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  • Photogenerated holes induced rapid eliminating of solid tumors by the supramolecular porphyrin photocatalyst
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Zijian Zhang; Li Wang; Weixu Liu; Zihe Yan; Yongfa Zhu; Shuyun Zhou; Shanyue Guan

    The rapid, complete, targeted, and safe treatment for tumors remains a key issue in cancer therapy. A novel treatment of solid tumors by supramolecular photocatalyst Nano-SA-TCPP with the irradiation of 600–700 nm wavelength is established. The solid tumors (100 mm3) can be eliminated within 10 min. The 50-day mouse survival rate was increased from 0% to 100% after the photocatalytic therapy. The breakthrough

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Boron doping-induced interconnected assembly approach for mesoporous silicon oxycarbide architecture
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Guanjia Zhu; Rui Guo; Wei Luo; Hua Kun Liu; Wan Jiang; Shi Xue Dou; Jianping Yang

    Despite the desirable progresses on various assembly tactics, the main drawback associated with current assemblies is the weak interparticle connections limited by their assembling protocols. Herein, we report a novel boron doping-induced interconnection-assembly approach for fabricating an unprecedented assembly of mesoporous silicon oxycarbide nanospheres which are derived from periodic mesoporous

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Hybrid solid electrolyte enabled dendrite-free Li anodes for high-performance quasi-solid-state lithium-oxygen batteries
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Jin Wang; Gang Huang; Jun-Min Yan; Jin-Ling Ma; Tong Liu; Miao-Miao Shi; Yue Yu; Miao-Miao Zhang; Ji-Lin Tang; Xin-Bo Zhang

    The dendrite growth of Li anodes severely degrades the performance of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Recently, hybrid solid electrolyte (HSE) has been regarded as one of the most promising routes to tackle this problem. However, before realize this, the HSE needs to simultaneously satisfy contradictory requirements of high modulus, even and flexible contact with Li anode while ensures uniform Li+

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • An overview of the use of plastic film mulching in China to increase crop yield and water use efficiency
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Dongbao Sun; Haigang Li; Enli Wang; Wenqing He; Weiping Hao; Changrong Yan; Yuzhong Li; Xurong Mei; Yanqing Zhang; Zhanxiang Sun; Zhikuan Jia; Huaiping Zhou; Tinglu Fan; Xucheng Zhang; Qin Liu; Fengju Wang; Chaochun Zhang; Jianbo Shen; Qingsuo Wang; Fusuo Zhang

    AbstractThe University of Surrey (referred to as Surrey hereafter) is one of the renowned universities in the UK that was established on 9 September 1966 with the grant of its Royal Charter and its roots go back to Battersea Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1891. Surrey is the research hub of small satellites, mobile telecommunication and artificial intelligence in Europe. In 2016, Surrey was named

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Salvinia-like slippery surface with stable and mobile water/air contact line
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Xiaomei Li; Jinlong Yang; Kaixuan Lv; Periklis Papadopoulos; Jing Sun; Dehui Wang; Yanhua Zhao; Longquan Chen; Dapeng Wang; Zuankai Wang; Xu Deng

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are widely used in many industrial settings, which mainly consist of rough solid protrusions that entrap air to minimize the liquid/solid area. The stability of the superhydrophobic state favors a relatively small spacing between protrusions. However, this in turn increases the lateral adhesion force that retards the mobility of drops. Here we propose a novel approach that

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The LRXs-RALFs-FER module controls plant growth and salt stress responses by modulating multiple plant hormones
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Chunzhao Zhao; Wei Jiang; Omar Zayed; Xin Liu; Kai Tang; Wenfeng Nie; Yali Li; Shaojun Xie; Yuan Li; Tiandan Long; Linlin Liu; Yingfang Zhu; Yang Zhao; Jian-Kang Zhu

    Salt stress is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and productivity. We recently discovered an important new salt tolerance pathway, where the cell wall leucine-rich repeat extensins LRX3/4/5, the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) peptides RALF22/23, and receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) function as a module to simultaneously regulate plant growth and salt stress tolerance. However

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Preface to special topic on games in control systems
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Ji-Feng Zhang

    AbstractThe University of Surrey (referred to as Surrey hereafter) is one of the renowned universities in the UK that was established on 9 September 1966 with the grant of its Royal Charter and its roots go back to Battersea Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1891. Surrey is the research hub of small satellites, mobile telecommunication and artificial intelligence in Europe. In 2016, Surrey was named

