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  • Utilizing the flexibility of distributed thermal storage in solar power forecast error cost minimization
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Hannu Huuki; Santtu Karhinen; Herman Böök; Anders V. Lindfors; Maria Kopsakangas-Savolainen; Rauli Svento

    Intermittent renewable energy generation, which is determined by weather conditions, is increasing in power markets. The efficient integration of these energy sources calls for flexible participants in smart power grids. It has been acknowledged that a large, underutilized, flexible resource lies on the consumer side of electricity generation. Despite the recently increasing interest in demand flexibility, there is a gap in the literature concerning the incentives for consumers to offer their flexible energy to power markets. In this paper, we examine a virtual power plant concept, which simultaneously optimizes the response of controllable electric hot water heaters to solar power forecast error imbalances. Uncertainty is included in the optimization in terms of solar power day-ahead forecast errors and balancing power market conditions. We show that including solar power imbalance minimization in the target function changes the optimal hot water heating profile such that more electricity is used during the daytime. The virtual power plant operation decreases solar power imbalances by 5–10% and benefits the participating households by 4.0–7.5 € in extra savings annually. The results of this study indicate that with the number of participating households, while total profits increase, marginal revenues decrease.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Temperature adaptability of the lead methanesulfonate flow battery
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Dongdong Ji; Zheng Liu; Bailing Jiang; Xiaofei Luo

    The temperature adaptability of the lead methanesulfonate flow battery is evaluated from 253 K to 323 K. The energy efficiency reaches the maximum value of 85.7% at 313 K. The overpotentials of positive and negative couples decrease with increasing temperature, especially for the PbO2/Pb2+ couple. The high temperature can not only promote the diffusivity of ions, but also reduce the charge transfer resistance Rct and electrolyte resistance RL, which lower the electrode overpotential to improve the voltage efficiency. The coulombic efficiency of flow cell is mainly attributed to the reversibility of PbO2/Pb2+ half reaction, and the maximum value of 97.6% is achieved at 303 K. Many more defects and clusters appear on Pb and PbO2 deposited layers at low temperature. The particle size of PbO2 increases with increasing temperature, and the pure β-PbO2 can be obtained at 323 K. With the temperature increasing, the grain size of Pb is increased, and especially PbO2’s is apparently enlarged.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Palm oil-based bio-PCM for energy efficient building applications: Multipurpose thermal investigation and life cycle assessment
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Claudia Fabiani; Anna Laura Pisello; Marco Barbanera; Luisa F. Cabeza

    This study aims at investigating the potential use of a bio-based phase change material, i.e. expired palm oil from the food industry, as a more sustainable alternative to petrochemical-based organic PCMs. To this purpose, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and isoconversional methods (Starink and Miura-Maki methods) are applied and the main thermo-physical properties of the blend are investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and extensive thermal monitoring in a controlled realistic environment. Finally, a life cycle assessment is used to evaluate the environmental impact of the bio-based material in comparison to the more common petrochemical-based application. Kinetic analysis results indicate the two dimensional phase boundary reaction model as the most reliable scheme for describing the oxidation of palm oil, with an activation energy of about 73 kJ · mol−1. The DSC and the thermal monitoring procedure, showed two separate melting peaks in the ambient temperature range, which globally guarantee a melting enthalpy of about 50 kJ · kg−1, i.e. of the same order of magnitude of the first developed PCMs. Results from the life cycle analysis reveal that the expired palm oil can be considered a promising material for bio-based latent applications. Globally, the palm oil has proved itself as a promising, low cost, and environmentally friendly alternative for passive thermal storage solutions (e.g. building envelope applications) where stability across multiple thermal cycles, low health risks, and low leakage are crucial parameters to be addressed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Dynamic modeling and simulation of a concentrating solar power plant integrated with a thermochemical energy storage system
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ugo PELAY; Lingai LUO; Yilin FAN; Driss STITOU

    This paper presents the dynamic modeling & simulation of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with a thermochemical energy storage (TCES) system. The TCES material used is calcium hydroxide and the power cycle studied is a Rankine cycle driven by the CSP. Firstly, dynamics models of components written in Modelica language have been selected, developed, parametrized, connected and regulated to create the CSP plant with different TCES integration concepts. Then simulations were performed to determine and compare the energy efficiency, water consumption and energy production/consumption of three integrations concepts for two typical days (summer and winter) and for a basic continuous production mode. After that, a feasibility study has been performed to test a peak production scenario of the CSP plant. The results showed that the TCES integration could increase the overall efficiency of the CSP plant by more than 10%. The Turbine integration concept has the best global efficiency (31.39% for summer; 31.96% for winter). The global electricity consumption of a CSP plant with TCES represents about 12% of its total energy production for a summer day and 3% for a winter day. An increased nominal power by a factor of 10 could be reached for the peak production mode within one hour using the Turbine integration concept, but with a lower global efficiency (17.89%).

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Role of metal foam on ice storage performance for a cold thermal energy storage (CTES) system
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Cheng Yu; Quan Peng; Xiangdong Liu; Peng Cao; Feng Yao

    The cold thermal energy storage (CTES) is of great significance for the sake of decline of fossil energy usage. However, there exhibits a low energy charging and discharging efficiency, due to the poor thermal conductivity of phase change material (PCM). In this context, the metal foam is utilized to improve the ice storage performance of the CTES device in this paper. The solidification performance of PCM in a horizontal shell-tube CTES system with fins is numerically studied with consideration of natural convection. The ice front evolutions and the dynamic temperature distribution for the case with metal foam is analyzed and compared with these without metal foam. Moreover, the influence of the porosity on the ice storage performance for the CTES system with metal foams is analyzed as well. The results imply that the addition of metal foam effectively improves the thermal performance of the CTES system, the distribution of the temperature in the shell-tube CTES system is more uniform and the freezing speed of PCM is faster due to coupled effects of thermal conduction enhancement and the suppression of the natural convection. The porosity of the metal foam plays an essential role in the ice storage performance of the CTES system. The smaller porosity of the metal foam induces faster freezing speed and more uniform temperature distribution. Therefore, a smaller porosity is recommended for faster energy discharging rate in practical engineering applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Experimental study on tubular solar still using Graphene Oxide Nano particles in Phase Change Material (NPCM's) for fresh water production
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    A.E. Kabeel; Ravishankar Sathyamurthy; A. Muthu Manokar; Swellam W. Sharshir; F.A. Essa; Ammar H. Elshiekh

