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  • Characterization of bone aluminum, a potential biomarker of cumulative exposure, within an occupational population from Zunyi, China
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Zainab Hasan; Danelle Rolle-McFarland; Yingzi Liu; Jieqiong Zhou; Farshad Mostafaei; Yan Li; Qiyuan Fan; Yuanzhong Zhou; Wei Zheng; Linda H. Nie; Ellen M. Wells
  • High serum concentration of selenium, but not calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, and magnesium, increased the risk of both hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in adults: a health examination center based cross-sectional study
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Aiping Liu; Ping Xu; Chunmei Gong; Yumei Zhu; Huimin Zhang; Wenjing Nie; Xiaoying Zhou; Xiongshun Liang; Yuanfei Xu; Changhua Huang; Xiao-Li Liu; Ji-Chang Zhou

    Background Metabolic disorders of glucose and lipid were associated with some mineral elements, and data were warranted from various contexts to make the association more explicit. Objective To investigate the relationships between the serum concentrations of six mineral elements (calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, and selenium) and the risk of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in adults. Methods The basic information and the over-night fasting serum samples of adults were randomly collected at a health examination center. The serum concentrations of glucose and lipids were measured with an automatic biochemical analyzer, and the mineral elements were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Data were analyzed between the hyperglycemia group (HGg) and the normal glucose group (NGg) as well as between the dyslipidemia group (DLg) and the normal lipid group (NLg). Results A total of 1466 adults aged 22 - 81 years (male/female = 1.8) were included, 110 in the HGg and 1356 in the NGg, or 873 in the DLg and 593 in the NLg. The serum element concentration medians [P50 (P25 - P75)] significantly different between the HGg and the NGg were 0.83 (0.75 - 0.94) vs. 0.76 (0.68 - 0.87) mg/L for copper and 100 (90 - 110) vs. 94 (87 - 103) μg/L for selenium (P < 0.001), while those between the DLg and the NLg were 99 (92 - 110) vs. 97 (90 - 106) mg/L for calcium, 0.78 (0.69 - 0.88) vs. 0.75 (0.66 - 0.85) mg/L for copper, 1.7 (1.4 - 2.0) vs. 1.6 (1.3 - 2.0) mg/L for iron, 24 (22 - 28) vs. 23 (22 - 27) mg/L for magnesium, and 97 (89 - 106) vs. 92 (84 - 100) μg/L for selenium (P < 0.05). When the copper and selenium between the HGg and the NGg were analyzed by logistic regression with age, gender, body mass index, and mineral elements adjusted, only the highest quartile of selenium concentration had association with the increased risk of hyperglycemia [quartile (Q) 4 against Q1: OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.5 - 5.5, P < 0.001). When the five differed mineral elements between the DLg and the NLg were similarly analyzed, only iron and selenium had associations with the increased risk of dyslipidemia (e.g., Q4 against Q1: OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 - 2.0 for iron and OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.1 - 4.0 for selenium, P < 0.05). Conclusion In contrast to those of calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, and magnesium, the higher serum concentration of selenium increased the risk of both hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in the study population of adult Chinese.

  • Association between trace elements in serum from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients considering treatment effects
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Elisa C. Santa Cruz; Katherine C. Madrid; Marco A.Z. Arruda; Alessandra Sussulini

    Background Imbalances in metal concentrations have been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of different brain disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Objectives The aim of this exploratory study is to evaluate the association between the concentrations of macro/trace elements in serum from BD and SCZ patients considering the effects from different treatments. Methods Eleven subjects with SCZ, seven with BD treated with lithium (BDL) and eight subjects with BD treated with other medications except lithium (BDN) were recruited for the study, as well as eleven healthy controls (HC). Serum concentrations of eleven macro/trace elements (Se, Zn, Fe, K, Ca, Mg, P, Al, Cu, Mn, and Ni) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results Se and Zn concentrations were significantly lower for patients with SCZ and BD in comparison to HC by one-way ANOVA test. Moreover, serum concentrations for Fe were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in BDN (548 ± 92 μg L-1) and SCZ (632 ± 279 μg L-1) in comparison to HC (421 ± 121 μg L-1). A significant negative correlation was reported between Se and Fe in BDL group (r = -0.935, p < 0.05). In addition, a significantly higher Cu/Zn ratio was determined in SCZ group against HC (ratio = 2.4, p = 0.028). Conclusions The obtained results suggest that the imbalance in Fe concentrations is an effect of BD treatment. Lithium is supposed to have an antagonist effect for Se in BDL patients. A negative correlation reported between Fe and BMI in SCZ group could be related to antipsychotic treatment and the Cu/Zn ratio reported could be considered as a suggesting parameter to relate oxidative stress to SCZ. Future studies including larger number of patients with SCZ and BD before and after treatment are necessary to confirm the investigative results presented herein.

  • Does selenium fortification of kale and kohlrabi sprouts change significantly their biochemical and cytotoxic properties?
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Paweł Zagrodzki; Paweł Paśko; Agnieszka Galanty; Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara; Renata Wietecha-Posłuszny; Pol Salvans Rubió; Henryk Bartoń; Ewelina Prochownik; Bożena Muszyńska; Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja; Katarzyna Bierła; Ryszard Łobiński; Joanna Szpunar; Shela Gorinstein

    Background The sprouts of Brassica vegetables are known from their nutritional and chemopreventive values. Moreover, sprouts fortification with some trace elements, like selenium, may increase their importance in human diet. Thus the aim of our study was to examine if selenium enrichment of kale and kohlrabi sprouts may influence their biochemical properties (phenolic acids and L-tryptophan content, antioxidant potential) or cytotoxic activity. Additional aim of the study was to evaluate the profile of selenium compounds and to described the multidimensional interactions between the mentioned parameters. Methods Selenium content in the sprouts was evaluated by double-channel atomic fluorescence spectrometer AFS-230 with the flow hydride-generation system. Separation of selenium species in water soluble fraction was performed by size-exclusion LC-ICP-MS. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids and L-tryptophan was performed by HPLC. For antioxidant activity DPPH and FRAP methods were used. Cytotoxic activity of the sprouts extracts on a panel of human metastatic carcinoma cells was evaluated by MTT test. Results Selenium content in the fortified sprouts was several orders of magnitude higher than in the unfortified ones. Only small percentage of supplemented selenium (ca. 10%) was incorporated into the sprouts as seleno-L-methionine, while the other detected selenium species remained unidentified. Selenium fortification differently stimulated the production of phenolic acids (sinapic, chlorogenic, isochlorogenic and caffeic acid) in the tested sprouts, depending on the particular species, selenium dose and the investigated compound. PCA analysis revealed strong correlation between antioxidant parameters and phenolic acids and L-tryptophan, while Se correlated only with caffeic acid. The sprouts extracts (≥1 mg/mL) showed cytotoxic potency to all the studied cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HepG2, SiHa), regardless the selenium supplementation. Conclusion Se-fortified kale and kohlrabi sprouts are good candidates for functional food ingredients. Moreover, these results indicate that the sprouts enriched with sodium selenite show higher nutritional value, without significant changes in their cytotoxic activity.

  • Chemical elements and preeclampsia - an overview of current problems, challenges and significance of recent research
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Katarzyna Gajewska; Anna Błażewicz; Marzena Laskowska; Przemysław Niziński; Weronika Dymara - Konopka; Łukasz Komsta

    Objectives Data on the elemental status, redistribution of the elements, role of occupational exposure and dietary assessment in preeclampsia (PE) are scarce. There are many disparities in the findings of essential and non-essential elements’ role in PE. In this article we overview the changes in the content of selected elements in pregnancy complicated with the disorder of complex and not fully understood etiology. We have focused on important limitations and highlighted shortcomings in research from the last ten years period. Methods The Scopus and PubMed electronic databases have been searched for English-language articles published within the time interval 2008-2018, with full text available and with the key words “preeclampsia” and “chemical element” (i.e. separately: Cd, Pb, As, Ni, Mo, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, I, Fe, Sr, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Na) appearing in the title, abstract or keywords. Results A total of 48 publications were eligible for this overview. Surprisingly only 4% of papers considered environmental exposure, 8%- diet and 2 %- comorbid diseases. In most published papers, occupational exposure was neglected. Meta-analysis was possible for seven elements in serum (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Se, Zn), and two elements (Se, Zn) in plasma. It showed negative shift for most elements, however only several were statistically significant. Conlusions The overview of the published data on PE and chemical elements yields varied results. Some of the reasons may be the difference in not duly validated method of determination, and huge discrepancies in study designs. The lack of detailed description of studied and control population and small number of samples constitute the most common limitations of such studies. Many of them describe the use of a single analytical procedure, therefore the quality of research may be insufficient to obtain reliable results. A history of elements’ status and intake before and during pregnancy is usually not examined. Dietary assessment should be done at different stages of pregnancy, and whenever possible in the periconceptional period as well. It still needs to be established whether the deficiency of certain elements or their excess may be an etiopathogenic factor and a developmental cause of PE, and if it may serve as a target of actions in the causal treatment or even prevention of the occurrence of this disease.

    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Jovan T. Juloski; Aleksandar Rakic; Vladica V. Ćuk; Vladimir M. Ćuk; Srđan Stefanović; Dragica Nikolić; Saša Janković; Alexander M. Trbovich; Silvio R. De Luka

    Background Trace elements have important influence on body function primarily because of the vital role they have in many physiological processes. Their alterations have been found in many disorders, including cancer. It has been well known for decades that disturbances in elemental concentration may lead to cell damaging, DNA injuries and imbalance in oxidative burden.Our study tried to determine the difference of trace elements concentrations between colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent healthy intestinal tissue. Methods 59 subjects participated in this study. Healthy colon mucosa samples and colon tumor tissue samples were obtained from patients previously diagnosed with colon carcinoma by standard diagnostic procedures. Analysis of the elements was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results The results showed that Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Se, Mn, Cd, Cr and Hg significantly differ between malignant tissue of colorectal cancer and adjacent healthy bowel tissue. We have, also, found that Cu/Zn tissue ratio was significantly higher in CRC compared to a healthy tissue and that patients with higher CRC stages had also significantly higher ratio. Conclusions Since this is the first such study in Balkan region, we assume that results of our study could be a good indicator of elemental alterations in colorectal cancer of Balkan population, due to similarity in lifestyle, dietary intake, pollution and exposure to toxic elements.