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Electric field manipulation enhanced by strong spin-orbit coupling: promoting rare-earth ions as qubits
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Zheng Liu; Ye-Xin Wang; Yu-Hui Fang; Si-Xue Qin; Zhe-Ming Wang; Shang-Da Jiang; Song Gao

    Quantum information processing based on magnetic ions are considered potential candidates for applications because they can be modified and scaled up by a variety of chemical methods. For these systems to achieve individual spin addressability and high energy efficiency, we exploited the electric field as a tool to manipulate their quantum behaviours, functioning via spin-orbit coupling. A Ce: YAG

    更新日期:2020-06-27
  • Iron in the NEEM ice core relative to Asian loess records over the last glacial-interglacial cycle
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Cunde Xiao; Zhiheng Du; Mike J Handley; Paul A Mayewski; Junji Cao; Simon Schüpbach; Tong Zhang; Jean-Robert Petit; Chuanjin Li; Yeongcheol Han; Yuefang Li; Jiawen Ren

    Mineral dust can indirectly affect climate by supplying bioavailable iron (Fe) to the ocean. Here, we first present the results of measurements of the concentrations of dissolved Fe (DFe) and total Fe (TDFe) in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core over the past 110 kyr B.P. The Fe records are significantly negatively correlated with the carbon oxide (CO2) concentrations during cold

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Direct transformation of dinitrogen: synthesis of N-containing organic compounds via N−C bond formation
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Ze-Jie Lv; Junnian Wei; Wen-Xiong Zhang; Ping Chen; Dehui Deng; Zhang-Jie Shi; Zhenfeng Xi

    N-Containing organic compounds are of vital importance to lives. Practical synthesis of valuable N-containing organic compounds directly from dinitrogen (N2), not through ammonia (NH3), is a holy-grail in chemistry and chemical industry. An essential step for this transformation is the functionalization of the activated N2 units/ligands to generate N−C bonds. Pioneering works of transition-metal mediated

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Integrating Climate, Biodiversity, and Sustainable Land Use Strategies: Innovations from China
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Guido Schmidt-Traub; Harvey Locke; Jixi Gao; Zhiyun Ouyang; Justin Adams; Lin Li; Enric Sala; M Rebecca Shaw; Sebastian Troëng; Jing Xu; Chunquan Zhu; Changxin Zou; Tianxiao Ma; Fuwen Wei

    Ahead of landmark biodiversity and climate conferences in 2021, China's policy innovations in land-use planning and the Ecological Conservation Redline offer lessons for other countries in developing integrated strategies on climate, biodiversity, and desertification. Spatial planning is also critical for greening international supply chains and the Belt and Road Initiative.

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Asymptomatic patients and asymptomatic phases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): a population-based surveillance study
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Xueying Zheng; Sihui Luo; Yong Sun; Mingfeng Han; Jian Liu; Liangye Sun; Liangming Zhang; Ping Ling; Yu Ding; Tengchuan Jin; Zhirong Liu; Jianping Weng

    In this population-based study, we identified 307 confirmed COVID-19 cases from massive surveillance, including 129,551 individuals screened at fever clinics or returning from Hubei and 3710 close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 patients. Among them, 17 patients were asymptomatic at initial clinical assessment. These asymptomatic patients on admission accounted for a small proportion of all patients

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Eco-chemical mechanisms govern phytoplankton emissions of dimethylsulfide in global surface waters
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Xuwei Deng; Jun Chen; Lars-Anders Hansson; Xia Zhao; Ping Xie

    The anti-greenhouse gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) is mainly emitted by algae, and accounts for more than half of the total natural flux of gaseous sulfur to the atmosphere, strongly reducing the solar radiation and thereby the temperature on Earth. However, the relationship between phytoplankton biomass and DMS emissions is debated and inconclusive. Our study presents field observations from 100 freshwater

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Active versus passive reading: How to read scientific papers?
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Tung-Tien Sun

    Although the ability to read scientific papers efficiently and critically is an essential skill for graduate students, it is rarely taught systematically. Thus, some students read papers from-the-beginning-to-the-end and word-by-word, which is laborious and unproductive. In this paper, I discuss active reading, i.e., reading with questions in mind. Thus, the students read the abstract and introduction

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Mission and challenges of higher education: an interview with G.Q. Max Lu, the president of the University of Surrey
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Ling Wang; Zhengtang Guo

    The University of Surrey (referred to as Surrey hereafter) is one of the renowned universities in the UK that was established on 9 September 1966 with the grant of its Royal Charter and its roots go back to Battersea Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1891. Surrey is the research hub of small satellites, mobile telecommunication and artificial intelligence in Europe. In 2016, Surrey was named as ‘University

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Convergent adaptive evolution—how common, or how rare?
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Chung-I Wu; Guo-Dong Wang; Shuhua Xu

    This Special Topic contains one perspective and three original articles that address the topic of convergent evolution. How common, and how important, is convergent adaptation in evolution? These are the questions these studies attempt to answer.