    Storing of energy in the form of latent or sensible heat is the best method in improving the performance of any thermal application. Desalination using renewable energy is the best method in getting potable water and due to its lower performance and yield it is not commercially available. The present investigation deals with improving potable water produced using nanomaterial in phase change material from a tubular solar still. Three different solar still namely TSS, TSS with PCM and TSS with NPCM were used in the present study and tested under the climatic conditions of Chennai, India. The thermal conductivity of graphene oxide nanoparticle in PCM acts as the key role in improving the thermal performance as the thermal conductivity of NPCM improved by 52% compared to that of PCM without nanoparticle. There is no significant improvement in the thermal conductivity of nano enhanced PCM with concentration beyond 0.3%. With a significant improvement in the thermal conductivity of NPCM, the water temperature increased by 7 °C and 3 °C as compared to TSS loaded with PCM and TSS without PCM respectively. The maximum enhancement in temperature of NPCM is found as 24% and the temperature is higher during off shine hours compared to that of PCM without nanoparticle. Similarly, with improved water temperature using NPCM as energy material, the evaporation rate from the absorber is improved by 41.3%, whereas, the average EHTC for TSS and TSS loaded with PCM alone is improved by 32.76 and 34.32% respectively. The total cumulative yield produced per m2 area from TSS, TSS with PCM, and TSS with NPCM is found to be 2.59, 3.35 and 5.62 kg respectively. Results also revealed that the daily efficiency of TSS with NPCM is improved to about 116.5% and comparatively higher than TSS with PCM and conventional tubular solar still.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Economics of innovative high capacity-to-power energy storage technologies pointing at 100% renewable micro-grids
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Arianna Baldinelli; Linda Barelli; Gianni Bidini; Gabriele Discepoli

    Intermittency and unpredictability of variable renewable energy sources, as well as the mismatch between generation and users’ demand, are the major hurdles to overcome looking at 100% renewable grids. Energy storage (ES) technologies are the answer to this question, yet high market costs are still compared to market parity. For the possibility to decouple capacity and power, hence tailoring the energy storage features according to the main functions required, the solutions investigated are based on Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs) and Reversible Solid Oxide Cells (rSOC). In low interconnected micro-grids, the decoupled sizing of capacity and power is an essential feature to attain higher cost-effectiveness. Current metrics for the economics of renewable energy storage fail to a large extent in assessing the value of stored energy, especially when the power source is scarcely predictable. This paper presents improved techno-economic metrics to compare high capacity-to-power ES technologies for renewable-based micro-grids. The new metrics synthetically translates energy efficiency and quality of system integration into monetary terms, going beyond the classic definition of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). Then, they provide a tool to understand where the main causes of payback deferral stand. For the case-study analysed, different storage assets (VRFB, rSOC and hybrid rSOC) for installations in households featuring 25 kWh bulk capacity and 1.5 kW discharging power are evaluated. The LCOE is equal to 0.438€‧kWh−1, 0.739€‧kWh−1 and 0.769€‧kWh−1 for VRFB, rSOC and hybrid rSOC respectively. Yet, considering the unit of stored energy, the hybrid rSOC storage system is more convenient than the basic rSOC (2.05€‧kWh−1 versus 2.61€‧kWh−1), but far less cheap than VRFBs (0.560€‧kWh−1).

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Printing of graphene supercapacitors with enhanced capacitances induced by a leavening agent
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Minh-Hao Pham; Ali Khazaeli; Gabrielle Godbille-Cardona; Florina Truica-Marasescu; Brant Peppley; Dominik P.J. Barz
    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A CFD modeling and investigation of a packed bed of high temperature phase change materials (PCMs) with different layer configurations
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Farshad Mohammadnejad; Siamak Hossainpour

    In recent years, one of the most important issues is optimization of thermal energy-storing technologies. Using phase change materials (PCMs) with specific phase change temperatures allows us to store latent heat as thermal energy. This is one of the most efficient ways to store thermal energy. The objective of this paper is to investigate the discharge performance of a packed bed filled with multi layers of high temperature encapsulated PCMs through a CFD modeling via Comsol multi-physics software. Results of simulation are compared to results of the experimental researches of the literature and there is good agreement between them. The influence of each layer's height and porosity along with different configurations of the PCMs according to their phase change temperatures (ascending and descending in flow direction) are analyzed. It is observed that increasing the inlet velocity of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and increasing the porosity of layers of PCM in the packed bed have similar outcomes and makes the packed bed deplete more rapidly. Some new configurations are suggested and optimized regarding Δ tutl, which is defined as the ratio between duration of receiving energy with desired temperature to total discharge time of the packed bed, during the discharge process. Results indicate that by setting the layer heights of the PCMs in a descending order and also having the porosity of each layer to decrease in the flow direction, results with 29.2% better performance can be obtained. Optimization of Δtutl can be a defining factor in designing of packed beds and also a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Structural and charge density distribution studies on Tin Oxide nanoparticles for Supercapacitor application
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    A. Murugan; V. Siva; A. Shameem; S. Asath Bahadur; S. Sasikumar; N. Nallamuthu
    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • From Uninterruptible Power Supply to resilient smart micro grid: The case of a battery storage at telecommunication station
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    M. Ferraro; G. Brunaccini; F. Sergi; D. Aloisio; N. Randazzo; V. Antonucci

    Nowadays, resilient grids meet growing interest for their capability of supplying critical load even in case of power fault coming from grid disturbance and natural disasters. To do this, such grids involve redundant apparatus and predictive control schemes. For high value services, unexpected system unavailability is source of economic losses to the providers. Hence, beside the internal energy storage devices, such plants had better to have redundancy of energy sources (e.g. electrical grid and natural gas network) and tailored power flows control strategies still valid even in the case of energy shortage. On the other hand, distributed storage resources is attracting growing interest to support the power networks in terms of both resiliency and flexibility facing the impact of generation from the Renewable Energy Sources. In this work, a power supply system controller based on Artificial Intelligence was developed and simulated to wisely operate the storage resources to serve the ICT equipment as Uninterruptible Power Supply (above all in case of emergency) as fundamental mission. Secondly, the investigation assessed the capability, to offer ancillary services to the power network increasing its resiliency measured system response in terms of survival time during grid faults and restoration transient time to recover initial service level.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • 更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Synthesis of CNTs on ZnO/NiS composite as an advanced electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    S. Srinivasa Rao

    The design and preparation of an efficient electrode material with a multifunctional surface structure is a key challenge for high-performance supercapacitors. In this study, ZnO/NiS and ZnO/NiS/CNT nanocomposites were synthesized on a nickel foam substrate and used as an electrode material. The surface morphology and structure of the electrodes were analyzed by field emission–scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prepared nanocomposite of ZnO/NiS/CNT exhibited a high specific capacitance of 879.0 F g−1 at a current density of 1.5 A g−1, along with remarkable cycling stability of 89.7% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, which was superior to that of ZnO/NiS (805.75 F g−1 and 74.59% retention). In addition, the ZnO/NiS/CNT electrode also exhibited good rate capability, faster ion and electron transfer ability, and higher surface area, highlighting its potential for electrochemical energy storage.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Investigation on the structural behavior of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) devices
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Gaurav Vyas; Raja Sekhar Dondapati

