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  • Atomic and Organic Nanoarchitectonics
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Katsuhiko Ariga

    This forum article highlights atomic nanoarchitectonics for functional atomic rearrangement and organic nanoarchitectonics for functional unit manipulation. The latter enables organic-synthetic modifications of nano-units from nanotechnological processes. This innovative approach affords creation of new chemical trends, expanding the seemingly endless possibilities of organic synthesis.

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Squeezing Noise in Microscopy with Quantum Light
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Ben Lawrie; Raphael Pooser; Petro Maksymovych

    Quantum-enhanced microscopes capable of probing classically inaccessible material properties have drawn increasing interest, but most proof-of-principle quantum microscopes have not surpassed classical limits. We discuss the promise and obstacles associated with the use of quantum light with reduced noise (‘squeezed’ light) for quantum-enhanced atomic force microscopy, bioimaging, magneto-optical measurements

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Less Wastage in a Bottle
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Marie-Noëlle Rosso; Jean-Guy Berrin; Nicolas Papon

    Several hundred million tons of plastics produced worldwide accumulate in nature. The thermoplastic resin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is highly recalcitrant to degradation. A recent report from Tournier and colleagues provides unprecedented advances towards a circular PET economy by describing an engineered microbial enzyme that efficiently depolymerizes PET.

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • In the Limelight: 2D and 3D Materials via Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Nathaniel Corrigan; Cyrille Boyer

    Reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP), commonly referred to as controlled/living radical polymerization, has become an exceptionally useful method for synthesizing 2D and 3D materials. More recently, light has been used to regulate RDRP, which has provided inherent advantages compared with traditional approaches. Herein, we present some chemical mechanisms for photoRDRP and highlight

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Homogeneous Gold Redox Chemistry: Organometallics, Catalysis, and Beyond
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Banruo Huang; Mingyou Hu; F. Dean Toste

    Gold redox chemistry holds the promise of unique reactivities and selectivities that are different to other transition metals. Recent studies have utilized strain release, ligand design, and photochemistry to promote the otherwise sluggish oxidative addition to Au(I) complexes. More details on the reductive elimination from Au(III) complexes have also been revealed. These discoveries have facilitated

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Synthetic Routes to Late Transition Metal–NHC Complexes
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Thomas Scattolin; Steven P. Nolan

    Transition metal complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHCs) have gained a place of crucial importance in numerous areas of research such as medicinal chemistry, material sciences, and homogeneous/heterogeneous catalysis. In the present review, an updated overview of the main synthetic routes used for the preparation of this broad class of compounds along with their main applications are

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Asymmetric C–H Bond Functionalization of Ferrocenes: New Opportunities and Challenges
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Chen-Xu Liu; Qing Gu; Shu-Li You

    Ferrocene is of great significance in the fields of organic synthesis, materials science, and biomedical research. Of particular importance is the fact that ferrocenes with planar chirality have proven to be privileged ligands or catalysts for asymmetric catalysis. Therefore, developing highly efficient methods to introduce planar chirality on the backbone of ferrocene is desirable. This short review

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • CO2-Based Block Copolymers: Present and Future Designs
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Yao-Yao Zhang; Guang-Peng Wu; Donald J. Darensbourg

    The utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a monomer for copolymerization with three-membered cyclic ethers, also known as oxiranes or epoxides, has received much renewed interest due to the need for degradable polymeric materials derived from renewable resources. Since the early discovery of the catalytic coupling of CO2 and oxiranes to afford polycarbonates, the area has progressed significantly

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Light Up the Transition Metal-Catalyzed Single-Electron Allylation
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Mao-Mao Zhang; Ya-Ni Wang; Liang-Qiu Lu; Wen-Jing Xiao

    Transition metal-catalyzed allylations are among the most important tools for the formation of chemical bonds. Unlike soft nucleophiles (pKa < 25), reactions of hard nucleophiles (pKa > 25) usually suffer from requiring organometallic reagents or the use of strong bases. In addition, traditional single-electron allylations always require rigorously controlled reaction conditions as well as the use

