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  • A One Health Approach to Tackle Cryptosporidiosis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Elisabeth A. Innes; Rachel M. Chalmers; Beth Wells; Mattie C. Pawlowic

    Cryptosporidiosis is a significant diarrhoeal disease in both people and animals across the world and is caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. Recent research has highlighted the longer-term consequences of the disease for malnourished children, involving growth stunting and cognitive deficits, and significant growth and production losses for livestock. There are no vaccines currently available to prevent the disease and few treatment options in either humans or animals, which has been a significant limiting factor in disease control to date. A One Health approach to tackle zoonotic cryptosporidiosis looking at new advances in veterinary, public, and environmental health research may offer several advantages and new options to help control the disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Interplay between Histomonas meleagridis and Bacteria: Mutualistic or Predator–Prey?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Ivana Bilic; Michael Hess

    Histomonas meleagridis is an extracellular protozoan parasite and the aetiological agent of histomonosis, an important poultry disease whose impact is greatly accentuated by inaccessibility of any treatment. A special feature of the parasite is its intricate interplay with bacteria in vitro and in vivo, the focus of this article.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Single cell sequencing shines a light on malaria parasite relatedness in complex infections
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Sasha V. Siegel; Julian C. Rayner

    Recent genomic studies are investigating the wide-ranging implications of malaria complex infections on parasite diversity, transmission, and downstream disease eradication efforts. Using single cell sequencing, new work by Nkhoma et al. provides evidence that there is unexpectedly frequent co-transmission of related parasites in the intense transmission setting in Malawi.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Targeting Plasmodium Plasmepsin V: Hitting Two Birds with One Stone
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Nicolas M.B. Brancucci; Volker T. Heussler; Christof Grüring

    A recent report by Jennison et al. reveals an important role for plasmepsin V (PMV), an aspartyl protease, in the development of malaria transmission stages. The authors showed that PMV activity is critical for protein export in these stages and that specific PMV inhibitors block parasite transmission to mosquitoes.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Advances in Vaccine Development for Human Lymphatic Filariasis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram; Vishal Khatri; Nikhil Chauhan

    According to the World Health Organization, over 880 million people are currently at risk of acquiring lymphatic filariasis (LF) in over 52 countries worldwide. Current approaches to control LF by 2020 are short of the anticipated goal. Several studies suggest the existence of protective immunity against LF in humans. Thus, it is possible to develop a prophylactic vaccine against LF in humans. Several potential vaccine candidates were identified and tested for their potential against LF. To date, preclinical studies suggest that it is possible to develop a prophylactic vaccine against LF. Much work needs to be done, but it is clear that a prophylactic vaccine, combined with targeted chemotherapy, is critically required for eliminating LF worldwide.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Mosquito Microbiota and Implications for Disease Control
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Han Gao; Chunlai Cui; Lili Wang; Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena; Sibao Wang

    Mosquito-transmitted diseases account for about 500 000 deaths every year. Blocking these pathogens in the mosquito vector before they are transmitted to humans is an effective strategy to prevent mosquito-borne diseases. Like most higher organisms, mosquitoes harbor a highly diverse and dynamic microbial flora that can be explored for prevention of pathogen transmission. Here we review the structure and function of the mosquito microbiota, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and discuss the potential of using components of the microbiota to thwart pathogen transmission.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Hardly Vacuous: The Parasitophorous Vacuolar Membrane of Malaria Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Daniel E. Goldberg; Joshua Zimmerberg

    When a malaria parasite invades a host erythrocyte it pushes itself in and invaginates a portion of the host membrane, thereby sealing itself inside and establishing itself in the resulting vacuole. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) that surrounds the parasite is modified by the parasite, using its secretory organelles. To survive within this enveloping membrane, the organism must take in nutrients, secrete wastes, export proteins into the host cell, and eventually egress. Here, we review current understanding of the unique solutions Plasmodium has evolved to these challenges and discuss the remaining questions.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Clinical and Preclinical Imaging of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Brice Masi; Teodora-Adriana Perles-Barbacaru; Monique Bernard; Angèle Viola

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, is a major cause of chronic morbidity and disability, and premature death. The hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension, and esophageal varices, whose rupture may cause bleeding and death. We review currently available abdominal imaging modalities and describe their basic principles, strengths, weaknesses, and usefulness in the assessment of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS). Advanced imaging methods are presented that could be of interest for hepatosplenic schistosomiasis evaluation by yielding morphological, functional, and molecular parameters of disease progression. We also provide a comprehensive view of preclinical imaging studies and current research objectives such as parasite visualization in hosts, follow-up of the host's immune response, and development of noninvasive quantitative methods for liver fibrosis assessment.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Autoimmune Anemia in Malaria
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Juan Rivera-Correa; Ana Rodriguez

