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  • When Is a Plasmodium-Infected Mosquito an Infectious Mosquito?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Wouter Graumans; Ella Jacobs; Teun Bousema; Photini Sinnis

    Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito’s capacity to give rise to secondary infections

  • ‘Artemisinin Resistance’: Something New or Old? Something of a Misnomer?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Thomas E. Wellems; Juliana M. Sá; Xin-zhuan Su; Sean V. Connelly; Angela C. Ellis

    Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are crucial first-line antimalarial drugs that rapidly clear parasitemia, but recrudescences of the infection frequently follow ART monotherapy. For this reason, ART must be used in combination with one or more partner drugs that ensure complete cure. The ability of malaria parasites to survive ART monotherapy may relate to an innate growth bistability phenomenon

  • RPL-6: An Achilles Needle in the Malaria Haystack?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Lisa L Drewry,John T Harty

    Malaria is a global health scourge for which a highly effective vaccine remains frustratingly elusive. Recent identification of an endogenous malaria antigen that stimulates robust TRM-mediated immunity in mice by Valencia-Hernandez et al. strengthens the case for prime-and-trap malaria vaccines and will greatly aid further investigations of cellular antimalarial immunity.

  • Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Tsetse Fly).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Jérémy Bouyer

  • Malaria According to GARP: A New Trail towards Anti-disease Vaccination.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Calvin Hon,Kai Matuschewski

    Naturally acquired anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunity protects first and foremost against severe disease. Raj et al. have established a tantalizing path towards an anti-disease vaccine by identifying glutamic acid-rich protein (GARP) antibodies as signatures of protection against severe malaria in Tanzanian children and demonstrating efficacy in blood cultures and monkey trials.

  • New Insights on Acute and Chronic Schistosomiasis: Do We Need a Redefinition?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Federico Gobbi,Francesca Tamarozzi,Dora Buonfrate,Lisette van Lieshout,Zeno Bisoffi,Emmanuel Bottieau,

    A precise timeframe to differentiate acute schistosomiasis (AS) and chronic schistosomiasis (CS) is not well defined. Based on recent published literature, lung nodular lesions in AS and CS seem to have the same pathophysiology, that is, eggs laid in situ by adult worms, during an ectopic migration. Moreover, the occurrence of lung nodules due to clusters of eggs and the systemic immunoallergic reaction

  • Precipitated Malaria: It Never Rains but It Pours.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Lars Hviid

    Occasionally, Plasmodium falciparum malaria is apparently precipitated by traumatic events (e.g., a landmine accident) or by noninfectious events (e.g., pregnancy). The authors reporting such cases often seem as baffled as many of their readers probably are. However, the case reports may contain important clues regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity.

  • Evolution, Composition, Assembly, and Function of the Conoid in Apicomplexa.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-31
    Nicolas Dos Santos Pacheco,Nicolò Tosetti,Ludek Koreny,Ross F Waller,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    The phylum Apicomplexa has been defined by the presence of the apical complex, a structure composed of secretory organelles and specific cytoskeletal elements. A conspicuous feature of the apical complex in many apicomplexans is the conoid, a hollow tapered barrel structure composed of tubulin fibers. In Toxoplasma gondii, the apical complex is a central site of convergence for calcium-related and

  • Needs and Challenges in Modelling Malaria for Emergency Contexts.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Christophe Boëte,Maite Guardiola,Estrella Lasry,Sakib Burza,Silvia Moriana,William Robertson

    While modelling is an essential component for an understanding of the epidemiology of malaria, and for designing better control measures, it rarely considers the particular contexts encountered in emergency settings. By linking these situations with the transmission parameters our aim is to correct this bias and call for a better collaboration between relief actors.