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction to Fuels: Progress and Opportunities
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Joaquin Resasco; Alexis T. Bell

    The electrochemical reduction of CO2 remains an appealing option for storing renewable energy in a chemical form. In this review, we assess progress in designing catalysts that convert CO2 to high energy density products. We explain how reaction data can be reported to reflect the intrinsic properties of the catalyst. This analysis shows that limited advances have been made in improving the performance

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • A Long-Sought Reactivity of a Sodium Hydride
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-18
    Paweł J. Czerwiński; Bartłomiej Furman

    Hydride from sodium hydride acts as a base and not as a nucleophile, due to its small size and high charge density. However, recent research has found that a sodium hydride–sodium iodide composite can be a unique hydride donor in the challenging partial reduction of inert amides to imines.

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Water Splitting: Recent Progress and Challenges
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Lihua Lin; Takashi Hisatomi; Shanshan Chen; Tsuyoshi Takata; Kazunari Domen

    Sunlight-driven photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most promising approaches to generating renewable hydrogen as an energy source. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of photocatalytic water-splitting systems. Among these, the one- and two-step-excitation overall water-splitting processes are most widely investigated. Realization of visible-light-driven

    更新日期:2020-07-14
  • Recent Advances in Metal Triplet Emitters with d6, d8, and d10 Electronic Configurations
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Wai-Pong To; Qingyun Wan; Glenna So Ming Tong; Chi-Ming Che

    Basic research on the photophysical and photochemical properties of metal triplet emitters has been fueled by their practical applications in diverse areas, including bioimaging, photocatalysis, and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In addition to the extensively investigated Ru(II), Ir(III), and Pt(II) complexes, a wide range of luminescent Pd(II), Au(III)/Au(I), Re(I), Cu(I), W(VI)/W(0), and

    更新日期:2020-07-07
  • Carbon Dots in Solar-to-Hydrogen Conversion
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Hui Luo; Qian Guo; Petra Ágota Szilágyi; Ana Belen Jorge; Maria-Magdalena Titirici

    Solar hydrogen production from catalytic water splitting is one of the many options available to help generate clean power and alleviate the threatening environmental concerns stemming from the use of fossil fuels. During the past decade, carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in their application for solar-driven hydrogen production owing to their exceptional photophysical and electrical properties

    更新日期:2020-05-18
  • Engineering Ultrasmall Metal Nanoclusters as Promising Theranostic Agents
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Kaiyuan Zheng; Jianping Xie

    Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are ultrasmall nanoparticles with intriguing molecule-like physicochemical properties. In recent years, metal NCs have been used as theranostic agents in biomedicine. In this short review, we correlate the physicochemical properties of metal NCs to their biomedical applications, shedding some light on the design of metal NC-based theranostic agents in cancer therapy, imaging-guided

    更新日期:2020-05-14
  • MXenes as High-Rate Electrodes for Energy Storage
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Zifeng Lin; Hui Shao; Kui Xu; Pierre-Louis Taberna; Patrice Simon

    Two-dimensional transition-metal carbides/nitrides, namely MXenes, are gaining increasing interest in many research fields, including electrochemical energy storage. This short review article emphasizes some recent breakthroughs achieved in MXene chemistry and electrochemical performance when used as high-rate electrodes, especially in nonaqueous electrolytes. Lastly, the current limitations and future

    更新日期:2020-05-14
  • Topology of Folded Molecular Chains: From Single Biomolecules to Engineered Origami
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Barbara Scalvini; Vahid Sheikhhassani; Jaie Woodard; Jana Aupič; Remus T. Dame; Roman Jerala; Alireza Mashaghi

