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  • Connecting Female Genital Schistosomiasis and Menstrual Hygiene Initiatives
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    J. Russell Stothard; Maurice R. Odiere; Penelope A. Phillips-Howard

    Effective future control of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) requires an integrated and multisectoral approach, bringing together HIV, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights sectors. In this article, an underappreciated but important connection between FGS and menstrual hygiene initiatives in Africa is highlighted.

    更新日期:2020-04-08
  • A More Granular View of Neutrophils in Malaria
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Borko Amulic; Christopher A. Moxon; Aubrey J. Cunnington

    Neutrophils are abundant innate immune cells with crucial roles in immunity and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils have a dual role in malaria, contributing to both pathogenesis and control of Plasmodium. We discuss emerging mechanisms behind these opposing functions and identify key outstanding questions.

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Plasmodium vivax in Hematopoietic Niches: Hidden and Dangerous
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    João Luiz Silva-Filho; Marcus V.G. Lacerda; Mario Recker; Samuel C. Wassmer; Matthias Marti; Fabio T.M. Costa

    Estimation of Plasmodium vivax biomass based on circulating biomarkers indicates the existence of a predominant biomass outside of the circulation that is not captured by peripheral parasitemia, in particular in patients with complicated outcomes. A series of recent studies have suggested that the hematopoietic niche of the bone marrow (BM) is a major reservoir for parasite replication and the development

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • The Human Spleen in Malaria: Filter or Shelter?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Benoît Henry; Camille Roussel; Mario Carucci; Valentine Brousse; Papa Alioune Ndour; Pierre Buffet

    The human spleen is an immune sentinel and controls red blood cell (RBC) quality. By mechanically retaining subsets of infected RBCs, the spleen may reduce the pace at which the parasite biomass increases before the adaptive immune response operates. Conversely, the spleen may contribute to malaria pathogenesis, particularly anemia that is associated with splenomegaly. Large spleens may also shelter

    更新日期:2020-03-31
  • Inflammasome Activation in Response to Intracellular Protozoan Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Renan V.H. de Carvalho; Dario S. Zamboni

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that assemble in response to cellular stress or upon sensing microbial molecules, culminating in cytokine processing and an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. Inflammasomes are usually composed of a sensor molecule, an adaptor protein, and an inflammatory caspase, such as Caspase-1, which cleaves and activates multiple substrates, including Gasdermin-D

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Malaria Parasite Clearance: What Are We Really Measuring?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    David S. Khoury; Sophie G. Zaloumis; Matthew J. Grigg; Ashraful Haque; Miles P. Davenport

    Antimalarial drugs are vital for treating malaria and controlling transmission. Measuring drug efficacy in the field requires large clinical trials and thus we have identified proxy measures of drug efficacy such as the parasite clearance curve. This is often assumed to measure the rate of drug activity against parasites and is used to predict optimal treatment regimens required to completely clear

    更新日期:2020-03-22
  • Reinventing the Wheel of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Transmission to Humans
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    Francesca Tamarozzi; Peter Deplazes; Adriano Casulli

    Control of cystic echinococcosis (CE) relies on interrupting Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato transmission through interventions in dogs and livestock. However, primary prevention measures aimed at avoiding ingestion of Echinococcus eggs may help reduce the burden of human CE. CE is generally considered, to variable extents, to be foodborne, but there is little evidence on the actual contamination

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Not Just from Blood: Mosquito Nutrient Acquisition from Nectar Sources
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Elina Barredo; Matthew DeGennaro

    Anthropophilic female mosquitoes are well known for their strong attraction to human hosts, but plant nectar is a common energy source in their diets. When sugar sources are scarce, female mosquitoes of some species can compensate by taking larger and more frequent blood meals. Male mosquitoes are exclusively dependent on plant nectar or alternative sugar sources. Plant preference is likely driven

    更新日期:2020-03-19
  • An Omnivore’s Dilemma: Toxoplasma gondii’s Flexible Metabolic Networks
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-08
    Kami Kim

    Host cells provide protection from the environment for intracellular pathogens, but acquisition of nutrients and sensing of changes in the host cell bring new challenges. Krishnan et al. have recently developed a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) of the Toxoplasma gondii metabolic network that incorporates genetic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data.