  • Lutzomyia longipalpis (Sand Fly).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Lucas Christian de Sousa-Paula,Domenico Otranto,Filipe Dantas-Torres

  • Varroa destructor: A Complex Parasite, Crippling Honey Bees Worldwide.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Kirsten S Traynor,Fanny Mondet,Joachim R de Miranda,Maeva Techer,Vienna Kowallik,Melissa A Y Oddie,Panuwan Chantawannakul,Alison McAfee

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has shaken the beekeeping and pollination industries since its spread from its native host, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), to the naïve European honey bee (Apis mellifera) used commercially for pollination and honey production around the globe. Varroa is the greatest threat to honey bee health. Worrying observations include increasing acaricide resistance

  • Complement Evasion Contributes to Lyme Borreliae-Host Associations.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Yi-Pin Lin,Maria A Diuk-Wasser,Brian Stevenson,Peter Kraiczy

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Lyme borreliae infect diverse vertebrate reservoirs without triggering apparent manifestations in these animals; however, Lyme borreliae strains differ in their reservoir hosts. The mechanisms that drive those differences are unknown. To survive

  • Thelazia callipaeda.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Domenico Otranto,Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan,Filipe Dantas-Torres

  • Plasmodium vivax in Hematopoietic Niches: Hidden and Dangerous: (Trends in Parasitology 36, 447-458, 2020).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    João Luiz Silva-Filho,Marcus V G Lacerda,Mario Recker,Samuel C Wassmer,Matthias Marti,Fabio T M Costa

  • Perkinsus marinus.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Raghavendra Yadavalli,Kousuke Umeda,José A Fernández Robledo

  • Mast Cells and Basophils: From Malevolent Design to Coevolutionary Arms Race.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Anderson Sá-Nunes,Carlo J F Oliveira,José M Ribeiro

    Mast cells and basophils are central to acquired resistance against blood-feeding arthropods which, in turn, counteract these cells by modulating their biological activities. The phenotypic exuberance displayed in this battlefield points to a reciprocal selective pressure suggesting a coevolutionary arms race that shapes both ectoparasites and vertebrate hosts.

  • Schistosomiasis Control: Leave No Age Group Behind.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-16
    Christina L Faust,Derick N M Osakunor,Jennifer A Downs,Sekeleghe Kayuni,J Russell Stothard,Poppy H L Lamberton,Jutta Reinhard-Rupp,David Rollinson

    Despite accelerating progress towards schistosomiasis control in sub-Saharan Africa, several age groups have been eclipsed by current treatment and monitoring strategies that mainly focus on school-aged children. As schistosomiasis poses a threat to people of all ages, unfortunate gaps exist in current treatment coverage and associated monitoring efforts, preventing subsequent health benefits to preschool-aged

  • Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host-Pathogen Dynamics.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Adriana P Bernardo-Cravo,Dirk S Schmeller,Antonis Chatzinotas,Vance T Vredenburg,Adeline Loyau

    Microorganisms are increasingly recognized as ecosystem-relevant components because they affect the population dynamics of hosts. Functioning at the interface of the host and pathogen, skin and gut microbiomes are vital components of immunity. Recent work reveals a strong influence of biotic and abiotic environmental factors (including the environmental microbiome) on disease dynamics, yet the importance

  • Control of Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran: Where Do We Stand?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Mohammad Ebrahimipour,Christine M Budke,Majid Fasihi Harandi

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important public health challenge in Iran that requires a One Health approach to control. Filling information gaps and research needs on different aspects of the disease, including parasite biology, disease ecology, human/animal infection, and administrative issues, is essential to address challenges faced by CE control programs.

  • Pathogens Shape Sex Differences in Mammalian Aging.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Morgane Tidière,Adèle Badruna,David Fouchet,Jean-Michel Gaillard,Jean-François Lemaître,Dominique Pontier

    Understanding the origin of sex differences in lifespan and aging patterns remains a salient challenge in both biogerontology and evolutionary biology. Different factors have been studied but the potential influence of pathogens has never been investigated. Sex differences especially in hormones and resource allocation generate a differential response to pathogens and thereby shape sex differences

  • Zoonotic Parasites of Reptiles: A Crawling Threat.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Jairo A Mendoza-Roldan,David Modry,Domenico Otranto

    Reptiles are reservoirs of a wide range of pathogens, including many protozoa, helminths, pentastomids, and arthropod parasitic species, some of which may be of public health concern. In this review we discuss the zoonotic risks associated with human-reptile interactions. Increased urbanization and introduction of exotic species of reptile may act as drivers for the transmission of zoonotic parasites

  • FDA-Approved Antiparasitic Drugs in the 21st Century: A Success for Helminthiasis?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Josué de Moraes,Timothy G Geary

    Diseases caused by helminth infections affect more than a quarter of the population of the world, but the therapeutic arsenal is limited. The approval of moxidectin in 2018 and triclabendazole in 2019 by the FDA marked an important moment in the fight against diseases of poverty, such as helminthiases.