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Adaptive convergence at the genomic level—prevalent, uncommon or very rare?
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Ziwen He; Shaohua Xu; Suhua Shi

    Convergent evolution is one of the central topics in evolutionary genetics [1]. While there has been ample evidence of phenotypic convergence, the issue is whether each and any of the phenotypic convergences have an underlying cause in genic convergence [2,3]. Fortunately, the torrent of genomic data has made it possible to address the issue [4–8]. Convergence can happen at multiple levels of the genetic

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Middle–Late Jurassic fossils from northeastern China reveal morphological stasis in the catkin-yew
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Chong Dong; Gongle Shi; Fabiany Herrera; Yongdong Wang; Patrick S Herendeen; Peter R Crane

    Well-preserved fossils from the Middle–Late Jurassic Daohugou Bed in eastern Inner Mongolia, China closely resemble the extant catkin-yews Amentotaxus. They provide unequivocal evidence that the catkin-yews have undergone little morphological change over at least ∼160 million years. Like Ginkgo, the catkin-yews are living fossils that provide an important new example of evolutionary stasis.

    更新日期:2020-06-18
  • Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Xin Huang; Aijun Ding; Jian Gao; Bo Zheng; Derong Zhou; Ximeng Qi; Rong Tang; Jiaping Wang; Chuanhua Ren; Wei Nie; Xuguang Chi; Zheng Xu; Liangduo Chen; Yuanyuan Li; Fei Che; Nini Pang; Haikun Wang; Dan Tong; Wei Qin; Wei Cheng; Weijing Liu; Qingyan Fu; Baoxian Liu; Fahe Chai; Steven J Davis; Qiang Zhang; Kebin He

    To control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), China imposed nationwide restrictions on the movement of its population (lockdown) after the Chinese New Year of 2020, leading to large reductions in economic activities and associated emissions. Despite such large decreases in primary pollution, there were nonetheless several periods of heavy haze pollution in East China, raising questions

    更新日期:2020-06-18
  • Solid-state intramolecular motions in continuous fibers driven by ambient humidity for fluorescent sensors
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Yunmeng Jiang; Yanhua Cheng; Shunjie Liu; Haoke Zhang; Xiaoyan Zheng; Ming Chen; Michidmaa Khorloo; Hengxue Xiang; Ben Zhong Tang; Meifang Zhu

    One striking feature of molecular rotors is their ability to change conformation with detectable optical signals through molecular motion when stimulated. However, due to the strong intermolecular interactions, synthetic molecular rotors have often relied on fluid environments. Here, we take advantage of the solid-state intramolecular motion of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecular rotors and

    更新日期:2020-06-17
  • Altering the rate-determining step over cobalt single clusters leading to highly efficient ammonia synthesis
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Sisi Liu; Mengfan Wang; Haoqing Ji; Xiaowei Shen; Chenglin Yan; Tao Qian

    Activation of high-energy triple-bonds of N2 is the most significant bottleneck of ammonia synthesis under ambient conditions. Here, by importing cobalt single clusters as strong electron-donating promoter into the catalyst, the rate-determining step of ammonia synthesis is altered to the subsequent proton addition so that the barrier of N2 dissociation can be successfully overcome. As revealed by

    更新日期:2020-06-17
  • Towards climate resilient urban energy systems: A review
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Vahid M Nik; A T D Perera; Deliang Chen

    Climate change and increased urban population are two major concerns for society. Moving towards more sustainable energy solutions in the urban context by integrating renewable energy technologies supports decarbonizing the energy sector and climate change mitigation. A successful transition also needs adequate consideration of climate change including extreme events to ensure the reliable performance

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • ENSO and Southeast Asian biomass burning modulate subtropical trans-Pacific ozone transport
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Lian Xue; Aijun Ding; Owen Cooper; Xin Huang; Wuke Wang; Derong Zhou; Zhaohua Wu; Audra McClure-Begley; Irina Petropavlovskikh; Meinrat O Andreae; Congbin Fu

    Trans-Pacific transport of enhanced ozone plumes has been mainly attributed to fossil fuel combustion in Asia in spring, but less attention has been paid to vegetation fires in Asia. Here we show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-modulated fires in Southeast Asia, rather than Asian fossil fuel plumes, dominate the interannual variability of springtime trans-Pacific transport of ozone across

