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  • Effects of native and exotic congeners on diversity of invertebrate natural enemies, available spider biomass, and pest control services in residential landscapes
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sarah E. Parsons, Leo M. Kerner, Steven D. Frank

    Exotic plants are common in urban landscapes and are often planted by landscape managers in an effort to reduce herbivory damage and improve landscape aesthetics. However, exotic plants may be less palatable to many native insects and reduce herbivore biomass that may fuel higher trophic levels. Furthermore, a loss of herbivores in exotic ornamental landscapes may reduce top-down control by natural enemies. In this study, we compare herbivory in native and exotic congener ornamental landscapes. We also explore if caterpillar abundance, natural enemy abundance, diversity, community composition, spider biomass, and egg predation differ between the two landscape types. We predicted that herbivory, as well as natural enemy abundance and predation would be greater in native landscapes. Although we found that leaf area lost to herbivory was greater in native plots in one of the collection years, this relationship was weak. Natural enemy diversity differed between landscape types, but depended on plant genus. The relationship between plant origin and natural enemy diversity was also weak. Caterpillar abundance, natural enemy community composition, spider biomass, and predation services did not differ between treatments. Overall, our results suggest that ornamental landscapes planted in native plants may not differ from landscapes planted in exotic congeners in the pest management and conservation services they provide, particularly with regard to invertebrate natural enemies. However, our findings cannot be used to make more general claims about plant origin, especially with regard to native plants and non-congeners, as we only compared ornamental landscapes with native plants and their exotic congeners in this study. We conclude that for optimizing natural enemy diversity and biomass on city landscapes, plant choice and other plant traits may be as important as plant origin to consider. Our work demonstrates that both native and exotic congener ornamental landscapes provide valuable ecosystem services and will help guide landscape design that serves both the people and wildlife that use them.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Assessing the effects of land use on biodiversity in the world’s drylands and Mediterranean environments
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Diego García-Vega, Tim Newbold

    Biodiversity models make an important contribution to our understanding of global biodiversity changes. The effects of different land uses vary across ecosystem types, yet most broad-scale models have failed to account for this variation. The effects of land use may be different in systems characterized by low water availability because of the unusual conditions within these systems. Drylands are expanding, currently occupying over 40% of the terrestrial land, while Mediterranean systems are highly endangered biodiversity hotspots. However, the impact of land use on biodiversity in these biomes is yet to be assessed. Using a database of local biodiversity surveys, we assess the effects of land use on biodiversity in the world’s drylands and Mediterranean ecosystems. We compare the average species richness, total abundance, species diversity, ecological dominance, endemism rates, and compositional turnover across different land uses. In drylands, there was a strong turnover in species composition in disturbed land uses compared with undisturbed natural habitat (primary vegetation), but other measures of biodiversity did not respond significantly. However, it is important to note that the sample size for drylands was very low, a gap which should be filled promptly. Mediterranean environments showed a very high sensitivity of biodiversity to land uses. In this biome, even habitat recovering after past disturbance (secondary vegetation) had substantially reduced biodiversity and altered community composition compared with primary vegetation. In an effort to maintain original biodiversity and the ecosystem functions it supports within Mediterranean biomes, conservation measures should therefore prioritize the preservation of remaining primary vegetation.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Impact of Fraxinus excelsior dieback on biota of ash-associated lichen epiphytes at the landscape and community level
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Anna Łubek, Martin Kukwa, Patryk Czortek, Bogdan Jaroszewicz

    The landscape-scale extinction of a tree species may have a negative impact on diversity of associated epiphytic species. We used ordination and hierarchical clustering methods to assess landscape and the community level effects of reduction in the abundance of European ash Fraxinus excelsior, caused by ash dieback, on the associated epiphytic lichen biota in Białowieża Forest (Poland)—the best preserved forest complex in Central Europe. At the landscape level ash decline impact on the biota of ash-associated epiphytic lichens was weak, due to the high diversity of tree species, which may serve as potential alternative hosts. At this level, oak and hornbeam are the most important alternative hosts, assuring the maintenance of ash-associated epiphytic lichens. Lime, alder, and hazel appeared to be less important but still may serve as substitute phorophytes to approximately 2/3 of the ash-associated lichen biota. About 90% of epiphytic biota are likely to survive on the landscape scale. However, at the community level of alder-ash floodplain forest, where ash was dominant, about 50% of ash-associated epiphytic lichen species are threatened by ash dieback. Our results highlight the importance of a spatial scale in conservation biology. Protection of large forest areas with rich diversity of phorophyte trees increases chances of survival of the associated epiphytic organisms.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The geographic and climatic distribution of plant height diversity for 19,000 angiosperms in China
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Lingfeng Mao, Nathan G. Swenson, Xinghua Sui, Jinlong Zhang, Shengbin Chen, Jingji Li, Peihao Peng, Guangsheng Zhou, Xinshi Zhang

    Abstract The geographic distribution of plant form and function has been studied for over a century for purposes ranging from vegetation classification to global vegetation modeling. Despite this attention we have surprisingly few studies that have actually mapped the distribution and diversity of quantitative plant traits on continental scales and quantified the drivers of these spatial patterns. This limitation has been largely due to the inherent patchiness in trait and spatial databases. Here we analyze the distribution and diversity of plant maximum height in relation to climatic gradients for ~ 19,000 Angiosperm species across China. First, we quantify the relationship between the mean maximum height with climatic variables to test the prediction that precipitation and temperature both should restrict the maximum heights possible in a region. Second, we used null model analysis to address the fundamental question of whether gradients in plant species richness coincide with an increased trait range as expected under limiting similarity theory or whether more species are simply packed into the same range of trait values. The results show that the mean maximum height in a plant assemblage is highest in regions with higher temperatures and annual precipitation indicating that increases in precipitation are enough to offset the concomitant increase in temperature, which was expected to limit plant height. The range and packing of height space were found to increase with species richness and in less climatically variable environments. Null modeling results also show that the deviation of the observed results from expected has a distinct spatial signature for herbaceous and woody plants. Our results highlight plant height diversity, including the range and packing of plant height space, are sensitive to environment, and the mechanisms driving the range and packing of height space in the two growth forms may be different.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Historical changes in bumble bee body size and range shift of declining species
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Sabine S. Nooten, Sandra M. Rehan

    Bumble bees are declining worldwide, their vital ecosystem services are diminishing and underlying mechanisms are species specific and multifaceted. This has sparked an increase in long-term assessments of historical collections that provide valuable information about population trends and shifts in distributions. However, museums specimens also contain important ecological information, including rarely measured morphological traits. Trait-based assessments of museums specimens provide additional information on underlying mechanisms of population trends, by tracking changes over time. Here, we used museum specimens of four Bombus species, spanning a timeframe of 125 years to: (i) compare body size of declining and increasing species, (ii) assess intra-specific trends over the last century, and (iii) investigate shifts in geographical distribution over time. We found that declining Bombus species were larger than increasing ones. All four species were smaller in current time than a century ago. Intra-specific size declines were more pronounced for larger-bodied species. With our sampling, declining and increasing species showed an upward shift in elevation, and declining species showed an additional geographic shift in recent times as compared to historic records. Intra-specific body size declines may represent species adaptation to unfavorable environmental conditions, and may be a useful metric to complement traditional species vulnerability assessments. We highlight the utility of incorporating trait-based assessments into future studies investigating species declines.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Will the emblematic southern conifer Araucaria angustifolia survive to climate change in Brazil?
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Monik Begname Castro, Ana Carolina Maioli Campos Barbosa, Patrícia Vieira Pompeu, Pedro V. Eisenlohr, Gabriel de Assis Pereira, Deborah Mattos Guimarães Apgaua, João Carlos Pires-Oliveira, João Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa, Marco Aurélio Leite Fontes, Rubens Manoel dos Santos, David Yue Phin Tng

    Conifer forests dominated by Araucaria pines (Araucaria angustifolia) are emblematic of the humid forests in the southeast of Brazil, South America. However, these forests are highly fragmented and threatened by climate change. Despite the ecological and cultural importance of the dominant species (A. angustifolia), our knowledge of its climatic niche is incomplete. We aimed to understand the environmental drivers of the distribution and the climatic vulnerability of A. angustifolia in Brazil by modelling the extent of suitable climatic niches available for the species under the current climate and future climate scenarios. The potential distribution predicted by our model for the present was consistent with the real distribution of this species. However, our projections for future distributions show a decline in suitable climatic niches for the species, and a tendency for the species to be confined to high altitude mountain ranges and plateaus of south and southeast Brazil. Critically, most of the current protected areas will cease to harbor suitable climatic niches for the species. We conclude that prioritizing and expanding protected areas in important mountain ranges will be essential for protecting of the species in situ and to safeguard it from further habitat loss. Further research on population-level physiological responses of the species to climatic change and the role of biotic interactions will help optimize future modelling work.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Plant agro-biodiversity needs protection, study and promotion: results of research conducted in Lombardy region (Northern Italy)
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Luca Giupponi, Roberto Pilu, Alessio Scarafoni, Annamaria Giorgi

    The loss of plant agro-biodiversity is a global problem with repercussions on both humans and (agro-)ecosystems. This article presents the data of a census of the herbaceous landraces currently cultivated in Lombardy (Northern Italy), one of the most industrialized regions of Europe, and for which information was previously extremely limited. The census showed that 72 herbaceous landraces are cultivated (conserved on farms) in Lombardy yet most of them are threatened since they are cultivated by a small number of farmers, mostly hobbyists. Only 11% have been the subject of scientific studies while 12.5% are protected since they are registered in the European Register of Conservation Varieties. Lombardy has lost about 78% of its landraces cultivated over the last 70–80 years. The nutritional characteristics of four little-known maize landraces of the Lombardy region recently used for the creation of niche food chains were also analyzed. They have a higher content of protein (about 12.34%) and phytic acid (about 1.35%), compared to a hybrid maize (B73/Mo17), while they are slightly poorer in starch (about 77.85%), Mg and Zn. Some of these landraces, those with coloured kernels due to the high concentration of polyphenols, have high antioxidant activity which makes them interesting for the production of nutraceutical foods. 2D-electrophoretic protein profiles highlighted that the four maize landraces are different one from another. Finally, some actions and tools are suggested to favour the in situ conservation of plant agro-biodiversity.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Anthropogenic disturbances alter the conservation value of karst dolines
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Zoltán Bátori, András Vojtkó, Gunnar Keppel, Csaba Tölgyesi, Andraž Čarni, Matija Zorn, Tünde Farkas, László Erdős, Péter János Kiss, Gábor Módra, Mateja Breg Valjavec