  • Roles of Symbiotic Microorganisms in Arboviral Infection of Arthropod Vectors.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Chunhong Yin,Peng Sun,Xi Yu,Penghua Wang,Gong Cheng

    Arthropod vectors serve as native reservoirs and transmitters of hundreds of arboviruses. In arthropod vectors, symbiotic microorganisms residing in the gut lumen and/or hemocoelic tissues maintain complicated relationships with their host and influence multiple aspects of vector physiology. Recently, accumulating evidence has established an important role for symbiotic microorganisms in vector–virus

  • Diagnosis of Porcine Cysticercosis at Necropsy: When Is Enough, Enough?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Marshall W Lightowlers

    Changes in the incidence of porcine cysticercosis is used commonly in the assessment of efforts to control the transmission of Taenia solium, the cause of human neurocysticercosis. Although cysticerci may occasionally occur in tissues other than the striated muscles, particularly the brain, infection in pigs can be diagnosed reliably by assessment of muscle tissue alone.

  • A Way Forward for Culturing Plasmodium vivax.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Karthigayan Gunalan,Emma H Rowley,Louis H Miller

    Trager and Jensen established a method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum, a breakthrough for malaria research worldwide. Since then, multiple attempts to establish Plasmodium vivax in continuous culture have failed. Unlike P. falciparum, which can invade all aged erythrocytes, P. vivax is restricted to reticulocytes. Thus, a constant supply of reticulocytes is considered critical for continuous P

  • The RH5-CyRPA-Ripr Complex as a Malaria Vaccine Target.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Robert J Ragotte,Matthew K Higgins,Simon J Draper

    Despite ongoing efforts, a highly effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum remains elusive. Vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic stages of the P. falciparum life cycle are the most advanced to date, affording moderate levels of efficacy in field trials. However, the discovery that the members of the merozoite PfRH5-PfCyRPA-PfRipr (RCR) complex are capable of inducing strain-transcendent neutralizing

  • Leishmania: A Maestro in Epigenetic Manipulation of Macrophage Inflammasomes.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Shaden Kamhawi,Tiago D Serafim

    Epigenetic manipulation of host cells by intracellular pathogens has become increasingly evident. Lecoeur et al. show us how Leishmania amazonensis inhibits macrophage inflammasomes by modifying histone H3 activation marks on NF-κB-associated gene promoters that increase the expression of inhibitors and downmodulates activators of this pathway.

  • 更新日期:2020-04-25
  • Endocytosis in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Tobias Spielmann,Simon Gras,Ricarda Sabitzki,Markus Meissner

    Endocytosis is critical for many functions in eukaryotic cells. Uptake of host cell cytosol, an indispensable endocytic process in malaria blood-stage parasites, has been known for a long time. However, it is only recently that the proteins involved in this process have started to emerge. Unexpectedly, some of these proteins revealed a critical role for endocytosis in artemisinin resistance. More recently

  • Plasmodium vivax in the Era of the Shrinking P. falciparum Map.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Ric N Price,Robert J Commons,Katherine E Battle,Kamala Thriemer,Kamini Mendis

    Plasmodium vivax is an important cause of malaria, associated with a significant public health burden. Whilst enhanced malaria-control activities have successfully reduced the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many areas, there has been a consistent increase in the proportion of malaria due to P. vivax in regions where both parasites coexist. This article reviews the epidemiology and biology

  • Building Parasitology Communities to Promote Gender Equality.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Elizabeth D English,B Joanne Power,Elena Gómez-Díaz

    In an ideal world, there are equal opportunities for women to enter and progress in all scientific disciplines without bias or prejudice. Here, we share our experiences in building communities of women parasitology and offer easy-to-implement guidelines for scientists and institutions to overcome unconscious bias and create environments with better gender equality and diversity.