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) devices are being developed around the world to meet the energy storage challenges. The energy density of SMES devices are found to be larger along with an advantage of using at various discharge rates. Superconducting tapes such as YBCO (Tc = 90 K) are wound around a mandrel to construct the solenoid type SMES. This SMES is cooled with Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) at 77 K. However, challenges pertaining to the development of mandrel which gives structural supports to the superconducting tapes and compatibility at cryogenic temperatures are still to be investigated. In the present work, hybrid composite material is proposed to be used as a mandrel in solenoid type SMES. In this work, different composite samples such as Double Layered Carbon, Single and Double Layered Kevlar and Hybrid Composite made of Carbon and Kevlar are treated in Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) and tested for mechanical behavior. An experimental investigation is carried out to investigate the mechanical behavior of composite samples to be compatible for SMES applications. From the investigation, it is observed that the strength of composites increased when treated in LN2. Further, Cryo-treated Double Layered Carbon and Kevlar are found to be desirable for SMES applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Challenges in modeling high power lithium titanate oxide cells in battery management systems
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Philipp Schröer; Hedi van Faassen; Thomas Nemeth; Matthias Kuipers; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    Two of the key requirements in micro-hybrid vehicles are the reduction of CO2 emissions alongside extended fuel savings. These goals are being accomplished by the usage of start-stop-systems, electric boosting while accelerating and recuperation of kinetic energy during braking phases. The latter one is predominantly limited by the charge acceptance of conventional lead-acid starter batteries. Thus, sophisticated power nets are being developed and a new 48 V voltage level has been established in the last years. In comparison to the standard 12 V grid, this new level is characterized by high power capability in order to accept high charging currents during recuperative braking and also provides high discharge currents for boosting. This paper characterizes lithium titanate oxide cells suited for high power applications, such as in automotive 48 V systems, and emphasizes restrictions using state-of-the-art modeling approaches in terms of state of available power and state of charge. Therefore, open circuit behavior is analyzed in dependency on temperature, hysteresis and relaxation. Furthermore, different equivalent circuit models are evaluated regarding their accuracy for different states of charge, temperatures and current rates. It has been found that the HPPC testing procedure is limited in characterizing high current behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the previous long-term history has a significant impact on voltage responses at certain states of charge and current rates, which originates from an inhomogeneous distribution of charge carriers on the electrode surface.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Tuning nitrogen doping types and pore structures in carbon nanosheets as electrodes for supercapacitor by controlling existence form of iron species
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Rui Zhao; Hui Peng; Hailing Wang; Jing Liang; Yaya Lv; Guofu Ma; Ziqiang Lei
    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Adequacy versus complexity of mathematical models for engineering an adsorbed natural gas device
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Carlos A. Grande; Ørnulv Vistad

    Deploying affordable and sustainable energy storage devices is one of the major pillars for changing the current energy systems. Natural gas (NG)/bio-methane storage for vehicle transportation is an existing technology where the gas is pressurized up to 250 bar. One possibility to reduce the compression and infrastructure costs of new installations is to use tanks filled with porous solids that can selectively adsorb and release methane. This is the so-called Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) concept, where pressure of storage is reduced to 30–60 bar while the energy density per tank volume is maintained. Many publications have focused on the development of a suitable material with pre-defined specifications on amount of methane adsorbed. There are much less publications dealing with the testing of these materials in a current device and even less publications on the implementation of an entire system for ANG. This publication provides a modelling approach with the view of the different stages of development of the ANG concept, from materials to the system. An example of methane storage in a reference adsorbent material (high-surface area activated carbon) is used to validate existing phenomena in the different models used.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A numerical study of electrode thickness and porosity effects in all vanadium redox flow batteries
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ehtesham Ali; Hwabhin Kwon; Jaehun Choi; Jonghyeon Lee; Jungmyung Kim; Heesung Park

    Vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is one of the promising technologies suitable for large-scale energy storage in power grids due to high design flexibility, low maintenance cost and long-life cycle. Vanadium redox flow cell consists of two porous electrodes with serpentine flow channels and electrolyte solutions which is separated by an ion-exchange membrane. The temperature has been set to 298 K for the electrolytes which is composed of 1500 mol/m³ initial vanadium concentration with 4000 mol/m³ initial H2SO4 concentration. We developed a three-dimensional model to scrutinize the complexities of fluid dynamics and electrochemical reactions when considering different electrode thickness sizes, electrode porosity and electrolyte flow rates. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical simulation have been performed in order to investigate the effect of electrode thickness and electrode porosity on the performance of VRFB. The impact of electrolyte solution flow rate on the VRFB electrical characteristics and efficiencies are also numerically investigated. The results show that the cell voltage increases with increasing the electrolyte flow rate and electrode porosity during discharging process of VRFB. Increasing the initial vanadium concentration, the VRFB cell voltage is significantly increased due to reduced overpotential in the porous electrodes. The maximum power-based efficiency of 96.8% is calculated with the electrode thickness of 1 mm at 10 ml/min, while the power-based efficiency of 96.4% is calculated with the electrode thickness of 4 mm at 50 ml/min. This work gives comprehensive insights on electrode configurations for VRFBs.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Self-reconfiguration batteries with stable voltage during the full cycle without the DC-DC converter
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Feng Ji; Li Liao; Tiezhou Wu; Chun Chang; Maonan Wang

    This paper proposes the self-reconfigurable batteries topology without DC-DC converter, which is similar to self-reconfigurable batteries, but it can guarantee that the voltage of the battery pack is within the set range when the SOC (state of charge) is from 0 to 100%, even if the voltage will drop with the SOC or some cells will be bypassed. Simply put, when the battery pack is discharged, the batteries whose SOC is high and their voltages satisfy the demand are discharged, and the cell with lower SOC is continuously replaced, and the consistency of the battery pack is ensured while stabilizing the voltage. The topological and control strategy are analyzed in detail. The proposed topology is verified by the battery pack composed of 9 cells in series, the experiment result shows that this topology not only retains the advantages of good equalization of self-reconfiguration batteries but also maintains low voltage fluctuations even without DC-DC converters, besides, without the DC-DC converter, the capacity utilization rate of the battery pack reaches 99.8%, demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed topology.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Evaluation of volume change in phase change materials during their phase transition
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Luisa F. Cabeza; Gabriel Zsembinszki; Marc Martín

    Although latent heat storage with phase change materials (PCM) is seen as a promising technology to achieve worldwide objectives such as the deployment of renewable energies and the decarbonisation of the built environment, still some challenges need to be overcome. One of them is the behavior of the material itself, being the volume change of the PCM when changing phase an identified potential problem for some applications. This paper analyses the volume change of four organic PCM with different nature (paraffin, polymer, sugar alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon) in the laboratory and compares the results with observations at pilot plant scale. This study shows that the volume change of solid-liquid PCM cannot be generalised to be 10% as generally found in the literature, since materials show volume change that can go from near negligible up to 24%.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Investigation of heat transfer coefficients in a liquid–liquid direct contact latent heat storage system
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Sven Kunkel; Tobias Teumer; Patrick Dörnhofer; Frederik Wunder; Jens-Uwe Repke; Matthias Rädle