    The topology of biological polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids is an important aspect of their 3D structure. Recently, two applications of topology to molecular chains have emerged as important theoretical developments that are beginning to find utility in heteropolymer characterization and design: namely, circuit topology (CT) and knot theory. Here, we review the application of these two theories

    更新日期:2020-05-11
  • Reductive Iodonium: Teaching an Old Claisen New Tricks
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Vincent Porte; Daniel Kaiser; Nuno Maulide

    The drive to discover new transformations that enable C–C bond formation remains at the heart of challenges in contemporary organic synthesis. This is crucial for the expansion of the synthetic toolbox, providing the chemist with original ways to assemble a desired target – be it a natural product or a manmade compound. Many industries rely heavily on novel approaches in organic synthesis to develop

    更新日期:2020-05-08
  • Radial Scope: A New Visualization Tool for Structure–Data Relationships
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Attabey Rodríguez Benítez; Simon L. Dürr; Alison R.H. Narayan

    Communication of data associated with chemical structures in a concise fashion can be challenging. Here, we describe an alternative to the classic substrate table that integrates numerical data with structural changes. These radial-scope plots facilitate the identification of trends and simultaneously save space.

    更新日期:2020-05-06
  • Colloidal Assembly and Active Tuning of Coupled Plasmonic Nanospheres
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Zhiwei Li; Wenshou Wang; Yadong Yin

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) originates from the collective oscillation of conduction electrons when conductive nanoparticles are exposed to an electromagnetic field. It generates remarkably enhanced electric fields surrounding the nanoparticles and leads to strong extinction at the resonant wavelength. When plasmonic particles are in considerably close proximity, plasmon coupling occurs

    更新日期:2020-04-30
  • Progress and Opportunities for Cs Incorporated Perovskite Photovoltaics
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Shi Tang; Shujuan Huang; Gregory J. Wilson; Anita Ho-Baillie

    Efficiencies of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have risen unprecedentedly from 3.8% to 25.2% in just over a decade as the light absorber material has evolved from the original methylammonium (MA)- to formamidinium (FA)-dominated perovskite. While FA lead iodide (FAPbI3) has a lower bandgap and, therefore, a higher theoretical efficiency limit, it is less phase stable, although this can overcome by incorporating

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Organic Photovoltaics: Relating Chemical Structure, Local Morphology, and Electronic Properties
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Tonghui Wang; Grit Kupgan; Jean-Luc Brédas

    Substantial enhancements in the efficiencies of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have come from largely trial-and-error-based optimizations of the morphology of the active layers. Further improvements, however, require a detailed understanding of the relationships among chemical structure, morphology, electronic properties, and device performance. On the experimental side, characterization

    更新日期:2020-04-25
  • Soft–Hard Composites for Bioelectric Interfaces
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Yiliang Lin; Yin Fang; Jiping Yue; Bozhi Tian

    Bioelectric devices can probe fundamental biological dynamics and improve the lives of human beings. However, direct application of traditional rigid electronics onto soft tissues can cause signal transduction and biocompatibility issues. One common mitigation strategy is the use of soft–hard composites to form more biocompatible interfaces with target cells or tissues. Here, we identify several soft–hard

    更新日期:2020-04-23
  • Recent Fascinating Aspects of the CuAAC Click Reaction
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Morten Meldal; Frederik Diness

    CuAAC chemistry is used to compose incredible synthetic molecular architectures and acts as a true click chemistry reaction allowing densely functional molecular fragments to be joined in a highly controlled manner. Using supercatalysts based on our mechanistic understanding and in the absence of oxygen, CuAAC reactions are superior even in bioligation chemistry. The catalytic cycle provides an organometallic

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Polymerization Catalysts Take a Walk on the Wild Side
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Charles N. Jarrett-Wilkins; Adam A. Pollit; Dwight S. Seferos

    Control over polymer architecture is a central challenge in chemistry that is key for the design and manipulation of material properties, to enable integration of macromolecules into potential applications. Numerous strategies have been employed to control polymer architecture, with one of the most elegant examples being catalyst walking, where a catalyst is able to migrate along a polymer backbone

