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  • P-block metal-based (Sn, In, Bi, Pb) electrocatalysts for selective reduction of CO2to formate
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Zhenni Yang; Freddy E. Oropeza; Kelvin H. L. Zhang

    Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to fuels and chemical feedstocks using renewable electricity provides a promising approach toward artificial carbon recycling to address the global challenges in energy and sustainability. The most crucial step for this technique is to develop efficient electrocatalysts capable of reducing CO2 to valuable hydrocarbon products at a low overpotential with high selectivity

  • Thermoelectric porous MOF based hybrid materials
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Engelbert Redel; Helmut Baumgart

    Porous hybrid materials and MOF (Metal–Organic-Framework) films represent modern designer materials that exhibit many requirements of a near ideal and tunable future thermoelectric (TE) material. In contrast to traditional semiconducting bulk TE materials, porous hybrid MOF templates can be used to overcome some of the constraints of physics in bulk TE materials. These porous hybrid systems are amenable

  • Rare-earth based half-Heusler topological quantum materials: A perspective
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Ashutosh Kumar Singh; S. D. Ramarao; Sebastian C. Peter

    Topological insulator (TI) materials which are conductive at the surface but insulating in the bulk have drawn much attention in the past decade due to their fascinating properties and potential application in the field of spintronics, quantum computing, topological superconductivity and next generation electronics. In the search of three-dimensional TIs, half-Heusler compounds are the new entrants

  • Recent advances on visible-light-driven CO2reduction: Strategies for boosting solar energy transformation
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Jin Yuan; Yaping Du; Hongbo Zhang

    The massive emission of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) has attracted great attention due to its impact on global warming. Researchers have been working on this project for a long time and found that photocatalytic CO2 reduction has shown great potential in developing cost-effective clean energy resources. However, the efficiency of CO2 photo-reduction is low because of limited light absorption

  • Influence of post-deposition annealing on the photoelectrochemical performance of CuBi2O4thin films
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Marlene Lamers; Michael Sahre; Matthias J. Müller; Daniel Abou-Ras; Roel van de Krol; Fatwa F. Abdi

    Complex metal oxide semiconductors are promising candidates to be used as photoelectrodes in solar water splitting devices. One particular example is copper bismuth oxide (CuBi2O4), which is a p-type semiconductor with an ideal bandgap of 1.6–1.8 eV and suitable band positions. However, the performance has been reported to be limited by photocorrosion and the mismatch between its optical absorption

  • Vibrational properties of LaNiO3films in the ultrathin regime
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Alexander Schober; Jennifer Fowlie; Mael Guennou; Mads C. Weber; Hongjian Zhao; Jorge Íñiguez; Marta Gibert; Jean-Marc Triscone; Jens Kreisel

    Collective rotations and tilts of oxygen polyhedra play a crucial role in the physical properties of complex oxides such as magnetism and conductivity. Such rotations can be tuned by preparing thin films in which dimensionality, strain, and interface effects come into play. However, little is known of the tilt and rotational distortions in films a few unit cells thick including the question of if coherent

  • Two-dimensional growth of conductive ultra-thin Sn films on insulating substrate with an Fe buffer layer
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Dingheng Zheng; Junichi Shiogai; Hisashi Inoue; Seigo Souma; Takafumi Sato; Atsushi Tsukazaki

    Two-dimensional (2D) growth of ultra-thin Sn films is a prerequisite for examining exotic quantum phenomena as one of their crystallized forms is a promising candidate for topological materials. In this study, we have investigated the ultra-thin film growth of Sn at room temperature with a Fe buffer layer on an insulating Al2O3 substrate using molecular-beam epitaxy. By the insertion of a 2- or 4-nm-thick

  • Material informatics for layered high-TCsuperconductors
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Zhong-Li Liu; Peng Kang; Yu Zhu; Lei Liu; Hong Guo

    Superconductors were typically discovered by trial-and-error aided by the knowledge and intuition of individual researchers. In this work, using materials informatics aided by machine learning (ML), we build an ML model of superconductors, which is based on several material descriptors with apparent physical meanings to efficiently predict critical superconducting temperature TC. The descriptors include

  • Aero-ZnS architectures with dual hydrophilic–hydrophobic properties for microfluidic applications
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Irina Plesco; Tudor Braniste; Niklas Wolff; Leonid Gorceac; Viola Duppel; Boris Cinic; Yogendra Kumar Mishra; Andrei Sarua; Rainer Adelung; Lorenz Kienle; Ion Tiginyanu

    Here, we report on a new aero-material, called aero-ZnS, representing self-organized architectures made of ZnS hollow micro-tetrapod structures with nanoscale thin walls. The fabrication process is based on the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of CdS on sacrificial micro-tetrapods of ZnO with simultaneous or subsequent transformation of CdS into ZnS and removal of the sacrificial ZnO crystals. The nanostructure

  • A comprehensive ARPES study on the type-II Dirac semimetal candidate Ir1−xPtxTe2
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Juan Jiang; Sangjae Lee; Fucong Fei; Fengqi Song; Elio Vescovo; Konstantine Kaznatcheev; Frederick J. Walker; Charles H. Ahn

    The transition metal dichalcogenide Ir1−xPtxTe2 displays both superconductivity and a topological band structure. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we obtain a comprehensive understanding of the three-dimensional electronic structure in the normal state of Ir1−xPtxTe2 for doping levels from x = 0.1 to 0.4, which spans the composition range of a superconducting state to a non-superconducting

  • Control of spin orientation in antiferromagnetic NiO by epitaxial strain and spin–flop coupling
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    A. Kozioł-Rachwał; M. Ślęzak; M. Zając; P. Dróżdż; W. Janus; M. Szpytma; H. Nayyef; T. Ślęzak