  • Associations between manganese exposure and multiple immunological parameters in manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Xiang Chen; Zhenfang Liu; Xiaoting Ge; Xiaoyu Luo; Sifang Huang; Yanting Zhou; Defu Li; Hong Cheng; Longman Li; Lulu Huang; Qingzhi Hou; Gaohui Zan; Yanli Tan; Chaoqun Liu; Yunfeng Zou; Xiaobo Yang

    Background Manganese (Mn) ions play a crucial role in the immune response. The immunotoxicity of Mn is rarely reported compared with the neurotoxicity of Mn. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between chronic Mn exposure and immunological parameters in occupational Mn-exposed workers. Methods A total of 538 workers were selected from the follow-up of manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (MEWHC) in 2017. We divided the workers into the low-exposure group and the high-exposure group by the cutoff of the manganese-time weighted average (Mn-TWA) setting at 0.15 mg/m3. We examined serum immunological parameters by the immunoturbidimetric method and leukocyte counts and ratios in blood routine. Then we used the generalized linear model analyses and spline analyses to explore the associations between external exposure of Mn and multiple immunological parameters adjusted for variables. Based on the epidemiological analyses, we used Elisa (enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay) to detect plasma complement C3 of Mn-exposed rats. Results In male workers, the mean value of complement C3 was 1.20 ± 0.16 g/L in the high-exposure group, which was significantly lower as compared to the low-exposure group (1.25 ± 0.18 g/L, P = 0.023). The generalize linear models’ analyses showed that complement C3 value had a significantly negative association with external exposure of Mn included adjustment for variables (β = -0.04, P = 0.035). Moreover, in male rats, the high-exposure group also had a lower level of complement C3 compared with the low-exposure group (P < 0.001). None significant association was observed in immunological parameters among female workers and rats (all P > 0.05). Conclusions Mn exposure from inhalable dust was associated with decreased complement C3 among occupationally Mn-exposed male individuals but not in female workers, which was further confirmed by the rat model. Further research into the possible mechanism of C3 reduction is needed in the future.

  • Geographical and seasonal variation in Iodine content of cow’s milk in the UK and consequences for the consumer´s supply
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Lisa J. Coneyworth; Lauren C.H.A. Coulthard; Elizabeth H. Bailey; Scott D. Young; Jonathan Stubberfield; Louise Parsons; Neil Saunders; Eamon Watson; Elizabeth M. Homer; Simon J.M. Welham

    Background Dairy products provide a crucial source of dietary iodine for the majority of the UK population, contributing approximately 30-40 % of daily intake. Fluctuations in the iodine content of purchased milk both seasonally and annually implies potential fragility of iodine supply likely through fluctuating supplementation practices in cow herds. We set out to establish the level of national variation in herds and identify factors which might impact milk iodine content. Methods Milk samples were obtained from 98 herds across the UK via the National Milk Laboratories in August and December 2016. Iodine concentration of samples was measured using ICP-MS. Milk samples and feed intake data were additionally taken from 22 cows from the University of Nottingham (UON) dairy herd. Results There was considerable variation in milk iodine content from < 0.012 (Limit of Detection) to 1558 µg L-1, with a summer median of 197 µg L-1 and winter median 297 µg L-1. Overall, winter values were higher than summer counterparts (P < 0.001) and this held true for samples taken from the North West (P = 0.002) and South West (P = 0.006) but not for other regions studied. Data from the UON herd showed a negative relationship between iodine content and milk yield (P = 0.03) and we found that milk iodine content varied considerably despite apparently similar iodine intakes. Conclusions Regional differences in milk iodine concentration between summer and winter suggests that feeding practices are far from uniform across the country. The negative association observed between iodine concentration and milk yield in UON samples, suggests that reduced summer values may be influenced by dilution in addition to seasonal differences in concentrate feed provision.

  • Positive Association between Soil Arsenic Concentration and Mortality from Alzheimer’s Disease in Mainland China
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xue-Lian Li; Run-Qing Zhan; Wei Zheng; Hong Jiang; Dong-Feng Zhang; Xiao-Li Shen

    Objectives The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between the soil arsenic (As) concentration and the mortality from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in mainland China. Study design Ecological study. Methods Twenty-two provinces and 3 municipal districts in mainland China were included in this study. The As concentrations in soil in 1990 was obtained from the China State Environmental Protection Bureau; the data on annual mortality of AD from 1991 to 2000 were obtained from the National Death Cause Surveillance Database of China. Using these data, we calculated the spearman correlation coefficient between soil As concentration and AD mortality, and the relative risk (RR) between soil As levels and AD mortality by quartile-dividing study groups. Results The spearman correlation coefficient between As concentration and AD mortality was 0.552 (p = 0.004), 0.616 (p = 0.001) and 0.622 (p = 0.001) in the A soil As (eluvial horizon), the C soil As (parent material horizon), and the Total soil As (A soil As + C soil As), respectively. When the A soil As concentration was over 9.05 mg/kg, 10.40 mg/kg and 13.10 mg/kg, the relative risk was 0.835 (95% CI: 0.832, 0.838), 1.969 (95%CI: 1.955, 1.982), and 2.939 (95% CI: 2.920, 2.958), respectively; when the C soil As reached 9.45 mg/kg, 11.10 mg/kg and 13.55 mg/kg, the relative risk was 4.349 (95% CI: 4.303, 4.396), 6.108 (95% CI: 6.044, 6.172), and 9.125 (95%CI: 9.033, 9.219), respectively. No correlation was found between lead, cadmium, and mercury concentration in the soil and AD mortality. Conclusion There was an apparent soil As concentration dependent increase in AD mortality. Results of this study may provide evidence for a possible causal linkage between arsenic exposure and the death risk from AD.

  • Inflammation factors and element supplementation in cancer
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Małgorzata Jelińska; Dorota Skrajnowska; Małgorzata Wrzosek; Kamila Domanska; Wojciech Bielecki; Marta Zawistowska; Barbara Bobrowska Korczak

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with chosen minerals (Zn, Se, Fe) on expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFα) in spleen of rats and on their concentrations in rat serum under inflammatory and pathological conditions obtained by implantation of prostate cancer cells (LnCaP). Serum levels of metabolites of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and linoleic acids (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, hydroxyeicosapentaenoic and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids, respectively), as compounds involved in inflammation and cancer development, were also investigated. Male rats were randomised into dietary groups supplemented with Zn, Se or Fe. Prostate cancer cells were implanted to some rats in each group. The study demonstrated that minerals supplemented with the diet may exert various effects on an organism. Selenium, zinc and iron influence pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, what leads to stimulation of inflammation. They also affect synthesis of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites that exert pro-inflammatory action and enable cancer development and metastasis.

  • Effect of silver doping on antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ZnO nanorods
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Prissana Robkhob; Sougata Ghosh; Jayesh Bellare; Dhiraj Jamdade; I-Ming Tang; Sirikanjana Thongmee

    Background Increasing resistance to available drugs and their associated side-effects have drawn wide attention towards designing alternative therapeutic strategies for control of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. The roles of the sizes and shapes of the nanomaterials used in the treatment and management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in preventing chronic hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress are investigated. We report specifically on the effects of doping silver (Ag) into the ZnO nanorods (ZnO:Ag NR’s) as a rational drug designing strategy. Methods Inhibition of porcine pancreatic α-amylase, murine pancreatic amylase, α-glucosidase, murine intestinal glucosidase and amyloglucosidase are checked for evaluation of antidiabetic potential. In addition, the radical scavenging activities of ZnO:Ag NR’s against nitric oxide, DDPH and superoxide radicals are evaluated. Results Quantitative radical scavenging and metabolic enzyme inhibition activities of ZnO:Ag NR’s at a concentration of 100 µg/mL were found to depend on the amount of Ag doped in up to a threshold level (3-4%). Circular dichroism analysis revealed that the interaction of the NR’s with the enzymes altered their secondary conformation. This alteration is the underlying mechanism for the potent enzyme inhibition. Conclusions Enhanced inhibition of enzymes and scavenging of free radicals primarily responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage, provide a strong scientific rationale for considering ZnO:Ag NR’s as a candidate nanomedicine for controlling postprandial hyperglycaemia and the associated oxidative stress.

  • Effects of boric acid feeding on the oxidative stress parameters in testes, sperm parameters and DNA damage in mice
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Serdar Aktas; Cavit Kum; Melih Aksoy

    This study was aimed to determine the effects of boric acid on oxidative stress, testicular tissue and spermatozoon DNA. Experiments were performed with Swiss Albino mice divided equally into two groups based on the tratment period: one for 4 and the other for 6-week duration. These groups were further divided into subgroups as Control and those administered daily at oral doses of 115 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg of boric acid. Then, testicular tissue were examined postmortem and analyzed using ex-vivo biochemical tools for oxidative stress, spermatozoon membrane integrity, sperm motility and live cell rate (%). In both 4 and 6-week groups, v. seminalis weight, membrane integrity, motility, live cells and GSH levels exhibited a decreasing trent compared to the controls. In addition, 6-week group had a decrease in SOD level. MDA level was higher in controls in both 4 and 6-week groups. Spermatozoon DNA was intact in the 4-week group, but damaged in the 6-week group, and the degree of the damage dependent on the administered dose. Boric acid induces oxidative stress in testicular tissue, and its long-term application (only 6 weeks) caused damage in spermatozoon DNA.

  • Comparison of three oral selenium compounds in cancer patients: Evaluation of differential pharmacodynamic effects in normal and malignant cells
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Stephen O. Evans, Gregory M. Jacobson, Hugh J.B. Goodman, Steve Bird, Michael B. Jameson

    Background Selenium (Se) compounds have demonstrated therapeutic synergism in combination with anticancer treatments whilst reducing normal tissue toxicities in a range of experimental models. While reduction in some toxicities of chemotherapy and radiation has been confirmed in randomised clinical trials, they have not been powered to evaluate improved anticancer efficacy. A lack of data on the clinical potencies of the main nutritionally-relevant forms of Se and the relationship between their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects in cancer patients has hampered progress to date. The primary objective of this study was to determine the dose and form of Se that can be most safely and effectively used in clinical trials in combination with anti-cancer therapies. Study methods In a phase I randomised double-blinded study, the PD profile of sodium selenite (SS), Se-methylselenocysteine (MSC) and seleno-l-methionine (SLM) were compared in two cohorts of 12 patients, one cohort with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and the other with solid malignancies. All 24 patients were randomised to receive 400 μg of elemental Se as either SS, MSC or SLM, taken orally daily for 8 weeks. PD parameters were assessed before, during and 4 weeks after Se compound exposure in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results No significant sustained changes were observed in plasma concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor-α (VEGF-α), expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (the unfolded protein response) or in intracellular total glutathione in PBMCs, in either disease cohort or when grouped by Se compound. Conclusions At the 400 μg dose level no substantial changes in PD parameters were noted. Extrapolating from pre-clinical data, the dose examined in this cohort was too low to achieve the Se plasma concentration (≥ 5 μM) expected to elicit significant PD effects. Recruitment of a subsequent cohort at higher doses to exceed this PK threshold is planned.