    Dolines are depressions in karst landscapes that are of high value for conservation, providing habitats and supporting species not found in the surrounding landscape. This is due to their high microhabitat diversity and ability to decouple microclimate from regional climate changes, making them potential refugia for biodiversity. Nevertheless, local anthropogenic disturbances have had considerable impact on the species composition and vegetation structure of many dolines. Here we investigate the conservation value of dolines in three European karst areas, where different levels and types of anthropogenic disturbances have been shaping the vegetation for centuries, using the number of plant species that are cool-adapted, moist-adapted and of high conservation importance (i.e. vulnerable species) as indicators. We found that anthropogenic disturbances generally have a negative impact, reducing the number of vulnerable species supported by dolines. However, more cool-adapted and moist-adapted species were found in some dolines planted with non-native Picea abies than in less disturbed dolines, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances can also have positive consequences for biodiversity. We conclude that anthropogenic disturbances alter the capacity of dolines to support vulnerable species, and that this will impact survival of species in landscapes under global warming. In this context, the effects of various disturbances on species composition and diversity need to carefully considered to determine the best conservation and/or management options.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Long-term trends in wildlife community structure and functional diversity in a village hunting zone in southeast Cameroon
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Nikki Tagg, Jacques Keumo Kuenbou, Daan Willem Laméris, Fany Michelle Kamkeng Meigang, Sévilor Kekeunou, Manfred Aimé Epanda, Jef Dupain, Donald Mbohli, Ian Redmond, Jacob Willie

    Hunting may be the greatest threat to wildlife populations across the Congo basin. Large-bodied species are the most vulnerable; alterations in assemblages of such keystone species can affect many important ecological functions. There may be a reduction or loss of ecological services, such as seed dispersal. Monitoring functional diversity within a wildlife community alongside descriptions of wildlife community structure (abundances and species richness) increases understanding of how well a system can withstand disturbance, or recover following it (i.e., its ecological resilience). Between 2002 and 2016, changes in wildlife abundance and diversity of functional traits related to resource use and energy flow were monitored in a tropical forest wildlife community in southeast Cameroon, where hunting activities have escalated in the last decade. Wildlife abundances significantly decreased by 2009, and species richness and functional diversity declined by 2016. This reduction in functional diversity suggests that the wildlife community has been considerably altered, compromising ecological functions, and indicating the start of ecological decay. The study found a significant reduction in keystone species, such as great apes and elephants, suggesting that their decline as a result of hunting is leading to ecological imbalance. The results suggest that, beyond a certain threshold of wildlife decline, wildlife community collapse and ecological decay are likely. Identifying such thresholds can inform sustainable wildlife management and help monitor the health or integrity of the ecosystem, and its ability to provide globally significant ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and storage.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Using emerging hot spot analysis of stranding records to inform conservation management of a data-poor cetacean species
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Emma L. Betty, Barbara Bollard, Sinéad Murphy, Mike Ogle, Hannah Hendriks, Mark B. Orams, Karen A. Stockin

    Conservation monitoring of highly mobile species in relatively inaccessible habitats presents a considerable challenge to wildlife biologists. Effective conservation strategies require knowledge of cetacean ecology that is often challenging and expensive to obtain. Despite their caveats, stranding data represent an underused resource to study the long-term dynamics of cetacean populations. Using long-finned pilot whale (LFPW; Globicephala melas edwardii) strandings on the New Zealand coast as a case study, we present a novel approach to demonstrate how stranding data can inform conservation management of data-poor species. A total of 8571 LFPWs stranded on the New Zealand coast within a 40-year period between January 1978 and December 2017. Overall, where sex was recorded, mass stranded adults were significantly biased towards females, while a significant male bias was observed in juveniles. Strandings occurred in all months, though significant seasonal variation was evident, with 66% of stranding events reported during austral spring and summer months (October–February). Hot spot analysis (ArcGIS) identified the majority of LFPWs stranded at Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands, with emerging hot spot analysis (ArcGIS) used to identify spatiotemporal trends. While emerging hot spot analysis revealed no significant temporal trend in the annual frequency of stranding events or numbers of individuals stranded, it did reveal a significant spatiotemporal trend, with the numbers of stranded individuals declining in areas of the Far North, Coromandel, Canterbury, Otago and the Chatham Islands, and increasing in Golden Bay and Stewart Island. When combined with other contextual information, such trends help identify the most significant clusters of LFPW strandings on the New Zealand coast, provide baseline ecological data on a poorly understood subspecies, and can be used to guide conservation management of G. m. edwardii in New Zealand waters.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • In-situ and ex situ pollination biology of the four threatened plant species and the significance for conservation
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    Rong Tang, Ying Li, Yulin Xu, Johann Schinnerl, Weibang Sun, Gao Chen

    Abstract Both in situ and ex situ conservation are important strategies for protecting threatened plant species. Nevertheless, the success of conservation depends on whether the plant species can naturally regenerate and accomplish its life cycle over a long-term. Here we studied the pollination biology of the threatened species Hibiscus aridicola, Amorphophallus albus, Stemona parviflora and S. japonica aiming to get data about pollination strategies, pollinators as well as mating systems. These experiments were performed at Kunming Botanical Garden (KBG) for ex situ and the plant species’ natural habitat for in situ conservation. The results indicated that H. aridicola is self-compatible and had pollinators under both ex situ and in situ conditions. The other three species are all self-incompatible and a limited number of pollinators for S. parviflora and S. japonica were observed at cultivated and natural habitats. Amorphophallus albus had no pollinators at KBG but a large number of rove beetles (Atheta sp.) could be observed in the plant species’ natural habitat. This resulted in a high fruit set under natural conditions (73.3%, n = 30). The results showed clearly, that appropriate pollinators for the four plant species are not present all the time and all localities, which further influences the reproduction success of a plant species. Hence, for a successful conservation, it is vital to assess the species reproduction strategy prior deciding whether in situ and/or ex situ conservation should be carried out.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Demographic and dendrochronological evidence reveals highly endangered status of a paleoendemic woody mallow from the Canary Islands
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Alejandro G. Fernández de Castro, Vicente Rozas, Javier Fuertes-Aguilar, Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz

    Abstract Navaea phoenicea (Malvaceae) is a flagship shrub species endemic to Tenerife Island in the Canary archipelago and is included as Endangered on the Spanish Red List. We conducted a comprehensive census and monitored the structure of eight accessible populations over 10 years to develop a stage-based demographic matrix model and performed deterministic and stochastic projections. To determine the longevity of individuals, we conducted a dendrochronological study on ten collected dry samples. The censuses showed a clear, gradual decline, and the total population was around half that in previous studies. The yearly finite growth rate was strongly correlated with annual rainfall. Survival rates of seedlings were low, and high elasticity values were allocated to the larger, reproductive individuals, which showed the highest survival rates. The age of the oldest individual was 32 years, while the average age inferred from dendrochronology was 18 years. These results point to a lower longevity of individuals with respect to the values calculated by demographic models. The findings of this study suggest the importance of the preservation of reproductive individuals and their habitat, as well as the need to re-adopt legal measures of greater protection for the species.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Importance of a single population demographic census as a first step of threatened species conservation planning
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Sergei Volis, Tao Deng

    Abstract Although analyses of species spatial distributions and genetic variation, creation of Red Lists and reserve design studies predominate in the plant conservation biology literature, in any conservation project they should be only a second step succeeding population demographic assessments. Demographic studies and analysis of the species regeneration niche are vital because only such studies can identify the factors that determine the population fate, the stages of the life-cycle that are most important for the population viability, and the regeneration niche parameters. Using published demographic data, we modelled a situation when either seed production or survival of emerging seedlings occur intermittently. We found that when recruitment occurs intermittently, the population size frequency distribution deviates from inverse J-curve, but no gaps in size classes are observed unless seed germination and/or survival of emerging seedlings are extremely rare events. Then we use these results to interprete population demography of ten threatened tree species from Wuling Mountains, China, and come to a conclusion that their demographic structure can not be a result of natural processes. Taken together, our results show how important even a single population census can be if it includes counting seedlings and saplings, for determining population viability and appropriate population management. Two types of populations must be recognized as requiring different managements strategies: with regeneration naturally occurring (even if limited) and with no seedlings/saplings present. Populations from the first category can be subjected to such management actions as reinforcement using plant material of appropriate origin. Planting conspecifics can boost regeneration through increased seed production. However, reinforcement will make no sense in populations in which lack of regeneration is due to reasons other than seed limitation. In such populations long-term monitoring and study program must be established to understand the reasons for lack of regeneration.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Evaluating seabed habitat representativeness across a diverse set of marine protected areas on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    David Milla-Figueras, Mara Schmiing, Patrícia Amorim, Barbara Horta e Costa, Pedro Afonso, Fernando Tempera

    Marine ecosystem-based management requires good spatial information on the distribution of marine species and habitats. Often, such information is limited to a few sampled locations, but modelling techniques can be applied to produce predictive distribution maps. A harmonized broad-scale seabed habitat map was recently produced for the archipelagos of Macaronesia under the EMODnet Seabed Habitats Programme. We use this new information to produce an extent-based evaluation of the representativeness and level of protection conferred by the current set of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Azores to the variety of benthic marine habitats found in this oceanic region. A more objective assessment of the protection effectively provided to the habitats is obtained by applying a scoring system to the MPAs based on the number of allowed extractive and non-extractive human activities and their potential impact on marine biodiversity and habitats. Results show that Azorean habitats within the MPAs are nearly entirely classified as highly protected. In total, 26 habitats (7 of which are endangered and 2 are rare) have at least 10% of their extent in the Azores EEZ protected by MPAs, but another 29 fail to meet this target (4 on-shelf habitats and 25 deep-sea habitats), highlighting the need to extend current protection of bathyal and abyssal habitats and applying adequate ecological coherence criteria. This approach sets a standard that can be used wherever similar information is available, be it in other European regions or beyond.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Is insect vertical distribution in rainforests better explained by distance from the canopy top or distance from the ground?
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Timothy McCaig, Legi Sam, Akihiro Nakamura, Nigel E. Stork