    A ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AFM) Fe/NiO bilayer was grown using molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(001) and Cr buffered MgO(001) substrates. X-ray linear dichroism measurements showed a dominating out-of-plane component for the NiO spins in Fe/NiO/MgO and an in-plane spin direction for NiO layers grown on the Cr buffer. Furthermore, systematic studies on the magnetic properties of Fe/NiO grown on

  • Origins of infrared transparency in highly conductive perovskite stannate BaSnO3
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Y. Smirnov; J. Holovsky; G. Rijnders; M. Morales-Masis

    Near-infrared absorption in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is usually caused by electronic intraband transition at high doping levels. Improved infrared transparency is commonly explained by enhanced drift mobility in these TCOs. Here, an alternative cause behind the high infrared transparency of La-doped barium stannate (LBSO) transparent electrodes is presented. Following the Drude model formalism

  • Toward understanding and optimizing Au-hyperdoped Si infrared photodetectors
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    S. Q. Lim; C. T.-K. Lew; P. K. Chow; J. M. Warrender; J. S. Williams; B. C. Johnson

    Au-hyperdoped Si absorbs near-infrared (NIR) light and recent efforts have successfully produced Si-based NIR photodetectors based on this property but with low detection efficiencies. Here, we investigate the differences between the optical and photocurrent properties of Au-hyperdoped Si. Although defects introduced during fabrication of these materials may not exhibit significant optical absorption

  • All-silicon polarized light source based on electrically excited whispering gallery modes in inversely tapered photonic resonators
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Sebastian W. Schmitt; Klaus Schwarzburg; George Sarau; Silke H. Christiansen; Sven Wiesner; Catherine Dubourdieu

    As a result of its indirect bandgap, emitting photons from silicon in an efficient way remains challenging. Silicon light emitters that can be integrated seamlessly on a CMOS platform have been demonstrated; however, none satisfies an ensemble of key requirements such as a small footprint, room-temperature operation at low voltages, and emission of narrow and polarized lines with a high spectral power

  • Large visible-light-driven photostriction in Bi(Ni2/3Nb1/3)O3–PbTiO3ferroelectrics
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Xiu Li; Chen Chen; Faqiang Zhang; Xintang Huang; Zhiguo Yi

    Photostrictive effect that has been discovered for over half a century is getting renewed interest in recent years in view of the great potentials for optomechanical applications. Ferroelectric materials represented by lead lanthanum zirconated titanate have been widely studied in this field because of their relatively large photostriction and fast photoresponse, but their wide bandgaps with limit

  • Low voltage, high gain inverters based on amorphous zinc tin oxide on flexible substrates
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    P. Schlupp; S. Vogt; H. von Wenckstern; M. Grundmann

    Deposition of semiconductors on bendable substrates is a crucial step toward flexible circuitry and deposition by a roll-to-roll process. Since most bendable substrates have limited temperature stability (normally degradation starts between 150 °C and 300 °C), processing temperatures are typically below that of rigid substrates. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) such as indium gallium zinc oxide

  • Physiological stability and renal clearance of ultrasmall zwitterionic gold nanoparticles: Ligand length matters.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Xuhui Ning,Chuanqi Peng,Eric S. Li,Jing Xu,Rodrigo D. Vinluan III,Mengxiao Yu,Jie Zheng

  • Electron beam-based metrology after CMOS.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    J A Liddle,B D Hoskins,A E Vladár,J S Villarrubia

    The magnitudes of the challenges facing electron-based metrology for post-CMOS technology are reviewed. Directed selfassembly, nanophotonics/plasmonics, and resistive switches and selectors, are examined as exemplars of important post-CMOS technologies. Materials, devices, and architectures emerging from these technologies pose new metrology requirements: defect detection, possibly subsurface, in soft

  • Research Update: Materials design of implantable nanogenerators for biomechanical energy harvesting.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-23
    Jun Li,Xudong Wang

    Implantable nanogenerators are rapidly advanced recently as a promising concept for harvesting biomechanical energy in vivo. This review article presents an overview of the most current progress of implantable piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) and triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with a focus on materials selection, engineering, and assembly. The evolution of the PENG materials is discussed from

  • Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2016-02-24
    Md Rezaul Hasan,Ting Xie,Sara C Barron,Guannan Liu,Nhan V Nguyen,Abhishek Motayed,Mulpuri V Rao,Ratan Debnath

    A self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered

  • The process of EDC-NHS Cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2014-12-17
    D V Shepherd,J H Shepherd,S Ghose,S J Kew,R E Cameron,S M Best

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear

  • Invited Article: Emerging soft bioelectronics for cardiac health diagnosis and treatment.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2019-03-01
    Faheem Ershad,Kyoseung Sim,Anish Thukral,Yu Shrike Zhang,Cunjiang Yu

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Conventional technologies for diagnosing and treating lack the compliance and comfort necessary for those living with life-threatening conditions. Soft electronics presents a promising outlet for conformal, flexible, and stretchable devices that can overcome the mechanical mismatch that is often associated with conventional technologies

  • Magnetic field control of charge excitations in CoFe2O4.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Brian S Holinsworth,Nathan C Harms,Shiyu Fan,Dipanjan Mazumdar,Arun Gupta,Stephen A McGill,Janice L Musfeldt

    We combine magnetic circular dichroism and photoconductivity with prior optical absorption and first principles calculations to unravel spin-charge interactions in the high Curie temperature magnet CoFe2O4. In addition to revising the bandgap hierarchy, we reveal a broad set of charge transfer excitations in the spin down channel which are sensitive to the metamagnetic transition involving the spin

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