    The study presents a latent heat storage system consisting of a phase change material (PCM) and a heat transfer fluid (HTF), placed in direct contact, for storing thermal energy derived from renewable energy sources or industrial waste heat. It is important that the two media are immiscible for the function of such a storage system. In this study the PCM was an eutectic mixture of the two salt hydrates, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and magnesium chloride hexahydrate and the HTF was a mineral oil. The direct contact leads to intensified heat transfer compared to that in the indirect contact heat storage systems. This intensified heat transfer results in short loading and unloading periods of the storage tank with a high heat exchange performance. Furthermore, a higher storage density is observed in comparison to the sensible storage systems, particularly when combined with low temperature differences between the charged and discharged storage systems. In our study, the heat transfer between liquid PCM and liquid HTF (rises drop-shaped in the PCM) is investigated. For this purpose, a storage tank has been built with only one HTF inlet opening in the bottom. For the time and space resolved data, the axial temperature profile, and the surface temperature of the rising droplet, as well as the PCM temperature, are measured with a specially developed, fast, near infrared sensitive, and fiber-coupled technique. These measurements made it possible to determine a local heat transfer coefficient between the PCM and HTF. With the chosen parameters and materials in this study a heat transfer coefficient of 1845 W/m² K was calculated.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Simple and effective modification of absorbed glass mat separator through atmospheric plasma treatment for practical use in AGM lead-acid battery applications
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sang-Hun Shin; Sang Jun Yoon; Soonyong So; Tae-Ho Kim; Young Taik Hong; Jang Yong Lee
    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Enhancing the rate performance of high-capacity LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode materials by using Ti4O7 as a conductive additive
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yunke Wang; Ding Zhao; Keyu Zhang; Yin Li; Baoqiang Xu; Feng Liang; Yongnian Dai; Yaochun Yao
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A review of strategic charging–discharging control of grid-connected electric vehicles
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Tirupati Uttamrao Solanke; Vigna K. Ramachandaramurthy; Jia Ying Yong; Jagadeesh Pasupuleti; Padmanathan Kasinathan; Arul Rajagopalan

    Charging–discharging coordination between electric vehicles and the power grid is gaining interest as a de-carbonization tool and provider of ancillary services. In electric vehicle applications, the aggregator acts as the intelligent mediator between the power grid and the vehicle. In recent years, researchers have introduced the concepts of aggregated energy management, centralized-decentralized planning, and ideal charging–discharging through improved technologies and integrated energy planning. These methods have the technical ability to adapt the distribution network according to load, aggregator-controlled optimal charging–discharging, demand management systems, strategic load assessments, and management. A comprehensive review suggests that large-scale electric vehicle charging technologies for controlled charging–discharging is becoming a pitfall within the grid and distribution network. This paper reviews several controlled charging–discharging issues with respect to system performance, such as overloading, deteriorating power quality, and power loss. Thus, it highlights a new approach in the form of multistage hierarchical controlled charging–discharging. The challenges and issues faced by electric vehicle applications are also discussed from the aggregator's point of view.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Optimal sizing design and operation of electrical and thermal energy storage systems in smart buildings
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Ali Baniasadi; Daryoush Habibi; Waleed Al-Saedi; Mohammad A.S. Masoum; Choton K. Das; Navid Mousavi

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems in residential buildings require energy storage to enhance their productivity; however, in present technology, battery storage systems (BSSs) are not the most cost-effective solutions. Comparatively, thermal storage systems (TSSs) can provide opportunities to enhance PV self-consumption while reducing life cycle costs. This paper proposes a new framework for optimal sizing design and real-time operation of energy storage systems in a residential building equipped with a PV system, heat pump (HP), thermal and electrical energy storage systems. For simultaneous optimal sizing of BSS and TSS, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is applied to minimize daily electricity and life cycle costs of the smart building. A model predictive controller is then developed to manage energy flow of storage systems to minimize electricity costs for end-users. The main objective of the controller is to optimally control HP operation and battery charge/discharge actions based on a demand response program. The controller regulates the flow of water in the storage tank to meet designated thermal energy requirements by controlling HP operation. Furthermore, the power flow of battery is controlled to supply all loads during peak-load hours to minimize electricity costs. The results of this paper demonstrate to rooftop PV system owners that investment in combined TSS and BSS can be more profitable as this system can minimize life cycle costs. The proposed methods for optimal sizing and operation of electrical and thermal storage system can reduce the annual electricity cost by more than 80% with over 42% reduction in the life cycle cost. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and controller.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Lifetime simulation of rechargeable zinc-air battery based on electrode aging
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Keliang Wang; Jianrong Yu

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery will be a promising candidate to energy storage because of high energy density, low price, good safety and friendly environment. However, the cycle life of rechargeable zinc-air battery is short, mainly resulting from electrode aging. In consideration of the experimental cost and time, here we establish a flexible and expandable mathematical model for rechargeable zinc-air battery, where key factors of air electrode flooding, carbon dioxide, active material loss and zinc dendrite growth are added to the battery model to study performance degradation of the battery. The results show that the model is able to simulate the charge-discharge process of rechargeable zinc-air battery and effectively predict cycle life of the battery based on air electrode failure and morphological change of zinc electrode, demonstrating that dendrite growth is fatal to the battery lifetime, and performance attenuation of air electrode gradually deteriorates the battery performance. The model is helpful for predicting the lifetime of rechargeable metal-air batteries as well as structure optimization of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Aluminium-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) rechargeable battery with ionic liquid electrolyte
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Theresa Schoetz; Ben Craig; Carlos Ponce de Leon; Andreas Bund; Mikito Ueda; Chee Tong John Low
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Nuclear heat storage and recovery for the APR1400
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Kafilat Funmilola Amuda; Robert M. Field

    Detailed here is the proposed design of the tertiary side of a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System to be interfaced with the steam cycle of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant. This study extends the understanding provided by many previous investigations (i.e., beyond thermodynamic considerations) by specifically addressing real world constraints associated with the backfit of such a system to an operating LWR. These constraints relate to the feasibility of design modifications during an extended refueling outage, and to licensing, operational, and maintenance considerations. The Korean designed and built APR1400 plant is selected for integration with the TES tertiary system, resulting in a design which can be readily be adapted to most LWR plant. Heat transfer and transport from and to the nuclear steam cycle is by synthetic oil with high temperature capabilities. Heat storage is in the form of packed beds consisting of crushed rock. While the rates of storage and recovery are constrained by the design of the nuclear reactor and steam plant (i.e., 20% of reactor thermal power during storage, and ~11% during recovery) the total stored energy component of the system can be readily and economically scaled to any desired capacity (at the marginal cost of carbon steel vessels filled with rock). Finally, it is proposed that any nuclear installation with water access could employ bulk thermal energy storage built into an Ultra Large Barge for turnkey delivery with a concomitant reduction in installed cost and risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Effect of particle size on phase transitions of positive active materials made from novel leady oxide during soaking process and its influence on lead-acid battery capacity
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Junxiong Wang; Mingyang Li; Jingping Hu; Yan Ke; Wenhao Yu; Zhongyi Wang; Sha Liang; Keke Xiao; Huijie Hou; Jiakuan Yang
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Evaluation of α-AL2O3-PW nanocomposites for thermal energy storage in the agro-products solar dryer
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Mehdi Bahari; Bahman Najafi; Aziz Babapoor