    Severe anemia is a major cause of death by malaria. The loss of uninfected erythrocytes is an important contributor to malarial anemia; however, the mechanisms underlying this pathology are not well understood. Malaria-induced anemia is related to autoimmune antibodies against the membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS). In mice, these antibodies induce the clearance of uninfected erythrocytes after binding to PS exposed in their membrane. In human malaria patients there is a strong correlation between anemia and anti-PS antibodies. During malaria, anti-PS antibodies are produced by atypical B cells, whose levels correlate with the development of anemia in patients. Autoimmune responses, which are documented frequently in different infections, contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria by inducing the clearance of uninfected erythrocytes.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Malaria in Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes: New Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Michelle Ngai; Andrea M. Weckman; Clara Erice; Chloe R. McDonald; Lindsay S. Cahill; John G. Sled; Kevin C. Kain

    Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we discuss the impact of malaria in pregnancy on three pathways that are important regulators of healthy pregnancy outcomes: L-arginine-nitric oxide biogenesis, complement activation, and the heme axis. These pathways are not mutually exclusive, and they collectively create a proinflammatory, antiangiogenic milieu at the maternal–fetal interface that interferes with placental function and development. We hypothesize that targeting these host-response pathways would mitigate the burden of adverse birth outcomes attributable to malaria in pregnancy.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Organoids for Liver Stage Malaria Research
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Ronan Mellin; Justin A. Boddey

    Plasmodium parasites cause malaria and are maintained between Anopheles mosquitoes and mammalian hosts in a complex life cycle. Malaria parasites occupy tissue niches that can be difficult to access, and models to study them can be challenging to recapitulate experimentally, particularly for Plasmodium species that infect humans. 2D culture models provide extremely beneficial tools to investigate Plasmodium biology but they have limitations. More complex 3D structural networks, such as organoids, have unveiled new avenues for developing more physiological tissue models, and their application to malaria research offers great promise. Here, we review current models for studying Plasmodium infection with a key focus on the obligate pre-erythrocytic stage that culminates in blood infection, causing malaria, and discuss how organoids should fulfil an important and unmet need.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • HRP2: Transforming Malaria Diagnosis, but with Caveats
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Kristin E. Poti; David J. Sullivan; Arjen M. Dondorp; Charles J. Woodrow

    The major growth in point-of-care malaria diagnosis over the past decade has been based on immunochromatographic malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), which generally detect Plasmodium falciparum via its abundant histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2). Here, we review the discovery and biology of HRP2, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of HRP2-based diagnosis compared with alternative antigens. We highlight recent studies describing HRP2 deletion in Latin America, Eritrea, and possibly other regions, and the methodological challenges of confirming deletion of the pfhrp2 gene. We also discuss the mechanism of persistent HRP2 positivity after effective antimalarial treatment, along with other emerging HRP2-based applications, including detection of submicroscopic malaria and diagnosis of severe malaria.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • You Shall Not Pass: Memory CD8 T Cells in Liver-Stage Malaria
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Mitchell N. Lefebvre; John T. Harty

    Each year over 200 million malaria infections occur, with over 400 000 associated deaths. Vaccines formed with attenuated whole parasites can induce protective memory CD8 T cell responses against liver-stage malaria; however, widespread administration of such vaccines is logistically challenging. Recent scientific findings are delineating how protective memory CD8 T cell populations are primed and maintained and how such cells mediate immunity to liver-stage malaria. Memory CD8 T cell anatomic localization and expression of transcription factors, homing receptors, and signaling molecules appear to play integral roles in protective immunity to liver-stage malaria. Further investigation of how such factors contribute to optimal protective memory CD8 T cell generation and maintenance in humans will inform efforts for improved vaccines.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Ungulate Helminth Transmission and Two Evolutionary Puzzles
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    James C. Chubb; Daniel Benesh; Geoff A. Parker

