exhaust toward the divertor. Open questions, concerning the interaction of N with W, are the influence of ion energy and W temperature on retention of implanted N and the erosion by deuterium (D) of the tungsten nitride being formed. Moreover, the extremely high particle fluxes in ITER and DEMO will erode

  • Radiative Heat Load Distribution on the EU-DEMO First Wall Due to Mitigated Disruptions
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-11-01
    M. Moscheni; M. Carr; S. Dulla; F. Maviglia; A. Meakins; G.F. Nallo; F. Subba; R. Zanino

    The EU-DEMO First Wall (FW) will be a relatively thin structure. In order not to damage this layer, heat loads distributed onto the wall should be carefully controlled. In the case of transient events, as for example plasma disruptions, the steady-state heat load limit (∼1-2MW/m2) can be largely exceeded. Therefore, when the control system detects an upcoming disruption, Shattered Pellet Injection

  • Carbonaceous deposits on aluminide coatings in tritium-producing assemblies
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Weilin Jiang; Steven R. Spurgeon; Bethany E. Matthews; Anil K. Battu; Swarup China; Tamas Varga; Arun Devaraj; Elizabeth J. Kautz; Matthew A. Marcus; Dallas D. Reilly; Walter G. Luscher

    Co-deposition of carbon atoms with hydrogen isotopes and hydrogenated carbon radicals and molecules is recognized as the main mechanism for tritium retention in the graphite walls of the previous tokamak fusion devices. Significant tritium retention would be a serious concern for safe and economic long-term operation of future fusion test reactors and fusion energy systems. Similar deposits are observed

  • Overview of power exhaust experiments in the COMPASS divertor with liquid metals
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    R. Dejarnac; J. Horacek; M. Hron; M. Jerab; J. Adamek; S. Atikukke; P. Barton; J. Cavalier; J. Cecrdle; M. Dimitrova; E. Gauthier; M. Iafrati; M. Imrisek; A. Marin Roldan; G. Mazzitelli; D. Naydenkova; A. Prishvitcyn; M. Tomes; V. Weinzettl

    Power handling experiments with a special liquid metal divertor module based on the capillary porous system technology were performed in the tokamak COMPASS. The performance of two metals (Li and LiSn alloy) were tested for the first time in a divertor under ELMy H-mode conditions. No damage of the capillary mesh and a good exhaust capability were observed for both metals in two separate experiments

  • LIBS analysis of samples from the COMPASS vacuum chamber after liquid metal experiments – Li campaign
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    P. Veis; S. Atikkuke; A. Marin Roldan; V. Dwivedi; M. Veis; P. Barton; M. Jerab; R. Dejarnac

    To overcome the erosion of the plasma-facing materials (PFMs) inside a fusion reactor, liquid metals such as lithium or tin are being explored as potential PFMs in fusion reactors due to their several advantages such as self-repair or high-power exhaust capability. Lithium can reduce the oxygen and carbon impurity contamination by chemically binding these species to the wall. Thus, experiments of power

  • Reproduction of collector probe deposition profiles using the far-SOL impurity transport code 3DLIM
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    S.A. Zamperini; J.D. Elder; P.C. Stangeby; J.H. Nichols; D.C. Donovan; J.D. Duran; E.A. Unterberg; D.L. Rudakov

    First results are reported from the 3D Monte Carlo far-SOL impurity transport code 3DLIM. Tungsten deposition profiles measured on a Collector Probe (CP) located in the far-SOL near the outer midplane, OMP, during W tracer experiments in DIII-D are reproduced by 3DLIM. Radial deposition profiles are replicated showing the effect that a decrease in connection length from the CP to the nearest wall contact

  • Origin and nature of the emissive sheath surrounding hot tungsten tokamak surfaces
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    P. Tolias; M. Komm; S. Ratynskaia; A. Podolnik

    The accurate description of the emitted current that escapes from hot tungsten surfaces is essential for reliable predictions of the macroscopic deformation due to melt motion induced by fast transient events. A comprehensive analytical electron emission model is developed and its implementation in the particle-in-cell 2D3V code SPICE2 is discussed. The properties of emissive sheaths of present tokamaks

  • Mechanical and microstructural response of the Al0.5CoCrFeNi high entropy alloy to Si and Ni ion irradiation
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    M. Aizenshtein; Z. Ungarish; K.B. Woller; S. Hayun; M.P. Short