  • Serum zinc, copper, zinc-to-copper ratio, and other essential elements and minerals in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Alexey A. Tinkov, Anna L. Mazaletskaya, Olga P. Ajsuvakova, Geir Bjørklund, Margarita G. Skalnaya, Jane C.-J. Chao, Lyubov N. Chernova, Roza A. Shakieva, Philippe Yu. Kopylov, Andrey A. Skalny, Anatoly V. Skalny

    Background Essential trace elements and minerals play a significant role in neurodevelopment. Although certain studies demonstrated impaired essential trace element and mineral status in children with ADHD, the existing data are insufficient. The objective of the present study was to assess serum trace element and mineral levels in children with ADHD. Methods Serum trace element and mineral levels in 68 children with ADHD and 68 neurotypical controls were assessed using ICP-MS at NexION 300D (PerkinElmer Inc., USA) equipped with ESI SC-2 DX4 autosampler (Elemental Scientific Inc., USA). Results Serum Cr, Mg, and Zn levels in children with ADHD were 21% (p = 0.010), 4% (p = 0.005), and 7% (p = 0. 001) lower as compared to the healthy controls, respectively. In turn, serum Cu/Zn values were 11% higher than those in the control group. Age and gender had a significant impact on serum element levels in ADHD. Particularly, preschool children were characterized by significantly increased Cu (+8%; p = 0.034), and Cu/Zn (+19%; p < 0.001) values, whereas serum Zn (-9%; p = 0.004) level was decreased. In primary school-aged children only 6% (p = 0.007) lower Mg levels were observed. Both boys and girls with ADHD were characterized by 8% (p = 0.016) lower serum Zn levels and 10% (p = 0.049) higher Cu/Zn values when compared to neurotypical girls. Boys with ADHD also had significantly higher Cu/Zn, exceeding the respective control values by 12% (p = 0.021), predominantly due to a 7% (p = 0.035) decrease in serum Zn. Serum Mg levels were also found to be significantly lower than those in neurotypical children by 5% (p = 0.007). In adjusted regression models serum Cr (β=-0.234; p = 0.009) and Cu/Zn (β = 0.245; p = 0.029) values were significantly associated with ADHD, respectively. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant impact of ADHD on Cr, Mg, Zn, and Cu/Zn, whereas age was associated with Cu, I, Mg, Mo, and Cu/Zn, whereas gender accounted only for variability in serum Mn levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) also revealed significant contributions of Mg, Zn, and Cu/Zn values to ADHD variability. Conclusions Hypothetically, the observed decrease of essential trace elements, namely Mg and Zn, and elevation of Cu/Zn may significantly contribute to the risk of ADHD or its severity and/or comorbidity.

  • Acute Exposure and Chronic Retention of Aluminum in Three Vaccine Schedules and Effects of Genetic and Environmental Variation
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Grant McFarland, Elaine La Joie, Paul Thomas, James Lyons-Weiler

    Like the mechanisms of action as adjuvants, the pharmacodynamics of injected forms of aluminum commonly used in vaccines are not well-characterized, particularly with respect to how differences in schedules impact accumulation and how factors such as genetics and environmental influences on detoxification influence clearance. Previous modeling efforts are based on very little empirical data, with the model by Priest based on whole-body clearance rates estimated from a study involving a single human subject. In this analysis, we explore the expected acute exposures and longer-term whole-body accumulation/clearance across three vaccination schedules: the current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) schedule, the current CDC schedule using low aluminum or no aluminum vaccines, and Dr. Paul Thomas’ “Vaccine Friendly Plan” schedule. We then study the effects of an implicit assumption of the Priest model on whether clearance dynamics from successive doses are influenced by the current level of aluminum or modeled by the assumption that a new dose has its own whole-body dynamics “reset” on the day of injection. We model two additional factors: variation (deficiency) in aluminum detoxification, and a factor added to the Priest equation to model the potential impact of aluminum itself on cellular and whole-body detoxification. These explorations are compared to a previously estimated pediatric dose limit (PDL) of whole-body aluminum exposure and provide a new statistic: %alumTox, the (expected) percentage of days an infant is in aluminum toxicity, reflecting chronic toxicity. We show that among three schedules, the CDC schedule results in the highest %alumTox regardless of model assumptions, and the Vaccine Friendly Plan schedule, which avoids >1 ACV per office visit results in the lowest (expected) %alumTox. These results are conservative, as the MSL is derived from data used by FDA to estimate safety of aluminum in adult humans. These results demonstrate high potential utility of modeling variation in patient responses to aluminum. More empirical data from individuals who are suspected of being intolerant of aluminum from vaccines, evidenced by high aluminum retention, neurodevelopmental disorders and/or a myriad of chronic illnesses would help answer questions on whether the model predictions can be used to estimate parameter values tied to genetic factors including genomic sequence variation and family history of chronic illnesses tied to aluminum exposure.

  • Lead-induced oxidative damage in rats/mice: A meta-analysis
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Yongsheng Fan, Xue Zhao, Jun Yu, Jie Xie, Cong Li, Duanya Liu, Caoli Tang, Chunhong Wang

    Background Lead (Pb) is ubiquitous in the environment and is an environmental genotoxic metal. Pb accumulation in the body could cause the oxidative stress. Objective This meta-analysis aimed to perform a systematic evaluation of the extent of oxidative damage in rats/mice induced by lead. Methods All relevant articles in English or Chinese were retrieved from Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biological Medicine databases from their inception date until July 22, 2018.Results: A total of 108 eligible articles were included in this study. The indicators of oxidative stress included malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST). The meta-analysis showed that lead significantly increased oxidants levels, such as MDA, GSSG, ROS, and H2O2 (P < 0.05), and significantly reduced the level of antioxidants, such as CAT, GPx, GR, GSH, SOD, and GST (P < 0.05). The intraperitoneal mode was more effective than water drinking mode in reducing the levels of CAT, GPx, GSH, and SOD (P < 0.05). Other factors that influenced the overall oxidative stress, including species of animals, type of tissues, and intervention dosage and time, were comprehensively evaluated. Conclusion The results of meta-analysis indicated that mice were more sensitive to lead than rats, and intraperitoneal mode was an effective intervention mean. High doses and long periods of lead treatment can cause serious oxidative damage. Moreover, testicular was more vulnerable to lead than other tissues. These results provided scientific evidence for preventing and treating lead toxicity.

  • Iron homeostasis is dysregulated, but the iron-hepcidin axis is functional, in chronic liver disease
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Joe Varghese, Jithu Varghese James, Mathuravalli Karthikeyan, Kavita Rasalkar, Ramya Raghavan, Abitha Sukumaran, Prasanna S. Premkumar, CE Eapen, Molly Jacob

    Background Perturbations in iron homeostasis have been reported to be associated with irreversible liver injury in chronic liver disease (CLD). However, it is not clear whether liver dysfunction per se underlies such dysregulation or whether other factors also contribute to it. This study attempted to examine the issues involved. Methods Patients diagnosed to have chronic liver disease (n = 63), who underwent a medically-indicated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, were the subjects of this study. Patients with dyspepsia, who underwent such a procedure, and were found to have no endoscopic abnormalities, were used as control subjects (n = 49). Duodenal mucosal samples were obtained to study mRNA and protein levels of duodenal proteins involved in iron absorption. A blood sample was also obtained for estimation of hematological, iron-related, inflammatory and liver function-related parameters. Results Patients with CLD had impaired liver function, anemia of inflammation and lower serum levels of hepcidin than control subjects. Gene (mRNA) expression levels of duodenal ferroportin and duodenal cytochrome b (proteins involved in iron absorption) were decreased, while that of divalent metal transporter–1 (DMT-1) was unchanged. Protein expression of DMT-1 was, however, decreased while that of ferroportin was unchanged. In the CLD group, serum hepcidin was predicted independently by serum ferritin and hemoglobin, but not by C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation). CLD patients with serum ferritin greater than 300 µg/dL had significantly greater liver dysfunction (as indicated by significantly higher serum concentrations of bilirubin, AST and ALT, and MELD scores), higher serum concentrations of CRP and hepcidin, and lower ferroportin protein expression, than those with serum ferritin ≤ 300 µg/dL. Conclusions In patients with CLD, anemia of inflammation and low serum hepcidin levels were found to paradoxically co-exist. Expression of duodenal proteins involved in iron absorption were either decreased or unaltered in these patients. The hepcidin response to higher body iron levels and/or inflammation appeared to be functional in these patients, despite the presence of liver disease.

  • Chromium and human low-density lipoprotein oxidation
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Domenico Lapenna, Giuliano Ciofani

    Chromium is a catalytic metal able to foster oxidant damage, albeit its capacity to induce human LDL oxidation is to date unkown. Thus, we have investigated whether trivalent and hexavalent chromium, namely Cr(III) and Cr(VI), can induce human LDL oxidation. Cr(III) as CrCl3 is incapable of inducing LDL oxidation at pH 7.4 or 4.5. However, Cr(III), specifically at physiological pH of 7.4 and in the presence of phosphates, causes an absorbance increase at 234 resembling a spectrophotometric kinetics of LDL oxidation characterized by lag and propagation phases. In this regard, it is conceivable that peculiar Cr(III) forms such as Cr(III) hydroxide and, especially, Cr(III) polynuclear hydroxocomplexes formed at pH 7.4 interact with phosphates generating species with an intrinsic absorbance at 234 nm, which increases over time resembling a spectrophotometric kinetics of LDL oxidation. Cr(VI), as K2Cr2O7, can instead induce substantial human LDL oxidation at acidic pH such as 4.5, which is typical of the intracellular lysosomal compartment. LDL oxidation is related to binding of Cr(VI) to LDL particles with quenching of the LDL tryptophan fluorescence, and it is inhibited by the metal chelators EDTA and deferoxamine, as well as by the chain-breaking antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and probucol. Moreover, Cr(VI)-induced LDL oxidation is inhibited by mannitol conceivably by binding Cr(V) formed from LDL-dependent Cr(VI) reduction and not by scavenging hydroxyl radicals (OH•); indeed, the OH• scavengers sodium formate and ethanol are ineffective against Cr(VI)-induced LDL oxidation. Notably, heightened LDL lipid hydroperoxide levels and decreased LDL tryptophan fluorescence occur in Cr plating workers, indicating Cr-induced human LDL oxidation in vivo. The biochemical, pathophysiological and clinical implications of these novel findings are discussed.

  • Metalloproteomics analysis in human mammary cell lines treated with inorganic mercury
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Mariángeles Ávila Maniero, Rodolfo G. Wuilloud, Eduardo A. Callegari, Patricia N. Smichowski, Mariel A. Fanelli

    The interest in inorganic Hg toxicity and carcinogenicity has been pointed to target organs such as kidney, brain or placenta, but only a few studies have focused on the mammary gland. In this work, analytical combination techniques (SDS-PAGE followed by CV-AFS, and nanoUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) were used to determine proteins that could bind Hg in three human mammary cell lines. Two of them were tumorigenic (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and the other one was the non-tumorigenic cell line (MCF-10A). There are no studies that provide this kind of information in breast cell lines with IHg treatment. Previously, we described the viability, uptake and the subcellular distribution of Hg in human breast cells and analysis of RNA-seq about the genes that encode proteins which are related to cytotoxicity of Hg. This work provides important protein candidates for further studies of Hg toxicity in the mammary gland, thus expanding our understanding of how environmental contaminants might affect tumor progression and contribute with future therapeutic methods.

