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  • Nanoparticle Phototherapy in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Shiyi Zhou; Dandan Li; Chaebin Lee; Jin Xie

    Phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), exploits light to activate photoreactions that kill cancer cells. Recent studies show that phototherapy can not only kill irradiated tumor cells, but also elicit a tumor-specific immune response. This phenomenon breaks the limitations of conventional phototherapy and has reinvigorated phototherapy-related research in

  • Electrochemical C–N Bond Formation for Sustainable Amine Synthesis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Jeong Eun Kim; Seungwoo Choi; Mani Balamurugan; Jun Ho Jang; Ki Tae Nam

    C–N bond-forming reactions represent an important synthetic class because amine derivatives play crucial roles in various applications in biology and synthetic chemistry. Recently, electrochemical C–N bonding methods have attracted attention due to several advantages such as their simplicity and possibility of low-cost scale up. Meanwhile, due to severe environmental problems such as global warming

  • Metal–Organic Frameworks and Water: ‘From Old Enemies to Friends’?
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Georges Mouchaham; Frédéric S. Cui; Farid Nouar; Vanessa Pimenta; Jong-San Chang; Christian Serre

    Since their discovery a few decades ago, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have suffered from poor hydrolytic stability. Since then, significant effort has been devoted to design robust MOFs, including their utilization for water-related applications to overcome relevant societal challenges. This short review provides guidelines on the key parameters that drive the assembly of hydrothermally stable MOFs

  • Organobismuth Redox Manifolds: Versatile Tools for Synthesis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Katie Ruffell; Liam T. Ball

    The ability of bismuth to manoeuvre between oxidation states supports several distinct reaction manifolds. Recent advances in the design, synthesis, and application of organobismuth reagents and catalysts illustrate the potential of these redox manifolds as tools complementary to conventional transition-metal-based synthetic strategies.

  • Large-Area Molecular Junctions: Synthesizing Integrated Circuits for Next-Generation Nonvolatile Memory
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Xinkai Qiu; Ryan C. Chiechi

    The development of high-speed, nonvolatile memory devices with low power consumption remains a significant challenge for next-generation computing. A recent study reported molecular switches operating at low voltages in large-area junctions by coupling supramolecular structural changes and counterion migration to bias-dependent redox, culminating in proof-of-concept memory comprising self-assembled

  • Dual-Core Fe Catalyst Brings Major Enhancements in ORR Kinetics
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Lin Zhuang

    The sluggish kinetics and side reactions of the oxygen reduction reaction have impeded deployment of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. A recent article (Xie et al.) introduces an efficient nonprecious metal catalyst (Fe2N6) that enhances the kinetics of 4-electron O2 reduction by more than seven times compared with that of the well-documented single-site FeN4 catalysts.

  • Aziridinium Ylides: Underused Intermediates for Complex Amine Synthesis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Hillary J. Dequina; Jennifer M. Schomaker

    Harnessing the chemistry of onium ylide intermediates generated from transition metal catalysis is a powerful strategy to convert simple precursors into complex scaffolds. Although the chemistry of onium ylides has been studied for over three decades, transformations of aziridinium ylides have only recently emerged as a versatile way to exploit the strain of these reactive intermediates to furnish

  • Ordering Nanostructures Enhances Electrocatalytic Reactions
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Qing-Xia Chen; Shu-Hong Yu

    The ever-growing push for sustainable energy has intensified research on catalytic science. Significant developments have been achieved in state-of-the-art catalyst design from the perspective of catalyst materials. Further promotion can be enabled when rethinking and redesigning the catalyst structure with long-range ordering rather than limited to the catalyst material design. Recently, ordered assembled

  • Towards Lignin-Derived Chemicals Using Atom-Efficient Catalytic Routes
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Putla Sudarsanam; Dieter Ruijten; Yuhe Liao; Tom Renders; Steven-Friso Koelewijn; Bert F. Sels

    Lignin is a potential non-fossil resource of diverse functionalized phenolic units. The most important lignin-derived monomers are 4-alkylphenols, 4-hydroxybenzaldehydes, 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids/esters. Efficient transformation of lignin and/or its monomers into valuable aromatics and their derivatives is crucial, not only for a sustainable lignocellulose biorefinery, but

  • Amide Bond Activation: The Power of Resonance
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Guangchen Li; Siyue Ma; Michal Szostak