    The nearly infinite compositional design space of high entropy alloys (HEAs) presents many opportunities to improve performance in extreme environments, particularly for nuclear reactors. The ability of some HEAs to resist high amounts of radiation damage, while well documented, has not yet been fully exploited. We studied the irradiation effect of different ions (Si and Ni) on the microstructure and

  • Integrated modelling: Coupling of surface evolution and plasma-impurity transport
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    K. Schmid; F. Effenberg; A. Dinklage; L. Rudischhauser; Y. Gao; M. Mayer; S. Brezinsek; J. Geiger; G. Fuchert; V. Miklos; H. Smith; Y. Turkin; K. Rahbarnia; T. Stange; K. Ipp; J. Brunner; U. Neuner; A. Pavone; H. Ipp
  • Corrosion of 304 stainless steel in static liquid lithium under high vacuum
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    X.C. Meng; M. Huang; C.L. Li; W. Xu; Z. Sun; Y.Z. Qian; L. Li; X.L. Yuan; J.J. Huang; X. Gao; J.G. Li; G.Z. Zuo; J.S. Hu

    To study the compatibility especially the corrosion characteristic of structural material stainless steel (SS) with liquid lithium (Li) is an important factor for the simultaneous application of liquid Li and SS as a blanket material or potential plasma facing material (PFM) in future fusion devices. The corrosion behaviors of 304SS exposed to liquid Li at 700 K for 1320 hr under high vacuum were investigated

  • High-heat flux tests of tungsten divertor mock-ups with steady-state plasma and e-beam
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    V.P. Budaev; S.D. Fedorovich; A.V. Dedov; A.V. Karpov; A.T. Komov; Yu.V. Martynenko; R.N. Giniyatulin; A.N. Makhankov; N.V. Litunovsky; A.P. Sliva; A. Yu. Marchenkov; D.N. Gerasimov; M.K. Gubkin; M.V. Lukashevsky; A.V. Zakharenkov; A.V. Lazukin; G.B. Vasiliev

    Mock-ups of the ITER divertor plate are tested with the combination of steady-state plasma and e-beam loads: (1) thermocyclic tests with powerful electron beam load of up to 40 MW/m2 in the e-beam facility; and then (2) subsequent testing in the PLM plasma device with steady-state plasma loads of 0.5–1 MW/m2 and more. Such tests simulate the variable load on divertor plates in the ITER. Tungsten samples

  • Microstructure-specific Hardening of Ferritic-Martensitic Steels pre and post 15 dpa Neutron Irradiation at 330°C: A Dislocation Dynamics Study
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    Michael Mahler; Giacomo Po; Yinan Cui; Nasr Ghoniem; Jarir Aktaa

    In this work, we used Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations to investigate the role of the hierarchical defects microstructure of ferritic-martensitic steel Eurofer97 in determining its hardening behavior. A Representative Volume Element (RVE) for DD simulation is identified based on the typical martensitic lath size. Material properties for DD simulations in b.c.c Eurofer97 are determined, including

  • Lithium dilution in Li-Sn alloys
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    R. Mateus; M.B. Costa; L.C. Alves; M. Guedes; E. Alves; A.C. Ferro

    Liquid lithium-tin (Li-Sn) alloys are being considered in alternative concepts of plasma facing components for nuclear fusion applications. Nevertheless, the high Li content and high melting temperature of Li-rich intermetallics may hinder their use due to a possible excessive evaporation of Li to the vessel with evident issues in fuel retention. Their formation was inhibited in this study in homogeneous

  • Microstructural, mechanical properties and high temperature oxidation of Cr, Al-coated Zr-4 alloy
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Weiwei Xiao; Xiaoshuang Liu; Huiqin Chen; Dewen Tang

    Cr and Al coating were respectively deposited on Zr-4 alloy by magnetron sputtering and high temperature oxidation (HTO) tests were conducted under 1200 °C in air atmosphere for 3 h for Cr-coated and Al-coated specimens. The morphology and phase of the specimens were detected by SEM, EDS and XRD. The adhesion properties were characterized by scratch test. The XRD results revealed that the two coatings

  • Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 12Cr-ODS steel
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Qi Wu; Mingyang Li; Yuanhang Guo; Jianfu Shan; Hanlu Wang; Yongqin Chang