    更新日期:2020-06-13
  • A fast and versatile cross-linking strategy via o-phthalaldehyde condensation for mechanically strengthened and functional hydrogels
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Zhen Zhang; Chaoliang He; Yan Rong; Hui Ren; Tianran Wang; Zheng Zou; Xuesi Chen

    Fast and catalyst-free cross-linking strategy is of great significance for construction of covalently cross-linked hydrogels. Here, we report the condensation reaction between o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and N-nucleophiles (primary amine, hydrazide, and aminooxy) for hydrogel formation for the first time. When four-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (4aPEG) capped with OPA was mixed with various N-nucleophile-terminated

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Unleash electron transfer in C-H functionalization by mesoporous carbon supported palladium interstitial catalysts
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Xiaorui Zhao; Yueqiang Cao; Linlin Duan; Ruoou Yang; Zheng Jiang; Chao Tian; Shangjun Chen; Xuezhi Duan; De Chen; Ying Wan

    The functionalization of otherwise unreactive C–H bonds adds a new dimension to synthetic chemistry, yielding useful molecules for a range of applications. Arylation has emerged as an increasingly viable strategy for functionalization of heteroarenes which constitute an important class of structural moieties for organic materials. However, direct bisarylation of heteroarenes to enable aryl-heteroaryl-aryl

    更新日期:2020-06-11
  • A Single-cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Primate Pancreatic Islet Aging
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Jingyi Li; Yuxuan Zheng; Pengze Yan; Moshi Song; Si Wang; Liang Sun; Zunpeng Liu; Shuai Ma; Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte; Piu Chan; Qi Zhou; Weiqi Zhang; Guang-Hui Liu; Fuchou Tang; Jing Qu

    Aging-related degeneration of pancreatic islet cells contributes to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Endocrine cells age heterogeneously, complicating the efforts to unravel the molecular drives underlying endocrine aging. To overcome these obstacles, we undertook single-cell RNA sequencing of pancreatic islet cells obtained from young and aged non-diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. Despite sex differences

    更新日期:2020-06-10
  • Biodegradable magnesium alloy with eddy-thermal effect for effective and accurate magnetic hyperthermia ablation of tumors
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Nailin Yang; Fei Gong; Liang Cheng; Huali Lei; Wei Li; Zongbin Sun; Caifang Ni; Zhanhui Wang; Zhuang Liu

    Magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) is able to ablate tumors using an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to heat up magnetocaloric agents (e.g., magnetic nanoparticles) administrated in the tumors. For clinical applications, there is still a demand to find new magnetocaloric agents with strong AMF-induced heating performance and excellent biocompatibility. As a kind of biocompatible and biodegradable

    更新日期:2020-06-10
  • Autopsy of COVID-19 victims in China
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Xiu-Wu Bian

    Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 virus and pathological features of multiple organs in COVID-19 patients remains unclear, which interferes with the improvement of COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we summarize the pathological findings obtained from systematic autopsy (37 cases) and percutaneous multiple organ biopsy (“minimally invasive autopsy”, 54 cases). These findings should shed light

    更新日期:2020-06-06
  • Variation in the life history strategy underlies functional diversity of tumors
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Tao Li; Jialin Liu; Jing Feng; Zhenzhen Liu; Sixue Liu; Minjie Zhang; Yuezheng Zhang; Yali Hou; Dafei Wu; Chunyan Li; Young-Bin Chen; Hua Chen; Xuemei Lu

    Classical r- vs. K-selection theory describes the trade-offs between high reproductive output and competitiveness and guides research in evolutionary ecology. While its impact has waned in the recent past, cancer evolution may rekindle it. Herein, we impose r- or K- selection on cancer cell lines to obtain strongly proliferative r cells and highly competitive K cells to test ideas on life-history strategy

    更新日期:2020-06-05
  • Spatial multi-scaled chimera states of cerebral cortex network and its inherent structure-dynamics relationship in human brain
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    S Huo; C Tian; M Zheng; S Guan; C S Zhou; Z Liu

    Human cerebral cortex displays various dynamics patterns under different states, however the mechanism how such diverse patterns can be supported by the underlying brain network is still not well understood. Human brain has a unique network structure with different regions of interesting to perform cognitive tasks. Using coupled neural mass oscillators on human cortical network and paying attention

    更新日期:2020-06-05
  • The ethical cost of doing nothing
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Andrew J Parker