  • Copper and selenium status as biomarkers of neonatal infections
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Julian Hackler, Monika Wisniewska, Lennart Greifenstein-Wiehe, Waldemar B. Minich, Malte Cremer, Christoph Bührer, Lutz Schomburg

    Neonatal infections are a major risk factor for neonatal mortality. A reliable diagnosis of early-onset sepsis (EOS) is hampered by the variable clinical presentations of the children. We hypothesized that changes in the Se or Cu status, or the biomarkers selenoprotein P (SELENOP) or ceruloplasmin (CP) alone or in combination may be informative of EOS. We generated a new human CP-specific non-competitive immunoassay (ELISA) suitable of analysing small sample volumes and validated the method with a commercial CP source. Using this novel CP assay, we analysed a case-control study of EOS (n = 19 control newborns, n = 18 suspected cases). Concentrations of Se, Cu, SELENOP, CP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) along with the Cu/Se and CP/SELENOP ratios were evaluated by correlation analyses as biomarkers for EOS. Diagnostic value was estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. The new CP-ELISA displayed a wide working (0.10 to 6.78 mg CP/L) and low sample requirement (2 µL of serum, EDTA-, heparin- or citrate-plasma). Plasma CP correlated positively with Cu concentrations in the set of all samples (Pearson r = 0.8355, p < 0.0001). Three of the infected neonates displayed particularly high ratios of Cu/Se and CP/SELENOP, i.e., 3.8- to 6.9-fold higher than controls. Both the Cu/Se and the CP/SELENOP ratios correlated poorly with the early infection marker IL-6, but strongly and positively with the acute-phase protein CRP (Cu/Se-CRP: Spearman ϱ = 0.583, p = 0.011; CP/SELENOP-CRP: ϱ = 0.571, p = 0.013). The ROC curve analyses indicate that a combination of biomarkers for the Se and Cu status do not improve the early identification of EOS considerably. This study established a robust, highly precise, partly validated and scalable novel CP sandwich ELISA suitable for basic and clinical research, requiring minute amounts of sample. The ratio of circulating CP/SELENOP constitutes a promising new composite biomarker for detection of EOS, at least in a subset of severely diseased children.

  • External quality assessment schemes for inorganic elements in the clinical laboratory: lessons from the OELM scheme
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Arnaud Josiane, Marina Patriarca, Béatrice Fofou-Caillierez Ma’atem, Montserrat González-estecha, MªCarmen González gómez, Irene De Graaf, Patriarca Valeria, Martine Ropert-Bouchet, Liesbeth Schröer-Janssen, Carla Siebelder, Te Winkel Marieke, Ventura Alemany Montserrat, Cas Weykamp

    Measurements of inorganic elements in clinical laboratories produce results used for the diagnosis, the treatment and the monitoring of deficiencies or overloads. The main objective of External Quality Assessment Schemes is to verify, on a regular frequency, that clinical laboratory results correspond to the quality requirement for patient care. Therefore, External Quality Assessment Schemes represent an essential component of a laboratory’s quality management system. However, External Quality Assessment Schemes within the same analytical field remain heterogeneous for different reasons such as samples, determination of assigned value, acceptable limits, content of the reports. The aim of this review was to describe and illustrate some major critical aspects of External Quality Assessment Schemes based on Occupational and Environmental Laboratory Medicine external quality assessment scheme experience.

    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2014-07-05
    Forrest H. Nielsen

    Convincing evidence that silicon is a bioactive beneficial trace element continues to accumulate. The evidence, which has come from human, animal, and in vitro studies performed by several laboratories, indicate that silicon in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts promotes bone and connective tissue health, may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response, and has been associated with mental health. A plausible mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of silicon is the binding of hydroxyl groups of polyols such that it influences the formation and/or utilization of glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharides, and collagen in connective tissue and bone. In addition, silicon may affect the absorption, retention or action of other mineral elements (e.g., aluminum, copper, magnesium). Based on findings from both animal and human experiments, an intake of silicon of near 25 mg per day would be a reasonable suggestion for an adequate intake that would assure its nutritional benefits. Increased intakes of silicon through consuming unrefined grains, certain vegetables, and beverages and cereals made from grains should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation.

  • Dynamics of trace metals in the system water – soil – plant – wild rats – tapeworms (Hymenolepis diminuta) in Maglizh area, Bulgaria
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Antonina Kovacheva, Ivelin Vladov, Margarita Gabrashanska, Diana Rabadjieva, Stefka Tepavitcharova, Veselin Nanev, Manos Dassenakis, Sotirios Karavoltsos
  • Beneficial antioxidant status of piglets from sows fed selenomethionine compared with those fed sodium selenite
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    M. Falk, A. Bernhoft, Estela Reinoso-Maset, B. Salbu, P. Lebed, T. Framstad, H. Fuhrmann

    Background Studies in mammals proved dietary organic selenium (Se) being superior to inorganic Se regarding effects on growth performance, antioxidative status, immune response, and Se homeostasis. However, the picture of possible effects of different Se sources and – levels can be expanded. The present field study evaluated the effects on weight gain, hematological and selected biochemical variables as well as plasma concentrations of vitamin E (vitE), total Se and selenobiomolecules in piglets throughout the suckling period. Methods Piglets were monitored from birth to 38 days of age (d). The mother sows’ diets were enriched with L-selenomethionine (SeMet-0.26 and -0.43 mg Se/kg feed) or sodium selenite (NaSe-0.40 and -0.60 mg Se/kg feed) from 1 month prior to farrowing until the end of lactation period. Piglets received pelleted feed supplemented with Se similarly to the sows’ diets from one week of age. Selenite at 0.40 mg Se/kg (NaSe-0.40) represents a common Se source and -level in pig feed and served as control diet. Results From 24d, piglets in SeMet-groups had higher mean body weight (BW) compared with piglets from sows fed NaSe-0.40. Furthermore, from five-d and above, piglets from sows fed NaSe-0.60 had significantly higher BW than offspring from sows fed NaSe-0.40. Neonatal piglets in group SeMet-0.43 had significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) concentrations compared with piglets from sows fed with NaSe-0.40. Neonatal and 5d-old piglets in group SeMet-0.26 showed higher gamma-glutamyl transferase activity than piglets in group NaSe-0.40. From five d and above, group NaSe-0.60 excelled with increased specific hematological variables culminating at age 38d with increased Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MC hemoglobin (MCH) as well as increased activities of aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase compared with the other groups. Generally, offspring in the SeMet groups had higher total Se-concentrations in plasma than those from sows fed selenite, and showed a dose-response effect on plasma Se-concentrations. Furthermore, SeMet-fed piglets had higher plasma levels of the selenoproteins (Sel) glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) and SelP as well as selenoalbumin. Plasma vitE levels were significantly negatively correlated with RBC throughout trial period. Conclusions Maternal supplementation with SeMet during gestation influenced hematology and clinical biochemistry in neonatal piglets in a different way than in offspring from sows receiving selenite enriched diets. Growth performance was positively influenced by both dietary Se source and Se level. Higher plasma levels of GPx3 observed in piglets receiving SeMet probably improved the protection against birth or growth related oxidative stress. These might prime the piglets for demanding situations as indicated by higher weight gain in offspring from sows fed with SeMet-supplemented diets. Our results on some enzyme activities might indicate that piglets fed NaSe-0.60 had to cope with increased levels of oxidative stress compared with those originating from sows fed SeMet or lower dietary levels of selenite. We assume that combining inorganic and organic Se sources in complete feed for breeding sows might be beneficial fro reproduction and the offspring’s performance.

  • Acute human toxicity and mortality after selenium ingestion: a review
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Niels Hadrup, Gitte Ravn-Haren

    Background Although selenium is an essential element for humans, acute toxicity has been reported after high oral exposure. Methods The published literature on the acute toxicity of oral selenium was gathered and reviewed. Results Reported symptoms and signs include abdominal symptoms, such as vomiting, diarrhea, pain, and nausea, as well as garlic-like odor on the breath. In cases of severe toxicity, cardiac and pulmonary symptoms may develop and ultimately lead to mortality. Mortality has been described after the ingestion of gun bluing solutions, which often contain selenous acid among other potentially toxic substances. Mortality has also been reported after the ingestion of other forms of selenium. Ingested doses associated with mortality are in the range of 1 to 100 mg Se/kg body weight. Blood levels associated with mortality are above 300 µg Se/L (normal level: 100 µg/L), whereas urinary levels associated with the same endpoint are above170 µg Se/L (normal level: 20 to 90 µg/L). Conclusion The acute toxicity associated with oral selenium ingestion and the blood and urinary levels of selenium in different cases of poisonings were reviewed. Mortality is a risk of acute selenium poisoning. Concentrations of selenium in blood and urine samples in non-fatal cases are close to those observed in fatal cases.

  • High-precision iron isotope analysis of whole blood, erythrocytes, and serum in adults
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Yu-Hsuan Liang, Kuan-Ying A. Huang, Der-Chuen Lee, Kwan-Nang Pang, Shih-Hsiang Chen

    Background Iron isotopic composition serves as a biological indicator of Fe metabolism in humans. In the process of Fe metabolism, essential carriers of Fe circulate in the blood and pass through storage organs and intestinal absorptive tissues. This study aimed to establish an analytical method for high-precision Fe isotopic measurement, investigate Fe concentration and isotopic composition in different parts of whole blood, and explore the potential of Fe isotopic composition as an indicator for Fe status within individuals. Analytical methods A total of 23 clinically healthy Taiwanese adults of Han descent were enrolled randomly and Fe isotopic compositions of their whole blood, erythrocytes, and serum were measured. The Fe isotopic analysis was performed by Neptune Plus multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with double-spike technique. The precision and reproducibility of the Fe isotopic analysis were monitored by international biological and geological reference materials. Main findings High-precision Fe isotopic measurements were achieved alongside with high consistency in the isotopic data for well-characterized reference materials. The Fe isotopic signatures of whole blood and erythrocytes were resolvable from that of serum, where both whole blood and erythrocytes contained significantly lighter Fe isotopic compositions compared to the case of serum (P = 0.0296 and P = 0.0004, respectively). The δ56/54Fe value of the serum sample was 0.2‰ heavier on an average than those of whole blood or erythrocytes. This isotopic fractionation observed in different parts of whole blood may indicate redox processes involved in Fe cycling, e.g. erythrocyte production and Fe transportation. Moreover, the δ56/54Fe values of whole blood and serum significantly correlated with the hemoglobin level (P = 0.0126 and P = 0.0020, respectively), erythrocyte count (P = 0.0014 and P = 0.0005, respectively), and Mentzer index (P = 0.0055 and P = 0.0011, respectively), suggesting the Fe isotopic composition as an indicator of functional Fe status in healthy adults. The relationships between blood Fe isotopic compositions and relevant biodemographic variables were also examined. While the average Fe concentration of whole blood was significantly higher in males than in females (P = 0.0028), females exhibited a heavier Fe isotopic composition compared to that of males in whole blood (P = 0.0010) and serum (P < 0.0001). A significantly inverse correlation of the whole blood δ56/54Fe value with body mass index of individuals (P = 0.0095) was also observed. Conclusion The results presented herein reveal that blood Fe isotopic signature is consequentially linked to baseline erythrocyte parameters in individuals and is significantly affected by the gender and body mass index in the adult population. These findings support the role of Fe isotopic composition as an indicator for the variance of Fe metabolism among adult individuals and populations and warrant further study to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  • Association of iron levels in hair with brain structures and functions in young adults
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Kohei Sakaki, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima

    BACKGROUND Iron plays a critical role in normal brain functions and development, but it has also been known to have adverse neurological effects. METHODS Here, we investigated the associations of iron levels in hair with regional gray matter volume (rGMV), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and cognitive differences in a study cohort of 590 healthy young adults. RESULTS Our findings showed that high iron levels were associated with lower rGMV in areas including the hippocampus, lower rCBF in the anterior and posterior parts of the brain, greater FA in areas including the part of the splenium of the corpus callosum, lower MD in the overlapping area including the splenium of the corpus callosum, as well as greater MD in the left hippocampus and areas including the frontal lobe. CONCLUSION These results are compatible with the notion that iron plays diverse roles in neural mechanisms in healthy young adults.