    12Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel was welded by friction stir welding (FSW) method. The weld joint is composed of heat-affected zone (HAZ), advancing side thermo-mechanically affected zone (AS-TMAZ), retreating side thermo-mechanically affected zone (RS-TMAZ) and stir zone (SZ). Electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) results reveal that dynamic recrystallization occurs in SZ and AS-TMAZ

  • Conceptual design of DEMO blanket materials test modules for A-FNS
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Saerom Kwon; Satoshi Sato; Masayuki Ohta; Makoto Nakamura; Makoto Oyaidzu; Kentaro Ochiai; Atsushi Kasugai

    A conceptual design of Advanced Fusion Neutron Source, A-FNS, has been conducted to achieve early realization of fusion-like neutron irradiation test for fusion reactor materials in Japan. A-FNS provides eight test modules to obtain irradiation data for fusion reactor materials. Conceptual design activities on Blanket Functional Materials Test Module (BFMTM), Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) and

  • Effects of F3+ ion implantation on the properties of W and W0.5(TaTiVCr)0.5 for depth marker-based plasma erosion analysis
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Owais Ahmed Waseem; Kevin Benjamin Woller; Faris Bassam Sweidan; Ho Jin Ryu

    The irradiation resistance of tungsten (W) and a high-entropy alloy-based material W0.5(TaTiVCr)0.5 was analysed using depth marker implantation (F3+ ions irradiation). Mirror-polished W and W0.5(TaTiVCr)0.5 samples were exposed to 5.0 MeV and 4.2 MeV, respectively, F3+ ions up to a maximum fluence of 3.2x1012 ions/cm2. The scanning electron and atomic force microscopy of implanted W showed nanostructured

  • Micro-structured tungsten, a high heat flux pulse proof material
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    A. Terra; G. Sergienko; A. Kreter; Y. Martynova; M. Rasiński; M. Wirtz; Th. Loewenhoff; G. Pintsuk; D. Dorow-Gerspach; Y. Mao; D. Schwalenberg; L. Raumann; J.W. Coenen; S. Brezinsek; B. Unterberg; Ch. Linsmeier

    Micro structured tungsten is a new approach to address one of the main issues of tungsten as high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing material (PFM), which is its brittleness and its propensity to crack formation under pulsed, ELM like, heat loads (Loewenhoff et al., 2015; Wirtzet al., 2015 [2,3]). With power densities between 100 MW/m2 and 1 GW/m2, progressive thermal fatigue induced damages like roughening

  • Activation analysis for the reference low-activation vanadium alloy NIFS-HEAT-2
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Teruya Tanaka; Takuya Nagasaka; Takeo Muroga; Masanori Yamazaki; Takeshi Toyama

    Activation analysis of impurities was performed on a test specimen of the reference low-activation vanadium alloy NIFS-HEAT-2 (V-4Cr-4Ti) which has been irradiated in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) ~16 years before. Since the radioactive nuclides from V, Cr and Ti are produced with short half-lives, intense peaks of 60Co (T1/2 = 5.27 years) were dominant in the measured gamma-ray energy spectra

  • Sequential ion irradiations on Fe-Cr and ODS Fe-Cr alloys
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    M. Šćepanović; T. Leguey; I. García-Cortés; F.J. Sánchez; C. Hugenschmidt; M.A. Auger; V. de Castro

    Oxide dispersion strengthened steels are candidate materials for nuclear reactor applications due to a powerful combination of properties, such as reduced activation, high-temperature strength and increased creep resistance. The dispersion of nanometric oxide particles in the steel matrix may also enhance radiation resistance by acting as trapping sites for irradiation induced defects. In this work

  • 13C tracer deposition in EAST D and He plasmas investigated by high-throughput deuteron nuclear reaction analysis mapping
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    S. Möller; R. Ding; H. Xie; B.F. Gao; B.G. Wang; J. Peng; S.C. Liu; W. Gao; A. Kirschner; U. Breuer; P. Wienhold; R. Krug; S. Brezinsek

    Rare isotope tracer injection represents an established way for following particle transport in fusion research, but a tracer experiment is only as good as the tracer can be followed and separated from the common isotope. Physical models for transport analysis such as ERO2.0 require accurate total amounts of deposition with high spatial resolution. This work describes an extended high throughput NRA

  • Investigation of the particle accumulation effects on the power exhaust of snowflake minus divertor on HL-2M tokamak by SOLPS-ITER
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Yanjie Zhang; Chaofeng Sang; Jiaxian Li; Guoyao Zheng; Chen Zhang; Daoyuan Liu; Dezhen Wang