    The amide bond represents the most fundamental functional group in numerous areas of chemistry, such as organic synthesis, drug discovery, polymers, and biochemistry. Although typical amides are planar and the amide N–C(O) bond is notoriously difficult to break due to nN→π⁎C=O resonance, over the past 5 years remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the activation of amides by complementary mechanisms

  • Enabling Selective Tandem Reactions via Catalyst Architecture Engineering
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Hong Je Cho; Bingjun Xu

    Tandem catalysis capable of completing multistep reactions in a single pot or step is an effective strategy to develop cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical processes. A unique challenge in the selectivity control of tandem reactions is the coexistence of reactants, intermediates, and products from all constituent steps in the same reaction medium, causing side reactions. Thus, distinct

  • Insights into Practical-Scale Electrochemical H2O2 Synthesis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Xiao Zhang; Yang Xia; Chuan Xia; Haotian Wang

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a valuable chemical with a wide range of applications. A recent trend in H2O2 production focuses on electrochemical reduction of oxygen, which represents an environmentally friendly method for on-site H2O2 generation. To realize highly efficient practical-scale electrosynthesis of H2O2, catalytic materials design and electrochemical reactor engineering play equally important

  • A Radical Exploration of the Cobalamin-Dependent Radical SAM Enzyme CysS
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    David G. Boggs; Jennifer Bridwell-Rabb

    The cobalamin-dependent radical SAM enzyme CysS performs methylation reactions at an unactivated carbon center using what is predicted to be an unprecedented radical substitution mechanism. Herein, we highlight significant progress made by Wang and Begley in providing support for the enzymatic relevance of this proposal.

  • Macrocycles and Related Hosts as Supramolecular Antidotes
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Hang Yin; David Bardelang; Ruibing Wang

    Macrocycles and related hosts are now being used to reverse the effects of poisonous substances and to alleviate the toxicity of several medicines in vivo. Here, we showcase the emergence of this class of compounds behaving as supramolecular antidotes, some of which outperform ‘gold standards’ in the field.

  • Accelerating Redox Kinetics of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Yi Chen; Xiaochun Gao; Dawei Su; Chengyin Wang; Guoxiu Wang

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries exhibit great promise for next-generation energy storage due to their high theoretical energy density and low cost. However, their practical application is largely hindered by the shuttle effect. Although previous studies on the adsorption of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) have achieved significant progress, simple adsorption cannot fundamentally eliminate the shuttle

  • Quantum Mechanical Tunneling Is Essential to Understanding Chemical Reactivity
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Peter R. Schreiner

    Quantum mechanical tunneling is a consequence of the wave nature of particles that implies that a particle can penetrate a potential energy barrier even though there is insufficient energy to overcome it. This has serious consequences for chemical reactions, a fact that has, however, not been appreciated fully. Only in the last few years has it become clear how important tunneling is for understanding

  • Transforming Hydroxide-Containing Metal–Organic Framework Nodes for Transition Metal Catalysis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Xuanyu Feng; Yang Song; Wenbin Lin

    The abundance and structural diversity of hydroxide-containing secondary building units (SBUs) in metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have provided unique opportunities for the development of transition metal (TM) catalysts. This minireview surveys the structures of hydroxide-containing SBUs and summarizes recently developed strategies for the generation of catalytically active metal complexes on these

  • Cooperative Activation Modes for Catalysis-Based Total Synthesis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Stephanie Meyer; Ryan Gilmour

    Indole and isoquinoline nuclei bearing homoallylic amine cores are abundant in several prominent alkaloids, including strychnine. A recent study by Snaddon et al. reports a modular, cooperative catalysis platform to access linear and branched homoallylic amines, thereby streamlining enantioselective access to stereochemically complex Strychnos and Chelidonium alkaloids.

  • Conjugated Polymers Enable a Liquid Retinal Prosthesis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Nicholas J. Rommelfanger; Guosong Hong

    Retinal prostheses with high spatial resolution and sensitivity are desired to restore vision in patients with retinal degenerative diseases. A recent publication by Benfenati et al. demonstrates the use of semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (NPs) as a liquid retinal prosthesis with significant potential to restore high-acuity vision.

  • Pillararene-Based Supramolecular Functional Materials
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Qi Li, Huangtianzhi Zhu, Feihe Huang

    Over the last decade, pillararenes have shown remarkable potential in a variety of fields by virtue of their symmetrical pillar-shaped structures, flexible functionalization, and unique host–guest interactions. For diverse pillararene-based functional materials and technical applications, the tailored design and construction of pillararene-based supramolecular structures and assemblies are critical

  • C–H Borylation: No Need to Stop for Directions
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Hugh C. Osborne; Alastair Durie; Christine K. Schmidt; Igor Larrosa

    A recent work by Hartwig et al. details an efficient method to borylate strong primary C(sp3)–H bonds via iridium-catalysed C–H activation. The conditions confer counterintuitive selectivity over more labile C–H bonds, while providing an avenue for a gamut of synthetically valuable late-stage functionalisations through versatile borylate intermediates.