    更新日期:2020-04-17
  • Crystal Engineering of Hybrid Coordination Networks: From Form to Function
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Soumya Mukherjee; Michael J. Zaworotko

    Crystal engineering, the field of chemistry that studies the design, properties, and applications of crystals, is exemplified by the emergence of coordination networks (CNs). CNs are comprised of metal cations or metal clusters linked into 2D or 3D networks by organic and/or inorganic ligands. Early studies on CNs tended to focus upon design using self-assembly and/or reticular chemistry, but interest

    更新日期:2020-04-16
  • Video for Active and Remote Learning.
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Darren J Lipomi

    The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused the canceling of in-person lectures on a massive scale. Rapid movement of education to online platforms will eventually lead to innovations in remote education. At the moment, however, instructors lack guidance. This short article describes approaches for producing video for remote and active learning.

    更新日期:2020-04-16
  • Cofactor NAD(P)H Regeneration: How Selective Are the Reactions?
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Joseph W.H. Burnett; Russell F. Howe; Xiaodong Wang

    The regeneration of NAD(P)H can be achieved via catalysis, but the unequivocal determination of the species involved has not yet been fully realized. The current analytical methods of reactant/product analysis based on UV-vis spectroscopy, enzymatic assays, NMR spectroscopy, and HPLC are critically examined here with suggestions for future development.

    更新日期:2020-04-14
  • Lignin Functionalization for the Production of Novel Materials
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Stefania Bertella; Jeremy S. Luterbacher

    Lignin, a major constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is the largest natural source of aromatic molecules and thus is an attractive feedstock for renewable chemical production. Direct incorporation of isolated lignin into materials has long been researched due to the idea’s simplicity and the scheme’s potentially high atom economy. However, due to its high chemical reactivity lignin is difficult

    更新日期:2020-04-03
  • The Immuno-Mass Spectrometry Chemical Microscope
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Dominic J. Hare; Olga Shimoni; David P. Bishop

    Elemental mass spectrometry (MS) imaging has evolved beyond mapping biometals in tissue sections. The continually improving sensitivity and spatial resolution of chemical imaging technology has the potential to revolutionize immunohistochemistry (IHC). We explore how simple modifications to routine immunostaining protocols that integrate ‘immuno-MS imaging’ (iMSI) are making in situ quantitative protein

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Clinical Opportunities for Continuous Biosensing and Closed-Loop Therapies
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Jason Li; Jia Y. Liang; Steven J. Laken; Robert Langer; Giovanni Traverso

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and closed-loop drug delivery systems have revolutionized patient care in diabetes and anesthesia. Here, we review the current state of continuous chemical sensor development, titratable drug delivery systems, and closed-loop therapies to identify clinically meaningful trends that, if realized, can have significant impact on medical practice and patient outcome. In

    更新日期:2020-03-16
  • Status and Challenges of Density Functional Theory
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Pragya Verma; Donald G. Truhlar

    We discuss some of the challenges facing density functional theory (DFT) and recent progress in DFT for both ground and excited electronic states. We discuss key aspects of the results we have been able to obtain with the strategy of designing density functionals to have various ingredients and functional forms that are then optimized to accurately predict various types of properties and systems with

    更新日期:2020-03-16
  • Artificial Photosynthesis Beyond Water Splitting for Environmental Remediation
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Kek Foo Chin; Miloš Đokić; Han Sen Soo

    Artificial photosynthesis potentially offers solutions to the world’s looming energy and environmental crises. Here, we discuss the ongoing challenges of commercializing traditional artificial photosynthetic systems based on water splitting and highlight the advantages of replacing the water oxidation half-reaction with value-added alternatives, including biomass valorization and plastics upcycling

    更新日期:2020-03-16
  • Chemical Origins of Life: Its Engagement with Society
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy

    Comprehending the origin of life on Earth is intriguing and its scientific endeavors have engaged society while guiding the search for life elsewhere. However, some persistently question the science and support for such endeavors. This Science & Society article attempts to put this in context and contemplates how engagement could prevent misunderstandings.

