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  • Repurposing antimalarials to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Sanjeev Krishna; Yolanda Augustin; Jigang Wang; Chengchao Xu; Henry M. Staines; Hans Platteeuw; Adeeba Kamarulzaman; Amadou Sall; Peter Kremsner

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have demonstrated in vitro inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. Artemisinins have also shown anti-inflammatory effects, including inhibition of interleukin-6 that plays a key role in the development of severe COVID-19. There is now sufficient evidence for ACTs, and in particular artesunate/pyronaridine, to support clinical studies for COVID-19 infections.

  • Immunotherapeutic Potential of Interleukin-32 and Trained Immunity for Leishmaniasis Treatment
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Lisa U. Teufel; Leo A.B. Joosten; Jéssica Cristina dos Santos

    Neglected tropical diseases annually account for several million infections worldwide. Efficacious treatment for these poorly understood infectious diseases is often limited to ineffective, expensive, and toxic therapies such as the SbV used for leishmaniasis patients. Here, we review the latest discoveries and literature on the molecular pathways, cell types, and immune mediators involved in the immune

  • Potential influence of helminth molecules on COVID-19 pathology
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Mar Siles-Lucas; Javier González-Miguel; Ron Geller; Rafael Sanjuan; José Pérez-Arévalo; Álvaro Martínez-Moreno

    The parasitology research community has been fostered in recent months to investigate the influence of parasite co-infection on COVID-19 outcomes. Following this call, we share here our approach to analyze the effect of the trematode Fasciola hepatica as a modulator of SARS-CoV-2 infection and of COVID-19 pathology.

  • Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia Infections in the Genomic Era
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Paul Capewell; Sarah Krumrie; Frank Katzer; Claire L. Alexander; William Weir

    Giardia duodenalis is a major gastrointestinal parasite of humans and animals across the globe. It is also of interest from an evolutionary perspective as it possesses many features that are unique among the eukaryotes, including its distinctive binucleate cell structure. While genomic analysis of a small number of isolates has provided valuable insights, efforts to understand the epidemiology of the

  • VAR2CSA Antibodies in Non-Pregnant Populations
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Sedami Gnidehou; Stephanie K. Yanow

    The Plasmodium falciparum protein VAR2CSA is a critical mediator of placental malaria, and VAR2CSA antibodies (IgGs) are important to protect pregnant women. Although infrequently detected outside pregnancy, VAR2CSA IgGs were reported in men and children from Colombia and Brazil and in select African populations. These findings raise questions about the specificity of VAR2CSA IgGs and the mechanisms

  • Insights into Fasciola hepatica Juveniles: Crossing the Fasciolosis Rubicon
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Javier González-Miguel; David Becerro-Recio; Mar Siles-Lucas

    Unraveling the molecular interactions governing the first contact between parasite and host tissues is of paramount importance to the development of effective control strategies against parasites. In fasciolosis, a foodborne trematodiasis caused mainly by Fasciola hepatica, these early interactions occur between the juvenile worm and the host intestinal wall a few hours after ingestion of metacercariae

  • Host Mast Cells in Leishmaniasis: Friend or Foe?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Nilofer Naqvi; Rahul Srivastava; Angamuthu Selvapandiyan; Niti Puri

    Mast cells (MCs) are skin-resident immune cells whose role in leishmaniasis has been recently explored. Researchers report varying inferences, that is, mast cells promote, eliminate, or have no role in leishmaniasis. This article discusses this heterogeneity in mast cell roles to facilitate potential therapeutic and vaccine interventions for these diseases.

  • Triple Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies for Malaria – A New Paradigm?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Rob W. van der Pluijm; Chanaki Amaratunga; Mehul Dhorda; Arjen M. Dondorp

    Recent gains in the fight against malaria are threatened by the emergence and spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). When artemisinins are combined with a single partner drug, all recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies have shown reduced efficacy in some countries in the GMS at some point. Novel drugs are not available

  • Serology for Toxoplasma in Immunocompromised Patients: Still Useful?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Damien Dupont; Hélène Fricker-Hidalgo; Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart; Cécile Garnaud; Martine Wallon; Hervé Pelloux

    Toxoplasmosis represents one of the most common comorbidity factors in solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as well as in other immunocompromised patients. In the past decades, availability and performance of molecular tools for the diagnosis or the exclusion of toxoplasmosis in these patients have greatly improved. However, if accurately used, serology remains a complementary