    The way arthropods are distributed vertically in tropical forests has been of great interest with diversity often greatest at or near the canopy top. Typically, stratification is measured up from the ground but, since the height of trees reaching the canopy top can vary, we hypothesise that distance down from the canopy top, might better explain arthropod distributions. To test this samples were collected from Australian tropical rainforest trees in both dry and wet seasons by beating foliage from five trees for each of 11 tree species at set intervals down each tree. A total of 2628 arthropods were collected. Abundant groups were Araneae, Coleoptera, Formicidae, Blattodea and Homoptera. Coleoptera were sorted to species. Since the forest was naturally disturbed by storms, height of trees reaching the canopy top ranged 10–40 m. Our results suggested that the best fit for vertical stratification, either distance from ground or distance down from the canopy, were taxon specific. For ordinal richness and abundance of arthropods the best model was distance from the ground with decreasing trends from the ground. Similarly, distance from the ground best fitted abundances of spiders, cockroaches and Homoptera. In contrast, declination from the canopy top best fitted beetle species richness and abundance, and ant abundance. The effect of vertical stratification was, however, significant only for ants in dry season: abundance of ants decreased with increasing distance down from the canopy top. We were surprised to have found taxon-specific patterns, which may be explained by highly variable canopy tree height, creating vertically heterogeneous micro-habitat conditions in this forest system.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Linking the seven forms of rarity to extinction threats and risk factors: an assessment of North American fireflies
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    J. Michael Reed, Annie Nguyen, Avalon C. S. Owens, Sara M. Lewis

    Two key problems in trying to link rarity to extinction risk have been conflating threats with risk factors, and over-reliance on a rarity construct that fails to capture many relevant risk factors. In this study, we disentangle threats from risk factors and show how their interaction can be used to predict extinction risk. We also investigate the sensitivity of rarity classifications to various thresholds, including biologically meaningful ones. We use the 168 species of North American firefly beetles (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) as our focal family to examine rarity classifications, and to illustrate the importance of clearly distinguishing between risk factors and threats in evaluating extinction risk. Our results show that, beyond rarity, fireflies exhibit numerous risk factors, including diet specialization, poor dispersal ability, light-based mating signals, symbiotic associations, and behaviors that can result in Allee effects, that make them susceptible to various global threats. This suggests that, for this group and perhaps other taxa, rarity type cannot be used as a surrogate for extinction risk. By identifying threats and risk factors and clearly distinguishing between them, this study should facilitate future assessments of extinction risk for this family, and the approach could be used for other taxa.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Species richness is a surrogate for rare plant occurrence, but not conservation value, in boreal plant communities
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Varina E. Crisfield, Jacqueline M. Dennett, Catherine K. Denny, Lingfeng Mao, Scott E. Nielsen

    Rare species are an ecologically important component of biological communities, but may be at risk of decline as a result of human disturbance and other sources of environmental change. Rare species are also ecologically idiosyncratic, making their occurrence difficult to predict a priori, and leading to efforts to find surrogate measures of rare species occurrence to inform conservation decisions. Using floristic data collected at 602 sites in the western Canadian boreal forest, we studied relationships between rare species occurrence, species richness and habitat type, with rarity defined according to the classification system developed by Rabinowitz (in: Synge (ed) The biological aspects of rare plant conservation, Wiley, Somerset, 1981). Relative to similar studies in other temperate regions, we found that a smaller proportion of species were classified as rare in our study region, and that common species dominate the flora. Regional-scale relationships were positive between richness and the occurrence of rare species; however, due to variation in these relationships among habitat types, richness is not a suitable surrogate for a site’s conservation value with respect to species rarity.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Integrating habitat- and species-based perspectives for wetland conservation in lowland agricultural landscapes
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Simone Guareschi, Alex Laini, Pierluigi Viaroli, Rossano Bolpagni

    Abstract Wetlands are among the most endangered ecosystems worldwide with multiple direct and indirect stressors, especially in human-altered areas like intensive agricultural landscapes. Conservation management and efforts often focus on species diversity and charismatic taxa, but scarcely consider habitats. By focusing on a complex formed by 107 permanent wetlands at 18 Natura 2000 sites in the Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy), the patterns of habitats of conservation concern were investigated and the concordance with threatened species patterns was analysed. Wetlands were characterised in terms of morphology, connectivity, land use and management as drivers of assemblage and richness patterns of habitats. Our results showed a strong concordance between the distribution and richness patterns of both habitats and threatened taxa (birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, invertebrates, and plants). Thus, habitats seem an effective proxy of species patterns. The variables related with perimeter, environmental heterogeneity and presence of water bodies were the most important ones associated with habitat richness patterns. The presence of aquatic systems (measured as the percentage of wetland area occupied by an aquatic surface) and their position in the hydrographic network were associated mostly with habitats distribution. Low richness wetlands (in habitat terms) were not complementary as no new habitat types were supported. The results stressed the relevance of wetlands with wide water body perimeters composed of diverse systems as being key for biodiversity conservation in a simplified agricultural matrix. Integrating habitat- and species-based perspectives seems a promising field and may provide a rapid assessment tool to acquire effective information for wetlands conservation and assessment.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Cryopreservation enables long-term conservation of critically endangered species Rubus humulifolius
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Jaanika Edesi, Jonne Tolonen, Anna Liisa Ruotsalainen, Jouni Aspi, Hely Häggman

    Abstract Ex situ storage plays an important role in the conservation of plant biodiversity. Cryopreservation at ultra-low temperatures (− 196 °C) is the only long-term ex situ preservation method for plant species that cannot be stored in seed banks. In the present study, we developed a cryopreservation protocol for micropropagated Rubus humulifolius (Rosaceae) plants representing currently critically endangered population of the species in Finland. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been found to increase the freezing tolerance of several plant species. Thus, we studied the effect of a 10-day pretreatment with 0, 2 or 4 mg/l ABA in comparison to freshly dissected buds. We also studied how the duration of in vitro subculture affects cryopreservation result. The ABA pretreatment had divergent effect on control and cryopreserved buds: the regeneration of non-cryopreserved control buds increased from 51% to 70%, 90% or 87% while the regeneration of cryopreserved buds decreased from 52% to 35%, 6% or 9% after 0, 2 or 4 mg/l ABA pre-treatments, respectively. Buds from plants subcultured for 1 month had 63% survival, which, however, decreased to 29% or nil% after 2 or 4 months subculture. The regenerated plants were successfully transferred from in vitro to in vivo conditions in common garden. Growing in garden is needed for future restoration of the species in wild. Cryostorage and other ex situ conservation actions carried out in botanical gardens may be of increasing importance as a tool to maintain plant biodiversity in the future.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Enhancing gardens as habitats for soil-surface-active invertebrates: should we plant native or exotic species?
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Andrew Salisbury, Sarah Al-Beidh, James Armitage, Stephanie Bird, Helen Bostock, Anna Platoni, Mark Tatchell, Ken Thompson, Joe Perry

    Abstract Domestic gardens provide valuable ecosystem services including supporting biodiversity. These gardens typically consist of a mixture of native and non-native plants yet the relative value of these plants for invertebrates is largely unknown. To address this a replicated field experiment was established with plots planted with one of three assemblages of non-invasive perennial and shrubby garden plants (treatments), based on plant origin [British native, near-native (Northern Hemisphere) and exotic (Southern Hemisphere)]. Over 4 years soil-surface-active invertebrates were recorded by pitfall trap and canopy cover measured. The abundance of soil-surface-active invertebrates increased with canopy cover. Abundance was higher on the native treatment, but there were seasonal differences, with proportionately more invertebrates found on the exotic plots during the winter. Invertebrate herbivores, parasitoids and the Carabidae gave similar results to total abundance. Omnivores were most abundant on the near-native treatment and detritivores showed no difference between treatments. The abundance of the Araneae increased as canopy cover decreased. Analysis of diversity for groups meeting minimum data requirements indicated that abundance measures gave a good representation of diversity. The experiment demonstrated that gardens and other cultivated ornamental plantings support a wide range of soil-surface-active invertebrates regardless of the plants’ origin and the more plant matter (canopy cover) available the greater the abundance. More invertebrates will be supported by gardens and cultivated planting schemes that offer dense year-round vegetation cover combined with plantings biased towards native and near-native plants. Some areas of low vegetation cover will however, support some groups such as the Araneae.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Impacts of an indigenous settlement on the taxonomic and functional structure of dung beetle communities in the Venezuelan Amazon
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Juanita Choo, Bruce D. Gill, Alain F. Zuur, Eglee Zent, Evan P. Economo

    Abstract In the last 50 years, traditionally nomadic indigenous communities in Amazonia have increasingly adopted more sedentary lifestyles as a result of external influences. Permanent settlements lead to the concentration of disturbances (e.g., forest extraction and hunting) and threaten vulnerable species as well as those that provide important ecosystem services such as dung beetles. Here we evaluated the abundance, taxonomic, and functional structure (composition and diversity) of an ecological indicator group—dung beetles—along a disturbance gradient associated with a permanent settlement of the Jotï people in the Amazonian region of Venezuela. We applied generalized linear model to assess the response of dung beetle abundance to settlement distance and latent variable model to assess the influence of settlement distance on taxonomic diversity and functional structure. We found the abundance of roller-species increased but small-bodied beetles decreased away from the settlement. We found that proximity to the Jotï settlement did not affect metrics of taxonomic and functional diversity of the dung beetle assemblages in general, although functional evenness was lower away from the settlement. In contrast, we found impacts on the functional composition of dung beetles, with significant increase in the community-weighted means for roller species and large-bodied dung beetles away from Jotï settlement. Our findings suggest that the transition from nomadism to a more sedentary lifestyle has not caused widespread collapse in the diversity of dung beetle assemblages surrounding the settlement, however significant trends were observed in species-specific responses to human impact, and these responses were mediated by functional traits.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Long-term trends and a risk analysis of cetacean entanglements and bycatch in fisheries gear in Australian waters
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Vivitskaia Tulloch, Vanessa Pirotta, Alana Grech, Susan Crocetti, Michael Double, Jason How, Catherine Kemper, Justin Meager, Victor Peddemors, Kelly Waples, Mandy Watson, Robert Harcourt