    更新日期:2020-03-10
  • STEM Gels by Controlled Radical Polymerization
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-08
    Julia Cuthbert; Anna C. Balazs; Tomasz Kowalewski; Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

    Structurally tailored and engineered macromolecular (STEM) gels are an addition to the field of advanced polymeric materials and additive/subtractive molecular manufacturing. Taking inspiration from nature, STEM gels were designed based on stem cells, which involved a two-step synthetic procedure. In the first step, the STEM gels are synthesized to be ‘undifferentiated’ templates containing latent

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • Photoinduced Anion Segregation in Mixed Halide Perovskites
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Michael C. Brennan; Anthony Ruth; Prashant V. Kamat; Masaru Kuno

    Alloyed lead halide perovskites have taken a dominant role in the quest for third-generation solar cells. This is due to optimal light-harvesting properties, which can be tuned across the visible spectrum by mixing halide (X = Cl–, Br–, and I–) anions and A+ cations (A+ = FA+, MA+, and Cs+). Durability issues related to ion movement within the perovskite lattice, however, impede large-scale commercialization

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • Times of Fraud
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Mario Biagioli

    A scientist’s career is not a smooth arc but rather a series of targets and deadlines, some more necessary than others. Several forms of research misconduct are specific to and incentivized by such deadlines, making a fine-grained understanding of those professional ecologies a necessary step toward preventing misconduct.

    更新日期:2020-03-06
  • Metal–Organic Frameworks as Multifunctional Solid Catalysts
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Amarajothi Dhakshinamoorthy; Abdullah M. Asiri; Hermenegildo García

    This review article describes the main reasons to use metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as solid catalysts for liquid-phase reactions, including synthesis by design, high porosity in the micro-mesoporous range, and a high density of unsaturated transition-metal ions. The primary objective of this short review is to describe key current research strategies for improving activity, such as the role of structural

    更新日期:2020-03-04
  • Evolution of Isolated Atoms and Clusters in Catalysis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Lichen Liu; Avelino Corma

    Structural transformation and evolution of active metal sites can occur in metal-catalyzed reactions in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Such structural changes have an important impact on the catalytic behavior, including activity, selectivity, and stability. Aiming to establish a link between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, this review begins with a discussion on dynamic

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • A Multivariate Toolbox for Donor–Acceptor Alignment: MOFs and COFs
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Gabrielle A. Leith; Anna A. Berseneva; Abhijai Mathur; Kyoung Chul Park; Natalia B. Shustova

    The modularity of multivariant scaffolds such as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent–organic frameworks (COFs) provides an unprecedented level of control in the alignment of donor (D) and acceptor (A) units, a demand that is driven by the production of optoelectronic, photonic, and spintronic devices. The foray into novel motifs bearing D-A ensembles in frameworks has been applied towards

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Electrolyte Design for Fast-Charging Li-Ion Batteries
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-02-22
    E.R. Logan; J.R. Dahn

    Li-ion batteries with fast charging capabilities will push the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). The United States Department of Energy has stated goals of achieving “Extreme Fast Charging” (XFC) – charging to 80% capacity in 15 minutes or under – by 2028. The liquid electrolyte plays an extremely important role in achieving this goal. This review considers recent progress made in electrolyte development

    更新日期:2020-02-23
  • Biomedical Integration of Metal–Organic Frameworks
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Sayan Banerjee; Christina T. Lollar; Zhifeng Xiao; Yu Fang; Hong-Cai Zhou

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been demonstrated to be excellent platforms for biomedical applications. On account of their porous nature and modular structure, MOFs have served as bioactive-compound carriers, cell-imaging materials, and therapeutic agents. MOF cavities allow the encapsulation of a variety of guest molecules, facilitating controllable drug release and optical imaging