    To solve the power exhaust handling challenge, meanwhile maintaining acceptable divertor target erosion, the snowflake divertor (SFD) is proposed on HL-2M tokamak. In this work, simulations are carried out by using scrape-off layer plasma simulation code SOLPS-ITER to understand the advantages of SFD on plasma detachment, with emphasis on effects of the magnetic configuration on the neutral and impurity

  • Simplified approach for ductile fracture mechanics SSTT and its application to Eurofer97
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Michael Mahler; Stephane Fessi; Jarir Aktaa

    The determination of fracture-mechanical properties is often very challenging, because the available standards like ASTM E1820 need specific size-requirements for the specimen dimensions to obtain valid fracture toughness. Especially in the ductile regime, where the presence of plasticity around the crack tip is affected by the multiaxial stress state and its triaxiality, the size-requirements are

  • Impacts of impurity flux on erosion and deposition of carbon/tungsten rough surfaces
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    S.Y. Dai; K.R. Yang; D.H. Liu; Q. Shi; B. Cui; S.G. Liu; D.Z. Wang

    The influences of impurity flux on erosion and deposition of carbon/tungsten rough surfaces have been investigated with the rough surface code SURO. The temporal evolution of the eroded substrate and deposited impurity areal densities has been studied with different carbon fluxes. For the low impurity flux, the carbon and tungsten substrates maintain to be eroded during the exposure. The tungsten eroded

  • Development of nano-oxide particles dispersed alumina scale formed on Zr-added FeCrAl ODS ferritic alloys
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Hao Yu; Sosuke Kondo; Ryuta Kasada; Naoko Oono; Shigenari Hayashi; Shigeharu Ukai

    In order to develop a robust alumina scale dispersed with nano-oxide particles for FeCrAl oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, the oxidation behavior of FeCrAl ODS ferritic alloys with zirconium and excessive oxygen (Ex. O) additions was investigated at 900 °C in air. Zirconia incorporation into alumina scale was not observed in the Ex. O-added FeCrAl ODS alloys at 900 °C, instead of

  • Corrosion behavior of diverse sputtered coatings for the helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB) breeder concept
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    T. Hernández; F.J. Sánchez; A. Moroño; E. León-Gutiérrez; M. Panizo-Laiz; M.A. Monclus; R. González-Arrabal

    The present paper studies the corrosion behavior of several sputtered coatings (nanostructured W, SiC and Al2O3) under the working conditions expected for the helium cooled pebbles bed breeder concept to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. To this purpose, coatings were evaluated during 240 h at a temperature of 550 °C in Helium atmosphere with 120 ppms of water to simulate the purge gas in

  • Influences of displacement damage due to heavy ion irradiation on deuterium retention in CLF-1 steel
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Li Qiao; Xuexi Zhang; Ran He; Hong Zhang; Peng Wang

    In this study, the structure damage and its influence on deuterium retention in the reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel were investigated using heavy ions to simulate the displacement damage caused by neutron irradiation. Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) ions were applied as self-ions and other ions to irradiate steel samples. After Fe or Ni heavy ion irradiation, some amorphous cluster structures

  • Effects of rhenium contents on oxidation behaviors of tungsten-rhenium alloys in the oxygen gas atmosphere at 873 K
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Teppei Otsuka; Natsuki Sawano; Yuji Fujii; Tomohiro Omura; Chase Taylor; Masashi Shimada

    Oxidation kinetics of pure tungsten (W) and tungsten-rhenium (W-Re) alloys with Re contents of 1%, 5% and 15% has been examined in the oxygen gas atmosphere at 873 K. The oxidation kinetics of the W-Re alloys were well characterized by a parabolic rate law. During oxidation of the W-Re alloys, the Re oxide sublimated near the top surface of the oxide layer. The sublimation of the Re oxide may play

  • Mechanical properties of several newly produced RAFM steels with Tungsten content in the range of 2 wt%
    Nucl. Mater. Energy (IF 2.213) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    C. Cristalli; L. Pilloni; O. Tassa; L. Bozzetto

    The contribution of ENEA together with Rina-CSM to the Eurofusion programme “WPMAT-Advanced Seels” deals with the development of innovative RAFM steels able to withstand the critical temperatures typical of the different operational environments foreseen for the blanket of the first DEMO reactor. The optimization of the chemical composition and the Thermo Mechanical Treatment for these materials should

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