    Assessments of fisheries interactions with non-target species are crucial for quantifying anthropogenic threatening processes and informing management action. We perform the first multi-jurisdictional analysis of spatial and temporal trends, data gaps and risk assessment of cetacean interactions with fisheries gear for the entire Australian Exclusive Economic Zone. Bycatch and entanglement records dating from 1887 to 2016 were collected from across Australia (n = 1987). Since 2000 there has been a substantial increase in reported bycatch and entanglements and this is likely the result of improved monitoring or recording by some jurisdictions and fisheries as well as changing fishing effort, combined with continuing recovery of baleen whale populations after cessation of commercial whaling. A minimum of 27 cetacean species were recorded entangled, with over 30% of records involving interactions with threatened, vulnerable or endangered species. Three times the number of dolphins and toothed whales were recorded entangled compared to baleen whales. Inshore dolphins were assessed as most vulnerable to population decline as a result of entanglements, though humpback whales, common bottlenose dolphins, and short-beaked common dolphins were the most frequently caught. Only one-quarter of animals were reported to have survived entanglement, either through intervention or self-release from fishing gear. Spatial mapping of the records highlighted entanglement hotspots along the east and west coast of the continent, regions where high human population density, high fishing effort, and high density of migrating humpback whales all occur, augmented by high captures of dolphins in shark control gear along the east coast. Areas of few entanglements were more remote, highlighting substantial bias in entanglement reporting. Our gap analysis identified discrepancies in data quality and recording consistency both within and between jurisdictions. Disparities in the types of fisheries data provided for the analysis by different state agencies limited our ability to compile bycatch data in a representative and systematic way. This research highlights the need for improved standardised data recording and reporting by all agencies, and compulsory sharing of detailed fisheries interaction and effort data, as this would increase the value of entanglement and bycatch data as a conservation and management tool.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Deforestation in protect areas in the Amazon: a threat to biodiversity
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Paula Fernanda Pinheiro Ribeiro Paiva, Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro Ruivo, Orleno Marques da Silva Júnior, Maria de Nazaré Martins Maciel, Thais Gleice Martins Braga, Milena Marília Nogueira de Andrade, Paulo Cerqueira dos Santos Junior, Eduardo Saraiva da Rocha, Tatiana Pará Monteiro de Freitas, Tabilla Verena da Silva Leite, Luana Helena Oliveira Monteiro Gama, Leonardo de Sousa Santos, Mayara Gomes da Silva, Ewelyn Regina Rocha Silva, Bruno Monteiro Ferreira

    Abstract The creation of protected areas (Protected Areas—CA and Indigenous Lands—IL) is one of the effective strategies to contain deforestation, and landscape fragmentation and conserve biodiversity. However, several such areas in the Amazon suffer from anthropogenic pressures which prevent the fulfilment of their purpose. The objective of this study is to analyze the use and vegetation cover in four protected areas in the Amazon in the state of Maranhão by showing the threats to biodiversity by means of digital processing of satellite images in 1984, 1996, 2008 and 2017. Images from the Landsat satellites 5 and 8 were used for supervised classification and identification of deforestation in these areas. The results obtained in 1984 show a predominance of the forest class in the studied area, where the ILs Caru and Alto Turiaçu stand out for presenting excellent preservation in that year. As of 2008, changes related to deforestation and the presence of secondary vegetation and occurrence of fires in the area studied were observed. In this case, the changes resulting from urban and farming expansion, and infrastructure projects (roads, highways, dams and land division), mining, illegal logging, cattle raising, among others, are easily identified by satellite images. The Indigenous Lands and Strict Nature Reserve of Gurupi are connected, representing the best and the most homogeneous Amazonian biome in Maranhão. The study concludes that of the remaining vegetation, 76.41% is within the protected areas, represented mainly in the analyzed indigenous lands. So, this study highlights that although protected areas are being constantly deforested, invaded and criminally burned, these are still the best way of preserving the biodiversity of the last remnant of the Biome in the region, and its protection is necessary for the conservation of its biological resources and vegetation cover.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Establishment and eradication of an alien plant species in Antarctica: Poa annua at Signy Island
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Francesco Malfasi, Peter Convey, Serena Zaccara, Nicoletta Cannone

    Abstract Invasive alien species are among the most significant conservation threats for Antarctica, and the South Orkney Islands are highly exposed to this threat because of their location and intensity of human activity. The alien flowering plant species Poa annua is known to occur at several locations in the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. Here we report the first occurrence record of P. annua observed in the natural environment on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. This archipelago is distant from previous records of the species in Antarctica (> 1500 km), and at local scale also distant (c. 2 km) from the main concentration of human activity close to the research station on the island. During the austral summer 2017/2018 we recorded one clump of P. annua on the island, and eradicated all individuals as well as removing the associated soil. No reproductive structures were apparent on the plants, and the soil did not contain a seed bank. Molecular analyses using available sequence data in GenBank confirmed the taxonomic species identification and, at a global scale identified six different haplotypes, confirming that the Signy Island material belongs to a distinct lineage within the species. Given Signy’s northern and relatively mild location in the maritime Antarctic, likely closer to the natural climatic and environmental niche of P. annua, the island may be at high risk of invasion, meaning that monitoring and biosecurity efforts need to be enhanced and extended well beyond the immediate vicinity of the research station area.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Extinction risk and conservation gaps for Aloe (Asphodelaceae) in the Horn of Africa
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Steven P. Bachman, Paul Wilkin, Tom Reader, Richard Field, Odile Weber, Inger Nordal, Sebsebe Demissew

    Abstract Identification of conservation priorities is essential for conservation planning, especially as the biodiversity crisis develops. We aimed to support conservation prioritisation by addressing knowledge gaps for the genus Aloe in the Horn of Africa. Specifically, we developed a dataset of herbarium voucher specimens and occurrence data to estimate geographic distribution of 88 species of Aloe and used this to estimate extinction risk and establish the major threats to Aloe in this region. The resulting assessments, each published on the IUCN Red List, show that 39% of the species are threatened with extinction, and the principal threats are the expansion and intensification of crop farming and livestock farming, gathering of plants, and unintentional effects of logging and wood harvesting. We review ex situ conservation in botanic gardens and seed banks, revealing gaps in coverage and urgent priorities for collection, with 25 threatened Aloe species currently unrepresented in seed banks. Protected areas in the region offer limited coverage of Aloe distributions and the most recently designated protected areas are increasingly in regions that do not overlap with Aloe distributions. However, we show with a simple optimisation approach that even a modest increase in protected area of 824 square kilometres would allow representation of all Aloe species, although further data are needed to test the area required to ensure long-term persistence (resilience) of Aloe species.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Factors driving Arabian gazelles ( Gazella arabica ) in Israel to extinction: time series analysis of population size and juvenile survival in an unexploited population
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Benny Shalmon, Ping Sun, Torsten Wronski

    Abstract Wild populations of Arabian gazelles (Gazella arabica) were once common on the Arabian Peninsula, but today disappeared from large parts of their former range. In Israel only a small population of currently 30 individuals survived, although it was—and still is—well protected from illegal hunting and habitat destruction. In our study we aimed to identify the factors influencing the population growth of G. arabica in Israel over the last two decades (1995–2017). We tested the impact of five environmental variables including annual mean maximum temperature, rainfall, the availability of two major food plants, competition with sympatric dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas) and predation (mainly by wolves) on two dependent variables relating to population viability (population size, percentage fawn survival) using a retrospective time series analysis. After testing for autocorrelations, two generalized least squares (GLS) models with autocorrelations at 3 and 6 years [GLS-AR(3, 6)] were identified as the best models to explain environmental effects on populations size. Wolf encounter rate had a significant negative effect on G. arabica population size, while G. dorcas population size had a significant positive effect, suggesting that wolf predation shapes the population size of both gazelle species. For percentage fawn survival, model residuals did not reveal any significant autocorrelation and the best fit GLS-AR(0) model retained only wolf encounter rate and mean annual maximal temperature as significant predictors. This result suggests a strong impact of wolf predation and increasing temperatures on the fawn survival of Arabian gazelles. Changed rainfall patterns, food availability and competition between gazelle species had no impact on fawn survival.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • From keystone species to conservation: conservation genetics of wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense in the largest wild populations of Colombia and selected neighboring ex situ plant collections
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Katherine Chacón-Vargas, Víctor Hugo García-Merchán, María José Sanín

    Abstract The cloud forest of the Andean Region contains a high biodiversity. Unfortunately, human land use has caused most of the forest to become fragmented, negatively impacting many species due to the reduction of and constant change within the local habitat. In Colombia, these fragmentation triggers can include agriculture, livestock, and corridors for tourism. Conservation strategies focusing on keystone species could have more impact and better results to recover ecosystem dynamics. The wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense (C. quindiuense) is an endemic and keystone species in cloud forests with a distribution across the three cordilleras of Colombia. Despite its ecological, economic and social importance, most forests of C. quindiuense are endangered; the most severely affected residing in small isolated populations in Central Cordillera. Nevertheless, these populations seem to retain a high genetic diversity. Because of this, the goal of conservation strategies should focus on retaining genetic diversity instead of increasing it. Because it can take as long as 80 years for C. quindiuense to reach maturity, our approach entails the introduction of juveniles (around 30 years) with genetic profiles similar to wild populations in order to augment population size, connect isolated populations, and avoid outbreeding. We evaluated the genetic makeup of three neighboring ex situ collections of living palms and compared them with the genetic profile of three wild populations of Central Cordillera. Multivariate analysis was used to assess patterns of genetic similarity and assign individuals to infer genetic clusters between collections and wild populations. Expected heterozygosity (He) of ex situ collections was lower (0.56) than wild populations (0.63), and the percentage of private alleles was higher in the wild populations (25%) than ex situ collections (10%). Collections Milan and Botanic Garden show genetic similarity with the Cocora and La Linea populations while the Toche and Roso collections were the most genetically distinct among the ones studied. Our results are that conservation programs should consider each population as a different evolutionary unit and protect them as such.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Can sambaquis (shell mounds) be used as records of the Holocene marine fish biodiversity?
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Augusto Barros Mendes, Edson Pereira Silva, Michelle Rezende Duarte

    The documented quality of the zooarchaeological remains found in sambaquis is an important issue for ecologists who increasingly consider this material as a possible record of historical biodiversity to extend the observation periods of their analyses. In this work ichthyological inventories based on zooarchaeological remains were used to test the hypothesis that they do not differ statistically from those constructed by sampling current ichthyological diversity. Ichthyological records of 68 sambaquis of the Brazilian southeast coast were systematised. Data analyses were done based on taxa richness, taxonomic distinctness and food guild composition approaches. All analyses failed to show significant differences between sambaqui and modern fish inventories. Such result was kept for all tested scales and for the different studied regions. The current results indicate that sambaquis contain records of past species composition and therefore of Holocene biodiversity. It is concluded that sambaqui zooarchaeological remains should not be neglected in ecological studies and represent a quality alternative to extend the temporal scale of these studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Does the IUCN Red-Listing ‘Criteria B’ do justice for smaller aquatic plants? A case study from Sri Lankan Aponogetons
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Chapa G. Manawaduge, Deepthi Yakandawala, Kapila Yakandawala

    The IUCN Red List of threatened species is recognised as the accepted standard for species global extinction risk worldwide, and the criteria led down for evaluation are considered as one of the best methods to evaluate extinction risk of species at the global and regional levels.The IUCN’s Red List categories are given more emphasis in determining the conservation status of species and for prioritizing conservation strategies upon these threatened species. The guidelines for evaluation are laid down comprehensively to minimize errors and to maintain consistency of Red List assessments across taxa. However in some cases, it seems that the assessments based on current IUCN criteria do not accurately reflect the real extinction risk of some taxonomic groups. This is not owing to the quality or quantity of the data produced, but rather to some methodological artifacts that affects certain groups of taxa. In this paper we discuss such an event considering an aquatic plant group; genus Aponogeton; from Sri Lanka. All the known Sri Lankan Aponogeton species have been evaluated under the Criteria B adhering to the given IUCN guidelines and the results suggest that such smaller aquatic plants with high habitat specificity are at a disadvantage when securing their conservation statuses, and thereby lose the protection they deserve through legislations. This study emphasises the obligation of much comprehensive evaluation criteria to estimate the AOO in different plant categories.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Species richness and distribution of the largest plant radiation of Angola: Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae)
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Raquel Frazão, Silvia Catarino, David Goyder, Iain Darbyshire, M. Filomena Magalhães, Maria M. Romeiras