    Concern has been raised about the ethics and risks of performing genetic interventions in macaque monkeys to study models of human neuropsychiatric conditions. Here I point out that, when the outcome of some situations is truly uncertain, human decision-makers tend to evaluate these situations inconsistently. The consequences of this inconsistency are sometimes profound, as they lead policy-makers

    更新日期:2020-06-04
  • Quantum Simulation of Particle Pair Creation near the Event Horizon
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Yao Wang; Chong Sheng; Yong-Heng Lu; Jun Gao; Yi-Jun Chang; Xiao-Ling Pang; Tian-Huai Yang; Shi-Ning Zhu; Hui Liu; Xian-Min Jin

    Though it is still a big challenge to unify general relativity and quantum mechanics in modern physics, the theory of quantum field related with the gravitational effect has been well developed and some striking phenomena are predicted, such as Hawking radiation. However, the direct measurement of these quantum effects under general relativity is far beyond present experiment techniques. Fortunately

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Dissolution-precipitation growth of uniform and clean two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Zhengyang Cai; Yongjue Lai; Shilong Zhao; Rongjie Zhang; Junyang Tan; Simin Feng; Jingyun Zou; Lei Tang; Junhao Lin; Bilu Liu; Hui-Ming Cheng

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted much interest and shown promise in many applications. However, it is challenging to obtain uniform TMDCs with clean surfaces, because of the difficulties in controlling the way the reactants are supplied to the reaction in the current chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth process. Here, we report a new growth approach called

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Surveying brain tumor heterogeneity by single-cell RNA sequencing of multi-sector biopsies
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Kai Yu; Yuqiong Hu; Fan Wu; Qiufang Guo; Zenghui Qian; Waner Hu; Jing Chen; Kuanyu Wang; Xiaoying Fan; Xinglong Wu; John EJ Rasko; Xiaolong Fan; Antonio Iavarone; Tao Jiang; Fuchou Tang; Xiao-Dong Su

    Brain tumors are among the most challenging human tumors for which the mechanisms driving progression and heterogeneity remain poorly understood. We combined single-cell RNA-seq with multisector biopsies to sample and analyze single-cell expression profiles of gliomas from 13 Chinese patients. After classifying individual cells, we generated a spatial and temporal landscape of glioma that revealed

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Edge superconductivity in Multilayer WTe2 Josephson junction
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Ce Huang; Awadhesh Narayan; Enze Zhang; Xiaoyi Xie; Linfeng Ai; Shanshan Liu; Changjiang Yi; Youguo Shi; Stefano Sanvito; Faxian Xiu

    WTe2, as a type-II Weyl semimetal, has 2D Fermi arcs on the (001) surface in the bulk and 1D helical edge states in its monolayer. These features have recently attracted wide attention in condensed matter physics. However, in the intermediate regime between the bulk and monolayer, the edge states have not been resolved owing to its closed band gap which makes the bulk states dominant. Here, we report

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • A powder method for the high-efficacy evaluation of electro-optic crystals
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Feng Xu; Ge Zhang; Min Luo; Guang Peng; Yu Chen; Tao Yan; Ning Ye

    Electro-optic crystal holds great promise for extensive applications in optoelectronics and optical communication. However, the discovering of novel electro-optic crystals is sporadic due to the difficulties of large-sized crystal growth for electro-optic coefficient measurement. Herein, to address this issue, a high-efficacy evaluation method using accessible powder samples is proposed, in which second

    更新日期:2020-05-28
  • Preliminary evidence from a multicenter prospective observational study of the safety and efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Mingxing Huang; Man Li; Fei Xiao; Pengfei Pang; Jiabi Liang; Tiantian Tang; Shaoxuan Liu; Binghui Chen; Jingxian Shu; Yingying You; Yang Li; Meiwen Tang; Jianhui Zhou; Guanmin Jiang; Jingfen Xiang; Wenxin Hong; Songmei He; Zhaoqin Wang; Jianhua Feng; Changqing Lin; Yinong Ye; Zhilong Wu; Yaocai Li; Bei Zhong; Ruilin Sun; Zhongsi Hong; Jing Liu; Huili Chen; Xiaohua Wang; Zhonghe Li; Duanqing Pei; Lin

    Effective therapies are urgently needed for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Chloroquine has been proved to have antiviral effect against coronavirus in vitro. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of chloroquine with different doses in COVID-19.