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • Linking Mosquito Ecology, Traits, Behavior, and Disease Transmission
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Karthikeyan Chandrasegaran; Chloé Lahondère; Luis E. Escobar; Clément Vinauger

    Mosquitoes are considered to be the deadliest animals on Earth because the diseases they transmit claim at least a million human lives every year globally. Here, we discuss the scales at which the effects of ecological factors cascade to influence epidemiologically relevant behaviors of adult mosquitoes. In particular, we focused our review on the environmental conditions (coarse-scale variables) that

    更新日期:2020-03-05
  • Chimeras of P4-ATPase and Guanylate Cyclase in Pathogenic Protists
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Özlem Günay-Esiyok; Nishith Gupta

    Apicomplexan parasites harbor chimeric proteins embodying P4-type ATPase and guanylate cyclase domains. Such proteins – serving as the actuator of cGMP signaling in this group of important pathogens – are indeed unusual in terms of their sheer size, modus operandi, and evolutionary repurposing. Much like the mythological Sphinx, a human-lion chimeric creature that posed challenging riddles, the P4-type

    更新日期:2020-03-05
  • Lexis and Grammar of Mitochondrial RNA Processing in Trypanosomes
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-28
    Inna Aphasizheva; Juan Alfonzo; Jason Carnes; Igor Cestari; Jorge Cruz-Reyes; H. Ulrich Göringer; Stephen Hajduk; Julius Lukeš; Susan Madison-Antenucci; Dmitri A. Maslov; Suzanne M. McDermott; Torsten Ochsenreiter; Laurie K. Read; Reza Salavati; Achim Schnaufer; André Schneider; Larry Simpson; Kenneth Stuart; Ruslan Aphasizhev

    Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause African human and animal trypanosomiasis, a burden on health and economy in Africa. These hemoflagellates are distinguished by a kinetoplast nucleoid containing mitochondrial DNAs of two kinds: maxicircles encoding ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and proteins and minicircles bearing guide RNAs (gRNAs) for mRNA editing. All RNAs are produced by a phage-type RNA polymerase as 3′

    更新日期:2020-02-28
  • Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin: Immune Evasion, Infectivity, and Tumorigenesis
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Galia Ramírez-Toloza; Eduardo Sosoniuk-Roche; Carolina Valck; Lorena Aguilar-Guzmán; Viviana P. Ferreira; Arturo Ferreira

    To successfully infect, Trypanosoma cruzi evades and modulates the host immune response. T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCalr) is a multifunctional, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone that, translocated to the external microenvironment, mediates crucial host–parasite interactions. TcCalr binds and inactivates C1 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolins, important pattern- recognition receptors

    更新日期:2020-02-25
  • Transition from Plasmodial Hypnozoite to Schizont Demonstrated
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Miles B. Markus

    The progression to schizont formation of individual activated hypnozoites has been observed in vitro for the first time by Voorberg-van der Wel et al. Green-fluorescent protein-positive hypnozoites turned red-fluorescent (mCherry) upon activation. Thus, we now have empirical parasitological proof that supports the 40-year-old hypnozoite theory of relapse in malaria.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Divergent Mitochondrial Ribosomes in Unicellular Parasitic Protozoans
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Swati Dass; Michael W. Mather; Hangjun Ke

    The mitochondrion in parasitic protozoans is a clinically proven drug target. A specialized ribosome (mitoribosome) is required to translate genes encoded on the mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Despite the significance, little is known about mitoribosomes in many medically and economically important unicellular protozoans.

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Next-Generation Molecular Surveillance of TriTryp Diseases
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Malgorzata Anna Domagalska; Jean-Claude Dujardin

    Elimination programs targeting TriTryp diseases (Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, human African trypanosomiasis) significantly reduced the number of cases. Continued surveillance is crucial to sustain this progress, but parasite molecular surveillance by genotyping is currently lacking. We explain here which epidemiological questions of public health and clinical relevance could be answered by means

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Toxoplasma-induced Behavioral Changes: An Aspecific Consequence of Neuroinflammation
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Jianchun Xiao