    Knowledge of species richness and distribution of African biodiversity comes primarily from fauna studies, despite the tremendous richness of the flora. The genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most diverse plant genera, and shows a great diversity across Africa. This genus is the largest endemic plant radiation in Angola, including 82 native species with a large diversity of life forms (e.g. herbs, shrubs and trees, and several succulent species) 61% of which are endemics. Considering the great diversity of species, habitats and climatic conditions of Angola, this study aims to: (i) update the inventory of the Euphorbia in this country; (ii) investigate the distribution of these species in the Köppen–Geiger climatic regions, WWF ecoregions, and within the protected areas network; and (iii) use these new findings to devise future conservation programs to protect Angola’s high plant diversity. Our results revealed that there are 49 endemic Euphorbia species (54 endemic taxa) in Angola, most of which occur in the extensive Miombo woodlands, although some species are restricted to the arid zones of southern Angola. The representation of Euphorbia endemics in protected areas was low, with Iona National Park and the Partial Reserve of Namibe showing the best potential for species protection. Centres of diversity and endemism were found in Serra da Chela (Huíla province) and the Angolan Kaokoveld Desert (Namibe province) and must be considered of conservation importance. A re-evaluation of Angola’s protected areas network might be required to facilitate and promote effective conservation of the unique plant diversity of the country.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Assessing coastal artificial light and potential exposure of wildlife at a national scale: the case of marine turtles in Brazil
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Liliana P. Colman, Paulo H. Lara, Jonathan Bennie, Annette C. Broderick, Juliana R. de Freitas, Ana Marcondes, Matthew J. Witt, Brendan J. Godley

    Coastal areas provide critical nesting habitat for marine turtles. Understanding how artificial light might impact populations is key to guide management strategies. Here we assess the extent to which nesting populations of four marine turtle species—leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and two subpopulations of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles—are exposed to light pollution across 604 km of the Brazilian coast. We used yearly night-time satellite images from two 5-year periods (1992–1996 and 2008–2012) from the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Programme (DMSP) to determine the proportion of nesting areas that are exposed to detectable levels of artificial light and identify how this has changed over time. Over the monitored time-frame, 63.7% of the nesting beaches experienced an increase in night light levels. Based on nest densities, we identified 54 reproductive hotspots: 62.9% were located in areas potentially exposed to light pollution. Light levels appeared to have a significant effect on nest densities of hawksbills and the northern loggerhead turtle stock, however high nest densities were also seen in lit areas. The status of all species/subpopulations has improved across the time period despite increased light levels. These findings suggest that (1) nest site selection is likely primarily determined by variables other than light and (2) conservation strategies in Brazil appear to have been successful in contributing to reducing impacts on nesting beaches. There is, however, the possibility that light also affects hatchlings in coastal waters, and impacts on population recruitment may take longer to fully manifest in nesting numbers. Recommendations are made to further this work to provide deeper insights into the impacts of anthropogenic light on marine turtles.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Botanical gardens as valuable resources in plant sciences
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Leila Faraji, Mojtaba Karimi

    Abstract Botanical gardens are collections of plants cultivated in a closed space to be utilized for scientific inquiry, recreation, conservation, botanical and horticultural education and also for public landscape aesthetics. Due to their richness in plant diversity and also their facilities, botanical gardens can have remarkable roles in agricultural studies and plant sciences. In addition, botanical gardens are very important regarding to their roles in creating green space in urban spaces, tourist attractions, economical objects and well-being aspects of peoples. Accordingly, in this study, the roles of botanical gardens were reviewed regarding to biodiversity and genetic studies, seed science, plant protection, soil and water researches, ecological evaluation, climate change, research and educations. These topics were also discussed regarding to their usage in agriculture and plant science studies. Furthermore, some scientific potentials of botanical gardens for future studies have been also taken into account.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Global species richness prediction for Pyrenulaceae (Ascomycota: Pyrenulales), the last of the “big three” most speciose tropical microlichen families
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Cléverton de Oliveira Mendonça, André Aptroot, Robert Lücking, Marcela Eugenia da Silva Cáceres

    Abstract Together with Graphidaceae and Trypetheliaceae, Pyrenulaceae forms part of the "big three", the three most speciose, chiefly tropical microlichen families. Microlichens are the most diverse component of tropical lichen communities, with numerous species still to be discovered. Following previous analyses of Graphidaceae and Trypetheliaceae, here we present a global species richness estimate for Pyrenulaceae, using a recently devised method based on a global grid system. We refined this approach by using an iterative adjustment to estimate mean predicted grid range per species from a grid frequency histogram. We also adjusted a previously implemented randomization approach to estimate error margins. Our results showed a global estimate for Pyrenulaceae of (395–)441(–453) species world-wide, 307 of which are currently known, thus an overall predicted increase of over 40%. This includes 416 known and predicted tropical and 25 known, exclusively temperate species, the latter assumed to remain unchanged. While the robustness of the global prediction depends on accurately setting grid sampling scores, individual predicted grid richness varies according to additional factors such as evolutionary history. In addition to undescribed species contribution to predicted richness, we hypothesize that species delimitation studies in presumably widespread taxa will reveal refined species concepts with narrower ranges, thus further increasing estimated global richness. The comparison of predicted richness values for the three families Graphidaceae, Trypetheliaceae and Pyrenulaceae with regard to their evolutionary ages highlights this rather robust method as a promising tool to circumvent sampling and knowledge bias when assessing speciation and diversification patterns.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Using aerial surveys and citizen science to create species distribution models for an imperiled grouse
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Ashley M. Tanner, Evan P. Tanner, Monica Papeş, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, R. Dwayne Elmore, Craig A. Davis

    Abstract Estimating species distributions requires species presence data of sufficient quantity from reputable sources that are geographically representative of the species’ space use. Collecting presence data that meets these standards can be costly and is often complicated by limited land access. Citizen science projects are an appealing alternative source of presence data as these data are freely available and collected globally. Websites such as eBird have become increasingly large repositories of citizen science data. The vulnerable lesser prairie-chicken (LPC; Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is a species well-represented in the eBird database, with presence observations from 140 unique locations from 2012 to 2014. During that same period, a distribution-wide, standardized aerial survey with state and federal support recorded 106 LPC detections. Our objective was to compare species distribution models (SDMs) made with eBird data to models made with aerial survey data to determine the potential for citizen science data to contribute to conservation planning. We used maximum entropy modeling to create SDMs based on eBird data, aerial survey data, and a combination of both data sets using variables of biological significance to LPCs. We obtained comparable model performance using aerial survey data only [standardized test omission rate (STO): 23.4%, test AUC: 0.76] and with eBird data only (STO: 23.8%, AUC: 0.76). The I statistic confirmed a very high degree of similarity between the outputs of the two model sets (I = 0.929). However, a road bias existed within both data sets (positive and negative biases), potentially confounding some environmental correlates. Despite this bias, our combined model predicted an increase of 1,732,500 ha of unique area suitable for the LPC. Our results indicated that eBird data could be used as a low-cost source for species occurrence data to create species distribution models, though biases in these datasets should be assessed to guide interpretability of the predicted outputs.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Habitat-partitioning improves regional distribution models in multi-habitat species: a case study with the European bilberry
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Susana Suárez-Seoane, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Jose Ramón Obeso

    Modelling the spatial distribution of multi-habitat species is challenging since they show multi-dimensional environmental responses that may vary sharply through habitats. Hence, for these species, the achievement of realistic models useful in conservation planning may depend on the appropriate consideration of habitat information in model calibration. We aimed to evaluate the role of different types of habitat predictors, along with habitat-partitioning, to improve model inference, detect non-stationary responses across habitats and simulate the impact of sampling bias on spatial predictions. As a case study, we modelled the occurrence of the multi-habitat plant species bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain), where it represents a basic trophic resource for threatened brown bear and capercaillie. We used MaxEnt to compare a baseline model approach calibrated with topo-climatic variables against three alternative approaches using explicit habitat information based on vegetation maps and remote sensing data. For each approach, we ran non-partitioned (all habitats together) and habitat-partitioned models (one per habitat) and evaluated model performance, overfitting and extrapolation. The highest performance was for habitat-partitioned models including habitat predictors. The lowest overfitting was for the baseline non-partitioned model, at the cost of achieving the highest predicted fractional area. The extrapolation success of habitat-partitioned models was low, with the highest performance for the baseline approach. Our results highlight that multi-habitat species responses are non-stationary across habitats, with habitat-biased data resulting in weak spatial predictions. When modelling the distribution of multi-habitat species at regional scale, we recommend using habitat-partitioned models including habitat predictors, either vegetation maps or remote sensing data, to improve the realism of spatial outputs and its applicability in regional conservation planning.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Integrating population genetics in an adaptive management framework to inform management strategies
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Carlo Pacioni, Sabrina Trocini, Adrian F. Wayne, Chris Rafferty, Manda Page

    Abstract Adequate levels of genetic diversity are important for long term persistence of wildlife species, yet genetic principles have only been considered in the last few years when developing management plans for conservation purposes. We present here an example on how genetic management plans can be explicitly integrated into an adaptive management framework. This can be achieved by developing a predictive model to explore population responses to different management options, and by quantifying management targets that should be verified through monitoring programs. We apply this approach to the woylie or brush tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata); an Australian macropod, listed as Critically Endangered. Results suggest that discrete small populations (e.g. < 1000–3000 individuals) will require active management. Ongoing supplementation programs were the most promising management option. However, the translocation of a 1–4/year woylies would not improve the genetic profile of relatively small populations (< 1000 individuals). Overall, for supplementations to have a significant impact on genetic diversity, translocating > 30 woylies/year over the course of several years is recommended. Formal completion of the adaptive management approach would include, in addition to the stages presented here, a quantitative assessment of the outcome of management and continue refinement of the modelling framework on the basis of new data gained through ongoing monitoring. We encourage the formal inclusion of genetic management within the adaptive management framework as demonstrated in this study.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Can fine-scale habitats of limestone outcrops be considered litho-refugia for dry forest tree lineages?
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Natalia de Aguiar-Campos, Vinícius Andrade Maia, Wilder Bento da Silva, Cléber Rodrigo de Souza, Rubens Manoel dos Santos