    Grazing mammals, ungulates, pose two evolutionary puzzles as helminth hosts. First, why do some helminths infect intermediate hosts prior to infecting ungulates, given that grazers could directly consume propagules on vegetation? Second, ungulates are large and long-lived, so why are they occasionally intermediate instead of definitive hosts, as in taeniid cestodes? We comprehensively surveyed helminth life cycles and transmission involving ungulates. We identified six transmission routes and found that ungulate helminth parasitism has evolved some 25 times. Direct egg transmission to ungulates is rare, and we suggest this is due to a transmission barrier caused by ungulate faecal avoidance. Our survey confirmed that ungulates are almost always definitive hosts, and we discuss the exceptional cases when they are not.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Mosquito Age Grading and Vector-Control Programmes
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Brian J. Johnson, Leon E. Hugo, Thomas S. Churcher, Oselyne T.W. Ong, Gregor J. Devine

    An ability to characterize the age of mosquito populations could provide cost-effective and compelling entomological evidence for the potential epidemiological impacts of vector control. The average age of a mosquito population is the most important determinant of vectorial capacity and the likelihood of disease transmission. Yet, despite decades of research, defining the age of a wild-caught mosquito remains a challenging, impractical, and unreliable process. Emerging chemometric and existing transcriptional approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current morphological techniques, but their utility in terms of field-based monitoring programmes remains largely untested. Herein, we review the potential advantages and disadvantages of new and existing age-grading tools in an operational context.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Organoids – New Models for Host–Helminth Interactions
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    María A. Duque-Correa, Rick M. Maizels, Richard K. Grencis, Matthew Berriman

    Organoids are multicellular culture systems that replicate tissue architecture and function, and are increasingly used as models of viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections. Organoids have great potential to improve our current understanding of helminth interactions with their hosts and to replace or reduce the dependence on using animal models. In this review, we discuss the applicability of this technology to helminth infection research, including strategies of co-culture of helminths or their products with organoids and the challenges, advantages, and drawbacks of the use of organoids for these studies. We also explore how complementing organoid systems with other cell types and components may allow more complex models to be generated in the future to further investigate helminth–host interactions.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • The Journey to Discovering a Flatworm Target of Praziquantel: A Long TRP
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Sang-Kyu Park, Jonathan S. Marchant

    Infections caused by parasitic flatworms impose a considerable worldwide health burden. One of the most impactful is schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic blood flukes. Treatment of schistosomiasis has relied on a single drug – praziquantel (PZQ) – for decades. The utility of PZQ as an essential medication is, however, intertwined with a stark gap in our knowledge as to how this drug works. No flatworm target has been identified that readily explains how PZQ paralyzes and damages schistosomes. Recently, a schistosome ion channel was discovered that is activated by PZQ and displays characteristics which mirror key features of PZQ action on schistosomes. Here, the journey to discovery of this target, properties of this ion channel, and remaining questions are reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Microbiota, a Third Player in the Host–Plasmodium Affair
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Debanjan Mukherjee, Ângelo Ferreira Chora, Maria M. Mota

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is responsible for more than 200 million new infections and 400 000 deaths yearly. While in recent years the influence of the microbiota in homeostasis and a wide variety of disorders has taken center stage, its contribution during malaria infections has only now started to emerge. The few published studies suggest two distinct but complementary directions. Plasmodium infections can cause significant alterations in host (at least gut) microbiota, and host gut microbiota can influence the clinical outcome of malaria infections. In this opinion article, we highlight the most fundamental unanswered questions in the field that will, hopefully, point future research directions towards unveiling key mechanistic insights of the Plasmodium–host–microbiota axis.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Helminths Turning on the NLRP3 Inflammasome: Pros and Cons
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Daiana Pamela Celias, Claudia Cristina Motrán, Laura Cervi

    Helminth infections can activate multimeric protein complexes called inflammasomes. In this forum we summarize the main effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including control of excessive Th2 response and immunopathology induction. These mechanisms would ensure the survival of both the host and the parasite.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Is Naegleria fowleri an Emerging Parasite?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Sutherland K. Maciver, Jose E. Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales

    Naegleria fowleri causes an uncommon but deadly disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). There has been an increase of reported PAM cases, particularly since 2000. Although water is the dominant route of transmission of PAM, infection through soil/dust is a possible alternative route. We have observed differences in epidemiology between the southern states in the USA and the Indian subcontinent (ISC). The patient age range is greater in the ISC than in the USA, and there are more infections in the ISC which are not water-associated. We show that PAM is under-reported and argue that climate change will increase the incidence of PAM, and that the geographic range of N. fowleri will spread polewards.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Achievements of the HERACLES Project on Cystic Echinococcosis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Adriano Casulli, Mar Siles-Lucas, Carmen Michaela Cretu, Kamena Vutova, Okan Akhan, Gulay Vural, Arantxa Cortés Ruiz, Enrico Brunetti, Francesca Tamarozzi