    A key strategy that many parasites use to facilitate transmission involves behavioral modification of their hosts. Toxoplasma gondii has been taken as an example for this strategy. A recent study by Boillat et al. reported that attraction to predator odor following Toxoplasma infection is not specific to felines.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Research.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Peng Jia,Weihua Dong,Shujuan Yang,Zhicheng Zhan,La Tu,Shengjie Lai

    Spatial lifecourse epidemiology aims to utilize advanced spatial, location-aware, and artificial intelligence technologies to investigate long-term effects of measurable biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychosocial factors on individual risk for chronic diseases. It could also further the research on infectious disease dynamics, risks, and consequences across the life course.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Modeling Pathogen Dispersal in Marine Fish and Shellfish.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Danielle L Cantrell,Maya L Groner,Tal Ben-Horin,Jon Grant,Crawford W Revie

    In marine ecosystems, oceanographic processes often govern host contacts with infectious agents. Consequently, many approaches developed to quantify pathogen dispersal in terrestrial ecosystems have limited use in the marine context. Recent applications in marine disease modeling demonstrate that physical oceanographic models coupled with biological models of infectious agents can characterize dispersal

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Update on BEI Resources for Parasitology and Arthropod Vector Research.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Robert E Molestina,Timothy T Stedman

    BEI Resources has contributed to the advancement of parasitic diseases research for over 16 years. The accessibility of our reference strains and reagents is relevant to the development of new therapeutics and vaccines. Here we provide a resource update with emphasis on the new assets for toxoplasmosis and vector research.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Phased Conditional Approach for Mosquito Management Using Sterile Insect Technique.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Jérémy Bouyer,Hanano Yamada,Rui Pereira,Kostas Bourtzis,Marc J B Vreysen

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a major threat to humankind. Recently, the incidence of malaria has stopped decreasing while that of dengue is increasing exponentially. Alternative mosquito-control methods are urgently needed. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has seen significant developments recently and may play an important role. However, testing and implementing SIT for vector control is challenging

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito).
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Giovanni Benelli,André B B Wilke,John C Beier

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A Leap Into the Unknown - Early Events in African Trypanosome Transmission.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Balázs Szöőr,Eleanor Silvester,Keith R Matthews

    African trypanosomes are mainly transmitted by tsetse flies. In recent years there has been good progress in understanding how the parasites prepare for transmission, detect their changed environment through the perception of different environmental cues, and respond by changing their developmental gene expression. In this review, we discuss the different signals and signaling mechanisms used by the

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Skin Interface, a Key Player for Borrelia Multiplication and Persistence in Lyme Borreliosis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Quentin Bernard,Antoine Grillon,Cédric Lenormand,Laurence Ehret-Sabatier,Nathalie Boulanger

    The skin plays a key role in vector-borne diseases because it is the site where the arthropod coinoculates pathogens and its saliva. Lyme borreliosis, particularly well investigated in this context, is a multisystemic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes. Numerous in vitro studies were conducted to better understand the role of specific

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • The Pharmacopea within Triatomine Salivary Glands.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Paula B Santiago,Carla N de Araújo,Sébastien Charneau,Yanna R Praça,Izabela M D Bastos,José M C Ribeiro,Jaime M Santana

    Triatomines are blood-feeding insects that prey on vertebrate hosts. Their saliva is largely responsible for their feeding success. The triatomine salivary content has been studied over the past decades, revealing multifunctional bioactive proteins targeting the host´s hemostasis and immune system. Recently, sequencing of salivary-gland mRNA libraries revealed increasingly complex and complete transcript

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Iron and Heme Metabolism at the Leishmania-Host Interface.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva,Iqbal Hamza,José M Pérez-Victoria

    Species of the protozoan Leishmania are causative agents of human leishmaniasis, a disease that results in significant death, disability, and disfigurement around the world. The parasite is transmitted to a mammalian host by a sand fly vector where it develops as an intracellular parasite within macrophages. This process requires the acquisition of nutritional iron and heme from the host as Leishmania

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Pre-empting Pandora's Box: Blastocystis Subtypes Revisited.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Christen Rune Stensvold,C Graham Clark