  • Association of Circulating Selenium Concentration with Dyslipidemia: Results From the NHANES
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Yu-qing Huang, Geng Shen, Kenneth Lo, Jia-yi Huang, Lin Liu, Chao-lei Chen, Yu-ling Yu, Shuo Sun, Bin Zhang, Ying-qing Feng

    Background Observational studies have suggested that selenium levels might associate with the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases, but how circulating selenium is related to dyslipidemia remains inconclusive. Objectives To investigate the association of circulating selenium levels with lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among US adults. Methods Using the data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2006), we performed multivariate logistic regression to examine the association of circulating selenium levels (in quartiles) with total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, and atherogenic index (AI). Results We included 2903 adults (49.3% male) (average age: 61.9) for analysis. Circulating selenium had non-linear association with TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and AI (all p < 0.05). When comparing with the lowest quartile, subjects with the highest quartile of circulating selenium (>147.00 ug/L) had the higher odds of elevated TG (OR: 1.75, 95% CI = 1.14, 2.68), TC (OR: 2.47, 95% CI = 1.62, 3.76), LDL-C (OR: 2.52, 95% CI = 1.60, 3.96), non-HDL-C (OR: 2.17, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.33), AI (OR: 1.20, 95% CI = 0.73, 1.97) and low-HDL-C (OR: 2.10, 95% CI = 1.19, 3.72). Similar patterns were observed in subgroup analysis. Conclusions Higher circulating selenium levels had non-linear association with lipid profiles and the increased odds of dyslipidemia.

  • The effects of chromium picolinate on glucose and lipid metabolism in running rats
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Ragip Pala, Mehmet Akif Sari, Fusun Erten, Besir Er, Mehmet Tuzcu, Cemal Orhan, Patrick Brice Defo Deeh, Nurhan Sahin, Vedat Cinar, James R. Komorowski, Kazim Sahin

    Background Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is commonly used to reduce muscle fatigue after exercise. We aimed to elucidate the effects of CrPic on glucose and lipid metabolism and the expression of glucose transporters in exercised rats. Methods Forty-two male Wistar rats (8-week-old) were distributed into six groups (n = 7) as follows: Control, CrPic, Chronic Exercise (CEx), CEx + CrPic, Acute Exercise (AEx), and AEx + CrPic. CEx consists of 30 m/min, 30 min/day, and 5 days/week for 6 weeks. CrPic was supplemented at 400 µg elemental Cr/kg of diet for 6 weeks. In the AEx groups, animals were run on the treadmill at 30 m/min until exhaustion. Results CEx significantly lowered blood glucose (BG), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels, but elevated insulin concentration (IC), compared with control (P < 0.05). CEx significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum, liver, and muscle while AEx elevated it (P < 0.001 for all). CrPic significantly decreased BG, TC, TG levels, and increased IC with a remarkable effect in CEx rats (P < 0.01). CrPic also significantly reduced serum, liver, and muscle MDA levels (P < 0.001). Both AEx and CEx increased the expression of liver glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) and muscle GLUT-4 with the highest level in CEx rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, CrPic supplementation significantly elevated GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 expressions in the liver and muscle of sedentary and exercise-treated rats (P < 0.05). Conclusion CrPic improves various metabolic parameters and reduces oxidative stress in CEx and AEx rats by decreasing BG, TC, TG, MDA levels in serum and elevating GLUT-2 and GLUT-4 expression in the liver and muscle samples. The efficacy of CrPic was more pronounced in CEx rats.

  • Effect of acute sodium nitrite intoxication on some essential biometals in mouse spleen
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Emilia Petrova, Yordanka Gluhcheva, Ekaterina Pavlova, Ivelin Vladov, Tsvetomil Voyslavov, Juliana Ivanova

    Background and aim Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is an inorganic salt with numerous applications in a variety of industries, as well as in medicine. Nevertheless, exposure to high levels of NaNO2 is toxic for animals and humans. Sodium nitrite intoxication is shown to decrease the activity of major antioxidant defence enzymes which is dependent on the maintenance of specific ion equilibrium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute NaNO2 intoxication on the content of the essential metals iron (Fe), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) in mouse spleen. Methods Mature male ICR mice were divided into four groups and subjected to acute NaNO2 exposure by a single intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg body weight. Animals in each group were sacrificed at certain time interval after treatment (1 hour, 5 hours, 1 day and 2 days). Spleens were excised and processed for atomic absorption spectrometry analysis of Fe, Ca and Zn content. Results At the first hour after treatment, a decrease in Fe and Ca levels was observed. One day following NaNO2 administration, Zn concentration reached its lowest value and Ca levels remained lower, compared to the untreated controls. In contrast, Fe concentration increased on the first and second day after treatment. Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that acute NaNO2 intoxication provokes changes in the endogenous levels of Fe, Ca and Zn in mouse spleen. These findings suggest disruption of the ionic balance and impact on the activity of antioxidant defence enzymes.

  • Molecular characterization of ten zinc (Zn) transporter genes and their regulation to Zn metabolism in freshwater teleost yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Shu-Wei Chen, Kun Wu, Wu-Hong Lv, Chang-Chun Song, Zhi Luo

    Background Zn is an essential trace element for vertebrates, and Zn uptake and transport is related with the ZIP family of Zn transporters. Meantime, Zn also influenced the expression of ZIP family members. Methods We cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of ten Zn transport-relevant genes (ZIP1, ZIP3, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP9, ZIP10, ZIP11, ZIP13 and ZIP14) from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, investigated their mRNA tissue expression. These ZIP mRNA expression was also assessed in the primary hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells of yellow catfish in response to three Zn levels (0, 30 μM and 60 μM, respectively). Results All these genes shared the similar domains with the corresponding members in mammals. The mRNA expression of the ten ZIP genes was detected in nine-tested tissues, but variable among these tissues. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy observation indicated that intracellular free Zn2+ concentration in hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells increased with increasing Zn incubation concentration at both 24 h and 48 h. Zn incubation differentially influenced mRNA levels of ZIP transporters in the hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells, in a time- and cells-dependent manners. In the hepatocytes, at 24 h, compared to the control, Zn addition down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP1, ZIP3, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP9, ZIP11 and ZIP14; however, ZIP10 mRNA levels were lower in 60 μM Zn group than those in the control and 30 μM Zn group. At 48 h, mRNA levels of ZIP1, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP9, ZIP10 and ZIP14 declined with increasing Zn incubation concentrations; ZIP3 mRNA levels were the lowest in 60 μM Zn group and showed no significant differences between the control and 30 μM Zn group. In the intestinal epithelial cells, at 24 h, Zn addition down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP1, ZIP6, ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP9, ZIP10, ZIP11, ZIP13 and ZIP14; ZIP3 mRNA levels were lower in 60 μM Zn group than those in the control and 30 μM Zn group. At 48 h, Zn addition up-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP6 and ZIP9, but down-regulated mRNA levels of ZIP8, ZIP10 and ZIP13. ZIP7, ZIP11 and ZIP14 mRNA abundances were the lowest in 60 μM Zn group and showed no significant differences between the control and 30 μM Zn group. Conclusion For the first time, our study characterized ten ZIP family members in yellow catfish, explored their mRNA tissue expression. Their regulation to Zn addition were also investigated in the hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells of yellow catfish. Our study revealed the mechanism of cells exposed to Zn addition and provided novel insights for the regulatory mechanism of Zn homeostasis.

  • Blood Lead in Children and Associations with Trace Elements and Sociodemographic Factors
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Ángeles Martínez-Hernanz, Montserrat González-Estecha, María Blanco, Manuel Fuentes, José María Ordóñez-Iriarte, Irene Palazón-Bru, Elpidio Calvo-Manuel, Andrés Bodas-Pinedo

    Background No safe blood lead concentration in children has been identified. Lead can affect nearly every system in the body and is especially harmful to the developing central nervous system of children. The aim of this study is to analyze blood lead in a population of children and its association with sociodemographic variables, biochemical parameters, copper, iron, selenium and zinc. Methods We recruited 155 children (86 boys and 69 girls) with a mean age of 7.3 (SD:4.1). Blood lead and serum selenium concentrations were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum iron levels were determined by colorimetric assay. A risk exposure questionnaire for lead was administered to the participants. Results The median blood lead level was 1.1 (IQR 0.7-1.6) µg/dL. Regarding risk exposure factors, the youngest children (<2 years) who played outdoors presented a median blood lead concentration of 1.1 µg/dL IQR: 0.48-1.48, compared to the median of 0.3 µg/dL IQR:0.2-0.48 in the children who stated they played at home (p = 0.024). Significant differences were also found when taking into account those parents who smoked (median 1.3 IQR 0.8-1.9 µg/dL vs 0.9 IQR 0.5-1.4 µg/dL of non-smokers, p = 0.002). Children who drank tap water had higher blood lead levels (median 1.2 IQR 0.7-1.6 µg/dL) than those who drank bottled water (median 0.7 IQR 0.2-1.3 µg/dL p = 0.014). In addition, children whose mothers had not finished school had higher blood lead levels (median 1.7 IQR 1.2-2.3 µg/dL) than those whose mothers had finished school (median 1.2 IQR 0.7-1.7 µg/dL) and those whose mothers had gone to university (median 0.9 IQR 0.5-1.4 µg/dL) p = 0.034. In the multivariate lineal regression analysis we continue to observe the association between mother’s higher level of education and lower blood levels (p = 0.04) and the interaction between age and outdoor play (p = 0.0145). Conclusions In spite of the decline in blood lead concentrations, associated risk factors continue to exist in vulnerable populations such as children.

  • Iodine intake among children and adolescents in Norway: Estimates from the national dietary survey Ungkost 3 (2015-2016)
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Anine C. Medin, Monica H. Carlsen, Lene F. Andersen

    Background Iodine is crucial for normal growth and neurodevelopment. Before 1950, goitre caused by iodine deficiency was widespread in Norway, but decreased significantly after mandatory fortification of animal fodder. Recent dietary changes in milk consumption and fish intake may again have increased the risk of inadequate intakes in some population groups in Norway. The situation for children and adolescents is unclear, and data from nationally representative studies are highly needed. We aimed to describe the iodine intake in Norwegian children and adolescents and estimate the proportion of individuals with an increased risk of suboptimal, adequate and excessive usual iodine intake. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether individuals’ characteristics were associated with iodine intake, and to identify the major iodine contributing foods in the diet of this population. Methods Data from 1722 individuals (4-, 9- and 13-year-olds) from a national dietary survey in Norway from 2015-2016 was used. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted. Usual iodine intakes were estimated, stratified by age group and sex and compared to dietary reference intake cut-offs. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between iodine intake and participants’ characteristics. The contribution of iodine from different foods was described for all and across different participant groups. Results We estimated that the proportion of participants with an increased risk of a suboptimal usual intake of iodine varied from 3-36%. A significant increased risk was observed for older children and girls compared to younger children and boys. Excessive usual intakes were not observed in any age group. Iodine intake was associated with sex, maternal educational level and area of residence. A lower intake was observed for girls and those with a mother with a low educational level. Moreover, those living in the western part and Mid-Norway had statistically significantly higher intakes compared to those living in the capital city and surroundings. Milk, milk products, cheese, fish and shellfish were the main contributors to iodine intake. Supplements contributed with very little of the total iodine intake. Conclusions We have shown that the estimated risk of suboptimal usual iodine intakes among children and adolescents in Norway varies according to age, sex, maternal educational level and area of residence. Those with a limited intake of the main dietary contributors to iodine intake may be at risk, and adolescent girls seem to be especially vulnerable.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Cross-sectional analysis of trace element status in thyroid disease
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Sebastian Mehl, Qian Sun, Christian L. Görlich, Julian Hackler, Johannes F. Kopp, Kostja Renko, Jens Mittag, Tanja Schwerdtle, Lutz Schomburg