  • Antiparasitics in Animal Health: Quo Vadis?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Paul M. Selzer; Christian Epe

    Antiparasitics acting on endo- or ectoparasites represent the second largest segment of the global animal health market, accounting for 23% of market share. However, relatively few novel antiparasitic agents have been introduced into the market during recent decades. One exception, and a groundbreaking 21st century success story, are the isoxazolines, whose full potential has not yet been entirely

  • Yes, Irradiated Sterile Male Mosquitoes Can Be Sexually Competitive!
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Jérémy Bouyer; Marc J.B. Vreysen

    Adequate sexual competitiveness of sterile males is a prerequisite for genetic control methods, including the sterile insect technique. During the past decade several semi-field and open-field trials demonstrated that irradiated male mosquitoes can be competitive.

  • The Multifaceted Role of Protein Phosphatase 1 in Plasmodium
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Jamal Khalife; Aline Fréville; Bénédicte Gnangnon; Christine Pierrot

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) forms a wide range of Ser/Thr-specific phosphatase holoenzymes which contain one catalytic subunit (PP1c), present in all eukaryotic cells, associated with variable subunits known as regulatory proteins. It has recently been shown that regulators take a leading role in the organization and the control of PP1 functions. Many studies have addressed the role of these regulators

  • Antibody Therapy Goes to Insects: Monoclonal Antibodies Can Block Plasmodium Transmission to Mosquitoes
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Camila H. Coelho; Matthijs M. Jore; Gaspar E. Canepa; Carolina Barillas-Mury; Teun Bousema; Patrick E. Duffy

    Malaria eradication is a global priority but requires innovative strategies. Humoral immune responses attack different parasite stages, and antibody-based therapy may prevent malaria infection or transmission. Here, we discuss targets of monoclonal antibodies in mosquito sexual stages of Plasmodium.

  • Toxoplasma gondii: An Underestimated Threat?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Gregory Milne; Joanne P. Webster; Martin Walker

    Traditionally, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been thought of as relevant to public health primarily within the context of congenital toxoplasmosis or postnatally acquired disease in immunocompromised patients. However, latent T. gondii infection has been increasingly associated with a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and, more recently, causal frameworks for these epidemiological

  • The Riveting Cellular Structures of Apicomplexan Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Clare R. Harding; Friedrich Frischknecht

    Parasitic protozoa of the phylum Apicomplexa cause a range of human and animal diseases. Their complex life cycles – often heteroxenous with sexual and asexual phases in different hosts – rely on elaborate cytoskeletal structures to enable morphogenesis and motility, organize cell division, and withstand diverse environmental forces. This review primarily focuses on studies using Toxoplasma gondii

  • Trilateral Relationship: Ascaris, Microbiota, and Host Cells
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Ankur Midha; Friederike Ebner; Josephine Schlosser-Brandenburg; Sebastian Rausch; Susanne Hartmann

    Ascariasis is a globally spread intestinal nematode infection of humans and a considerable concern in pig husbandry. Ascaris accomplishes a complex body migration from the intestine via the liver and lung before returning to the intestine. Tissue migration and the habitat shared with a complex microbial community pose the question of how the nematode interacts with microbes and host cells from various

  • Identifying Barriers to Career Progression for Women in Science: Is COVID-19 Creating New Challenges?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Diana S Hansen

    This article summarizes discussions at a Gender Equity Workshop run during the Molecular Approaches to Malaria Conference in February 2020. Barriers to career progression in science for women and minority groups, along with suggestions to overcome ongoing roadblocks, are discussed. The emerging challenges that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is bringing to this sector are also considered.

  • RIFINing Plasmodium-NK Cell Interaction.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Didier Ménard,Sandrine Houzé,Nicolas Papon

    Among many Plasmodium proteins involved in the erythrocytic cycle, some exposed on the erythrocyte surface drive antigenic variability. Recently, Harrison et al. elucidated the structural basis by which RIFINs activate LILRB1 and suppress immune cell function. This breakthrough points to an additional strategy for survival in the human host.