    Blastocystis is a genetically diverse intestinal protist colonizing both human and non-human hosts. By 2013, 17 subtypes had been acknowledged. Since then, nine more subtypes have been proposed. We argue that several recently proposed subtypes are invalid. We also revisit recommendations regarding the requirements for annotating sequences as new subtypes.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Blastocystis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Christen Rune Stensvold,Kevin S W Tan,C Graham Clark

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • A One Health Approach to Tackle Cryptosporidiosis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Elisabeth A Innes,Rachel M Chalmers,Beth Wells,Mattie C Pawlowic

    Cryptosporidiosis is a significant diarrhoeal disease in both people and animals across the world and is caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. Recent research has highlighted the longer-term consequences of the disease for malnourished children, involving growth stunting and cognitive deficits, and significant growth and production losses for livestock. There are no vaccines

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Interplay between Histomonas meleagridis and Bacteria: Mutualistic or Predator-Prey?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Ivana Bilic,Michael Hess

    Histomonas meleagridis is an extracellular protozoan parasite and the aetiological agent of histomonosis, an important poultry disease whose impact is greatly accentuated by inaccessibility of any treatment. A special feature of the parasite is its intricate interplay with bacteria in vitro and in vivo, the focus of this article.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Single cell sequencing shines a light on malaria parasite relatedness in complex infections.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-01
    Sasha V Siegel,Julian C Rayner

    Recent genomic studies are investigating the wide-ranging implications of malaria complex infections on parasite diversity, transmission, and downstream disease eradication efforts. Using single cell sequencing, new work by Nkhoma et al. provides evidence that there is unexpectedly frequent co-transmission of related parasites in the intense transmission setting in Malawi.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Targeting Plasmodium Plasmepsin V: Hitting Two Birds with One Stone.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2020-02-01
    Nicolas M B Brancucci,Volker T Heussler,Christof Grüring

    A recent report by Jennison et al. reveals an important role for plasmepsin V (PMV), an aspartyl protease, in the development of malaria transmission stages. The authors showed that PMV activity is critical for protein export in these stages and that specific PMV inhibitors block parasite transmission to mosquitoes.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Advances in Vaccine Development for Human Lymphatic Filariasis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram,Vishal Khatri,Nikhil Chauhan

    According to the World Health Organization, over 880 million people are currently at risk of acquiring lymphatic filariasis (LF) in over 52 countries worldwide. Current approaches to control LF by 2020 are short of the anticipated goal. Several studies suggest the existence of protective immunity against LF in humans. Thus, it is possible to develop a prophylactic vaccine against LF in humans. Several

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Mosquito Microbiota and Implications for Disease Control.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Han Gao,Chunlai Cui,Lili Wang,Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena,Sibao Wang

    Mosquito-transmitted diseases account for about 500 000 deaths every year. Blocking these pathogens in the mosquito vector before they are transmitted to humans is an effective strategy to prevent mosquito-borne diseases. Like most higher organisms, mosquitoes harbor a highly diverse and dynamic microbial flora that can be explored for prevention of pathogen transmission. Here we review the structure

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Hardly Vacuous: The Parasitophorous Vacuolar Membrane of Malaria Parasites.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Daniel E Goldberg,Joshua Zimmerberg

    When a malaria parasite invades a host erythrocyte it pushes itself in and invaginates a portion of the host membrane, thereby sealing itself inside and establishing itself in the resulting vacuole. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) that surrounds the parasite is modified by the parasite, using its secretory organelles. To survive within this enveloping membrane, the organism must take in

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Clinical and Preclinical Imaging of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Brice Masi,Teodora-Adriana Perles-Barbacaru,Monique Bernard,Angèle Viola

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, is a major cause of chronic morbidity and disability, and premature death. The hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension, and esophageal varices, whose rupture may cause bleeding and death. We review currently available abdominal imaging modalities and describe their basic principles

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Autoimmune Anemia in Malaria.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Juan Rivera-Correa,Ana Rodriguez

    Severe anemia is a major cause of death by malaria. The loss of uninfected erythrocytes is an important contributor to malarial anemia; however, the mechanisms underlying this pathology are not well understood. Malaria-induced anemia is related to autoimmune antibodies against the membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS). In mice, these antibodies induce the clearance of uninfected erythrocytes after