    更新日期:2020-05-28
  • Improving photosensitization for photochemical CO2-to-CO conversion
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Ping Wang; Ru Dong; Song Guo; Jianzhang Zhao; Zhi-Ming Zhang; Tong-Bu Lu

    Inspired by nature, improving photosensitization represents a vital direction for the development of artificial photosynthesis. The sensitization ability of photosensitizers (PSs) reflects in their electron transfer ability, which highly depends on their excited state lifetime and redox potential. Herein, for the first time, we put forward a facile strategy to improve sensitizing ability via finely

    更新日期:2020-05-28
  • Simultaneous changes in seed size, oil content, and protein content driven by selection of SWEET homologues during soybean domestication
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Shoudong Wang; Shulin Liu; Jie Wang; Kengo Yokosho; Bin Zhou; Ya-Chi Yu; Zhi Liu; Wolf B Frommer; Jian Feng Ma; Li-Qing Chen; Yuefeng Guan; Huixia Shou; Zhixi Tian

    Soybean accounts for more than half of the global production of oilseed and more than a quarter of the protein used globally for human food and animal feed. Soybean domestication involved parallel increases in seed size and oil content and a concomitant decrease in protein content. However, science has not yet discovered if these effects were due to selective pressure on a single gene or multiple genes

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • Hierarchically porous monoliths based on low-valence transition metal (Cu, Co, Mn) oxides: gelation and phase separation
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Lu Xuanming; Kazuyoshi Kanamori; Kazuki Nakanishi

    Hierarchically porous monoliths based on copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and manganese (Mn) oxides with three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected macropores and open nanopores have been prepared using metal bromides as precursors via sol–gel process accompanied by phase separation. The difficulty of gelation for low-valence metal cation was overcome by introducing a highly electronegative Br atom nearby the

    更新日期:2020-05-27
  • New light on the horizon of Alzheimer's disease
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Mu-ming Poo

    The beginning of the year 2020 is marked by a groundbreaking event in drug development in China. A first-in-class drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD), GV-971, received conditional approval by the China Food and Drug Administration for the Chinese market. China now has at least 10 million patients with diagnosed AD, afflicting almost one-third of the population aged 90–94 years. There is increasing demand

    更新日期:2020-05-25
  • Butterfly wing architectures inspire sensor and energy applications
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Maurice I Osotsi; Wang Zhang; Imran Zada; Jiajun Gu; Qinglei Liu; Di Zhang

    Natural biological systems are constantly developing efficient mechanisms to counter adverse effects of increasing human population and depleting energy resources. Their intelligent mechanisms are characterized by the ability to detect changes in the environment, store and evaluate information and respond to external stimuli. Bio-inspired replication into manmade functional materials guarantees enhancement

    更新日期:2020-05-23
  • Phylogenetic patterns suggest frequent multiple origins of secondary metabolites across the seed plant “tree of life”
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Yongzeng Zhang; Tao Deng; Lu Sun; Jacob B Landis; Michael J Moore; Hengchang Wang; Yuehua Wang; Xiaojiang Hao; Jijun Chen; Shenghong Li; Maonian Xu; Pema-Tenzin Puno; Peter H Raven; Hang Sun

    To evaluate phylogenetic patterns of the distribution and evolution of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), we selected 8 classes of PSMs and mapped them onto an updated phylogenetic tree including 437 families of seed plants. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in 17 of the 18 tested seed plant clades for at least one of the 8 PSM classes using the D statistic. Phylogenetic signal, nevertheless

    更新日期:2020-05-21
  • Large shift of the Pacific Walker Circulation across the Cenozoic
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Qing Yan; Robert Korty; Zhongshi Zhang; Chris Brierley; Xiangyu Li; Huijun Wang

    Fluctuations in the Pacific Walker circulation (PWC), a zonally-oriented overturning cell across the tropical Pacific, can cause widespread climatic and biogeochemical perturbations. It remains unknown how the PWC developed during the Cenozoic era, with its substantial changes in greenhouse gases and continental positions. Through a suite of coupled model simulations on tectonic timescales, we demonstrate

    更新日期:2020-05-13
  • Shadow glass transition as a thermodynamics signature of β relaxation in hyper-quenched metallic glasses
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Qun Yang; Si-Xu Peng; Zheng Wang; Hai-Bin Yu

    One puzzling phenomenon in glass physics is the so-called ‘shadow glass transition’ which is an anomalous heat-absorbing process below the real glass transition and influences glass properties. However, it has yet to be entirely characterized, let alone fundamentally understood. Conventional calorimetry detects it in a limited heating rates. Here, with the chip-based fast scanning calorimetry, we study

    更新日期:2020-05-13
  • Mineralogy of the deep lower mantle in the presence of H2O
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Qingyang Hu; Jin Liu; Jiuhua Chen; Bingmin Yan; Yue Meng; Vitali B Prakapenka; Wendy L Mao; Ho-kwang Mao