    Abstract In the neotropical region, seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are commonly associated with scatterly distributed limestone outcrops, known for harbouring high numbers of endemic species and genera. In the context of lacking knowledge on fine-scale vegetation and environmental heterogeneity of these geoecosystems and having a limestone outcrop in eastern Brazil as a case study, we address the question: how important are limestone outcrops for SDTF tree community composition, structure, function and evolution? We distinguished five habitats related to position and distance to the outcrop, and within each of 25 sampled plots (five per habitat), we identified and measured the diameter of all living tree individuals and collected soil samples for chemical and textural analyses. We investigated taxonomic and phylogenetic substitution across the habitats and fitted linear models to test the effects of habitat type, soil fertility and texture on taxonomic/structural, functional and phylogenetic parameters. We found striking taxonomic and phylogenetic differentiation among the habitats, especially related to recent diversification, with soil fertility and texture largely accounting for variations in all analysed parameters. Given the predominant roles of vicariance and in situ diversification believed to have given rise to the current patterns of endemism and diversity of eastern Brazil SDTF, we argue that the conditions presented by limestone outcrops, including aridity and high fertility, may have favoured the persistence of SDTF lineages during the Quaternary environmental changes, highlighting their role as litho-refugia. In order to complete this biogeographic puzzle, we encourage other fine-scale assessments of outcrop-associated SDTF from the phylogenetic viewpoint.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Using community knowledge to identify potential hotspots of mammal diversity in southeastern Nepal
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Teri D. Allendorf, Bhim Gurung, Shashank Poudel, Sagar Dahal, Sanjan Thapa

    Nepal has been relatively successful in conserving its wildlife by pioneering innovative approaches to conservation, such as benefit sharing in protected area buffer zones and landscape-level conservation approaches. However, compared to other areas of Nepal, the biodiversity of the southeast has received less attention, both in terms of research and conservation. The objective of this study was to use local knowledge as an indicator of wildlife presence and abundance across the forests of southeastern Nepal. Based on 114 focus group discussions with communities in eleven districts between March 2014 and January 2015, we identify potential wildlife hotspots, areas with more prey species to support tiger, areas of species loss, and areas with species of special interest (endangered and data deficient). Our results provide the contours for further study of the presence and distribution of wildlife across the eleven districts. For example, our results suggest that forests in the middle of the study area have higher levels of wildlife diversity, prey species for tiger, and species of interest, while the eastern side of the study area shows more species loss. We do not suggest that these results are an accurate or reliable representation of mammal diversity in southeastern Nepal. However, they can help to prioritize areas for conservation and for further research, as well as build a foundation for working with local communities to conserve wildlife of southeastern Nepal.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas in the South Pacific: assessing the evidence base
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Patrick F. Smallhorn-West, Rebecca Weeks, Georgina Gurney, Robert L. Pressey

    Abstract Marine protected areas (MPAs) in the South Pacific have a unique history that calls for a regional-scale synthesis of MPA impacts and the factors related to positive ecological and socioeconomic change. However, recommendations of best approaches to MPA implementation can be made only when evaluation techniques are sound. Impact evaluation involves quantifying the effects of an intervention over and above the counterfactual of no intervention or a different intervention. Determining the true impact of an MPA can be challenging because additional factors beyond the presence of an MPA can confound the observed results (e.g. differences in ecological or socioeconomic conditions between MPA and control sites). While impact evaluation techniques employing counterfactual thinking have been well developed in other fields, they have been embraced only slowly in the MPA evaluation literature. We conducted a structured literature search and synthesis of MPA evaluation studies from the South Pacific to determine: (i) the overall ecological and socioeconomic impacts of MPAs in the region, (ii) what factors were associated with positive, neutral, or negative impacts, and (iii) to what extent the MPA evaluation literature from the region has incorporated counterfactual thinking and robust impact evaluation techniques. Based on 52 identified studies, 42% of measured ecological impacts were positive. While 72% of socioeconomic impacts were positive, these were from only eight studies. The proportion of positive impacts was comparable between community-based and centrally governed MPAs, suggesting that both governance approaches are viable options in the region. No-take MPAs had a greater number of positive ecological impacts than periodic closures and there was little evidence of any long-term ecological recovery within periodic closures following harvesting. Importantly, more than half of the studies examined (59%) did not provide any clear consideration of factors beyond the presence of the MPA that might have confounded their results. We conclude that counterfactual thinking has yet to be fully embraced in impact evaluation studies in the region and recommend pathways by which progress can be made.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Factors affecting the occurrence and activity of clouded leopards, common leopards and leopard cats in the Himalayas
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Özgün Emre Can, Bhupendra Prasad Yadav, Paul J. Johnson, Joanna Ross, Neil D’Cruze, David W. Macdonald

    Abstract Clouded leopards are one of the least known of larger felids and were believed to be extinct in Nepal until 1987. They are particularly interesting because their Asian range spans a diversity of habitats in the fastest disappearing forests in the world and encompasses a guild which differs in composition from place to place. As a part of a wider camera-trapping study of this guild, involving 2948 camera traps at 45 sites in nine countries, and paralleling a similar study of the Sunda clouded leopard including a further 1544 camera traps spanning 22 sites distributed across two countries, we deployed 84 pairs of camera traps for 107 days in 2014 and 2015 at Langtang National Park, Nepal between 1823 and 3824 m a.s.l. within a grid encompassing c. 120 km2. We documented the presence of clouded leopards for the first time at an altitude as high as 3498 m a.s.l. Naïve occupancy for clouded leopard was 8.6% (correcting for detection, 10.1%). Clouded leopards were least active in the middle of the day, and largely crepuscular and nocturnal, as were the common leopards and leopard cats. The peak of clouded leopard activity overlapped with that of musk deer. Prey species for both clouded leopard and common leopard were available across the elevation range studied although the availability of some prey species declined as elevation increased, whereas Himalayan serow, Himalayan goral, and musk deer showed no association with elevation. Before this study, there was no hard evidence that clouded leopards occurred above 2300 m a.s.l., having documented them at almost 4000 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas, we emphasise the importance of this extreme portion of the species’ range where climate is likely to change more rapidly and with greater consequences, than the global average. The discovery of clouded leopards in Langtang National Park considerably extends their known range, and raises the possibility that they occur from the Terai in southern Nepal up to the Nepal-Tibet (China) border in the north. Insofar as this study has extended the known extreme boundary of the clouded leopard’s geographic range to encompass Langtang National Park in the Nepali Himalayas.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Assessing the ecological feasibility of reintroducing the Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx ) to southern Scotland, England and Wales
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Ross Johnson, Sarah Greenwood

    Abstract Reintroductions of top predators are crucial for restoring ecosystems and are a central tenet of rewilding efforts. In recent years, top predators such as the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have increased in numbers and expanded into their former range across Europe. A proposal for conducting a trial reintroduction of the Eurasian lynx in England has recently been rejected by the UK government. Lynx could provide ecological benefits; primarily a natural control on deer numbers. Whilst in-depth feasibility studies have been undertaken for Scotland, no detailed assessment of the ecological feasibility of a lynx reintroduction has been produced for the rest of Britain. This study seeks to provide an initial assessment of the ecological feasibility of a reintroduction in southern Scotland, England and Wales by; (1) quantifying the suitable habitat using GIS software, (2) assessing habitat connectivity using GIS-based least cost path (LCP) techniques, (3) quantifying the potential number of lynx that could be supported, using estimated deer densities, and (4) assessing population viability using PVA software. This study identified 11,369 km2 of suitable habitat, split across eight habitat networks. This habitat could potentially support an estimated 256 lynx. The largest habitat network (3918 km2) is located in the Southern Uplands of Scotland and Kielder Forest of England, however the second largest habitat network in the Southeast of England could host the largest lynx population (107). Three subpopulations (Southern Uplands and Kielder Forest, Southeast England and Thetford Forest) have extinction probabilities under 10% in at least one of the three PVA scenarios modelled.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Stormwater ponds as habitat for Odonata in urban areas: the importance of obligate wetland plant species
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Mary Ann C. Perron, Frances R. Pick

    Abstract Urbanization significantly alters hydrological regimes in cities by reducing infiltration rates and increasing runoff. Stormwater ponds have been constructed in North American cities to mitigate the effects of increased urban runoff by dampening floods and filtering out contaminants. However, these ponds may also provide habitat for wetland species in cities. This study aimed at determining the significance of stormwater ponds as attractive habitats for the adult stages of Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), widely considered bioindicators of aquatic and wetland ecosystem health. A total of 41 urban stormwater ponds and ten rural natural ponds were sampled across the National Capital Region of Canada. On average, stormwater ponds had fewer species and lower abundance of dragonflies but, in contrast, more species of damselflies. Stormwater ponds had a higher total plant species richness because of a higher number of non-native species. However, some stormwater ponds had similar odonate and plant species assemblages to natural ponds. The variation in odonate abundance and species composition was largely explained by plant community composition and significantly linked to the presence of specific obligate wetland plant species. Overall, this study highlights the importance of wetland features in cities and points to design elements of stormwater ponds that could be implemented to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Western Mexico is a priority area for the conservation of Cosmos (Coreopsideae, Asteraceae), based on richness and track analysis
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Georgina Vargas-Amado, Arturo Castro-Castro, Mollie Harker, María Elena Vargas-Amado, José Luis Villaseñor, Enrique Ortiz, Aarón Rodríguez

    Mexico ranks fourth worldwide for its number of species of vascular plants; however, insufficient area has been marked for conservation as Protected Natural Areas (PNAs); 176 PNAs represent 12% of the total surface and encompass only a small portion of the Mexican endemic species. Strategies for setting up conservation zones are often based on identifying biodiversity hotspots to preserve the maximum number of species with the most efficient use of funds. Here we used the richness analysis by grid method based on herbarium specimens to locate zones with a high richness of Cosmos taxa (species and their varieties). Because this approach can lead to omission error, we also obtained an Ecological Niche Model (ENM) for each Cosmos taxon to perform a richness analysis by grid and locate sites with suitable conditions for supporting the most Cosmos taxa. We conducted a panbiogeographic analysis to locate biogeographical nodes, sites of great geobiotic complexity. Western Mexico was thus identified as the highest priority for Cosmos conservation; it has the greatest richness and most suitable conditions for Cosmos and has great biotic complexity. Although one of the largest Mexican PNAs is located in this region, some species with restricted distribution do not occur within this Protected Natural Area (PNA); therefore, a southwest extension of this PNA is proposed.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Quantifying genetic distance between wild and captive strains of the grey partridge Perdix perdix in France: conservation implications
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Nicolas Bech, Claude Novoa, Jean-François Allienne, Jérôme Boissier, Elisabeth Bro