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Malaria in Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes: New Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Michelle Ngai,Andrea M Weckman,Clara Erice,Chloe R McDonald,Lindsay S Cahill,John G Sled,Kevin C Kain

    Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we discuss the impact of malaria in pregnancy on three pathways that are important regulators of healthy pregnancy outcomes: L-arginine-nitric oxide biogenesis, complement activation, and the heme axis. These pathways are not mutually exclusive, and they collectively create

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Organoids for Liver Stage Malaria Research.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Ronan Mellin,Justin A Boddey

    Plasmodium parasites cause malaria and are maintained between Anopheles mosquitoes and mammalian hosts in a complex life cycle. Malaria parasites occupy tissue niches that can be difficult to access, and models to study them can be challenging to recapitulate experimentally, particularly for Plasmodium species that infect humans. 2D culture models provide extremely beneficial tools to investigate Plasmodium

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • HRP2: Transforming Malaria Diagnosis, but with Caveats.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Kristin E Poti,David J Sullivan,Arjen M Dondorp,Charles J Woodrow

    The major growth in point-of-care malaria diagnosis over the past decade has been based on immunochromatographic malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), which generally detect Plasmodium falciparum via its abundant histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2). Here, we review the discovery and biology of HRP2, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of HRP2-based diagnosis compared with alternative antigens. We

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • You Shall Not Pass: Memory CD8 T Cells in Liver-Stage Malaria
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Mitchell N. Lefebvre; John T. Harty

    Each year over 200 million malaria infections occur, with over 400 000 associated deaths. Vaccines formed with attenuated whole parasites can induce protective memory CD8 T cell responses against liver-stage malaria; however, widespread administration of such vaccines is logistically challenging. Recent scientific findings are delineating how protective memory CD8 T cell populations are primed and

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Ungulate Helminth Transmission and Two Evolutionary Puzzles.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    James C Chubb,Daniel Benesh,Geoff A Parker

    Grazing mammals, ungulates, pose two evolutionary puzzles as helminth hosts. First, why do some helminths infect intermediate hosts prior to infecting ungulates, given that grazers could directly consume propagules on vegetation? Second, ungulates are large and long-lived, so why are they occasionally intermediate instead of definitive hosts, as in taeniid cestodes? We comprehensively surveyed helminth

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Mosquito Age Grading and Vector-Control Programmes.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Brian J Johnson,Leon E Hugo,Thomas S Churcher,Oselyne T W Ong,Gregor J Devine

    An ability to characterize the age of mosquito populations could provide cost-effective and compelling entomological evidence for the potential epidemiological impacts of vector control. The average age of a mosquito population is the most important determinant of vectorial capacity and the likelihood of disease transmission. Yet, despite decades of research, defining the age of a wild-caught mosquito

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Organoids - New Models for Host-Helminth Interactions.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    María A Duque-Correa,Rick M Maizels,Richard K Grencis,Matthew Berriman

    Organoids are multicellular culture systems that replicate tissue architecture and function, and are increasingly used as models of viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections. Organoids have great potential to improve our current understanding of helminth interactions with their hosts and to replace or reduce the dependence on using animal models. In this review, we discuss the applicability of this

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • The Journey to Discovering a Flatworm Target of Praziquantel: A Long TRP.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Sang-Kyu Park,Jonathan S Marchant

    Infections caused by parasitic flatworms impose a considerable worldwide health burden. One of the most impactful is schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic blood flukes. Treatment of schistosomiasis has relied on a single drug - praziquantel (PZQ) - for decades. The utility of PZQ as an essential medication is, however, intertwined with a stark gap in our knowledge as to how this drug works

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Microbiota, a Third Player in the Host-Plasmodium Affair.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Debanjan Mukherjee,Ângelo Ferreira Chora,Maria M Mota

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is responsible for more than 200 million new infections and 400 000 deaths yearly. While in recent years the influence of the microbiota in homeostasis and a wide variety of disorders has taken center stage, its contribution during malaria infections has only now started to emerge. The few published studies suggest two distinct but complementary directions

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Helminths Turning on the NLRP3 Inflammasome: Pros and Cons.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Daiana Pamela Celias,Claudia Cristina Motrán,Laura Cervi