  • Polyreactive Antibodies Bridge Immunity Particles to Pathogen.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Henrique Machado,Luisa M Figueiredo

    Humans are protected from most African trypanosomes via high-density lipoproteins, known as trypanosome lytic factor (TLF). In humans, IgM antibodies are found associated with TLF. The recent work by Verdi et al. studied the origin of these antibodies and their binding partners, suggesting a new model for TLF uptake.

  • Immunometabolism in Arthropod Vectors: Redefining Interspecies Relationships.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Sourabh Samaddar,Liron Marnin,L Rainer Butler,Joao H F Pedra

    Metabolism influences biochemical networks, and arthropod vectors are endowed with an immune system that affects microbial acquisition, persistence, and transmission to humans and other animals. Here, we aim to persuade the scientific community to expand their interests in immunometabolism beyond mammalian hosts and towards arthropod vectors. Immunometabolism investigates the interplay of metabolism

  • Convergence of Nutritional Symbioses in Obligate Blood Feeders.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-15
    Olivier Duron,Yuval Gottlieb

    Symbiosis with intracellular or gut bacteria is essential for the nutrition of animals with an obligate blood-feeding habit. Divergent bacterial lineages have independently evolved functional interactions with obligate blood feeders, but all converge to an analogous biochemical feature: the provisioning of B vitamins. Although symbionts and blood feeders coevolved interdependently for millions of years

  • Could Differences in Infection Pressure Be Involved in Cysticercosis Heterogeneity?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Pedro T Hamamoto Filho,Gagandeep Singh,Andrea S Winkler,Arturo Carpio,Agnès Fleury

    The presentation of cysticercosis is very heterogeneous both between and within countries. Several host and parasite factors are involved in this heterogeneity. Differences in the intensity of infection pressure have not been studied thus far. We have compiled data that could demonstrate that differences in infection pressure are involved in the still high prevalence of parenchymal neurocysticercosis

  • Noncoding RNAs in Apicomplexan Parasites: An Update.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Yiran Li,Rodrigo P Baptista,Jessica C Kissinger

    Recent breakthroughs in high-throughput technologies, transcriptomics, and advances in our understanding of gene regulatory networks have enhanced our perspective on the complex interplay between parasite and host. Noncoding RNA molecules have been implicated in critical roles covering a broad range of biological processes in the Apicomplexa. Processes that are affected range from parasite development

  • Humanized Mice and the Rebirth of Malaria Genetic Crosses.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Katelyn M Vendrely,Sudhir Kumar,Xue Li,Ashley M Vaughan

    The first experimental crosses carried out with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum played a key role in determining the genetic loci responsible for drug resistance, virulence, invasion, growth rate, and transmission. These crosses relied on splenectomized chimpanzees to complete the liver stage of the parasite's life cycle and the subsequent transition to asexual blood stage culture

  • From Circulation to Cultivation: Plasmodium In Vivo versus In Vitro.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Audrey C Brown,Jennifer L Guler

    Research on Plasmodium parasites has driven breakthroughs in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality. Experimental analysis of in vivo/ex vivo versus in vitro samples serve unique roles in Plasmodium research. However, these distinctly different environments lead to discordant biology between parasites in host circulation and those under laboratory cultivation. Here, we review how in vitro factors

  • Ecological and Evolutionary Challenges for Wildlife Vaccination.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    K M Barnett,David J Civitello

    Wildlife vaccination is of urgent interest to reduce disease-induced extinction and zoonotic spillover events. However, several challenges complicate its application to wildlife. For example, vaccines rarely provide perfect immunity. While some protection may seem better than none, imperfect vaccination can present epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary challenges. While anti-infection and antitransmission

  • Recent Advances in the Roles of Neutrophils in Toxoplasmosis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Françoise Debierre-Grockiego,Nathalie Moiré,Marbel Torres Arias,Isabelle Dimier-Poisson

    Neutrophils are now recognized as major components of the response to Toxoplasma gondii by their contribution to parasite elimination by a number of mechanisms. This article focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of migration, cytokine release, and formation of extracellular traps by neutrophils during toxoplasmosis.