    The FP7 project ’Human Cystic Echinococcosis ReseArch in CentraL and Eastern Societies’ (HERACLES), developed between 2013 and 2018 by nine partners in five countries, is one of the largest projects on cystic echinococcosis. Here we present the core HERACLES achievements, which should help to foster the translation of scientific investigations on health policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Symbiotic Bacteria as Potential Agents for Mosquito Control
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Mayur K. Kajla

    Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species are symbiotic bacteria of the insect-pathogenic soil nematodes that produce insecticidal compounds lethal to prey insects. Recently, there has been much interest in adapting these insecticidals for mosquito control. Here, I advocate the potential of Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus as natural sources of mosquitocides (larvicides, adulticides) and feeding-deterrents.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Using Protozoan Surface Proteins for Effective Oral Vaccination
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-07-27
    Lucía Lara Rupil, Marianela del Carmen Serradell, Hugo Daniel Luján

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan of the World Health Organization (WHO) calls for nonsyringe delivery mechanisms, thermostable vaccines, and new bioprocessing technologies as priority research areas. Here we discuss the use of protozoan surface proteins to develop a safe, stable, and efficient versatile oral vaccine platform.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Insights on Spirocerca lupi, the Carcinogenic Dog Nematode
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Alicia Rojas, Eran Dvir, Gad Baneth

    Spirocerca lupi is a nematode transmitted by dung beetles that infects domestic and wild canids in tropical and subtropical regions and is associated with neoplasia. It produces a distinctive pathology with the formation of esophageal nodules classified as inflammatory, preneoplastic, or neoplastic with metastasis to distant organs. Aberrant central nervous system migration of this nematode is also responsible for severe neurological manifestations. Reports of spirocercosis have increased over the last two decades showing spread of this canine helminth in five continents. S. lupi from different geographical locations is genetically distinct with two genotypes, genotype I from Africa, Asia, and Australia, and genotype II from Europe, and recently separated from Spirocerca vulpis, a new species described in red foxes from Europe.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • New Strategies and Biomarkers for the Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Ana V. Ibarra-Meneses, Javier Moreno, Eugenia Carrillo

    Effective diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, together with the study of vectors and reservoirs, can lead to a better understanding of the parasite transmission dynamics and the development of more efficient control measures. Recent studies have applied new methodologies and biomarkers, and these have contributed to the early and rapid diagnosis of the disease; assessment of success of pharmacological treatments; efficient monitoring of immunosuppressed individuals; and to population screening for field trials of vaccine efficacy. This opinion article proposes an update to the diagnostic tools for visceral leishmaniasis and their rational and combined use to establish the real prevalence of infection or of exposure to Leishmania in endemic areas.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Artemisinin Bioactivity and Resistance in Malaria Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Arthur M. Talman, Jérôme Clain, Romain Duval, Robert Ménard, Frédéric Ariey

    Artemisinin is the most widely-used compound against malaria and plays a critical role in the treatment of malaria worldwide. Resistance to artemisinin emerged about a decade ago in Southeast Asia and it is paramount to prevent its spread or emergence in Africa. Artemisinin has a complex mode of action and can cause widespread injury to many components of the parasite. In this review, we outline the different metabolic pathways affected by artemisinin, including the unfolded protein response, protein polyubiquitination, proteasome, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. Based on recently published data, we present a model of how these different pathways interplay and how mutations in K13, the main identified resistance marker, may help parasites survive under artemisinin pressure.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Towards a Unified Functional Trait Framework for Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Cristina Llopis-Belenguer, Juan Antonio Balbuena, Katharina Lange, Francesco de Bello, Isabel Blasco-Costa

    Trait-based research holds high potential to unveil ecological and evolutionary processes. Functional traits are fitness-related characteristics of individuals, which are measured at individual level and defined without using information external to the individual. Despite the usefulness of the functional approach to understand the performance of individuals in ecosystems, and parasitism being the most common life-history strategy on Earth, studies based on functional traits of parasites are still scarce. Since the choice of functional traits is a critical step for any study, we propose a core list of seven functional traits of metazoan parasites, related to three universal challenges faced by organisms (dispersal, establishment, and persistence), and give guidelines to define appropriate functional traits in future parasite community studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Leishmania infantum.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-11-24
    Tiago D Serafim,Eva Iniguez,Fabiano Oliveira