  • CO2 Derived E-Fuels: Research Trends, Misconceptions, and Future Directions
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-15
    Adrian Ramirez, S. Mani Sarathy, Jorge Gascon

    CO2-neutral fuels (e-fuels) are considered to be a pragmatic and practical way of decreasing overall CO2 emissions derived from the transportation sector. However, for e-fuels to succeed and have a short-to-medium impact on climate mitigation, they should be fully compatible with existing fuel distribution infrastructure and vehicle technologies, such that they become literally drop-in replacements

  • Electroluminescence of Perovskite Nanocrystals with Ligand Engineering
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Jinwoo Park, Hyun Myung Jang, Sungjin Kim, Seung Hyeon Jo, Tae-Woo Lee

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (MHP NCs) have been rapidly developed to reach external quantum efficiencies of up to 22% with their defect-tolerant nature and extremely high color purity (full width half maxima <25 nm) that are superior to traditional inorganic colloidal quantum dots. However, highly dynamic binding of ligands impedes further increase in

  • Atomic and Organic Nanoarchitectonics
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Katsuhiko Ariga

    This forum article highlights atomic nanoarchitectonics for functional atomic rearrangement and organic nanoarchitectonics for functional unit manipulation. The latter enables organic-synthetic modifications of nano-units from nanotechnological processes. This innovative approach affords creation of new chemical trends, expanding the seemingly endless possibilities of organic synthesis.

  • Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction to Fuels: Progress and Opportunities
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Joaquin Resasco, Alexis T. Bell

    The electrochemical reduction of CO2 remains an appealing option for storing renewable energy in a chemical form. In this review, we assess progress in designing catalysts that convert CO2 to high energy density products. We explain how reaction data can be reported to reflect the intrinsic properties of the catalyst. This analysis shows that limited advances have been made in improving the performance

  • A Long-Sought Reactivity of a Sodium Hydride
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-18
    Paweł J. Czerwiński, Bartłomiej Furman

    Hydride from sodium hydride acts as a base and not as a nucleophile, due to its small size and high charge density. However, recent research has found that a sodium hydride–sodium iodide composite can be a unique hydride donor in the challenging partial reduction of inert amides to imines.

  • Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Water Splitting: Recent Progress and Challenges
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Lihua Lin, Takashi Hisatomi, Shanshan Chen, Tsuyoshi Takata, Kazunari Domen

    Sunlight-driven photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most promising approaches to generating renewable hydrogen as an energy source. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of photocatalytic water-splitting systems. Among these, the one- and two-step-excitation overall water-splitting processes are most widely investigated. Realization of visible-light-driven

  • Recent Advances in Metal Triplet Emitters with d6, d8, and d10 Electronic Configurations
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Wai-Pong To, Qingyun Wan, Glenna So Ming Tong, Chi-Ming Che

    Basic research on the photophysical and photochemical properties of metal triplet emitters has been fueled by their practical applications in diverse areas, including bioimaging, photocatalysis, and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In addition to the extensively investigated Ru(II), Ir(III), and Pt(II) complexes, a wide range of luminescent Pd(II), Au(III)/Au(I), Re(I), Cu(I), W(VI)/W(0), and

  • Less Wastage in a Bottle
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Jean-Guy Berrin, Nicolas Papon

    Several hundred million tons of plastics produced worldwide accumulate in nature. The thermoplastic resin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is highly recalcitrant to degradation. A recent report from Tournier and colleagues provides unprecedented advances towards a circular PET economy by describing an engineered microbial enzyme that efficiently depolymerizes PET.