    Background The synthesis of thyroid hormone depends on a set of trace elements, most importantly selenium and iodine. The dietary supply with certain micronutrients is limited in many areas of the world, including central Europe and large parts of Asia and Africa. Moreover, both thyroid disease risk and therapy effects are modulated by trace element supply and status. Objective Assessment of trace element status in thyroid patients in a European metropolis. Material and Methods Adult patients visiting a medical praxis in Berlin, Germany, were enrolled into a cross-sectional analysis, and serum samples were obtained from thyroid patients (n = 323) with different conditions including goitre, hypothyroidism, malignancy or autoimmune thyroid disease. Trace elements (iodine, selenium, copper and zinc) were assessed by ICP-MS/MS or total reflection X-ray analysis, along with two protein biomarkers of selenium status (selenoprotein P, glutathione peroxidase), and compared to the clinical phenotype. Results The patients displayed relatively low serum zinc and selenium concentrations as compared to a set (n = 200) of healthy subjects (zinc; 1025+/-233 vs. 1068+/−230 µg/L, p < 0.01, selenium; 76.9+/18.8 vs. 85.1+/-17.4 µg/L, p < 0.0001). A high fraction of patients (37.5%) was classified as selenium-deficient (serum selenium concentrations <70 µg/L), in particular the patients with thyroid malignancy (59%). Serum copper was not different between the groups, and total serum iodine concentrations were unrelated to thyroid disease. Explorative statistical analyses yielded no significant interactions between the trace elements and disease parameters, except for free thyroxine inversely correlating to the copper/selenium ratio. Conclusions In adult thyroid patients, there is no relation of circulating copper, iodine, selenium or zinc concentrations to thyroid hormone. However, a large fraction of German thyroid patients displays a considerable selenium deficit, known to constitute a disease risk potentially impairing convalescence and aggravating autoimmune disease processes. It appears advisable to testing thyroid patients for selenium deficiency, and once diagnosed, an increased supply via dietary counselling or active supplementation should be considered.

  • Se-methylselenocysteine stimulates migration and antioxidant response in HaCaT keratinocytes: Implications for wound healing
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Dongsoo Kim, Bonhee Ku, Eun-Mi Choi

    Background Se-methylselenocysteine (MSC), a natural organic selenium compound, is known for its anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MSC on cell migration, which is the most limiting step in the reepithelialization process of wound healing and the antioxidant response in HaCaT keratinocytes. Methods HaCaT cells were treated with various concentrations of MSC. Cell migration and proliferation, the expression of proteins that are involved in the epidermal-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, the extent of oxidative stress and the antioxidant response, and the associated signaling pathways were analyzed. Results MSC (100―500 μM) increased HaCaT cell migration. MSC stimulated EMT, which was evidenced by a decrease in E-cadherin in the cells at the wound edge and increases in Snail, Twist, and matrix metalloproteinases. MSC increased the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which led to the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, a transcriptional coactivator involved in EMT. MSC caused a transient increase and then an eventual decrease in cellular reactive oxygen species, which appeared to be associated with the increase in nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2, a key transcription factor for the antioxidant response. Conclusion Our results suggest that MSC can promote skin wound healing by stimulating keratinocyte migration and, moreover, can protect cells from excessive oxidative stress that often accompanies and impairs the wound healing process, particularly in chronic wounds, by stimulating an antioxidant response.

  • The concentration of selected elements in the placenta according to selected sociodemographic factors and their effect on birth mass and birth length of newborns
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Dominika Mazurek, Karolina Łoźna, Monika Bronkowska

    Background and aims The placenta is a remarkable organ which provides critical transport functions between the maternal and fetal circulations during pregnancy. The demand for mineral components increases during the gestational period, therefore, an appropriate intake of minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese, determines the correct growth and development of a fetus. The aim of the study was to assess the the concentration of selected elements in the placenta, and to assess the impact of their concentrations on the birth weight and birth length of newborns. The second aim of the study was to assess the influence of selected sociodemographic factors on the concentration of elements in the placenta. Results The study demonstrated that the age of mothers affected the concentration of Ca and Mn in the placenta, and their habit of tobacco smoking during the gestational period was associated with higher concentrations of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Cd in the placental tissue. The results also showed that concentrations of K, Fe, Zn, and Mn in the placental tissue affected birth length. Furthermore, the association was demonstrated between a higher Cd concentration in the placenta (≥ 0.0503 µg/g) and the birth anthropometric parameters of neonates. Conclusions Smoking during pregnancy and environment pollution are the factors that affects the concentration of elements in the placenta and contributes to their high accumulation in the placenta. Smoking during pregnancy causes an increased concentration of cadmium in the placenta which has negative health effects for the newborn. Women living in a big city or village had a higher concentration of cadmium in their placentas compared to women living in smaller cities. The significant influence of some elements (K, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cd) on the newborn’s birth parameters was also demonstrated. The results of our research indicate the importance of the mother’s lifestyle in providing the placenta with elements, which affects the growth of the fetus. • The placenta is an organ that is responsible for the proper course of pregnancy and fetal development. • The demand for mineral components increases during the gestational period, therefore, an appropriate intake of minerals determines the correct growth and development of a fetus • Increased exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead during the gestational period can induce miscarriage, premature delivery, risk of fetal death, inhibition of intrauterine growth and development of the fetus, and low birth parameters.

  • Assessment of the nutritional value of various teas infusions in terms of the macro- and trace elements content
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Maria Długaszek, Mirosława Kaszczuk

    Background Herbal teas are a good alternative to traditional green, black, red and white teas. Herbal teas infusions are also consumed for therapeutic purposes. Teas are the source of many valuable, biologically active compounds, including elements. Infusions drawn up from various teas may be one of the minerals sources in a daily diet. In the study, an attempt was made to assess infusions prepared from popular teas in terms of the content of elements in them. Methods In the work, the amounts of elements such as Ca (calcium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Mn (manganese), Na (sodium), Ni (nickel) and Zn (zinc) were determined in herbal teas infusions as well as yerba mate and rooibos by atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS). Their participation in covering the daily nutrient requirements for particular elements was also estimated. Results The average amount (mg/g) of elements that passed from 1 g of teas to their infusions was following: Ca - 5.73 ± 3.33, K - 18.14 ± 9.50, Mg - 1.79 ± 3.47, Na - 1.34 ± 0.85, and (μg/g) for: Cr - 0.14 ± 0.14, Cu - 2.56 ± 1.53, Fe - 18.45 ± 11.90, Mn - 64.20 ± 88.82, Ni - 0.49 ± 0.30 and Zn - 10.77 ± 13.89. Among the tested teas, the infusions of hibiscus, horsetail, nettle, rooibos and yerba mate contained the largest quantities of minerals. A significant positive correlation was determined between the pH value of infusion and Mg content, as well as some pairs of correlating elements (Ca-K, Ca-Mg, Cr-Mg, Cu-Zn and K-Mg) were found in the analyzed brews. Conclusions Generally, the infusions of herbal teas to a small extent cover the daily allowance for elements, however they are a valuable complementary source of them.

  • Comparative study on the effects of salinomycin, monensin and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on the concentrations of lead, calcium, copper, iron and zinc in lungs and heart in lead-exposed mice
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Juliana Ivanova, Kalina Kamenova, Emilia Petrova, Ivelin Vladov, Yordanka Gluhcheva, Petar Dorkov

    Background and aim Environmental lead (Pb) exposure damages the lungs and is a risk factor for death from cardiovascular disease. Pb induces toxicity by a mechanism, which involves alteration of the essential elements homeostasis. In this study we compare the effects of salinomycin (Sal), monensin (Mon) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the concentrations of lead (Pb), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in the lungs and heart of lead-exposed mice. Methods Sixty days old male ICR mice were divided into five groups: control (Ctrl) – untreated mice obtained distilled water for 28 days; Pb-intoxicated group (Pb) – exposed to 80 mg/kg body weight (BW) Pb(NO3)2 during the first 14 days of the experimental protocol; DMSA-treated (Pb + DMSA) – Pb-exposed mice, subjected to treatment with an average daily dose of 20 mg/kg BW DMSA for two weeks; Monensin-treated (Pb + Mon) – Pb-exposed mice, obtained an average daily dose of 20 mg/kg BW tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 14 days; Pb + Sal - Pb-exposed mice, treated with an average daily dose of 20 mg/kg BW tetraethylammonium salt of salinomycinic acid for two weeks. On the 29th day of the experiment the samples (lungs and heart) were taken for atomic absorption analysis. Results The results revealed that exposure of mice to Pb for 14 days significantly increased the concentration of the toxic metal in both organs and elevated the cardiac concentrations of Ca, Cu and Fe compared to the untreated mice. Pb exposure diminished the lung concentrations of Ca and Zn compared to that of untreated controls. DMSA, monensin and salinomycin decreased the concentration of Pb in the lungs and heart. Among the tested chelating agents, only salinomycin restored the cardiac Fe concentration to normal control values. Conclusion The results demonstrated the potential application of polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin as antidote for treatment of Pb-induced toxicity in the lungs and heart. The possible complexation of the polyether ionophorous antibiotics with Ca(II) and Zn(II), which can diminish the endogenous concentrations of both ions in the lungs should be taken into account.

  • Role of Trace Elements in Pityriasis Alba
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Ghada M. Khafagy, Hanan R. Nada, Laila A. Rashid, Solwan M. Ibrahim, Eman M. Abd el-Sattar

    Background Pityriasis Alba (PA) is a common skin disorder affecting the children and it has multiple risk factors. Objectives To assess the serum levels of trace elements (copper, zinc, and magnesium) and hemoglobin (Hb) level in patients with PA. Method This is a case control study; 110 participants (55 cases and 55 controls) were recruited from pediatric dermatology and family medicine clinics, Cairo university hospitals. Patients were allocated into two groups, PA group (randomly selected male and female children age group (6-16) with PA lesions) and a matched control group. Full history was taken including sociodemographic data, present history of the lesions. Full general and dermatological examination was done. Blood samples were taken to asses iron and trace elements levels. The gained measures were analyzed by (SPSS) program version 22. Results This study showed that Hb levels, serum ferritin, copper, zinc and magnesium were significantly lower in PA group. There was statistically significant difference between both cases and controls regarding trace elements (copper, zinc, and magnesium) with (p value was 0.000, 0.000 and 0.003) respectively. Zinc deficiency increased the risk by more than 15 folds. Also, there was statistically significant difference between both groups regarding Hb levels and serum ferritin (p value was 0.000). The reduced Hb level increases the risk of PA by more than nine folds (OR 9.6) Conclusion PA is associated with reduced levels of Hb, serum zinc, ferritin, copper and magnesium; sun exposure, skin phototype were found to be important risk factors for PA.