    Understanding the mineralogy of the Earth's interior is a prerequisite for unravelling the evolution and dynamics of our planet. Here, we conducted high pressure-temperature experiments mimicking the conditions of the deep lower mantle (DLM, 1800–2890 km in depth) and observed surprising mineralogical transformations in the presence of water. Ferropericlase, (Mg, Fe)O, which is the most abundant oxide

    更新日期:2020-05-13
  • On game-based control systems and beyond
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Renren Zhang; Fang Wang; Lei Guo

    Abstract China has attached a great significance to bringing science to the public—known as kepu (科普, ‘science popularization’) or kexue chuanbo (科学传播, ‘science dissemination’)—in recent years, partly in response to its unprecedented push for innovation in science and technology. In 2018, it spent 16 billion yuan (US$2.3 billion) on such endeavours, nearly 80% of which was government funding, according

    更新日期:2020-05-09
  • Single-cell yolk-shell nNanoencapsulation for long-term viability with size-dependent permeability and molecular recognition
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Li Wang; Yu Li; Xiao-Yu Yang; Bo-Bo Zhang; Nöelle Ninane; Henk J Busscher; Zhi-Yi Hu; Cyrille Delneuville; Nan Jiang; Hao Xie; Gustaaf Van Tendeloo; Tawfique Hasan; Bao-Lian Su

    Like nanomaterials, bacteria have been unknowingly used for centuries. They hold significant economic potential for fuel and medicinal compound production. Their full exploitation, however, is impeded by low biological activity and stability in industrial reactors. Though cellular encapsulation addresses these limitations, cell survival is usually compromised due to shell-to-cell contacts and low permeability

    更新日期:2020-05-09
  • Evidence for oxygenation of Fe-Mg oxides at mid-mantle conditions and the rise of deep oxygen
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Jin Liu; Chenxu Wang; Chaojia Lv; Xiaowan Su; Yijin Liu; Ruilian Tang; Jiuhua Chen; Qingyang Hu; Ho-Kwang Mao; Wendy L Mao

    As the reaction product of subducted water and the iron core, FeO2 with more oxygen than hematite (Fe2O3) has been recently recognized as an important component in the D” layer just above the Earth's core-mantle boundary. Here, we report a new oxygen-excess phase (Mg, Fe)2O3+δ (0 < δ < 1, denoted as “OE-phase”). It forms at pressures greater than 40gigapascals when (Mg, Fe)-bearing hydrous materials

    更新日期:2020-05-09
  • Absence of hexavalent chromium in marine carbonates: implications for chromium isotopes as paleoenvironment proxy
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Ziyao Fang; Liping Qin; Wei Liu; Tao Yao; Xiaoyan Chen; Shiqiang Wei

    The oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere is widely regarded to have played an important role in early life evolution. Chromium (Cr) isotopes recorded in sedimentary rocks have been used to constrain the atmospheric oxygen level (AOL) over geological times based on that a positive Cr isotopic signature is linked to the presence of Cr(VI) as a result of oxidative continental weathering. However, there is

    更新日期:2020-05-08
  • A partially fluorinated ligand for two super-hydrophobic porous coordination polymers with classic structures and increased porosities
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Chao Wang; Dong-Dong Zhou; You-Wei Gan; Xue-Wen Zhang; Zi-Ming Ye; Jie-Peng Zhang

    3-Ethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-triazole is synthesized by a one-pot reaction. Using this asymmetric triazole ligand bearing one trifluoromethyl and one ethyl as side groups, we construct two new porous coordination polymers, MAF-9 and MAF-2F, being isostructural with the classic hydrophobic and flexible materials, FMOF-1 and MAF-2, based on symmetric triazole ligands bearing two trifluoromethyl groups

    更新日期:2020-05-08
  • A constructive model for collective intelligence
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Wei Zhang; Hong Mei

    Natural phenomena of collective intelligence (CI) occurring in physical space show a potential approach to effective large-scale human collaboration in cyberspace. Based on existing explanatory understanding of CI, this perspective proposes a constructive model for building artificial CI systems, i.e., problem-oriented CI phenomena with AI-powered information integration and feedback.