    The shortage of fossil fuels and environmental pollution is one of the main issues of the recent century. One of the optimal ways to save energy resources is to use phase change materials for storing thermal energy. In this research, three types of AL2O3-PW nanocomposites were used to store solar thermal energy and use it in a solar dryer. Nanoparticles of AL2O3 were combined in three levels of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% w / w with paraffin wax. Synthesized nano-composites were poured into steel pipes and were used to store solar energy. The results showed that by adding nanoparticles to paraffin, the thermal properties of paraffin are improved, and its thermal energy storage potential is increased. The maximum amount of absorbed thermal energy was 3393, 6109, 6445, and 6089 kJ, for composites with 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 (wt%) nanoparticles of AL2O3, respectively. Also, the results showed that the time required to reach agro-products with equilibrium moisture is reduced by increasing the amount of AL2O3 in the nanocomposite. Considering the cost-benefit economic discussion, the use of nanocomposites with 1 wt% nano-particles of AL2O3 is recommended.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Development of polyurethane foam incorporating phase change material for thermal energy storage
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    C. Amaral; S.C. Pinto; T. Silva; F. Mohseni; J.S. Amaral; V.S. Amaral; P.A.A.P. Marques; A. Barros-Timmons; R. Vicente

    The major aim of the present study is to improve the thermal characteristics of polyurethane foams (PUFs) that have been almost exclusively used for thermal insulation purposes but can also play a role in potential thermal energy storage components as a matrix material. To overcome the low thermal conductivity of the of PUFs matrix, a synthesized phase change material (PCM) based on paraffin and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been developed to enhance the thermal conductivity and thus achieve a more effective charging and discharging process. The synthesized PCM ([email protected]3) exhibited a good phase change performance with significant thermal storage capacity and thermal stability compared to commercial based PCM ([email protected]). Different PUFs formulations incorporating PCM ([email protected]3 and [email protected]) were used to produce PUFs panels (rigid and soft PUFs panels). The thermal conductivity of the PUFs panels was measured using the transient plane heat source method (HotDisk Analyser, TPS 2500 S) and the thermal flux metre method (steady-state method). The results obtained revealed that, regardless of the method used, the thermal conductivity profile has a similar increasing trend before and after the bounds of the PCM phase change transition zone, whilst during PCM phase transition both methods showed a decreasing trend of the thermal conductivity as the temperature increased. In addition, this work presents and discusses the limitation of the HotDisk method to analyse panels composed by multilayers.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Risk-constrained stochastic power procurement of storage-based large electricity consumer
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Yan Cao; Qiangfeng Wang; Qingming Fan; Sayyad Nojavan; Kittisak Jermsittiparsert

    Large electricity consumers can be either a large industrial consumer or a coalition of small electricity consumers. Large consumers (LCs) confront with various uncertainties due to the use of various power resources in the power procurement process, such as renewable resources, self-generation units, forward contracts, and pool market. These uncertainties can be lead to many financial risks for LCs. In this paper, the stochastic power procurement problem of large consumers is solved, and the new risk-measurement method is used to analyze the large consumer risks in power procurement process. The mentioned risk-measurement method is called downside risk constraints (DRC) method, which is used to model the financial risk imposed from uncertain parameters along with the stochastic problems. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that DRC method is a non-equilibrium method, which is applied clearly as a constraint to the optimization problem. In addition by using the DRC, LC can experience lower-risk strategy in the power procurement problem. Also, using DRC can make the total cost of large consumer independent of scenarios, which led to the lower-risk experiencing by the large consumer. Finally, results are expressed that lower-risk cost in DRC is less than the cost of the worst scenario in stochastic programming.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Experimental study on a novel safety strategy of lithium-ion battery integrating fire suppression and rapid cooling
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Yujun Liu; Qiangling Duan; Jiajia Xu; Huang Li; Jinhua Sun; Qingsong Wang

    The prompt and effective suppression of lithium-ion battery (LIB) fires presently remains a challenge. In the present work, apparatus is constructed to investigate the extinguishment and cooling effectiveness of a single LIB dodecafluoro-2-methylpentan-3-one (C6F12O) suppression and rapid water mist cooling system. Tests indicated effective cooling by combining of the C6F12O and water mist, with significant reductions in the cell's peak temperature and high-temperature duration compared to C6F12O only and without suppression. The cooling rate was influenced by the delay period between application of C6F12O and water mist, with a longer delay period giving a reduced cooling effect. Water mist cooling at various working pressures (1, 2, and 3 MPa) demonstrated a reduction in peak battery temperature with increased working pressure. The cooling and suppression effects were also improved by using water mist containing KHCO3 and K2C2O4•H2O. These results have implications in the design of LIB fire suppression systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Solidification expedition of Phase Change Material in a triplex-tube storage unit via novel fins and SWCNT nanoparticles
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    M. Alizadeh; M.H. Pahlavanian; M. Tohidi; D.D. Ganji

    Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System (LHTESS) is effectively used to mitigate the imbalance between the energy stores and requirements. This investigation is on performance enhancement of a triplex-tube LHTESS based on solidification procedure by using innovative Y-shape fins and Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material (NEPCM). At first, Y-shaped fins are provided to accelerate the solidification procedure in the LHTESS. In this regard, Response Surface Method (RSM) is proposed to optimize the Y-shaped fin configuration. Achieving minimum solidification time is regarded as the goal of optimization process. In a separate analysis, the solidification procedure is accelerated by mixing nanoparticles in pure PCM. Finally, a comparison between both enhancement approaches is performed from the sight of solidification expedition. The solidification procedure is simulated in LHTESS based on Standard Galerkin Finite Element Method (SGFEM). Results represent that fin optimization leads to a reduction of 48.53% in solidification time compared to without fin one.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Facile synthesis and thermal performance of cety palmitate/nickel foam composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Chaoming Wang; Tingjun Wang; Zhanjiang Hu; Zhengyu Cai

    Cetyl palmitate (CP) was thermally synthesized using binary 1-hexadecanol (HD) and palmitic acid (PA) mixture as the starting materials in nitrogen with the absence of any catalyst. The molecule structure, thermal property, thermal stability and reliability of as-prepared cetyl palmitate was studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. 1HNMR and FT-IR confirmed the as-prepared product under 350 °C for 30 min was CP with high purity. According to the DSC measurements, the onset melting temperature and latent heat of fusion for the as-prepared CP was 52.3 °C and 180.9 J/g, respectively. Results showed that the synthesized cetyl palmitate was favorable used as phase change material (PCM) owing to its desirable thermal properties, excellent thermal stability and reliability. Due to the low thermal conductivity of CP, it was impregnating into nickel (Ni) foams with different pore sizes to make CP/Ni foam composite PCMs (CPCMs). Compared with pure CP, thermal conductivity of CP/Ni foam (70, 90, and 110PPI) CPCMs were increased by 1.88, 2.02 and 4.86 times, respectively. The CP/Ni foam CPCMs displayed appropriate thermal properties for latent heat energy storage applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Comparison of energy absorption characteristics of PCM-metal foam systems with different pore size distributions
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Battula Venkata Sai Dinesh; Anirban Bhattacharya