    Helminth infections can activate multimeric protein complexes called inflammasomes. In this forum we summarize the main effects of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including control of excessive Th2 response and immunopathology induction. These mechanisms would ensure the survival of both the host and the parasite.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Is Naegleria fowleri an Emerging Parasite?
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Sutherland K Maciver,Jose E Piñero,Jacob Lorenzo-Morales

    Naegleria fowleri causes an uncommon but deadly disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). There has been an increase of reported PAM cases, particularly since 2000. Although water is the dominant route of transmission of PAM, infection through soil/dust is a possible alternative route. We have observed differences in epidemiology between the southern states in the USA and the Indian

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Achievements of the HERACLES Project on Cystic Echinococcosis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Adriano Casulli,Mar Siles-Lucas,Carmen Michaela Cretu,Kamena Vutova,Okan Akhan,Gulay Vural,Arantxa Cortés Ruiz,Enrico Brunetti,Francesca Tamarozzi

    The FP7 project 'Human Cystic Echinococcosis ReseArch in CentraL and Eastern Societies' (HERACLES), developed between 2013 and 2018 by nine partners in five countries, is one of the largest projects on cystic echinococcosis. Here we present the core HERACLES achievements, which should help to foster the translation of scientific investigations on health policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Symbiotic Bacteria as Potential Agents for Mosquito Control.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Mayur K Kajla

    Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species are symbiotic bacteria of the insect-pathogenic soil nematodes that produce insecticidal compounds lethal to prey insects. Recently, there has been much interest in adapting these insecticidals for mosquito control. Here, I advocate the potential of Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus as natural sources of mosquitocides (larvicides, adulticides) and feeding-deterrents.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Using Protozoan Surface Proteins for Effective Oral Vaccination.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-07-27
    Lucía Lara Rupil,Marianela Del Carmen Serradell,Hugo Daniel Luján

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan of the World Health Organization (WHO) calls for nonsyringe delivery mechanisms, thermostable vaccines, and new bioprocessing technologies as priority research areas. Here we discuss the use of protozoan surface proteins to develop a safe, stable, and efficient versatile oral vaccine platform.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Insights on Spirocerca lupi, the Carcinogenic Dog Nematode.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Alicia Rojas,Eran Dvir,Gad Baneth

    Spirocerca lupi is a nematode transmitted by dung beetles that infects domestic and wild canids in tropical and subtropical regions and is associated with neoplasia. It produces a distinctive pathology with the formation of esophageal nodules classified as inflammatory, preneoplastic, or neoplastic with metastasis to distant organs. Aberrant central nervous system migration of this nematode is also

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • New Strategies and Biomarkers for the Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Ana V Ibarra-Meneses,Javier Moreno,Eugenia Carrillo

    Effective diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, together with the study of vectors and reservoirs, can lead to a better understanding of the parasite transmission dynamics and the development of more efficient control measures. Recent studies have applied new methodologies and biomarkers, and these have contributed to the early and rapid diagnosis of the disease; assessment of success

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Artemisinin Bioactivity and Resistance in Malaria Parasites
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Arthur M. Talman, Jérôme Clain, Romain Duval, Robert Ménard, Frédéric Ariey

    Artemisinin is the most widely-used compound against malaria and plays a critical role in the treatment of malaria worldwide. Resistance to artemisinin emerged about a decade ago in Southeast Asia and it is paramount to prevent its spread or emergence in Africa. Artemisinin has a complex mode of action and can cause widespread injury to many components of the parasite. In this review, we outline the

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Leishmania infantum.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Tiago D Serafim,Eva Iniguez,Fabiano Oliveira

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trypanosoma brucei.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Gabriela Romero-Meza,Monica R Mugnier

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trichinella britovi.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Fabrizio Bruschi,Edoardo Pozio

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trypanosoma cruzi.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Nilmar Silvio Moretti,Renato Arruda Mortara,Sergio Schenkman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comments on T. De Meeûs et al.'s Article.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Jennifer S Lord

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Response to the Comments of J.S. Lord.
    Trends Parasitol. (IF 8.02) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Thierry De Meeûs,Sophie Ravel,Philippe Solano,Jérémy Bouyer

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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