    更新日期:2020-05-07
  • Why the ‘Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau’ is a myth
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Robert A Spicer; Tao Su; Paul J Valdes; Alexander Farnsworth; Fei-Xiang Wu; Gongle Shi; Teresa E V Spicer; Zhekun Zhou

    The often-used phrase ‘the Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau’ implies a flat-surfaced Tibet rose as a coherent entity, and that uplift was driven entirely by the collision and northward movement of India. Here we argue that these are misconceptions derived in large part from simplistic geodynamic and climate modelling, as well as proxy misinterpretation. The growth of Tibet was a complex process involving

    更新日期:2020-05-05
  • High-Chern-Number and High-Temperature Quantum Hall Effect without Landau Levels
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Jun Ge; Yanzhao Liu; Jiaheng Li; Hao Li; Tianchuang Luo; Yang Wu; Yong Xu; Jian Wang

    The quantum Hall effect (QHE) with quantized Hall resistance of h/νe2 starts the research on topological quantum states and lays the foundation of topology in physics. Afterwards, Haldane proposed the QHE without Landau levels, showing nonzero Chern number |C| = 1, which has been experimentally observed at relatively low temperatures. For emerging physics and low-power-consumption electronics, the

    更新日期:2020-04-30
  • Exposed facet-controlled N2 electroreduction on distinct Pt3Fe nanostructures of nanocubes, nanorods and nanowires
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Wu Tong; Bolong Huang; Pengtang Wang; Qi Shao; Xiaoqing Huang

    Understanding the correlation between exposed surfaces and performances of controlled nanocatalysts is one of the most effective strategy to enhancing electrocatalysis, but it has unexplored for nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) yet. Here, we firstly report a controlled synthesis of well-defined Pt3Fe nanocrystals with tunable morphologies (nanocube, nanorod and nanowire) as ideal model electrocatalysts

    更新日期:2020-04-30
  • Correlating the electronic structures of metallic/semiconducting MoTe2 interface to its atomic structures
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Bo Han; Chen Yang; Xiaolong Xu; Yuehui Li; Ruochen Shi; Kaihui Liu; Haicheng Wang; Yu Ye; Jing Lu; Dapeng Yu; Peng Gao

    Contact interface properties are important in determining the performances of devices based on atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially those with short channels. Understanding the contact interface is therefore quite important to design better devices. Herein, we use scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations to

    更新日期:2020-04-29
  • Why does caloric restriction increase life and healthspan? The ‘clean cupboards’ hypothesis
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    John Speakman

    A new idea is presented to explain the impact of caloric restriction (CR) on healthspan and lifespan which contrasts the current evolutionary explanation that is based on the disposable soma hypothesis. The new idea posits that the only motivation of animals under restriction is to make an immediate energy balance. There is no longer term objective to the CR response, and the life and healthspan impacts

    更新日期:2020-04-29
  • Efficient interlayer charge release for high-performance layered thermoelectrics
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Hao Zhu; Zhou Li; Chenxi Zhao; Xingxing Li; Jinlong Yang; Chong Xiao; Yi Xie

    Many layered superlattice materials intrinsically possess large Seebeck coefficient and low lattice thermal conductivity, but a poor electrical conductivity due to the interlayer transport barrier for charges, which has become a stumbling block for achieving high thermoelectric performance. Herein, taking BiCuSeO superlattice as an example, it is demonstrated that efficient interlayer charge release

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Alterations Associated with COVID-19
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Di Wu; Ting Shu; Xiaobo Yang; Jian-Xin Song; Mingliang Zhang; Chengye Yao; Wen Liu; Muhan Huang; Yuan Yu; Qingyu Yang; Tingju Zhu; Jiqian Xu; Jingfang Mu; Yaxin Wang; Hong Wang; Tang Tang; Yujie Ren; Yongran Wu; Shu-Hai Lin; Yang Qiu; Ding-Yu Zhang; You Shang; Xi Zhou

    The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health crisis. The symptoms of COVID-19 range from mild to severe conditions. However, the physiological changes associated with COVID-19 are barely understood. In this study, we performed targeted metabolomic and lipidomic analyses of plasma from a cohort of COVID-19 patients who had experienced different symptoms.

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Selective electrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide at zigzag edges of exfoliated aolybdenum telluride nanoflakes
    Natl. Sci. Rev. (IF 16.693) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Xuan Zhao; Yu Wang; Yunli Da; Xinxia Wang; Tingting Wang; Mingquan Xu; Xiaoyun He; Wu Zhou; Yafei Li; Jonathan N Coleman; Yanguang Li

    The two-electron reduction of molecular oxygen represents an effective strategy to enable the green, mild and on-demand synthesis of hydrogen peroxide. Its practical viability, however, hinges on the development of advanced electrocatalysts, preferably composed of non-precious elements, to selectively expedite this reaction, particularly in acidic medium. Our study here introduces 2H-MoTe2 for the

    更新日期:2020-04-25
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