  • K13, the Cytostome, and Artemisinin Resistance.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Stanley C Xie,Stuart A Ralph,Leann Tilley

    Artemisinins - the frontline antimalarial drug class - are compromised by emerging resistance, putting at risk the lives of hundreds of thousands of people each year. Resistance is associated with mutations in a malaria parasite protein, called Kelch 13 (K13). Recent work suggests that K13 is located at the cytostome (cell mouth) that the parasite uses to take up hemoglobin. Here we explore the proposal

  • Vive la Différence: Exploiting the Differences between Rodent and Human Malarias.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Laura A Kirkman,Kirk W Deitsch

    Experimental research into malaria biology and pathogenesis has historically focused on two model systems, in vitro culture of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo infections of laboratory animals using rodent parasites. While there is clear value in having a manipulatable animal model for studying malaria, there have occasionally been controversies around how representative the rodent

  • Connecting Female Genital Schistosomiasis and Menstrual Hygiene Initiatives
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    J. Russell Stothard; Maurice R. Odiere; Penelope A. Phillips-Howard

    Effective future control of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) requires an integrated and multisectoral approach, bringing together HIV, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights sectors. In this article, an underappreciated but important connection between FGS and menstrual hygiene initiatives in Africa is highlighted.

  • A More Granular View of Neutrophils in Malaria.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Borko Amulic,Christopher A Moxon,Aubrey J Cunnington

    Neutrophils are abundant innate immune cells with crucial roles in immunity and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils have a dual role in malaria, contributing to both pathogenesis and control of Plasmodium. We discuss emerging mechanisms behind these opposing functions and identify key outstanding questions.

  • Plasmodium vivax in Hematopoietic Niches: Hidden and Dangerous.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    João Luiz Silva-Filho,Marcus V G Lacerda,Mario Recker,Samuel C Wassmer,Matthias Marti,Fabio T M Costa

    Estimation of Plasmodium vivax biomass based on circulating biomarkers indicates the existence of a predominant biomass outside of the circulation that is not captured by peripheral parasitemia, in particular in patients with complicated outcomes. A series of recent studies have suggested that the hematopoietic niche of the bone marrow (BM) is a major reservoir for parasite replication and the development

  • The Human Spleen in Malaria: Filter or Shelter?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Benoît Henry; Camille Roussel; Mario Carucci; Valentine Brousse; Papa Alioune Ndour; Pierre Buffet

    The human spleen is an immune sentinel and controls red blood cell (RBC) quality. By mechanically retaining subsets of infected RBCs, the spleen may reduce the pace at which the parasite biomass increases before the adaptive immune response operates. Conversely, the spleen may contribute to malaria pathogenesis, particularly anemia that is associated with splenomegaly. Large spleens may also shelter

  • Inflammasome Activation in Response to Intracellular Protozoan Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Renan V.H. de Carvalho; Dario S. Zamboni

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that assemble in response to cellular stress or upon sensing microbial molecules, culminating in cytokine processing and an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. Inflammasomes are usually composed of a sensor molecule, an adaptor protein, and an inflammatory caspase, such as Caspase-1, which cleaves and activates multiple substrates, including Gasdermin-D

  • Malaria Parasite Clearance: What Are We Really Measuring?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    David S. Khoury; Sophie G. Zaloumis; Matthew J. Grigg; Ashraful Haque; Miles P. Davenport

    Antimalarial drugs are vital for treating malaria and controlling transmission. Measuring drug efficacy in the field requires large clinical trials and thus we have identified proxy measures of drug efficacy such as the parasite clearance curve. This is often assumed to measure the rate of drug activity against parasites and is used to predict optimal treatment regimens required to completely clear

  • Reinventing the Wheel of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Transmission to Humans
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    Francesca Tamarozzi; Peter Deplazes; Adriano Casulli

    Control of cystic echinococcosis (CE) relies on interrupting Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato transmission through interventions in dogs and livestock. However, primary prevention measures aimed at avoiding ingestion of Echinococcus eggs may help reduce the burden of human CE. CE is generally considered, to variable extents, to be foodborne, but there is little evidence on the actual contamination

  • Not Just from Blood: Mosquito Nutrient Acquisition from Nectar Sources
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Elina Barredo; Matthew DeGennaro

    Anthropophilic female mosquitoes are well known for their strong attraction to human hosts, but plant nectar is a common energy source in their diets. When sugar sources are scarce, female mosquitoes of some species can compensate by taking larger and more frequent blood meals. Male mosquitoes are exclusively dependent on plant nectar or alternative sugar sources. Plant preference is likely driven

  • An Omnivore’s Dilemma: Toxoplasma gondii’s Flexible Metabolic Networks
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-08
    Kami Kim

    Host cells provide protection from the environment for intracellular pathogens, but acquisition of nutrients and sensing of changes in the host cell bring new challenges. Krishnan et al. have recently developed a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) of the Toxoplasma gondii metabolic network that incorporates genetic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data.