  • Do Mosquitoes Sleep?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Oluwaseun M Ajayi,Diane F Eilerts,Samuel T Bailey,Clément Vinauger,Joshua B Benoit

    Sleep is a phenomenon conserved across the animal kingdom, where studies on Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that sleep phenotypes and molecular underpinnings are similar to those in mammals. However, little is known about sleep in blood-feeding arthropods, which have a critical role in public health as disease vectors. Specifically, sleep studies in mosquitoes are lacking despite considerable

  • In Fairness to Mosquitoes.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Miguel Prudêncio

  • Sexual Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Neglected Story.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Diego L Guedes,Saskia van Henten,Lieselotte Cnops,Wim Adriaensen,Johan van Griensven

    For visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a major vector-borne parasitic disease, an alternative sexual transmission route is well documented in dogs but evidence is lacking in humans. Here, we discuss the current knowledge and key questions to be answered as it may be an additional obstacle in ongoing VL elimination programs.

  • α-Gal-Based Vaccines: Advances, Opportunities, and Perspectives.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Adnan Hodžić,Lourdes Mateos-Hernández,José de la Fuente,Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz

    Humans and crown catarrhines evolved with the inability to synthesize the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal). In turn, they naturally produce high quantities of the glycan-specific antibodies that can be protective against infectious agents exhibiting the same carbohydrate modification on their surface coat. The protective immunity induced by α-Gal is ensured through an antibody-mediated

  • Maximizing Impact: Can Interventions to Prevent Clinical Malaria Reduce Parasite Transmission?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Robert S McCann,Lauren M Cohee,Jessy Goupeyou-Youmsi,Miriam K Laufer

    Malaria interventions may reduce the burden of clinical malaria disease, the transmission of malaria parasites, or both. As malaria interventions are developed and evaluated, including those interventions primarily targeted at reducing disease, they may also impact parasite transmission. Achieving global malaria eradication will require optimizing the transmission-reducing potential of all available

  • Why Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections Are Common in Low-Transmission Settings.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Anders Björkman,Ulrika Morris

    Plasmodium falciparum infections in low-transmission settings are often asymptomatic with low parasite densities despite low herd immunity. Based on studies in Zanzibar, this may be due to parasitic (nonvirulence) rather than host (immunity) factors. In high-transmission settings, high replication rate and virulence represents a competitive advantage, whereas in low-transmission settings nonvirulent

  • Hepatocystis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Imran Ejotre,DeeAnn M Reeder,Kai Matuschewski,Juliane Schaer

  • A Way Straight-Forward for Leishmania Genetics.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    James A Cotton,Susanne U Franssen

    Genetic exchange between Leishmania parasites was demonstrated in sandflies over 10 years ago. Louradour et al. have shown in vitro hybridization of two Leishmania tropica isolates, with the potential to remove a major roadblock to using forward genetics in Leishmania, understanding Leishmania reproductive biology, and analyzing gene flow in natural populations.

  • Photoparasitism as an Intermediate State in the Evolution of Apicomplexan Parasites.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Miroslav Oborník

    Despite the benefits of phototrophy, many algae have lost photosynthesis and have converted back to heterotrophy. Parasitism is a heterotrophic strategy, with apicomplexans being among the most devastating parasites for humans. The presence of a nonphotosynthetic plastid in apicomplexan parasites suggests their phototrophic ancestry. The discovery of related phototrophic chromerids has unlocked the

  • 'Artemisinin Resistance': Something New or Old? Something of a Misnomer?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Thomas E Wellems,Juliana M Sá,Xin-Zhuan Su,Sean V Connelly,Angela C Ellis

    Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are crucial first-line antimalarial drugs that rapidly clear parasitemia, but recrudescences of the infection frequently follow ART monotherapy. For this reason, ART must be used in combination with one or more partner drugs that ensure complete cure. The ability of malaria parasites to survive ART monotherapy may relate to an innate growth bistability phenomenon

  • Gene Editing in Trypanosomatids: Tips and Tricks in the CRISPR-Cas9 Era.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Akila Yagoubat,Rosa M Corrales,Patrick Bastien,Maude F Lévêque,Yvon Sterkers

    Gene editing in trypanosomatids has long been proven difficult. The development of CRISPR-Cas9 has improved this issue, opening the way to a better understanding of biological processes and drug-resistance mechanisms, and screening of drug targets. Different strategies have now been developed: either PCR- or plasmid-based, differing mainly in the nature of the donor DNA and the single guide RNA transcription

  • The Intestinal Epithelium at the Forefront of Host-Helminth Interactions.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Gillian Coakley,Nicola L Harris