    Abstract The grey partridge Perdix perdix is an important gamebird in Europe. Its numbers have decreased dramatically during the XXth century and releases are commonly undertaken for the conservation of the populations and/or hunting purposes in Western Europe. However, this practice that generally involves birds from commercial farms raises several concerns, among which a potential hybridization between farmed and wild individuals. Herein, based on microsatellite markers, we characterize the genetic patterns of farmed birds in view of wild birds of the two French subspecies (P. p. armoricana in central-northern France and P. p. hispaniensis in the Pyrenees). Hence, we estimate the risk of genetic introgression between wild and farmed birds. Our results highlight a genetic divergence between both subspecies—in accordance with the known evolutionary history of the grey partridge during the Quaternary. In central-northern France, a slight but significant difference in the genetic signature between wild and farmed partridges is detected. This difference however does not seem prone to alter the gene pool of wild birds if farmed birds are released in the wild and reproduce. On the contrary, in the Pyrenees, the large and significant genetic difference between wild and farmed birds represents a real risk of genetic introgression. This threat should be taken into account in population management.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Usefulness of a Japanese internet community for fish conservation
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yusuke Miyazaki, Atsunobu Murase, Junichi Honda, Junichiro Yamaide, Hiroshi Senou

    Large biodiversity datasets are currently being collected not only by experts and amateur researchers, but also by the general public. In this study, records of non-native and Japanese Red List fishes observed by citizens were extracted from all 85,453 posts on the bulletin board system of WEB sakana-zukan, a web-based encyclopedia of Japanese fishes that went online in 2002. We found 681 (0.8%) and 549 (0.6%) posts containing attached images of non-native and Red Data Book fishes, resulting in 418 and 362 Japanese distributional records respectively. The number of posts and the composition of non-native species reflected the Japanese inland fisheries policy to increase target species. These data included records of exotic species (eleven taxa) whose introduction to Japan had been unknown previously, as well as records of nine exotic/domestic species whose introductions into specific Japanese regions had been unknown. Additionally, we identified the range extension of one Red Data Book species. These photographs were stored in a public museum’s photographic collection for ongoing scientific use. Three heavy users of the website combined contributed 26.7% of the new distribution records (8/30 lots), while 15 light users contributed 50.0% (15/30 lots), suggesting that overall there is a greater contribution by light users. This indicates that a web community with abundant users can accumulate new biodiversity observations better than one with fewer users but many posts per user. Our results show that this web-community was able to contribute to monitoring non-native and Red List fishes in conjunction with expert participation, and therefore that web-communities targeting living organisms can contribute to biodiversity conservation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Correction to: Large-scale habitat model reveals a key role of large trees and protected areas in the metapopulation survival of the saproxylic specialist Cucujus cinnaberinus
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Michał Bełcik, Jakub Goczał, Michał Ciach

    We present here a revised version of Fig. 1 from our paper as it lacked some information used for the species distribution modeling as the original might be found misleading by some readers. This omission did not influence the results of our modeling process, for which the full set of observations was used. It does not therefore compromise our conclusions, or affect the other figures and tables we presented.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Erosion of phylogenetic diversity in Neotropical bat assemblages: findings from a whole-ecosystem fragmentation experiment
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Sabhrina G. Aninta, Ricardo Rocha, Adrià López-Baucells, Christoph F. J. Meyer

    The traditional focus on taxonomic diversity metrics for investigating species responses to habitat loss and fragmentation has limited our understanding of how biodiversity is impacted by habitat modification. This is particularly true for taxonomic groups such as bats which exhibit species-specific responses. Here, we investigate phylogenetic alpha and beta diversity of Neotropical bat assemblages across two environmental gradients, one in habitat quality and one in habitat amount. We surveyed bats in 39 sites located across a whole-ecosystem fragmentation experiment in the Brazilian Amazon, representing a gradient of habitat quality (interior-edge-matrix, hereafter IEM) in both continuous forest and forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha; forest size gradient). For each habitat category, we quantified alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity, then used linear mixed-effects models and cluster analysis to explore how forest area and IEM gradient affect phylogenetic diversity. We found that the secondary forest matrix harboured significantly lower total evolutionary history compared to the fragment interiors, especially the matrix near the 1 ha fragments, containing bat assemblages with more closely related species. Forest fragments ≥ 10 ha had levels of phylogenetic richness similar to continuous forest, suggesting that large fragments retain considerable levels of evolutionary history. The edge and matrix adjacent to large fragments tend to have closely related lineages nonetheless, suggesting phylogenetic homogenization in these IEM gradient categories. Thus, despite the high mobility of bats, fragmentation still induces considerable levels of erosion of phylogenetic diversity, suggesting that the full amount of evolutionary history might not be able to persist in present-day human-modified landscapes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • DNA-based species identification of shark finning seizures in Southwest Atlantic: implications for wildlife trade surveillance and law enforcement
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Bruno Lopes da Silva Ferrette, Rodrigo Rodrigues Domingues, Luis Henrique Fregadolli Ussami, Letícia Moraes, Carolina de Oliveira Magalhães, Alberto Ferreira de Amorim, Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf, Claudio Oliveira, Fausto Foresti, Fernando Fernandes Mendonça

    Sharks developed life history traits that make them susceptible to overfishing. This is, in turn, a risk for extinction, and several species are affected. The high price of shark fins in the international trade has triggered the widespread capture of sharks at unsustainable levels, prompting illegal and unethical practices, such as finning. To address these concerns, the present study aimed to identify species composition using molecular techniques based on DNA barcoding and DNA polymorphism on samples taken from illegal shark fin seizures conducted by the Federal Environmental Agency of Brazil. A species-specific DNA-based identification from three finning seizures in Brazil found at least 20 species from 747 shark fins, some of which were identified as endangered and protected under Brazilian legislation, while others were representative of restricted catches, according to Appendix II of CITES. In the seizure from Belém, 338 fins were identified as belonging to at least 19 different species, while in the seizure from Natal 211, fins belonging to at least 8 different species were identified. Furthermore, 198 fins from Cananéia were identified through PCR-Multiplex as belonging to Isurus oxyrinchus. These results raise concerns about the environmental and socioeconomic effects of finning on developing countries. Furthermore, this study represents the first finning evaluation from Brazil in the Southwest Atlantic, highlighting the importance of developing policies aimed toward restricting and regulating the shark trade and detecting IUU fisheries and illegal trade of endangered species, mainly in developing countries, where fisheries management, surveillance, and species-specific fisheries catch data are often sporatic.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus): potential distribution and its implication for conservation.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Jonas Nüchel,Peder Klith Bøcher,Wen Xiao,A-Xing Zhu,Jens-Christian Svenning

    Many threatened species have undergone range retraction, and are confined to small fragmented populations. To increase their survival prospects, it is necessary to find suitable habitat outside their current range, to increase and interconnect populations. Species distribution models may be used to this purpose and can be an important part of the conservation strategies. One pitfall is that such mapping will typically assume that the current distribution represents the optimal habitat, which may not be the case for threatened species. Here, we use maximum entropy modelling (Maxent) and rectilinear bioclimatic envelope modelling with current and historical distribution data, together with the location of protected areas, and environmental and anthropogenic variables, to answer three key questions for the conservation of Rhinopithecus, a highly endangered genus of primates consisting of five species of which three are endemic to China, one is endemic to China and Myanmar and one is endemic to Vietnam; Which environmental variables best predict the distribution? To what extent is Rhinopithecus living in an anthropogenically truncated niche space? What is the genus' potential distribution in the region? Mean temperature of coldest and warmest quarter together with annual precipitation and precipitation during the driest quarter were the variables that best explained Rhinopithecus' distribution. The historical records were generally in warmer and wetter areas and in lower elevation than the current distribution, strongly suggesting that Rhinopithecus today survives in an anthropogenic truncated niche space. There is 305,800-319,325 km2 of climatic suitable area within protected areas in China, of which 96,525-100,275 km2 and 17,175-17,550 km2 have tree cover above 50 and 75%, respectively. The models also show that the area predicted as climatic suitable using Maxent was 72-89% larger when historical records were included. Our results emphasise the importance of considering historical records when assessing restoration potential and show that there is high potential for restoring Rhinopithecus to parts of its former range.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Honest advocacy for nature: presenting a persuasive narrative for conservation.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    David C Rose,Peter N M Brotherton,Susan Owens,Thomas Pryke

    Conservation scientists are increasingly recognising the value of communicating policy-relevant knowledge to policy-makers. Whilst considerable progress has been made in offering practical advice for scientists seeking to engage more closely with decision-makers, researchers have provided few tangible examples to learn from. This paper uses an English case study, but draws out important high-level messages relevant to conservation scientists worldwide. The case study looks at how the Lawton Review presented knowledge persuasively about the suitability of England's ecological network to deal with future pressures. Through skilful framing of rigorous scientific knowledge it was able to make a significant impact on government policy. Impact was achieved through: (1) selecting politically salient frames through which to communicate; (2) using clear, accessible language, and; (3) conducting rigorous science using an authoritative team of experts. Although its publication coincided with a favourable policy window, the Lawton Review seized on this opportunity to communicate a rigorously argued, persuasive and practical conservation message; in other words, it performed 'honest advocacy'. Thus, whilst it remains important to conduct scientific research with technical rigour, conservation scientists could also benefit from identifying salient frames for conservation and communicating clearly.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Improving the role of global conservation treaties in addressing contemporary threats to lions.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Timothy Hodgetts,Melissa Lewis,Hans Bauer,Dawn Burnham,Amy Dickman,Ewan Macdonald,David Macdonald,Arie Trouwborst

    Despite their iconic status, lion (Panthera leo) populations continue to decline across the majority of their range. In the light of the recent decision (in October 2017) to add lions to the Appendices of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), this paper identifies the new and existing legal protections afforded to lions through five global treaties, and maps these protections against the most critical contemporary threats facing the species. It thus offers a new analysis of the CMS listing, and draws on existing legal reviews, to highlight the ways in which global treaties offer differing forms of protection for lions. It then combines multiple concordant assessments of lion populations, to highlight nine categories of threat: human-lion conflict, bushmeat poaching, human encroachment, trophy hunting, trade in lion bones, unpredictable environmental events, socio-economic factors, policy failures, and governance/institutional weakness. The paper assesses how the various treaties each address these different categories of threat. The analysis identifies two pathways for improving legal protection: expanding the application of global treaties in respect of lions and their habitats (the paper considers the CMS listing in these terms), and improving the implementation of treaty commitments through local and national-scale actions. Furthermore, it identifies local implementation challenges that include the local knowledge of rules, compliance with rules and enforcement capacity, alongside the variety in local contexts and situations, and suggests where global treaties might provide support in meeting these challenges. We suggest that this analysis has wider implications for how treaty protection can and is utilised to protect various species of large-bodied, wide-ranging animals.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Long-term survival and successful conservation? Low genetic diversity but no evidence for reduced reproductive success at the north-westernmost range edge of Poa badensis (Poaceae) in Central Europe.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Kristina Plenk,Katharina Bardy,Maria Höhn,Matthias Kropf