  • Linking Mosquito Ecology, Traits, Behavior, and Disease Transmission
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Karthikeyan Chandrasegaran; Chloé Lahondère; Luis E. Escobar; Clément Vinauger

    Mosquitoes are considered to be the deadliest animals on Earth because the diseases they transmit claim at least a million human lives every year globally. Here, we discuss the scales at which the effects of ecological factors cascade to influence epidemiologically relevant behaviors of adult mosquitoes. In particular, we focused our review on the environmental conditions (coarse-scale variables) that

  • Chimeras of P4-ATPase and Guanylate Cyclase in Pathogenic Protists
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Özlem Günay-Esiyok; Nishith Gupta

    Apicomplexan parasites harbor chimeric proteins embodying P4-type ATPase and guanylate cyclase domains. Such proteins – serving as the actuator of cGMP signaling in this group of important pathogens – are indeed unusual in terms of their sheer size, modus operandi, and evolutionary repurposing. Much like the mythological Sphinx, a human-lion chimeric creature that posed challenging riddles, the P4-type

  • Lexis and Grammar of Mitochondrial RNA Processing in Trypanosomes
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-28
    Inna Aphasizheva; Juan Alfonzo; Jason Carnes; Igor Cestari; Jorge Cruz-Reyes; H. Ulrich Göringer; Stephen Hajduk; Julius Lukeš; Susan Madison-Antenucci; Dmitri A. Maslov; Suzanne M. McDermott; Torsten Ochsenreiter; Laurie K. Read; Reza Salavati; Achim Schnaufer; André Schneider; Larry Simpson; Kenneth Stuart; Ruslan Aphasizhev

    Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause African human and animal trypanosomiasis, a burden on health and economy in Africa. These hemoflagellates are distinguished by a kinetoplast nucleoid containing mitochondrial DNAs of two kinds: maxicircles encoding ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and proteins and minicircles bearing guide RNAs (gRNAs) for mRNA editing. All RNAs are produced by a phage-type RNA polymerase as 3′

  • Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin: Immune Evasion, Infectivity, and Tumorigenesis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Galia Ramírez-Toloza; Eduardo Sosoniuk-Roche; Carolina Valck; Lorena Aguilar-Guzmán; Viviana P. Ferreira; Arturo Ferreira

    To successfully infect, Trypanosoma cruzi evades and modulates the host immune response. T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCalr) is a multifunctional, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone that, translocated to the external microenvironment, mediates crucial host–parasite interactions. TcCalr binds and inactivates C1 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolins, important pattern- recognition receptors

  • Trichomonas vaginalis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Marina Ferrari Klemm de Aquino,Annabel Sabine Hinderfeld,Augusto Simoes-Barbosa

  • Divergent Mitochondrial Ribosomes in Unicellular Parasitic Protozoans
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Swati Dass; Michael W. Mather; Hangjun Ke

    The mitochondrion in parasitic protozoans is a clinically proven drug target. A specialized ribosome (mitoribosome) is required to translate genes encoded on the mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Despite the significance, little is known about mitoribosomes in many medically and economically important unicellular protozoans.

  • Next-Generation Molecular Surveillance of TriTryp Diseases
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Malgorzata Anna Domagalska; Jean-Claude Dujardin

    Elimination programs targeting TriTryp diseases (Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, human African trypanosomiasis) significantly reduced the number of cases. Continued surveillance is crucial to sustain this progress, but parasite molecular surveillance by genotyping is currently lacking. We explain here which epidemiological questions of public health and clinical relevance could be answered by means

  • Transition from Plasmodial Hypnozoite to Schizont Demonstrated
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Miles B. Markus

    The progression to schizont formation of individual activated hypnozoites has been observed in vitro for the first time by Voorberg-van der Wel et al. Green-fluorescent protein-positive hypnozoites turned red-fluorescent (mCherry) upon activation. Thus, we now have empirical parasitological proof that supports the 40-year-old hypnozoite theory of relapse in malaria.