  • Light Up the Transition Metal-Catalyzed Single-Electron Allylation
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Mao-Mao Zhang, Ya-Ni Wang, Liang-Qiu Lu, Wen-Jing Xiao

    Transition metal-catalyzed allylations are among the most important tools for the formation of chemical bonds. Unlike soft nucleophiles (pKa < 25), reactions of hard nucleophiles (pKa > 25) usually suffer from requiring organometallic reagents or the use of strong bases. In addition, traditional single-electron allylations always require rigorously controlled reaction conditions as well as the use

  • Squeezing Noise in Microscopy with Quantum Light
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Ben Lawrie, Raphael Pooser, Petro Maksymovych

    Quantum-enhanced microscopes capable of probing classically inaccessible material properties have drawn increasing interest, but most proof-of-principle quantum microscopes have not surpassed classical limits. We discuss the promise and obstacles associated with the use of quantum light with reduced noise (‘squeezed’ light) for quantum-enhanced atomic force microscopy, bioimaging, magneto-optical measurements

  • Synthetic Routes to Late Transition Metal–NHC Complexes
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Thomas Scattolin, Steven P. Nolan

    Transition metal complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHCs) have gained a place of crucial importance in numerous areas of research such as medicinal chemistry, material sciences, and homogeneous/heterogeneous catalysis. In the present review, an updated overview of the main synthetic routes used for the preparation of this broad class of compounds along with their main applications are

  • Asymmetric C–H Bond Functionalization of Ferrocenes: New Opportunities and Challenges
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Chen-Xu Liu, Qing Gu, Shu-Li You

    Ferrocene is of great significance in the fields of organic synthesis, materials science, and biomedical research. Of particular importance is the fact that ferrocenes with planar chirality have proven to be privileged ligands or catalysts for asymmetric catalysis. Therefore, developing highly efficient methods to introduce planar chirality on the backbone of ferrocene is desirable. This short review

  • In the Limelight: 2D and 3D Materials via Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Nathaniel Corrigan, Cyrille Boyer

    Reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP), commonly referred to as controlled/living radical polymerization, has become an exceptionally useful method for synthesizing 2D and 3D materials. More recently, light has been used to regulate RDRP, which has provided inherent advantages compared with traditional approaches. Herein, we present some chemical mechanisms for photoRDRP and highlight

  • Homogeneous Gold Redox Chemistry: Organometallics, Catalysis, and Beyond
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Banruo Huang, Mingyou Hu, F. Dean Toste

    Gold redox chemistry holds the promise of unique reactivities and selectivities that are different to other transition metals. Recent studies have utilized strain release, ligand design, and photochemistry to promote the otherwise sluggish oxidative addition to Au(I) complexes. More details on the reductive elimination from Au(III) complexes have also been revealed. These discoveries have facilitated

  • CO2-Based Block Copolymers: Present and Future Designs
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Yao-Yao Zhang, Guang-Peng Wu, Donald J. Darensbourg

    The utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a monomer for copolymerization with three-membered cyclic ethers, also known as oxiranes or epoxides, has received much renewed interest due to the need for degradable polymeric materials derived from renewable resources. Since the early discovery of the catalytic coupling of CO2 and oxiranes to afford polycarbonates, the area has progressed significantly

  • Carbon Dots in Solar-to-Hydrogen Conversion
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Hui Luo, Qian Guo, Petra Ágota Szilágyi, Ana Belen Jorge, Maria-Magdalena Titirici

    Solar hydrogen production from catalytic water splitting is one of the many options available to help generate clean power and alleviate the threatening environmental concerns stemming from the use of fossil fuels. During the past decade, carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in their application for solar-driven hydrogen production owing to their exceptional photophysical and electrical properties

  • Engineering Ultrasmall Metal Nanoclusters as Promising Theranostic Agents
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Kaiyuan Zheng, Jianping Xie

    Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are ultrasmall nanoparticles with intriguing molecule-like physicochemical properties. In recent years, metal NCs have been used as theranostic agents in biomedicine. In this short review, we correlate the physicochemical properties of metal NCs to their biomedical applications, shedding some light on the design of metal NC-based theranostic agents in cancer therapy, imaging-guided

  • MXenes as High-Rate Electrodes for Energy Storage
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Zifeng Lin, Hui Shao, Kui Xu, Pierre-Louis Taberna, Patrice Simon

    Two-dimensional transition-metal carbides/nitrides, namely MXenes, are gaining increasing interest in many research fields, including electrochemical energy storage. This short review article emphasizes some recent breakthroughs achieved in MXene chemistry and electrochemical performance when used as high-rate electrodes, especially in nonaqueous electrolytes. Lastly, the current limitations and future

  • Topology of Folded Molecular Chains: From Single Biomolecules to Engineered Origami
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Barbara Scalvini, Vahid Sheikhhassani, Jaie Woodard, Jana Aupič, Remus T. Dame, Roman Jerala, Alireza Mashaghi