    This paper presents a study on the effect of pore size on energy absorption characteristics of a PCM-metal foam energy storage system. Different metal foam geometries are generated by using a geometry creation model which considers the metal foam structure as a combination of overlapping spherical pores. The geometry creation model is coupled to an enthalpy-based phase change model to simulate melting. The main advantage of the model is that it can resolve the pore-scale structures of the metal foam and hence can capture the heat transfer between the PCM and metal foam accurately. The model is applied to analyze the effects of variation of pore size on melting and energy absorption characteristics by keeping the overall porosity constant. Simulation results show that, even for the same porosity, the pore size distribution strongly affects the rate of melting with smaller pores resulting in faster melting and higher heat transfer rate. This observation is found to be consistent for both low porosity and relatively high porosity systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Investigation of the combined Mn-Si oxide system for thermochemical energy storage applications
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Duygu Yilmaz; Esraa Darwish; Henrik Leion

    Combined manganese-silicon oxides are promising candidates for thermochemical energy storage (TCES) since they show a great potential for spontaneous O2 release as utilized in chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). For both concepts, as well as mechanical strength, cyclic stability of oxidation and reduction are very important. The high reaction enthalpy of the material at high temperature conditions is one of the most important issues for TCES. Agglomeration and destabilization of the material can occur during redox cycles which results in decreased cyclic stability. In this study, thermal analyses were carried out to investigate the phase transitions and changes of manganese-silicon oxide by comparably slow heating and cooling rate during the thermal cycling. This was conducted in a packed bed reactor to identify the oxygen releasing and consuming stability versus temperature and number of cycles. Phase analyses were carried out to reveal the phase changes during cycling or new formed phase due to side reactions. Results showed that both thermal cyclic stability and oxygen coupling-uncoupling ability increased with increased silica content, from 2 to 10% wt., and the poorest stability was obtained from the sample which has the highest silica content.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Investigation of FCVs durability under driving cycles using a model-based approach
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Jaeyoung Han; Jaesu Han; Sangseok Yu

    The stack degradation of a fuel cell system is a critical factor in ensuring the stack performance and reliability of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In particular, the stack degradation depends strongly on the proton-conductive ability in the membrane during vehicle operating. This study presents an effective degradation FCV model along with a degradation predictive model for various driving cycles. The stack degradation is indicative of the water content term, which is strongly dependent on the membrane conductivity term. The stack degradation model was designed using design of experiment (DoE), and the designed fuel-cell model is validated using the experimental data. The proposed fuel cell model is also integrated into a dynamic vehicle model. The FCV model is simulated to investigate its transient behaviors during various driving cycles. The transient responses of the vehicle speed, demanded fuel cell power, and water content are properly captured. To evaluate the degradation rate of the FCV under various driving cycles, the scenarios of time and distance are applied, and the tradeoffs are investigated based on the degradation of the FCV model over a range of durations and current densities. For a low running distance, an urban dynamometer driving schedule is more effective than the other cycles. Further, with an increase in the running distance, the aggressive driving (US06) cycle requires more energy compared to the other cycles. Our results confirmed that the designed FCV model can be used to predict the degradation of a fuel cell stack under various driving cycles without a real test bench.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Interval multi-objective optimization of hydrogen storage based intelligent parking lot of electric vehicles under peak demand management
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Abdolhossein Feiz Marzoghi; Salah Bahramara; Farid Adabi; Sayyad Nojavan

    Uncertainty, a familiar concept for power system operators has been set to be one of important topics in the industry of electricity systems. This circumstance is mainly caused by uncertain behavior of some parameters like price. Since the forecasting techniques are usually unable to guarantee a fixed and accurate value of such parameters therefore uncertainty modeling becomes essential. This work has applied an interval based optimization model for optimal performances of intelligent parking lot (IPL) of electric vehicles (EVs) within severe uncertainty of upper grid price under demand response program (DRP). In fact, DRP is used to enable IPL reduce its daily operation cost by shifting some parts of load demand from peak time intervals to off-peak time intervals. It should be mentioned that interval approach does not solve single objective problem and instead of that it generates a multi-objective optimization problem within which average and deviation costs are minimized as the bi-objective model. To do this, weighted sum and fuzzy approached are applied to solve the bi-objective problem. A sample system containing IPL, local dispatchable generation (LDG) units, non-renewable and renewable generation systems is studied under uncertainty of upper grid price through mentioned techniques and the results proving efficiency of employed techniques are investigated for comparison. According to the compared results, under DRP, average cost of IPL is reduced up to 4.37% while deviation cost representing uncertainty impact is also decreased up to 10.93%.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Thermal conductivity enhancement of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate by adding carbon nano-tubes/graphite nano-particles
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Rabi Ibrahim Rabady; Dua'a S Malkawi

    Phase change materials are great thermal energy storage medium, while their low thermal conductivity presents the main obstacle for their potential applications. Improvement of the thermal conductivity and specific heat of Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate as a base phase change material with joining Carbon Nano tubes CNT and Graphite Nano particles GNP as Nano-fillers was investigated in this work. CNT and GNP Nano-fillers added in a mass fraction of 1, 3, 5 and 7% in Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate. Thermal conductivity and specific heat were measured by Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer Instrument. Results have shown that increasing the mass fraction of Nano-fillers increases the composite's thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity of the composite containing: 7% GNP was 2.944 W/m.k with 155.33% enhancement, in the other hand, thermal conductivity of the composite containing: 7% CNT was 4.031 W/m.k with 249.61% enhancement. Moreover, the charging/discharging rates have been enhanced by adding Nano-fillers to Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Contract-based utilization of plug-in electric vehicle batteries for day-ahead optimal operation of a smart micro-grid
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Mohammad Javad Salehpour; S.M. Moghaddas Tafreshi

    The development of smart micro-grids makes the use of new and green technologies like plug-in electric vehicles more suitable. The plug-in electric vehicles can play a role in storing energy due to their network connection capability. The smart micro-grid can use this stored energy to reduce its operating cost. In this paper, a new mechanism based on the contractual agreements between the owners of plug-in electric vehicles and the smart micro-grid is proposed to provide the system's energy during the operating day. The proposed model enables plug-in electric vehicles parked in official parking to be integrated into the operation of smart micro-grid and earn revenue. The operation optimization is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear problem and is implemented on energy management of a typical smart micro-grid as a case study. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design for both smart micro-grid and plug-in electric vehicles in the case of expected cost reduction. Also, the performance of the stochastic model for uncertainty handling is shown by the value of the stochastic solution.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Polysiloxane-derived silicon nanoparticles for Li-ion battery
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Jong Hyeon Lee; Woo Seok Choi; Hwa-Young Woo; Hayk H. Nersisyan; En Mei Jin; Sang Mun Jeong
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Dense garnet-type electrolyte with coarse grains for improved air stability and ionic conductivity
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Xiaomei Zeng; Andrew J. Martinolich; Kimberly A. See; Katherine T. Faber