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • The Merger of Photoredox and Cobalt Catalysis
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Masahiro Kojima; Shigeki Matsunaga

    In the past decade, synthetic chemists have discovered the outstanding generality and potential of visible-light-driven photoredox catalysis, which converts visible light into chemical energy, realizing numerous transformations of small molecules. The current state-of-the-art strategy in photoredox catalysis, combining photoredox and transition-metal catalysis, has received considerable attention in

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Catalytic Porphyrin Framework Compounds
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Liang Feng; Kun-Yu Wang; Elizabeth Joseph; Hong-Cai Zhou

    Porphyrins are frequently observed in nature and play a vital role in many biological functions, including light-harvesting, oxygen transport, and catalytic transformations. The rigid, robust, and multifunctional features of porphyrins enable the construction of framework compounds such as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) for use in several important applications

    更新日期:2020-02-08
  • Gas Separation via Hybrid Metal–Organic Framework/Polymer Membranes
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Yanshu Shi; Bin Liang; Rui-Biao Lin; Chen Zhang; Banglin Chen

    Hybrid membranes assembled from a polymeric matrix and an inorganic filler are considered one of the most promising membranes for energy-efficient gas separations due to their high performance and low-cost fabrication. Rigid polymer matrices often exhibit lasting porosity and consequently have been gradually employed to fabricate separation membranes of high permeance. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Emerging Frontiers of Upconversion Nanoparticles
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Bing Chen; Feng Wang

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles capable of converting near-infrared excitation into UV and visible emissions have attracted considerable research interests in recent years. Low-density near-infrared light needed for excitation of these nanoparticles is nondestructive and highly penetrating, offering significant technological advantages for biological and photonic applications such as remote

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Smart Cellulose-Based Electronic Skin with Humidity-Driven Dynamic Performance
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Zhao Pan; Huai-Ling Gao; Shu-Hong Yu

    Dynamic soft materials are requisite components not only for the survival of organisms in complicated natural environments but also for the advancement and operation of smart devices. A recently published article (Zhao et al.) reports new tunable polymeric materials exhibiting excellent reversible properties when the network hydration state is varied.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Sb2Si2Te6: A Robust New Thermoelectric Material
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Zhiwei Huang; Li-Dong Zhao

    Thermoelectric materials have been widely investigated and have shown great promise as a sustainable source of energy. A recent article (Luo et al.) reveals a new, promising robust thermoelectric material, Sb2Si2Te6 and provides a robust approach for enhancing the thermoelectric performance through the construction of cellular nanostructures.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Towards Practical Osmotic Energy Capture by a Layer-by-Layer Membrane
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Xiang-Yu Kong; Liping Wen; Lei Jiang

    Recent development in membrane technology for capturing osmotic energy suggests significant performance enhancement due to nanoscale structured materials. A new article in Joule (Chen et al.) presents a bio-inspired layer-by-layer assembled composite membrane of aramid nanofibers and boron nitride nanosheets that demonstrates a major step towards practical osmotic energy harvesting.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Carbon‒Carbon Bond Activation of Ketones
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Lin Deng; Guangbin Dong

    C−C bond activation has emerged as an increasingly useful approach for constructing complex molecular scaffolds through unusual bond-disconnection strategies. As a common versatile functional group, ketones provide an excellent handle and platform for C−C bond activation reactions. Utilizing strain-release, carbon-monoxide-extrusion, and directing-group (DG) approaches, diverse transformations of various

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Encapsulating Metal Nanocatalysts within Porous Organic Hosts
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xinchun Yang; Qiang Xu

    The encapsulation of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) inside porous organic hosts (POHs), such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, organic molecular cages, and amorphous porous organic polymers has attracted significant attention because this procedure can generate highly catalytically active MNPs. This short review describes important recent progress in the fabrication of active MNP