  • Assessment of copper, iron, zinc and manganese status and speciation in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Olga P. Ajsuvakova, Alexey A. Tinkov, Desiree Willkommen, Anastasia A. Skalnaya, Alexey B. Danilov, Anna A. Pilipovich, Michael Aschner, Anatoly V. Skalny, Bernhard Michalke, Margarita G. Skalnaya

    Background The objective of this pilot study was to assess iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) status (hair, serum, and urine) and speciation (serum) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Methods A pilot study involving a total of 27 subjects (13 PD patients, 14 controls) was performed. Serum, urine, and hair metal content was assessed using ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn was performed using a hybrid HPLC-ICP-MS system. Results Group comparisons did not reveal any significant group difference in serum Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn total metal level between PD patients and controls. Speciation analysis revealed a significant decrease in Cu/ceruloplasmin copper in association with elevation of low-molecular weight species (amino acids)-bound copper. It is proposed that in PD, binding of Cu(II) ions to ceruloplasmin is reduced and free copper ions coordinate with low molecular weight ligands. The level of Mn-albumin complexes in PD patients was more than 4-fold higher as compared to the respective value in the control group. The observed difference may be considered as a marker of redistribution between high and low molecular weight ligands. Conclusions Metal speciation is significantly affected in serum of PD-patients. These findings are indicative of the potential role of metal metabolism and PD pathogenesis, although the exact mechanisms of such associations require further detailed studies.

  • The spectrum of pathogenic variants of the ATP7B gene in Wilson disease in the Russian Federation
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Mariya S. Balashova, Inna G. Tuluzanovskaya, Oleg S. Glotov, Andrey S. Glotov, Yury A. Barbitoff, Mikhail A. Fedyakov, Diana A. Alaverdian, Tatiana E. Ivashchenko, Olga V. Romanova, Andrey M. Sarana, Sergey G. Scherbak, Vladislav S. Baranov, Marat I. Filimonov, Anatoly V. Skalny, Natalya A. Zhuchenko, Tatiana M. Ignatova, Aliy Y. Asanov

    Background. Wilson’s disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene resulting in copper accumulation in different organs. However, data on ATP7B mutation spectrum in Russia and worldwide are insufficient and contradictory. The objective of the present study was estimation of the frequency of ATP7B gene mutations in the Russian population of WD patients. Materials and methods. 75 WDpatients were examined by next-generation sequencing (NGS). A targeted panel NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice: 151012_HG38_CysFib_EZ_HX3 (ROCHE)was designed for analysis of ATP7B gene and possible modifier genes. Retrospective assessment of a diagnostic WD score (Leipzig, 2001) was also performed. Results. 31 mutations in ATP7B gene were detected. Two most frequent mutations were c.3207C > A (51,85% of alleles) and c.3190 G > A (8,64% of alleles). Single rare mutations were detected in 29% of cases. In 96% cases mutations of both copies of the ATP7B were revealed. We also observed 3 novel potentially pathogenic variants which were not previously described (c.1870-8A > G, c.3655A > T (p.Ile1219Phe), c.3036dupC (p.Lys1013fs). For 25% of patients at the time of the manifestation the diagnosis WD could not be established using the earlier proposed diagnostic score. There was a remarkable delay in diagnosis for the majority of patients. Only 33% of patients WD was diagnosed in three months after the first symptoms, 29%patients - in 3-12 months, 30% – in 1-10 years, in 8% – more than 10 years. Generally, clinical appearance of WD may be rather variable at manifestation and genetic profiling at this step is the only way to confirm the presence of WD.

  • Elemental metabolomics in human cord blood: Method validation and trace element quantification
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Daniel R. McKeating, Joshua J. Fisher, Ping Zhang, William W. Bennett, Anthony V. Perkins

    Background Trace elements are an essential requirement for human health and development and changes in trace element status have been associated with pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and preterm birth. Elemental metabolomics, which involves the simultaneous quantification and characterisation of multiple elements, could provide important insights into these gestational disorders. Methods This study used an Agilent 7900 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to simultaneously measure 68 elements, in 166 placental cord blood samples collected from women with various pregnancy complications (control, hypertensive, PE, GDM, FGR, pre-term, and post-term birth). Results There were single element differences across gestational outcomes for elements Mg, P, Cr, Ni, Sr, Mo, I, Au, Pb, and U. Hypertensive and post-term pregnancies were significantly higher in Ni concentrations when compared to controls (control = 2.74 µg/L, hypertensive = 6.72 µg/L, post-term = 7.93 µg/L, p < 0.05), iodine concentration was significantly higher in post-term pregnancies (p < 0.05), and Pb concentrations were the lowest in pre-term pregnancies (pre-term = 2.79 µg/L, control = 4.68 µg/L, PE = 5.32 µg/L, GDM = 8.27 µg/L, p < 0.01). Further analysis was conducted using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for differentiating pregnancy groups. The ratio of Sn/Pb showed the best diagnostic power in discriminating between control and pre-term birth with area under the curve (AUC) 0.86. When comparing control and post-term birth, Mg/Cr (AUC = 0.84), and Cr (AUC = 0.83) had the best diagnostic powers. In pre-term and post-term comparisons Ba was the best single element (81.5%), and P/Cu provided the best ratio (91.7%). Conclusions This study has shown that analysis of multiple elements can enable differentiation between fetal cord blood samples from control, hypertensive, PE, GDM, FGR, pre and post-term pregnancies. This data highlights the power of elemental metabolomics and provides a basis for future gestational studies.

  • In vitro digestion method to evaluate solubility of dietary zinc, selenium and manganese in salmonids diets
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-20
    Marta S. Silva, P. Antony Jesu Prabhu, Robin Ørnsrud, Veronika Sele, Saskia Kröckel, Jens J. Sloth, Heidi Amlund

    Background The determination of dietary mineral solubility is one of the main steps in the evaluation of their availability for a given species. Methods This study proposed an in vitro digestion method (acidic and alkaline hydrolysis). The method was applied to evaluate the solubility of inorganic and organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and manganese (Mn) in salmonids diets. An inorganic mineral (IM) diet was supplemented with zinc sulphate, sodium selenite and manganous sulphate and an organic mineral (OM) diet was supplemented with zinc chelate of glycine, L-selenomethionine and manganese chelate of glycine. Results The solubility of Zn was similar in both diets tested. The amount of soluble Zn was low in the acidic hydrolysis (3-8%) and lower in the alkaline hydrolysis (0.4-2%). The solubility of Se was higher in the OM diet (7-34%) compared with the IM diet (3-12%). Regarding Mn, after the acidic hydrolysis the solubility was higher in the IM diet (6-25%) than the OM diet (4-17%). The in vitro solubility were compared with in vivo availability of Zn, Se and Mn. Data obtained for solubility (%) of Zn, Se and Mn was lower when compared with apparent availability (%) of Zn, Se and Mn. Conclusion Data obtained demonstrated that solubility of Zn, Se and Mn was influenced by the mineral chemical form supplemented to the diet and by the gastrointestinal environment. The solubility of Zn, Se and Mn was not comparable with the apparent availability of Zn, Se and Mn. Nevertheless, the effect of the chemical form of the minerals was similar for the solubility of Zn, Se and Mn and the apparent availability of Zn, Se and Mn. Considering the overall results of this study, the in vitro method could replace some of the in vivo studies for a qualitative evaluation but not for a quantitative evaluation.

  • Selenium and copper status - potential signposts for neurological remission after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Julian Seelig, Raban Arved Heller, Julian Hackler, Patrick Haubruck, Arash Moghaddam, Bahram Biglari, Lutz Schomburg

    Introduction Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) is a severe incident resulting in loss of motor and sensory function caused by complex pathological mechanisms including massive oxidative stress and extensive inflammatory processes. The essential trace elements selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) play crucial roles as part of the antioxidant defense. Hypothesis Remission after TSCI is associated with characteristic dynamics of early changes in serum Cu and Se status. Study design Single-center prospective observational study. Patients and methods Serum samples from TSCI patients were analyzed (n = 52); 21 recovered and showed a positive abbreviated injury score (AIS) conversion within 3 months (G1), whereas 21 had no remission (G0). Ten subjects with vertebral fractures without neurological impairment served as control (C). Different time points (at admission, and after 4, 9, 12, and 24 h) were analyzed for total serum Se and Cu concentrations by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and for Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) and Ceruloplasmin (CP) by sandwich ELISA. Results At admission, CP and SELENOP concentrations were higher in the remission group (G1) than in the non-remission group (G0). Within 24 h, there were marginal changes in Se, SELENOP, Cu and CP concentrations in the groups of controls (C) and G0. In contrast, these parameters decreased significantly in G1. Binary logistic regression analysis including Cu and Se levels at admission in combination with Se and CP levels after 24 h allowed a prediction for potential remission, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 87.7% (CI: 75.1%-100.0%). Conclusion These data indicate a strong association between temporal changes of the Se and Cu status and the clinical outcome after TSCI. The dynamics observed may reflect an ongoing redistribution of the trace elements in favor of a better anti-inflammatory response and a more successful neurological regeneration.

  • Zinc Supplements and Bone Health: The Role of the RANKL-RANK Axis as a Therapeutic Target
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Negin Amin, Cain C.T. Clark, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Sadegh Jafarnejad

    Background To this day, empirical data suggests that zinc has important roles in matrix synthesis, bone turnover, and mineralization and its beneficial effects on bone could be mediated through different mechanisms. The influence of zinc on bone turnover could be facilitated via regulating RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway in bone tissue. Therefore, the aim of the study was to conduct a review to investigate the possible effect of the zinc mediated bone remodeling via RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway. Methods : A comprehensive systematic search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar to explore the studies investigating the effect of zinc as a bone remodeling factor via RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway regulation. Subsequently, the details of the pathway and the impact of zinc supplements on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway regulation were discussed. Results : The pathway could play an important role in bone remodeling and any imbalance between RANKL/RANK/OPG components could lead to extreme bone resorption. Although the outcomes of some studies are equivocal, it is evident that zinc possesses protective properties against bone loss by regulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway. There are several experiments where zinc supplementation resulted in upregulation of OPG expression or decreases RANKL level. However, the results of some studies oppose this. Conclusion : It is likely that sufficient zinc intake will elicit positive effects on bone health by RANKL/RANK/OPG regulation. Although the outcomes of a few studies are equivocal, it seems that zinc can exert the protective properties against bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis via downregulation of RANKL/RANK. Additionally, there are several experiments where zinc supplementation resulted in upregulation of OPG expression. However, the results of limited studies oppose this. Therefore, aside from the positive role zinc possesses in preserving bone mass, further effects of zinc in RANKL/RANK/OPG system requires further animal/human studies.