    The topology of biological polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids is an important aspect of their 3D structure. Recently, two applications of topology to molecular chains have emerged as important theoretical developments that are beginning to find utility in heteropolymer characterization and design: namely, circuit topology (CT) and knot theory. Here, we review the application of these two theories

  • Reductive Iodonium: Teaching an Old Claisen New Tricks
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Vincent Porte, Daniel Kaiser, Nuno Maulide

    The drive to discover new transformations that enable C–C bond formation remains at the heart of challenges in contemporary organic synthesis. This is crucial for the expansion of the synthetic toolbox, providing the chemist with original ways to assemble a desired target – be it a natural product or a manmade compound. Many industries rely heavily on novel approaches in organic synthesis to develop

  • Radial Scope: A New Visualization Tool for Structure–Data Relationships
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Attabey Rodríguez Benítez, Simon L. Dürr, Alison R.H. Narayan

    Communication of data associated with chemical structures in a concise fashion can be challenging. Here, we describe an alternative to the classic substrate table that integrates numerical data with structural changes. These radial-scope plots facilitate the identification of trends and simultaneously save space.

  • Colloidal Assembly and Active Tuning of Coupled Plasmonic Nanospheres
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Zhiwei Li, Wenshou Wang, Yadong Yin

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) originates from the collective oscillation of conduction electrons when conductive nanoparticles are exposed to an electromagnetic field. It generates remarkably enhanced electric fields surrounding the nanoparticles and leads to strong extinction at the resonant wavelength. When plasmonic particles are in considerably close proximity, plasmon coupling occurs

  • Progress and Opportunities for Cs Incorporated Perovskite Photovoltaics
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Shi Tang, Shujuan Huang, Gregory J. Wilson, Anita Ho-Baillie

    Efficiencies of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have risen unprecedentedly from 3.8% to 25.2% in just over a decade as the light absorber material has evolved from the original methylammonium (MA)- to formamidinium (FA)-dominated perovskite. While FA lead iodide (FAPbI3) has a lower bandgap and, therefore, a higher theoretical efficiency limit, it is less phase stable, although this can overcome by incorporating

  • Organic Photovoltaics: Relating Chemical Structure, Local Morphology, and Electronic Properties
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Tonghui Wang, Grit Kupgan, Jean-Luc Brédas

    Substantial enhancements in the efficiencies of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have come from largely trial-and-error-based optimizations of the morphology of the active layers. Further improvements, however, require a detailed understanding of the relationships among chemical structure, morphology, electronic properties, and device performance. On the experimental side, characterization

  • Soft–Hard Composites for Bioelectric Interfaces
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Yiliang Lin, Yin Fang, Jiping Yue, Bozhi Tian

    Bioelectric devices can probe fundamental biological dynamics and improve the lives of human beings. However, direct application of traditional rigid electronics onto soft tissues can cause signal transduction and biocompatibility issues. One common mitigation strategy is the use of soft–hard composites to form more biocompatible interfaces with target cells or tissues. Here, we identify several soft–hard

  • Recent Fascinating Aspects of the CuAAC Click Reaction
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Morten Meldal, Frederik Diness

    CuAAC chemistry is used to compose incredible synthetic molecular architectures and acts as a true click chemistry reaction allowing densely functional molecular fragments to be joined in a highly controlled manner. Using supercatalysts based on our mechanistic understanding and in the absence of oxygen, CuAAC reactions are superior even in bioligation chemistry. The catalytic cycle provides an organometallic

  • Polymerization Catalysts Take a Walk on the Wild Side
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Charles N. Jarrett-Wilkins, Adam A. Pollit, Dwight S. Seferos

    Control over polymer architecture is a central challenge in chemistry that is key for the design and manipulation of material properties, to enable integration of macromolecules into potential applications. Numerous strategies have been employed to control polymer architecture, with one of the most elegant examples being catalyst walking, where a catalyst is able to migrate along a polymer backbone

  • Crystal Engineering of Hybrid Coordination Networks: From Form to Function
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Soumya Mukherjee, Michael J. Zaworotko

    Crystal engineering, the field of chemistry that studies the design, properties, and applications of crystals, is exemplified by the emergence of coordination networks (CNs). CNs are comprised of metal cations or metal clusters linked into 2D or 3D networks by organic and/or inorganic ligands. Early studies on CNs tended to focus upon design using self-assembly and/or reticular chemistry, but interest

  • Video for Active and Remote Learning.
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Darren J Lipomi

    The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused the canceling of in-person lectures on a massive scale. Rapid movement of education to online platforms will eventually lead to innovations in remote education. At the moment, however, instructors lack guidance. This short article describes approaches for producing video for remote and active learning.