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Sodium–Oxygen Batteries: Recent Developments and Remaining Challenges
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Hossein Yadegari; Xueliang Sun

    Sodium–oxygen (Na-O2) batteries are considered a higher-energy-efficiency alternative to the lithium–oxygen (Li-O2) system. The reversible superoxide electrochemistry governing the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in Na-O2 cells results in a relatively lower charging overpotential. Thus, significant research attention has been directed toward Na-O2 in the hope of developing a high-energy-storage

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Metallo-Polyelectrolytes: Correlating Macromolecular Architectures with Properties and Applications
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Tianyu Zhu; Jiuyang Zhang; Chuanbing Tang

    Since the middle of the 20th century, metallopolymers have represented a standalone subfield with a beneficial combination of functionality from inorganic metal centers and processability from the organic polymeric frameworks. Metallo-polyelectrolytes are a new class of soft materials that showcase fundamentally different properties from neutral polymers due to their intrinsically ionic behaviors.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Shaping Functional Materials with DNA Frameworks
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Yang Yang, Rui Zhang, Chunhai Fan

    Designing and engineering materials into particular shapes and/or structural arrangements paves the way to advanced materials properties. Top-down micro/nano fabrication can achieve patterns with sub-10 nm precision; however, challenges and limitations in material versatility, dynamic arrangement, biocompatibility, and high cost still exist. Bottom-up methods, however, allow elements to grow/assemble

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Surface Modification of TiO2 for Perovskite Solar Cells
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Wanpei Hu, Shangfeng Yang, Shihe Yang

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is commonly used as an electron transport layer (ETL) of regular-structure perovskite solar cells (PSCs); however, it suffers from inherent drawbacks such as low electron mobility and a high density of trap states. Modifying the surface chemistry of TiO2 has proved facile and efficient in enhancing key electron-transport properties, thereby improving device performance. In this

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Relevance of Particle Morphology for Atmospheric Aerosol Processing
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Claudia Marcolli, Ulrich K. Krieger

    Recent laboratory and modeling studies suggest high relevance of aerosol mixing state and particle morphology for the life cycle of atmospheric aerosols. A new article by Gorkowski and colleagues presents a framework to predict morphologies of aerosol particles based on O:C ratio for incorporation into chemical transport models.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Responsive and Foldable Soft Materials
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Jiaqi Liu, Yuchong Gao, Young-Joo Lee, Shu Yang

    Stimulus-responsive soft materials that can enable folding of a 2D sheet into a 3D object have potential significant applications, including wearable electronics, biomimetic machines, soft robotics, drug delivery, biomedical devices, and responsive buildings. The responses can be tuned by the materials chemistry, composition, and type of external stimulus; the direction and magnitude of the deformation

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Multiscale Design of Flexible Metal–Organic Frameworks
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Shing Bo Peh, Avishek Karmakar, Dan Zhao

    Flexible materials can adapt to external stimuli with predictable and controllable responses. The emergence of dynamic behavior in metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is promising for the development of ‘smart’ materials for applications that leverage their porosities and tunable chemical compositions, including the storage, separation, and sensing of small molecules. The translation of molecular structural

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Designer Polymers Boost Cation Exchange
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Peter M. Budd

    Membranes formed from polymers with rigid, contorted backbones have been explored for the separation of a variety of liquid and gaseous mixtures. Recent research reported by Helms and colleagues opens a whole new area of application, demonstrating cation-exchange membranes with exceptional performance for new batteries.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Organic Chemistry for Biology-Oriented Students
    Trends Chem. Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Tien-Yau Luh, Cheng-Kung Chou

    Restructuring the syllabus of an introductory organic chemistry course to better suit the need of biology-oriented students and provide fundamental understanding of chemical principles of biochemical transformations is proposed. It is recommended that certain organic reactions less relevant to natural biological systems are replaced with biochemical reactions as illustrations.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
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