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Leishmania Viannia guyanensis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Martin Olivier,Aida Minguez-Menendez,Christopher Fernandez-Prada

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trypanosoma brucei.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : null
    Gabriela Romero-Meza,Monica R Mugnier

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In Memoriam: A Tribute to Alan Magill.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2016-08-05
    Christopher V Plowe

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Denise Valle--On Bugs, Dengue, and Swimming.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2016-06-24
    Denise Valle

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trichinella britovi.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : null
    Fabrizio Bruschi,Edoardo Pozio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trypanosoma cruzi.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : null
    Nilmar Silvio Moretti,Renato Arruda Mortara,Sergio Schenkman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Therapeutic potential of folate uptake inhibition in Plasmodium falciparum.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2006-05-06
    Alexis M Nzila,Gilbert Kokwaro,Peter A Winstanley,Kevin Marsh,Steve A Ward

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to the combination sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are spreading in Africa, particularly in East Africa. This is a matter of concern because there are no other affordable drugs available. This article provides the evidence indicating that sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance can be reversed in vitro and discusses how this information might be exploited to extend the therapeutic lifetime of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in vivo.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vaccination for vivax malaria: targeting the invaders.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2006-05-06
    Spencer D Polley,Louisa McRobert,Colin J Sutherland

    Among the surface-exposed antigens of the malaria parasite, those with known essential functions that can be disrupted by antibodies represent the most promising candidates for development as malaria vaccines. Two recombinant protein subunits of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 have been shown to bind to reticulocytes in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This article discusses the importance of such pre-clinical analyses in the validation of candidate vaccine molecules for P. vivax, given the constraints imposed by the use of primate models and the cost of producing suitable material for human trials.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Schistosomiasis control: keep taking the tablets.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Paul Hagan,Christopher C Appleton,Gerald C Coles,John R Kusel,Louis Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté

    Despite the limited reports of praziquantel resistance, the relative success of chemotherapy-based control programmes for schistosomiasis has prompted overdue efforts to expand the use of cheap, generic, praziquantel in sub-Saharan Africa. The likely impact of such programmes on the development and spread of praziquantel resistance is uncertain, but this possibility reinforces the need for monitoring the spectrum of praziquantel sensitivity of schistosome populations and for an improved knowledge of the precise targets for the action of the drug. The search for alternatives to praziquantel and other tools for control of schistosomiasis must continue.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bayesian statistics for parasitologists.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    María-Gloria Basáñez,Clare Marshall,Hélène Carabin,Theresa Gyorkos,Lawrence Joseph

    Bayesian statistical methods are increasingly being used in the analysis of parasitological data. Here, the basis of differences between the Bayesian method and the classical or frequentist approach to statistical inference is explained. This is illustrated with practical implications of Bayesian analyses using prevalence estimation of strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis as two relevant examples. The strongyloidiasis example addresses the problem of parasitological diagnosis in the absence of a gold standard, whereas the onchocerciasis case focuses on the identification of villages warranting priority mass ivermectin treatment. The advantages and challenges faced by users of the Bayesian approach are also discussed and the readers pointed to further directions for a more in-depth exploration of the issues raised. We advocate collaboration between parasitologists and Bayesian statisticians as a fruitful and rewarding venture for advancing applied research in parasite epidemiology and the control of parasitic infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Peter Deplazes,Daniel Hegglin,Sandra Gloor,Thomas Romig

    A distinct increase in fox populations, particularly in urban areas, has been observed in Europe. This is of particular concern in endemic regions of the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of human alveolar echinococcosis. Novel tools have facilitated the investigation of the ecology of urban foxes and have demonstrated the urban wildlife cycle of E. multilocularis. Such studies are essential for estimating the risk of transmission to humans and to determine the basics for the development of control strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Drugs against leishmaniasis: a synergy of technology and partnerships.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Antony J Davis,Henry W Murray,Emanuela Handman

    To date, there are no vaccines against any of the major parasitic diseases, and chemotherapy is the main weapon in our arsenal. There is an urgent need for better drugs against Leishmania. With the completion of the human genome sequence and soon that of Leishmania, for the first time we have the opportunity to identify novel chemotherapeutic treatments. This requires the exploitation of a variety of technologies. The major challenge is to take the process from discovery of drug candidates all the way along the arduous path to the marketplace. A crucial component will be the forging of partnerships between the pharmaceutical industry and publicly funded scientists to ensure that the promise of the current revolution in biology lives up to our hopes and expectations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Malaria immunity in infants: a special case of a general phenomenon?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Lars Hviid,Trine Staalsoe