    Garnet-type electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and chemical stability against lithium metal show promise as solid-state electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. However, a high concentration of pores and grain boundaries in air-processed polycrystalline electrolytes makes them prone to dendrite formation and reaction with atmospheric moisture, leading to electrochemical and mechanical instability. In this work, we illustrate that abnormal grain growth, an often-avoided phenomenon in conventional ceramic processing, can be employed as a unique approach to obtain extraordinarily large oligo crystals for minimal grain boundaries. Here we report a straightforward approach to develop a robust Ga-doped garnet, Li6.25Ga0.25La3Zr2O12 (LGLZO) electrolyte with conventional solid-state sintering in air. By preparing nanopowders without agglomeration through ball milling and freeze drying, we can control the microstructure of air-sintered electrolytes for desirable properties of a high density (98% of theoretical density) and an average grain size of 460 µm. The robust air-processed LGLZO electrolytes demonstrate high ionic conductivity, stability in air, and mechanical robustness relative to other garnet electrolytes offering promise as cost- and performance-competitive solid-state electrolytes for safe lithium-ion batteries.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Building thermal storage technology: Compensating renewable energy fluctuations
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    MCarmen Guerrero Delgado; José Sánchez Ramos; Servando Álvarez Domínguez; José Antonio Tenorio Ríos; Luisa F. Cabeza

    Emerging technologies and new intelligent management systems will be needed to rise to the energy challenges posed by buildings today. Thermally activated building systems (TABS) are attracting growing interest on the back of their energy savings potential. The TABS studied in this article, a new prefabricated panel designed for installation in residential building façades, was characterised by the high thermal inertia afforded by the phase change materials in its composition. The design and assessment of the potential savings derived from TABS require specific characterisation methodologies to estimate the amount of useful energy available to control the indoor environment. A two-stage approach was adopted for the TABS studied here with ``ideal'' operating control (the building is assumed to be at a constant desired temperature). The first stage involved a simplified method for characterising system behaviour based on performance maps developed from CFD simulations. Such maps can be used to quickly assess changes in system energy performance following on variations in design and operating parameters. In the second, the TABS was integrated into a building with a simplified model to assess monthly energy demand to evaluate the system potential for energy savings in representative types of Spanish single-family housing in different climate zones. The first-stage findings showed that given the system significant inertia, it discharged for several days, even when charging occurred only on the first, ensuring a wide operating range adaptable to renewable resource limitations. The analysis of potential, in turn, revealed that savings of over 40% in heating demand are possible even under the least favourable circumstances.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Renewable low cost green functional mesoporous electrodes from Solanum lycopersicum leaves for supercapacitors
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    P. Divya; R. Rajalakshmi

    In this present investigation, functional (conducting) carbon were synthesized by direct pyrolysis method followed by carbonization process from the dead plant leaves of Solanum lycopersicum (SLL)without any external activation and applied for the energy storage system of supercapacitors. This technique is very simple and applicable to most of the dried forms of biomass. The synthesized functional carbon were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy (RAMAN), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. The synthesized functional carbon electrode materials of SLL were also tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge and discharge (CD), Impedance analysis in aqueous electrolyte (1 M H2SO4) and cycle stability test. By using three-electrode systems, the electrode material of SLL-1000 shows best capacitance performance of 345 F/g when compared to other samples of dried SLL −600 and 800. The dried leaves of SLL-1000 based supercapacitor exhibits high 43.13 Wh/kg (energy density) at 61.34 W/kg (power density) in 1 M H2SO4.From the results, it highlights the success of preparing high capacitance electrode materials from functional carbon which are micro or mesoporous synthesized from SLL as a raw material for supercapacitors application.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Quantifying the impact of policy on the investment case for residential electricity storage in the UK
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Dan Gardiner; Oliver Schmidt; Phil Heptonstall; Rob Gross; Iain Staffell

    Electrical energy storage has a critical role in future energy systems, but deployment is constrained by high costs and barriers to ‘stacking’ multiple revenue streams. We analyse the effects of different policy measures and revenue stacking on the economics of residential electricity storage in the UK. We identify six policy interventions through industry interviews and quantify their impact using a techno-economic model of a 4 kWh battery paired with a 4 kW solar system. Without policy intervention, residential batteries are not currently financially viable in the UK. Policies that enable access to multiple revenue streams, rather than just maximising PV self-consumption, improve this proposition. Demand Load-Shifting and Peak Shaving respectively increase the net present value per unit of investment cost (NPV/Capex) by 30 and 9 percentage points respectively. Given projected reductions in storage costs, stacking these services brings forward the break-even date for residential batteries by 9 years to 2024, and increases the effectiveness of policies that reduce upfront costs, suggesting that current policy is correctly focused on enabling revenue stacking. However, additional support is needed to accelerate deployment in the near term. Combining revenue stacking with a subsidy of £250 per kWh or zero-interest loans could make residential storage profitable by 2020.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Facile synthesis of nanoparticles anchored on honeycomb-like MnCo2S4 nanostructures as a binder-free electroactive material for supercapacitors
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Kummara Venkata Guru Raghavendra; Chandu V.V. Muralee Gopi; Rajangam Vinodh; S. Srinivasa Rao; Ihab M Obaidat; Hee-Je Kim
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Thermal properties improvement of lauric acid/iron foam composites with graphene nanoplates as thermal energy storage materials
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Chuqiao Zhu; Fengming Ran; Guiyin Fang

    Lauric acid (LA)/iron foam composites with graphene nanoplates (GNP) as composite phase change materials (CPCM) were fabricated by melting infiltration. LA was used as a phase change material and iron foams with different pore density (40, 70 and 90 PPI) were used as skeletons. GNP was used as additives to improve thermal conductivity of the CPCM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to verify that LA was physically absorbed into iron foam. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to demonstrate that the LA and GNP were well immersed into the iron foam. The thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity meter. Impregnating LA with GNP into the metal foam is a novel way to enhance thermal properties of the CPCM. CPCM1 reached a latent heat of 177.82 kJ/kg in the solidifying process. The results of TGA and differential thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the CPCM maintains good stability. The thermal conductivity of the CPCM has an obvious enhancement. The bigger pore density leads to higher thermal conductivity. The GNP can improve thermal conductivity effectively. Thermal conductivity of CPCM6 reaches 1.227 W/(m K), which is increased by 10.67 times compared to that of lauric acid.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Combustion synthesis of battery-type positive electrodes for robust aqueous hybrid supercapacitor
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    A. Bello; D.M. Sanni; S.A. Adeniji; V. Anye; K. Orisekeh; M. Kigozi; R. Koech

    Producing materials with suitable features including robust, and high electrical conductivity for the realization of excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitor devices remains a great challenge. In this regard, we optimize and used the combustion synthesis technique assisted with urea for the production of a positive electrode based on battery type lithium manganese oxide (LiMnO) and activated carbon as negative electrode materials for high voltage hybrid devices in aqueous electrolytes. The samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The structural properties of the material were studied and hybrid devices fabricated present a specific capacitance of 65 F g−1 and 78 F g−1, at 0.5 A g−1 in 1 M Li2SO4 and 1 M Na2SO4 respectively, with long-term stability after continuous cycling. These result shows that this strategy can revolutionize new ways to the synthesis of a plethora of materials for high voltage energy storage applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Facile fabrication of ZIF-derived graphene-based 2D Zn/Co oxide hybrid for high-performance supercapacitors
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Jianhua Yu; Zhenxing Cui; Xu Li; Di Chen; Jiawen Ji; Qian Zhang; Jing Sui; Liyan Yu; Lifeng Dong
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Fabrication and characterization of phase change material-SiO2 nanocomposite for thermal energy storage in buildings
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Samira Golestani Ranjbar; Ghodratollah Roudini; Farahnaz Barahuie