    Gastrointestinal helminth infection still constitutes a major public health issue, particularly in the developing world. As these parasites can undergo a large part of their lifecycle within the intestinal tract the host has developed various structural and cellular specializations at the epithelial barrier to contend with infection. Detailed characterization of these cells will provide important insights

  • STING or Sting: cGAS-STING-Mediated Immune Response to Protozoan Parasites.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Yifan Sun,Yang Cheng

    Emerging evidence suggests that the DNA-sensing pathway plays a crucial role in innate immunity against multiple diseases, especially infectious diseases. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), as a DNA sensor, and stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING), as an adaptor protein, are the central components that link DNA sensing to immunologic functions – including, but not limited to, the type I IFN response

  • Sand Fly Studies Predict Transmission Potential of Drug-resistant Leishmania.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Lieselotte Van Bockstal,Sarah Hendrickx,Louis Maes,Guy Caljon

    Leishmania parasites have the capacity to rapidly adapt to changing environments in their digenetic life cycle which alternates between a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Emergence of resistance following drug exposure can evoke phenotypic alterations that affect several aspects of parasite fitness in both hosts. Current studies of the impact of resistance are mostly limited to interactions with

  • Lateral Gene Transfer Mechanisms and Pan-genomes in Eukaryotes.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Shannon J Sibbald,Laura Eme,John M Archibald,Andrew J Roger

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is well known as an important driver of genome evolution in bacteria and archaea, but its importance in eukaryote evolution has yet to be fully elucidated. There is now abundant evidence indicating that LGT has played a role in the adaptation of eukaryotes to new environments and conditions, including host–parasite interactions. However, the mechanisms and frequency of LGT

  • Metazoan Parasite Life Cycles: Significance for Fish Mariculture.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Daniel C Huston,Kazuo Ogawa,Sho Shirakashi,Barbara F Nowak

    Marine fish are a nutritious and high-value food commodity, but many wild-capture fisheries are in decline. Thus, marine fish culture is expected to expand greatly in coming years. Management of disease is a major problem in this industry, and metazoan parasites are among the most significant disease agents in terms of economic loss and animal welfare. Current methods for controlling metazoan parasites

  • Artemisinin Resistance and the Unique Selection Pressure of a Short-acting Antimalarial.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    David S Khoury,Pengxing Cao,Sophie G Zaloumis,Miles P Davenport,

    Resistance to the artemisinin derivatives, our most effective antimalarial drugs, has not manifest as a classical resistance phenotype in which parasites can tolerate higher drug concentrations. Instead, resistant parasites have an altered maturation. We hypothesize that the short half-life of artemisinin concentrations is an unanticipated driver of this novel resistance phenotype.

  • Schistosoma mansoni.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Timothy J C Anderson,Egie E Enabulele

  • RPL-6: An Achilles Needle in the Malaria Haystack?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Lisa L Drewry,John T Harty

    Malaria is a global health scourge for which a highly effective vaccine remains frustratingly elusive. Recent identification of an endogenous malaria antigen that stimulates robust TRM-mediated immunity in mice by Valencia-Hernandez et al. strengthens the case for prime-and-trap malaria vaccines and will greatly aid further investigations of cellular antimalarial immunity.

  • Malaria According to GARP: A New Trail towards Anti-disease Vaccination.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Calvin Hon,Kai Matuschewski

    Naturally acquired anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunity protects first and foremost against severe disease. Raj et al. have established a tantalizing path towards an anti-disease vaccine by identifying glutamic acid-rich protein (GARP) antibodies as signatures of protection against severe malaria in Tanzanian children and demonstrating efficacy in blood cultures and monkey trials.

  • Mast Cells and Basophils: From Malevolent Design to Coevolutionary Arms Race.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Anderson Sá-Nunes,Carlo J F Oliveira,José M Ribeiro

    Mast cells and basophils are central to acquired resistance against blood-feeding arthropods which, in turn, counteract these cells by modulating their biological activities. The phenotypic exuberance displayed in this battlefield points to a reciprocal selective pressure suggesting a coevolutionary arms race that shapes both ectoparasites and vertebrate hosts.