    Many steppe species reach their (north)westernmost distribution limit in western Central Europe. This also applies to Poa badensis, a rare steppe plant of calcareous rock/sand vegetation. To explore potential differences in reproductive success and genetic composition of peripheral populations, we analysed the absolute (north)westernmost occurrences in Western Germany and populations at the western margin (Eastern Austria) and the centre (Central Hungary) of the Pannonicum, representing a part of the continuous range. Specifically, we discuss the genetic and reproductive constitution of the (north)westernmost exclave and draw conclusions on the species' biogeographical and conservation history in this region. Therefore, we used two independent molecular marker systems (AFLPs, cpDNA sequences) and a set of performance parameters. Overall, lowest regional genetic diversity was found in Western Germany, which is mainly a result of the specific history of two populations. However, this low genetic diversity was not accompanied by reduced reproductive success. The Eastern Austrian populations showed reduced genetic diversity and predominantly reduced performance, interpreted as a consequence of small population sizes. Central Hungarian populations showed the overall highest genetic diversity and comparatively high performance values. We observed high admixture and haplotype sharing between Austrian and Hungarian populations, indicating gene flow among these regions. In contrast, we interpreted the increased population differentiation within, and the clear distinctiveness of the German exclave as a long-term isolation of these (north)westernmost occurrences. Our results, overall, prove the good constitution of these populations and, together with their particular biogeographical history, highlight their conservation value.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2014-06-24
    Ulf Karsten,Andreas Holzinger

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must have evolved with either avoidance or protective strategies, as well as repair mechanisms for damage. In this review we have highlighted these mechanisms, which include photoprotection, photochemical quenching, and high osmotic values to avoid water loss, and in some groups flexibility of secondary cell walls to maintain turgor pressure even in water-limited situations. These highly specialized green algae will serve as good model organisms to study desiccation tolerance or photoprotective mechanisms, due to their natural capacity to withstand unfavorable conditions. We point out the urgent need for modern phylogenetic approaches in characterizing these organisms, and molecular methods for analyzing the metabolic changes involved in their adaptive strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2010-01-01
    Fenton P D Cotterill,Wilhelm Foissner

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all of its intricacies. Beyond weakening research capacities and outputs across comparative biology, this Denigration of Natural History impacts on the integrity of knowledge itself, undermining progress and pedagogy throughout science. Unprecedented advances in knowledge are set to follow on consummate inventories of biodiversity, including the protists. These opportunities challenge us to survey biodiversity representatively-detailing the natural history of species. Research strategies cannot continue to ignore arguments for such an unprecedented investment in idiographic natural history. Idiographic shortcuts to general (nomothetic) insights simply do not exist. The biodiversity sciences face a stark choice. No matter how charismatic its portrayed species, an incomplete 'Brochure of Life' cannot match the scientific integrity of the 'Encyclopedia of Life'.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • High photobiont diversity in the common European soil crust lichen Psora decipiens.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2014-06-24
    Ulrike Ruprecht,Georg Brunauer,Roman Türk

    The genetic diversity of green algal photobionts (chlorobionts) in soil crust forming lichens was studied as part of the SCIN-project (Soil Crust InterNational). A total of 64 lichen samples were collected from four different sites along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe (Tabernas/Spain; Hochtor-Großglockner/Austria; Gynge Alvar/Sweden; Ruine Homburg/Germany). The dominant lichen species at all four sites was Psora decipiens, often occurring with Buellia elegans, Fulgensia bracteata, F. fulgens and Peltigera rufescens. Genetic identification of chlorobionts was carried out using the nuclear marker (nrITS) and a chloroplast marker (psbL-J). We found P. decipiens to be associated with several different species of Trebouxia and Asterochloris, although previously described to only have Asterochloris sp. The phylogenetic analyses revealed a high chlorobiont diversity with 12 well supported clades, including Trebouxia asymmetrica, T. jamesii, T. impressa and other, as yet taxonomically unidentified clades (Trebouxia sp. URa1-4, T. sp. URa6, T. sp. URa7-13). Additionally, five clades of Asterochloris were identified (A. magna, A. sp. URa14 -17). Most of the chlorobiont species appeared to be cosmopolitan, but five clades were unevenly distributed between the sampling sites with only Trebouxia being found in the warm and dry Spanish habitats and combinations of Trebouxia and Asterochloris in the cooler and more humid habitats. The wide range of chlorobiont species might contribute to the observed domination of P. decipiens at all four research sites of the SCIN project which range from a desert in Spain to an alpine site in the Alps of Austria.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN).
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2014-06-24
    Burkhard Büdel,Claudia Colesie,T G Allan Green,Martin Grube,Roberto Lázaro Suau,Katharina Loewen-Schneider,Stefanie Maier,Thomas Peer,Ana Pintado,José Raggio,Ulrike Ruprecht,Leopoldo G Sancho,Burkhard Schroeter,Roman Türk,Bettina Weber,Mats Wedin,Martin Westberg,Laura Williams,Lingjuan Zheng

    Here we report details of the European research initiative "Soil Crust International" (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called "colored soil lichen community" (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these BSCs occur all over Europe, extending into subtropical and arid regions. Our goal is to study the uniqueness of these BSCs on the regional scale and investigate how this community can cope with large macroclimatic differences. One of the major aims of this project is to develop biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies for European BSCs. To achieve this, we established a latitudinal transect from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north over Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria down to the badlands of Tabernas, Spain in the south. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, including natural (Hochtor, Tabernas) and semi-natural sites that require maintenance such as by grazing activities (Öland, Gössenheim). At all four sites BSC coverage exceeded 30 % of the referring landscape, with the alpine site (Hochtor) reaching the highest cyanobacterial cover and the two semi-natural sites (Öland, Gössenheim) the highest bryophyte cover. Although BSCs of the four European sites share a common set of bacteria, algae (including cyanobacteria) lichens and bryophytes, first results indicate not only climate specific additions of species, but also genetic/phenotypic uniqueness of species between the four sites. While macroclimatic conditions are rather different, microclimatic conditions and partly soil properties seem fairly homogeneous between the four sites, with the exception of water availability. Continuous activity monitoring of photosystem II revealed the BSCs of the Spanish site as the least active in terms of photosynthetic active periods.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Costing conservation: an expert appraisal of the pollinator habitat benefits of England's entry level stewardship.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2014-04-11
    T D Breeze,A P Bailey,K G Balcombe,S G Potts

    Pollination services provided by insects play a key role in English crop production and wider ecology. Despite growing evidence of the negative effects of habitat loss on pollinator populations, limited policy support is available to reverse this pressure. One measure that may provide beneficial habitat to pollinators is England's entry level stewardship agri-environment scheme. This study uses a novel expert survey to develop weights for a range of models which adjust the balance of Entry Level Stewardship options within the current area of spending. The annual costs of establishing and maintaining these option compositions were estimated at £59.3-£12.4 M above current expenditure. Although this produced substantial reduction in private cost:benefit ratios, the benefits of the scheme to pollinator habitat rose by 7-140 %; significantly increasing the public cost:benefit ratio. This study demonstrates that the scheme has significant untapped potential to provide good quality habitat for pollinators across England, even within existing expenditure. The findings should open debate on the costs and benefits of specific entry level stewardship management options and how these can be enhanced to benefit both participants and biodiversity more equitably.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Managing climate change in conservation practice: an exploration of the science-management interface in beech forest management.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2014-01-01
    Jessica de Koning,Esther Turnhout,Georg Winkel,Marieke Blondet,Lars Borras,Francesca Ferranti,Maria Geitzenauer,Metodi Sotirov,Alistair Jump

    Scientific studies reveal significant consequences of climate change for nature, from ecosystems to individual species. Such studies are important factors in policy decisions on forest conservation and management in Europe. However, while research has shown that climate change research start to impact on European conservation policies like Natura 2000, climate change information has yet to translate into management practices. This article contributes to the on-going debates about science-society relations and knowledge utilization by exploring and analysing the interface between scientific knowledge and forest management practice. We focus specifically on climate change debates in conservation policy and on how managers of forest areas in Europe perceive and use climate change ecology. Our findings show that forest managers do not necessarily deny the potential importance of climate change for their management practices, at least in the future, but have reservations about the current usefulness of available knowledge for their own areas and circumstances. This suggests that the science-management interface is not as politicized as current policy debates about climate change and that the use of climate change ecology is situated in practice. We conclude the article by discussing what forms of knowledge may enable responsible and future oriented management in practice focusing specifically on the role of reflexive experimentation and monitoring.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Missing species among Mediterranean non-Siphonophoran Hydrozoa.
    Biodivers. Conserv. (IF 3.142) Pub Date : 2015-08-01
    Cinzia Gravili,Stanislao Bevilacqua,Antonio Terlizzi,Ferdinando Boero

    Hydrozoa of the Mediterranean Sea are well known and a recent monograph covers 457 species. Mediterranean non-Siphonophoran Hydrozoa comprises 398 species, an increasing number due to continuous updates, representing about 10 % of the 3,702 currently valid species reported in a recent world assessment of hydrozoan diversity. Many new records are non indigenous species, previously described species that occurred elsewhere and whose arrival was presumably caused by human activities. However, many species reported in the past are not recorded in recent times. Realistic assessments of species pools require addition of new species, but also subtraction of species not found since a certain period. With the confidence of extinction index, cases of putative extinction can be raised. Out of the 398 known species, only 162 (41 %) have been reported in the last decade, while 53 (13 %) are not recorded in the literature since at least 41 years. According to the confidence of extinction index, 60 % of the 53 missing species are extinct, and 11 % are putatively extinct from the basin. From a biogeographical point of view, the missing species are: 34 % endemic, 19 % boreal, 15 % Mediterranean-Atlantic, 11 % Indo-Pacific, 11 % circumtropical, 4 % cosmopolitan, 2 % tropical-Atlantic, 4 % non-classifiable. Fluctuations in species composition into a certain area cause heavy variability in the expression of both structural and functional biodiversity. As consequence, the regional biodiversity should be analyzed through its temporal evolution, to detect changes and their possible causes. This approach has profound consequences on biodiversity assessments and also on the compilation of red lists.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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