  • Toxoplasma-induced Behavioral Changes: An Aspecific Consequence of Neuroinflammation
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Jianchun Xiao

    A key strategy that many parasites use to facilitate transmission involves behavioral modification of their hosts. Toxoplasma gondii has been taken as an example for this strategy. A recent study by Boillat et al. reported that attraction to predator odor following Toxoplasma infection is not specific to felines.

  • Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Research.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Peng Jia,Weihua Dong,Shujuan Yang,Zhicheng Zhan,La Tu,Shengjie Lai

    Spatial lifecourse epidemiology aims to utilize advanced spatial, location-aware, and artificial intelligence technologies to investigate long-term effects of measurable biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychosocial factors on individual risk for chronic diseases. It could also further the research on infectious disease dynamics, risks, and consequences across the life course.

  • Modeling Pathogen Dispersal in Marine Fish and Shellfish.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Danielle L Cantrell,Maya L Groner,Tal Ben-Horin,Jon Grant,Crawford W Revie

    In marine ecosystems, oceanographic processes often govern host contacts with infectious agents. Consequently, many approaches developed to quantify pathogen dispersal in terrestrial ecosystems have limited use in the marine context. Recent applications in marine disease modeling demonstrate that physical oceanographic models coupled with biological models of infectious agents can characterize dispersal

  • Update on BEI Resources for Parasitology and Arthropod Vector Research.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Robert E Molestina,Timothy T Stedman

    BEI Resources has contributed to the advancement of parasitic diseases research for over 16 years. The accessibility of our reference strains and reagents is relevant to the development of new therapeutics and vaccines. Here we provide a resource update with emphasis on the new assets for toxoplasmosis and vector research.

  • Phased Conditional Approach for Mosquito Management Using Sterile Insect Technique.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Jérémy Bouyer,Hanano Yamada,Rui Pereira,Kostas Bourtzis,Marc J B Vreysen

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a major threat to humankind. Recently, the incidence of malaria has stopped decreasing while that of dengue is increasing exponentially. Alternative mosquito-control methods are urgently needed. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has seen significant developments recently and may play an important role. However, testing and implementing SIT for vector control is challenging

  • Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Giovanni Benelli,André B B Wilke,John C Beier

  • A Leap Into the Unknown - Early Events in African Trypanosome Transmission.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Balázs Szöőr,Eleanor Silvester,Keith R Matthews

    African trypanosomes are mainly transmitted by tsetse flies. In recent years there has been good progress in understanding how the parasites prepare for transmission, detect their changed environment through the perception of different environmental cues, and respond by changing their developmental gene expression. In this review, we discuss the different signals and signaling mechanisms used by the

  • Skin Interface, a Key Player for Borrelia Multiplication and Persistence in Lyme Borreliosis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Quentin Bernard,Antoine Grillon,Cédric Lenormand,Laurence Ehret-Sabatier,Nathalie Boulanger

    The skin plays a key role in vector-borne diseases because it is the site where the arthropod coinoculates pathogens and its saliva. Lyme borreliosis, particularly well investigated in this context, is a multisystemic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes. Numerous in vitro studies were conducted to better understand the role of specific

  • The Pharmacopea within Triatomine Salivary Glands.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Paula B Santiago,Carla N de Araújo,Sébastien Charneau,Yanna R Praça,Izabela M D Bastos,José M C Ribeiro,Jaime M Santana

    Triatomines are blood-feeding insects that prey on vertebrate hosts. Their saliva is largely responsible for their feeding success. The triatomine salivary content has been studied over the past decades, revealing multifunctional bioactive proteins targeting the host´s hemostasis and immune system. Recently, sequencing of salivary-gland mRNA libraries revealed increasingly complex and complete transcript

  • Iron and Heme Metabolism at the Leishmania-Host Interface.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva,Iqbal Hamza,José M Pérez-Victoria

    Species of the protozoan Leishmania are causative agents of human leishmaniasis, a disease that results in significant death, disability, and disfigurement around the world. The parasite is transmitted to a mammalian host by a sand fly vector where it develops as an intracellular parasite within macrophages. This process requires the acquisition of nutritional iron and heme from the host as Leishmania

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