  • New Insights on Acute and Chronic Schistosomiasis: Do We Need a Redefinition?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Federico Gobbi,Francesca Tamarozzi,Dora Buonfrate,Lisette van Lieshout,Zeno Bisoffi,Emmanuel Bottieau,

    A precise timeframe to differentiate acute schistosomiasis (AS) and chronic schistosomiasis (CS) is not well defined. Based on recent published literature, lung nodular lesions in AS and CS seem to have the same pathophysiology, that is, eggs laid in situ by adult worms, during an ectopic migration. Moreover, the occurrence of lung nodules due to clusters of eggs and the systemic immunoallergic reaction

  • Pathogens Shape Sex Differences in Mammalian Aging.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Morgane Tidière,Adèle Badruna,David Fouchet,Jean-Michel Gaillard,Jean-François Lemaître,Dominique Pontier

    Understanding the origin of sex differences in lifespan and aging patterns remains a salient challenge in both biogerontology and evolutionary biology. Different factors have been studied but the potential influence of pathogens has never been investigated. Sex differences, especially in hormones and resource allocation, generate a differential response to pathogens and thereby shape sex differences

  • Zoonotic Parasites of Reptiles: A Crawling Threat.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Jairo A Mendoza-Roldan,David Modry,Domenico Otranto

    Reptiles are reservoirs of a wide range of pathogens, including many protozoa, helminths, pentastomids, and arthropod parasitic species, some of which may be of public health concern. In this review we discuss the zoonotic risks associated with human–reptile interactions. Increased urbanization and introduction of exotic species of reptile may act as drivers for the transmission of zoonotic parasites

  • Evolution, Composition, Assembly, and Function of the Conoid in Apicomplexa.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-31
    Nicolas Dos Santos Pacheco,Nicolò Tosetti,Ludek Koreny,Ross F Waller,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    The phylum Apicomplexa has been defined by the presence of the apical complex, a structure composed of secretory organelles and specific cytoskeletal elements. A conspicuous feature of the apical complex in many apicomplexans is the conoid, a hollow tapered barrel structure composed of tubulin fibers. In Toxoplasma gondii, the apical complex is a central site of convergence for calcium-related and

  • When Is a Plasmodium-Infected Mosquito an Infectious Mosquito?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Wouter Graumans,Ella Jacobs,Teun Bousema,Photini Sinnis

    Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito’s capacity to give rise to secondary infections

  • Plasmodium relictum.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    Josué Martínez-de la Puente,Diego Santiago-Alarcon,Vaidas Palinauskas,Staffan Bensch

  • Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Tsetse Fly).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Jérémy Bouyer

  • Precipitated Malaria: It Never Rains but It Pours.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Lars Hviid

    Occasionally, Plasmodium falciparum malaria is apparently precipitated by traumatic events (e.g., a landmine accident) or by noninfectious events (e.g., pregnancy). The authors reporting such cases often seem as baffled as many of their readers probably are. However, the case reports may contain important clues regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity.

  • Needs and Challenges in Modelling Malaria for Emergency Contexts.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Christophe Boëte,Maite Guardiola,Estrella Lasry,Sakib Burza,Silvia Moriana,William Robertson

    While modelling is an essential component for an understanding of the epidemiology of malaria, and for designing better control measures, it rarely considers the particular contexts encountered in emergency settings. By linking these situations with the transmission parameters our aim is to correct this bias and call for a better collaboration between relief actors.

  • Lutzomyia longipalpis (Sand Fly).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Lucas Christian de Sousa-Paula,Domenico Otranto,Filipe Dantas-Torres

  • Varroa destructor: A Complex Parasite, Crippling Honey Bees Worldwide.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Kirsten S Traynor,Fanny Mondet,Joachim R de Miranda,Maeva Techer,Vienna Kowallik,Melissa A Y Oddie,Panuwan Chantawannakul,Alison McAfee

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has shaken the beekeeping and pollination industries since its spread from its native host, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), to the naïve European honey bee (Apis mellifera) used commercially for pollination and honey production around the globe. Varroa is the greatest threat to honey bee health. Worrying observations include increasing acaricide resistance

  • Complement Evasion Contributes to Lyme Borreliae-Host Associations.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 6.918) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Yi-Pin Lin,Maria A Diuk-Wasser,Brian Stevenson,Peter Kraiczy

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Lyme borreliae infect diverse vertebrate reservoirs without triggering apparent manifestations in these animals; however, Lyme borreliae strains differ in their reservoir hosts. The mechanisms that drive those differences are unknown. To survive

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