  • Cofactor NAD(P)H Regeneration: How Selective Are the Reactions?
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Joseph W.H. Burnett, Russell F. Howe, Xiaodong Wang

    The regeneration of NAD(P)H can be achieved via catalysis, but the unequivocal determination of the species involved has not yet been fully realized. The current analytical methods of reactant/product analysis based on UV-vis spectroscopy, enzymatic assays, NMR spectroscopy, and HPLC are critically examined here with suggestions for future development.

  • Lignin Functionalization for the Production of Novel Materials
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Stefania Bertella, Jeremy S. Luterbacher

    Lignin, a major constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is the largest natural source of aromatic molecules and thus is an attractive feedstock for renewable chemical production. Direct incorporation of isolated lignin into materials has long been researched due to the idea’s simplicity and the scheme’s potentially high atom economy. However, due to its high chemical reactivity lignin is difficult

  • The Immuno-Mass Spectrometry Chemical Microscope
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Dominic J. Hare, Olga Shimoni, David P. Bishop

    Elemental mass spectrometry (MS) imaging has evolved beyond mapping biometals in tissue sections. The continually improving sensitivity and spatial resolution of chemical imaging technology has the potential to revolutionize immunohistochemistry (IHC). We explore how simple modifications to routine immunostaining protocols that integrate ‘immuno-MS imaging’ (iMSI) are making in situ quantitative protein

  • Artificial Photosynthesis Beyond Water Splitting for Environmental Remediation
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Kek Foo Chin, Miloš Đokić, Han Sen Soo

    Artificial photosynthesis potentially offers solutions to the world’s looming energy and environmental crises. Here, we discuss the ongoing challenges of commercializing traditional artificial photosynthetic systems based on water splitting and highlight the advantages of replacing the water oxidation half-reaction with value-added alternatives, including biomass valorization and plastics upcycling

  • Clinical Opportunities for Continuous Biosensing and Closed-Loop Therapies
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Jason Li, Jia Y. Liang, Steven J. Laken, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and closed-loop drug delivery systems have revolutionized patient care in diabetes and anesthesia. Here, we review the current state of continuous chemical sensor development, titratable drug delivery systems, and closed-loop therapies to identify clinically meaningful trends that, if realized, can have significant impact on medical practice and patient outcome. In

  • Status and Challenges of Density Functional Theory
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Pragya Verma, Donald G. Truhlar

    We discuss some of the challenges facing density functional theory (DFT) and recent progress in DFT for both ground and excited electronic states. We discuss key aspects of the results we have been able to obtain with the strategy of designing density functionals to have various ingredients and functional forms that are then optimized to accurately predict various types of properties and systems with

  • Chemical Origins of Life: Its Engagement with Society
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy

    Comprehending the origin of life on Earth is intriguing and its scientific endeavors have engaged society while guiding the search for life elsewhere. However, some persistently question the science and support for such endeavors. This Science & Society article attempts to put this in context and contemplates how engagement could prevent misunderstandings.

  • STEM Gels by Controlled Radical Polymerization
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-08
    Julia Cuthbert, Anna C. Balazs, Tomasz Kowalewski, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

    Structurally tailored and engineered macromolecular (STEM) gels are an addition to the field of advanced polymeric materials and additive/subtractive molecular manufacturing. Taking inspiration from nature, STEM gels were designed based on stem cells, which involved a two-step synthetic procedure. In the first step, the STEM gels are synthesized to be ‘undifferentiated’ templates containing latent

  • Photoinduced Anion Segregation in Mixed Halide Perovskites
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Michael C. Brennan, Anthony Ruth, Prashant V. Kamat, Masaru Kuno

    Alloyed lead halide perovskites have taken a dominant role in the quest for third-generation solar cells. This is due to optimal light-harvesting properties, which can be tuned across the visible spectrum by mixing halide (X = Cl–, Br–, and I–) anions and A+ cations (A+ = FA+, MA+, and Cs+). Durability issues related to ion movement within the perovskite lattice, however, impede large-scale commercialization

  • Times of Fraud
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Mario Biagioli

    A scientist’s career is not a smooth arc but rather a series of targets and deadlines, some more necessary than others. Several forms of research misconduct are specific to and incentivized by such deadlines, making a fine-grained understanding of those professional ecologies a necessary step toward preventing misconduct.

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