  • 更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Selenium speciation analysis in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson’s disease
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Fabian Maass, Bernhard Michalke, Desiree Willkommen, Claudia Schulte, Lars Tönges, Matthias Boerger, Inga Zerr, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate if speciation analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry could be used to detect organic and inorganic binding forms of selenium in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and age-matched control subjects (AMC). Methods PD patients and control subjects were enrolled from three different neurological departments. CSF samples were collected according to standardized biomarker protocols and subjected to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for total selenium determination and ion exchange chromatography (IEC) hyphenated to ICP-MS for selenium speciation analysis. Results 75 PD patients and 68 age-matched controls were enrolled for speciation analysis. 8 different species could be detected, but only selenoprotein P (SELENOP), human serum albumin-bound Se (Se-HSA), selenomethionine (Se-Met) and an unidentified Se-compound (U2) presented with more than 50% values above the limit of quantification, without showing significant differences between both groups (p > 0.05). The Se-HSA / Se-Met ratio yielded a significant difference between PD and AMC (p = 0.045). The inorganic species Se-IV and Se-VI were only detectable in a minor part of PD and AMC samples. A highly significant correlation between total selenium levels and SELENOP (PD p < 0.0001; AMC p < 0.0001) and Se-HSA (PD p < 0.0001; AMC p < 0.0001) could be demonstrated, respectively. Conclusions Speciation analysis yielded new insight into selenium homeostasis in PD but cannot be used to establish a diagnostic biomarker. The small number of detectable values for Se-IV and Se-VI suggests an inferior role of these potentially neurotoxic binding forms in PD pathology in contrast to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  • Dietary zinc intake, supplemental zinc intake and serum zinc levels and the prevalence of kidney stones in adults
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Yaofei Sun, Yanchen Wang, Dawei Wang, Quan Zhou

    Objective The association between zinc intake and the risk of kidney stones remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary zinc intake, supplemental zinc intake and serum zinc levels and the prevalence of kidney stones in adults. Methods Adult participants from the 2007-2016 NHANES were included. Restricted cubic splines were adopted to assess the dose-response relationships. Results Dietary zinc intake was linearly associated with the prevalence of kidney stones (Pfor non-linearity = 0.50), and the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of kidney stones were 0.75 (0.51-1.04) for 10 mg/day, 0.65 (0.39-0.97) for 20 mg/day, 0.53 (0.30-0.94) for 30 mg/day and 0.45 (0.22-0.95) for 40 mg/day. The linear relationship was also observed among women and overweight/obese individuals. No association was found between supplemental zinc intake and the prevalence of kidney stones. A non-linear relationship was found between serum zinc levels and the prevalence of kidney stones (Pfor non-linearity = 0.02), and the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of kidney stones were 0.52 (0.33-0.82) for 70 ug/dL, 0.43 (0.24-0.77) for 90 ug/dL, 0.56 (0.32-0.98) for 110 ug/dL and 0.77 (0.37-1.62) for 130 ug/dL. The non-linear relationship was also observed among men and overweight/obese individuals. Conclusions Dietary zinc intake and serum zinc levels were inversely associated with the prevalence of kidney stones in adults, and there may be effect modification by participant sex and body mass index. The present analysis is limited in its ability to establish causality.

  • Iron chelator Deferoxamine protects human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y from 6-Hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis and autophagy dysfunction
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Jyotirmoy Rakshit, Ayushi Priyam, Karthik Kumar Gowrishetty, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jaya Bandyopadhyay
  • Serum lipid profiles of young Japanese women with iron deficiency without anemia
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Takako Sawada, Aki Konomi, Katsuhiko Yokoi

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the association between iron deficiency without anemia (IDNA) and serum lipid profiles in young women of around 20 years of age. Methods This study included non-anemic (hemoglobin ≥ 12 g/dL) female volunteers aged 18 to 22 years who were not taking mineral/vitamin supplements and living in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. These volunteers were classified into two groups based on their sFer (serum ferritin) levels: normal group (sFer ≥ 20 ng/mL, n = 36) and IDNA group (sFer < 20 ng/mL, n = 29). Venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital veins of these volunteers after 10–12-h fasting to measure the hematological and biochemical parameters, including lipid levels and iron status. The results of each group were compared using Student’s t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test (for inhomogeneous variance). Results The serum cholesterol levels varied depending on the iron status in the women. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the IDNA group were significantly higher (P = 0.006) than that in the normal group. However, the levels of total cholesterol (T-CHO), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were not significantly different between the groups. Serum LDL-C levels were positively and significantly correlated with sFer levels in the IDNA group (Kendall’s rank correlation 0.264, P = 0.044), but not in the normal group. The sFer level was not correlated with serum HDL-C in both groups (data not shown). The reason for the high serum HDL-C levels in young women with IDNA is not yet clear. Compared to the normal group, the frequency of eating bread containing bran was significantly higher (P = 0.031) and that for yogurt was significantly lower (P = 0.040) in the IDNA group. The proportion of the women who were susceptible to infection, which was measured using the Cornell Medical Index, was significantly higher in the IDNA group than in the normal group. Among those susceptible to infection, the serum HDL-C level of the volunteers in the IDNA group was significantly higher than that of the volunteers in the normal group (P = 0.024). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lipid parameters may be associated with IDNA and susceptibility to infection. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the changes in the serum cholesterol levels in individuals with IDNA and the clinical significance of these findings.

  • Monolithic chromatography on conjoint liquid chromatography columns for speciation of platinum-based chemotherapeutics in serum of cancer patients
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Katarina Marković, Radmila Milačič, Janja Vidmar, Stefan Marković, Katja Uršič, Martina Nikšić Žakelj, Maja Cemazar, Gregor Sersa, Mojca Unk, Janez Ščančar
  • Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins against iron overload-induced renal oxidative damage in rats
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Shaojun Yun, Dongyang Chu, Xingshuai He, Wenfang Zhang, Cuiping Feng

    Background Excessive exposure to iron can cause kidney damage, and chelating drugs such as deferoxamine and deferiprone have limited usefulness in treating iron poisoning. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPAs) against iron overload induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The roles of GSPAs in chelating iron, antioxidant activity, renal function, pathological section, and apoptosis-related gene expression were assessed. Methods Newly weaned male Sprague–Dawley rats aged 21 days (weight, 65 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into four groups containing 10 rats each: normal control (negative) group, iron overload (positive) group, GSPAs group, and GSPAs + iron overload (test) group. Iron dextran injections (2.5 mg⋅ kg−1) and GSPAs (25 mg⋅ kg−1) were intraperitoneally and intragastrically administered to rats daily for 7 weeks, respectively. Measurements included red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), renal iron content, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), creatinine (CR) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, pathological changes, and apoptotic Fas, Bax expressions in the kidney tissue. Differences among the dietary groups were determined using one-way analysis of variance with post-hoc Tukey’s test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results RBC count, Hb level, renal iron content, MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas, Bax expressions significantly increased in the positive group than in the negative group; contrarily, TIBC, GSH-Px activity, and T-AOC significantly decreased in the positive group than in the negative group (P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, SOD activity was slightly reduced in the positive group than in the negative group. Inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrous tissue proliferation were observed in the kidney tissue of the rats in the positive group; in contrast, the rats exhibited better recovery when GSPAs were used instead of iron alone. Compared with the positive group, RBC counts, Hb levels, renal iron contents, the MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas, Bax expressions significantly decreased, whereas the TIBC, the GSH-Px and SOD activities as well as T-AOC significantly increased in the test group rats (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the RBC counts, Hb levels, TIBC, renal iron contents, the SOD activity and MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas expression between the GSPAs and negative groups. The GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly increased whereas Bax expression was significantly decreased in the GSPAs group rats than in the negative group rats (P < 0.05). The rats in the GSPAs, test, and negative groups displayed glomeruli and tubules with a clear structure; further, the epithelial cells in the renal tubules were neatly arranged. Conclusions GSPAs have protective effects on nephrotoxicity in rats with iron overload. Thus, further investigation of GSPAs as a new and natural phytochemo-preventive agent against iron overload is warranted.

  • Reduced expression of ferroportin1 and ceruloplasmin predicts poor prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Bo Zhu, Qi Zhi, Qian Xie, Xiaohui Wu, Yanan Gao, Xiao Chen, Liyun Shi
  • Evaluation of blood mercury and serum selenium levels in the pregnant population of the Community of Madrid, Spain
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    María Teresa Llorente Ballesteros, Begoña García Barrado, Irene Navarro Serrano, Silvia Izquierdo Álvarez, María del Pueyo García Anaya, María José González Muñoz
  • Diagnostic potential of ionomic profile in the plasma of cervical cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Chun Jiang, Qing-Qing Zhao, Qian Gao, Shao-Bin Wu, Guo Wang, Xiao-Ping Chen, Lin Wang, Ying-Ying Zhang, Jie Tang

    Background and Aim Major and trace elements play an important role in human body, and it has been reported that ionomic distribution differ greatly in tumor patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on the ionomic profile in human plasma as a potential biomarker for the therapeutic effects of cervical cancer. Method Thirty-seven patients with cervical cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were included in this study, pretherapy and post-treatment blood samples were collected and concentrations of 24 ions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results The results showed that after cisplatin chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients' plasma Pt level significantly increased, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Se, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Ba levels significantly decreased (P < 0.01), and Al, Cu ions were significantly correlated with the treatment effect (P < 0.05). In addition, the pattern of elemental correlations changed dramatically after the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion The results indicated that the plasma ionomic profile may serve as a quick and convenient tool to reflect the therapeutic effect of cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy in cervical cancer patients, and supplement of certain essential elements may be of great importance for the maintenance of ion homeostasis in human body and for the reduction of adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  • Trace elements profile in the blood of Huntington’ disease patients
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Stefania Squadrone, Paola Brizio, Maria Cesarina Abete, Alfredo Brusco

    Huntington’ disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, psychiatric, and cognitive deterioration. HD is, together with spinocerebellar ataxias, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and dentatorubral-pallido- luysian atrophy, one of the nine disorders caused by an expansion of glutamine residues in the causative protein where the polyglutamine expansion cause aberrant protein folding. Since an excessive metal’s accumulation in organs may induce protein misfolding and oxidative stress, we have studied the blood concentration of essential (Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn) and nonessential (As, Cd, Sb, Sn, V) trace elements in HD patients. We found increased levels of the essential elements iron, chromium, selenium and zinc and of the nonessential element arsenic in the blood of HD patients. Since alteration in metals homeostasis may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease and could eventually constitute a target for therapy, we may suggest the utilize of the blood metal profile as a further in vivo tool to study and characterize Huntington disease.

  • Blood and plasma titanium levels associated with well-functioning hip implants
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Ilona Swiatkowska, Nicholas G. Martin, Johann Henckel, Hugh Apthorp, Jane Hamshere, Alister J. Hart
  • Inhibitory effect of metals on animal and plant glutathione transferases
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Dirk Dobritzsch, Konstantin Grancharov, Corinna Hermsen, Gerd-Joachim Krauss, Dirk Schaumlöffel

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent a widespread enzyme superfamily in eukaryotes and prokaryotes catalyzing different reactions with endogenous and xenobiotic substrates such as organic pollutants. The latter are often found together with metal contamination in the environment. Besides performing of essential functions, GSTs protect cells by conjugation of glutathione with various reactive electrophiles. The interference of toxic metals with this functionality of GSTs may have unpredictable toxicological consequences for the organisms. In this review results from the recent literature are summarized and discussed describing the ability of metals to inhibit intracellular detoxification processes in animals and plants.

  • The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in manganese exposed Caenorhabditis elegans
    J. Trace Elem. Med. Bio. (IF 2.895) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Catherine Neumann, Jessica Baesler, Gereon Steffen, Merle Marie Nicolai, Tabea Zubel, Michael Aschner, Alexander Bürkle, Aswin Mangerich, Tanja Schwerdtle, Julia Bornhorst
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上海纽约大学William Glover