    Newborn infants in endemic areas are markedly resistant to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Consequently, severe disease is rare during the first few months of life, and infections tend to be low density and relatively asymptomatic during this period. Although this is generally ascribed to passively transferred immunity, attempts to identify the targets and mechanisms of this protection have been unsuccessful. The implications of the hypothesis that the progression from resistance through susceptibility and back to resistance during infancy and early childhood reflects the gradual acquisition of IgG to variant surface antigens (VSAs), while protection from maternal VSA-specific IgG steadily fades, are discussed here.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Annotating the Plasmodium genome and the enigma of the shikimate pathway.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Glenn A McConkey,John W Pinney,David R Westhead,Kirsten Plueckhahn,Teresa B Fitzpatrick,Peter Macheroux,Barbara Kappes

    The completion of the Plasmodium falciparum genome sequence heralds a new era in the effort to identify all the parasite's genes along with their cellular functions. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental proof will facilitate this process. Many enzymes in metabolic processes have been identified, but several examples exist of incomplete pathways, such as the shikimate pathway. This review uses the example of the shikimate pathway to examine the application of bioinformatics to lead experimental design in post-genomic biology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parasitic protozoa: thiol-based redox metabolism.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Rajeev K Mehlotra

    In a thoughtful and stimulating article, Sylke Müller et al. describe the thiol-based redox metabolism of protozoan parasites and believe that the key enzymes involved in this metabolism have potential use as new drug targets. Additional information on this subject is provided here.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular epidemiology pitfalls: some important clarifications.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Thierry de Meeûs

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • More plastids in human parasites?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Ross F Waller,Malcolm J McConville,Geoffrey I McFadden

    Trypanosomatid parasites are disease agents with an extraordinarily broad host range including humans, livestock and plants. Recent work has revealed that trypanosomatids harbour numerous genes sharing apparent common ancestry with plants and/or bacteria. Although there is no evidence of a plastid (chloroplast-like organelle) in trypanosomatids, the presence of such genes suggests lateral gene transfer from some photosynthetic organism(s) during trypanosomatid evolution. Remarkably, many products of these horizontally acquired genes now function in the glycosome, a highly modified peroxisome unique to trypanosomatids and their near relatives.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular diagnosis of experimental Chagas disease.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    John Andersson

    Diagnostic methods for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi infection are important to allow administration of chemotherapy and as an experimental tool when trying to understand the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach was recently used to demonstrate preferential heart and skeletal muscle tropism in mice of a Mexican T. cruzi isolate. The authors of this study also demonstrated higher sensitivity for this PCR setup compared with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-30
    Emmanuel Mongin,Christos Louis,Robert A Holt,Ewan Birney,Frank H Collins

    As a result of an international collaborative effort, the first draft of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence and its preliminary annotation were published in October 2002. Since then, the assembly, annotation and means of accession of the An. gambiae genome have been under continuous development. This article reviews progress and considers limitations in the current sequence assembly and gene annotation, as well as approaches to address these problems and outstanding issues that users of the data must bear in mind.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular regulation of the life cycle of African trypanosomes.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Keith R Matthews,James R Ellis,Athina Paterou

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Specific and sensitive diagnosis of schistosome infection: can it be done with antibodies?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Michael J Doenhoff,Peter L Chiodini,Joanne V Hamilton

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Arthropod-transmitted diseases of companion animals in Southeast Asia.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Peter J Irwin,Ryan Jefferies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vaccination: a way to address questions in behavioral and population ecology?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Vincent Staszewski,Thierry Boulinier

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Apicomplexan gliding motility and host cell invasion: overhauling the motor model.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Stefan H I Kappe,Carlos A Buscaglia,Lawrence W Bergman,Isabelle Coppens,Victor Nussenzweig

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A role for the peripheral blood fibrocyte in leishmaniasis?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Dennis J Grab,Mohamed Labib Salem,J Stephen Dumler,Richard Bucala

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell volume control in the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Richard J W Allen,Kiaran Kirk

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Population genetics of Cryptosporidium parvum.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Giovanni Widmer

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sulfa drugs strike more than once.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Onisha G Patel,Eddy K Mberu,Alexis M Nzila,Ian G Macreadie

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plasmodium vivax under the microscope: the Aotus model.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2003-12-03
    V Ann Stewart

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phylogenetics and sequence analysis--some problems for the unwary.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.020) Pub Date : 2003-12-03
    Jamie R Stevens,Christopher J Schofield

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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