    Phase change materials (PCMs), which can absorb or release large latent heat over a defined temperature range while the phase transition occurs, have achieved huge attention due to the environmental concerns and energy crisis. In recent years, phase change material nanocomposites are extensively used in thermal energy storage and energy management. Here, a shape-stabilised PCM nanocomposite, consisting n-hetadecane as a PCM and SiO2 nanoparticles as a supportive material was successfully prepared using an impregnation method with different mass fraction of PCM. The formation of n-heptadecane-SiO2 nanocomposite was approved using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM studies. The melting and freezing latent heats of the nanocomposite reached 123.8 and 120.9 J/g, respectively, and the mass loading percentage of n-hetadecane in the nanocomposite which was estimated using DSC was about 54.6 wt.%. The resulting nanocomposite possessed excellent thermal cycling reliability and its thermal conductivity was also improved compared to pure n-heptadecane. Additionally, Gypsum composite board containing n-hetadecane-SiO2 nanocomposite showed acceptable temperature control performance compared to ordinary gypsum board and hence, the obtained nanocomposite can be suitable for storing thermal energy and indoor temperature regulation in the buildings.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Enhanced thermal performance of form-stable composite phase-change materials supported by novel porous carbon spheres for thermal energy storage
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Rong Ji; Sheng Wei; Yongpeng Xia; Chaowei Huang; Yue Huang; Huanzhi Zhang; Fen Xu; Lixian Sun; Xiangcheng Lin
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Research progress on power battery cooling technology for electric vehicles
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Mengyao Lu; Xuelai Zhang; Jun Ji; Xiaofeng Xu; Yongyichuan Zhang

    In the charging and discharging process of new energy vehicles, how to maintain power battery within optimum operating temperature range, reduce the peak temperature and temperature difference, which is a problem needs to be paid attention to. Proper cooling technology can reduce the negative influence of temperature on battery pack, effectively improve power battery efficiency, improve the safety in use, reduce the aging rate, and extend its service life. In this context, several battery thermal management systems(BTMS) are reviewed, including air cooling BTMS, liquid cooling BTMS and refrigerant direct cooling BTMS in traditional battery thermal management system; phase change material-based BTMS, heat pipe-based BTMS and thermoelectric element-based BTMS in new battery thermal management system. In order to reduce negative influence of excessive temperature on the battery pack, and to seek feasible solutions for BTMS in future development, the above six power battery cooling technologies are discussed. Summarize the research emphases and research progress of different BTMS at present. Objectively evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each BTMS. Considering actual working conditions, the installation feasibility, as well as economic benefits of each BTMS, then discuss proper solutions, and predict future development trends reasonably. Finally, analyze and discuss the differences and gaps between traditional and new BTMS. Providing a reference for designing the best BYMS solution. Ensuring the battery is in the optimum operating temperature range, maintain the BTMS stable operation, and improve battery conversion efficiency, providing valuable solutions for the BTMS research in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Porous silicon–graphene–carbon composite as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Yuehua Huang; Jing Luo; Jiao Peng; Minhao Shi; Xingxing Li; Xianyou Wang; Baobao Chang
    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Probing the three-dimensional porous and tortuous nature of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Siddharth Shukla; Vijay Kumar; P.V. Kameswara Rao; Sumit Sharma; Dániel Sebők; Imre Szenti; Amit Rawal; Akos Kukovecz
    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Internal thermal network model-based inner temperature distribution of high-power lithium-ion battery packs with different shapes for thermal management
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Deokhun Kang; Pyeong-Yeon Lee; Kisoo Yoo; Jonghoon Kim

    The lithium-ion battery pack is manufactured that many cells are connected in parallel or series to suit the purpose of use. Thus, the characteristics of the cells determine the output performance and stability of the pack. In particular, the cells that make up a battery pack are sensitive to the operating temperature. It is important to evaluate the temperature distribution in the environment in which the battery pack is operating and to review the proper cooling method when designing a battery pack. If do not maintain the suitable environment to operate battery, because of it is difficult to expect performance, or thermal runaway to fire or explosion. In this study, a battery pack thermal analysis model based on the battery cell test result was developed for two shapes between square and rectangular. The results of the thermal analysis were compared and verified by the experimental results. The internal temperature distribution was examined for both shapes of battery pack with the forced convection condition, which is used in the thermal model. The air layer inside the battery pack, generated by the cylindrical battery structure, neglects the natural convection effect based on the Rayleigh number, so that the model can be simplified to reflect only heat transfer by conduction. Through this study, it was confirmed that modeling of thermal analysis can be simplified by reflecting only heat transfer by the conduction of the inner air layer of the battery pack. Moreover, it was confirmed that the internal temperature distribution varies according to the shape of the battery pack, and that proper heat dissipation design requires consideration of the shape of the pack.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Levelized cost of solar photovoltaics and wind supported by storage technologies to supply firm electricity
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Ruchi Gupta; Martin Christoph Soini; Martin Kumar Patel; David Parra

    Energy storage technologies can assist intermittent solar and wind power to supply firm electricity by forming flexible hybrid systems. However, evaluating these hybrid systems has proved to be a major challenge, since their techno-economic performance depends on a large number of parameters, including the renewable energy generation profile, operational parameters of storage technologies and their associated costs. In this study, we develop a method to simulate the performance and determine the levelized cost of hybrid systems to provide firm electricity supply under various supply strategies such as peak demand and baseload at three different scales (representative sizes). The methodology is implemented for Switzerland, however, it can also be replicated for other geographies. Our results show that the optimal choice for a hybrid system depends on the scale rather than the supply mode strategy. We find that solar photovoltaics in combination with lithium-ion battery at the residential (0.39 to 0.77 EUR/kWh) and utility scale (0.17 to 0.36 EUR/kWh) as well as with pumped hydro storage at the bulk scale (0.13 to 0.18 EUR/kWh) offer the lowest levelized costs. Reducing the cost of both renewable and storage technologies as well as the storage size by allowing some level of curtailment or distortion in the firm supply profile improves the cost-competitiveness of hybrid systems.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Ragone plots and discharge efficiency-power relations of electric and thermal energy storage devices
    J. Energy Storage (IF 3.517) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Thomas Christen

    Ragone plots (energy-power relations) and discharge efficiency-power relations are important for characterizing energy storage (ES) devices, as they contain the information on the maximum power and the available energy. In this theoretical study, these two characteristics and the losses per energy are derived in the framework of endoreversible thermodynamics for ideal electric and thermal ES systems with different dependencies of their intensive thermodynamic variables (potentials, temperatures) of the reservoirs on the extensive state variables (electric charge, heat) that quantify their state of charge. While for battery and latent heat storage device, the normalized Ragone plot is equal to the discharge efficiency-power relation, the two characteristics differ for electric capacitor and sensible heat storage device due to their intrinsically limited depth of discharge at constant power. Due to the decrease of the exergy of heat at decreasing temperature, the discharge efficiency of the ideal sensible heat storage device exhibits a local maximum at a finite power value.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
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