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  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • GLOWORM-PARA: a flexible framework to simulate the population dynamics of the parasitic phase of gastrointestinal nematodes infecting grazing livestock
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    H. Rose Vineer; S.H Verschave; E. Claerebout; J. Vercruysse; D.J. Shaw; J. Charlier; E.R. Morgan
  • Compilation of 29 years of postmortem examinations identifies major shifts in equine parasite prevalence from 2000 onwards
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    G. Sallé; J. Guillot; J. Tapprest; N. Foucher; C. Sevin; C. Laugier
  • The hidden faces of a biological invasion: parasite dynamics of invaders and natives
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Peter Stuart; Linda Paredis; Heikki Henttonen; Colin Lawton; Claudia A. Ochoa Torres; Celia V. Holland
  • Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in oral fluid from pigs
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Lucía María Campero; Franziska Schott; Bruno Gottstein; Peter Deplazes; Xaver Sidler; Walter Basso
  • Stray dogs in the tropical state of Chiapas, Mexico, harbour atypical and novel genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno; Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres; Carlos Cedillo-Peláez; Héctor Luna-Pastén; Sara Teresa Méndez-Cruz; María Eréndira Reyes-García; Dolores Correa; Bruna Farias Alves; Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena; Heriberto Caballero-Ortega
  • Effect of land use change on mosquito abundance and prevalence of avian haemosporidian parasites in a tropical rainforest of cameroon
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Mélanie Adèle Tchoumbou; Marie Paul Audrey Mayi; Elikwo N.F. Malange; Forfuet David Foncha; Cyril Kowo; Jerome Fru-cho; Timoléon Tchuinkam; Julius Awah-Ndukum; Robert Dorazio; Damian Anong; Anthony John Cornel; Ravinder N.M. Sehgal
  • Genetic structure and geographical variation of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos sensu lato (Gastropoda: Bithyniidae), the snail intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae) in the Lower Mekong Basin revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Chairat Tantrawatpan; Weerachai Saijuntha; Naruemon Bunchom; Warong Suksavate; Warayutt Pilap; Tanapipat Walalite; Takeshi Agatsuma; Wittaya Tawong; Paiboon Sithithaworn; Ross H. Andrews; Trevor N. Petney
  • 更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Detecting sequence variants in clinically important protozoan parasites
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Larissa Calarco; Joel Barratt; John Ellis
  • 更新日期:2019-12-17
  • The changing profile of schistosomiasis in a changing urban landscape
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Luciano K. Silva, Lúcio M Barbosa, Jeffrey D. Kovach, Rogério dos Santos Teixeira, Ênio Silva Soares, Cristiane Wanderley Cardoso, Rosângela Vasconcelos Martins Marques, Tatiane Pereira dos Santos, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Ronald E. Blanton
  • An immunocompetent rat model of infection with Cryptosporidium species: Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Denise Ann Dayao, Abhineet Sheoran, Alison Carvalho, Hongbin Xu, Gillian Beamer, Giovanni Widmer, Saul Tzipori
  • Infection with a small intestinal helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri, consistently alters microbial communities throughout the murine small and large intestine
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Alexis Rapin, Audrey Chuat, Luc Lebon, Mario M. Zaiss, Benjamin Marsland, Nicola L. Harris
  • Prediction of hookworm prevalence in southern India using environmental parameters derived from Landsat 8 remotely sensed data
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Alexandra V. Kulinkina, Rajiv Sarkar, Venkata R. Mohan, Yvonne Walz, Saravanakumar P. Kaliappan, Sitara S.R. Ajjampur, Honorine Ward, Elena N. Naumova, Gagandeep Kang
  • Insect trypanosomatids in Papua New Guinea: high endemism and diversity
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Jana Králová, Anastasiia Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Jan Votýpka, Vojtěch Novotný, Petr Kment, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Alexei Yu. Kostygov
  • Experimental study of micro-habitat selection by ixodid ticks feeding on avian hosts
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Gerardo Fracasso, Erik Matthysen, André A. Dhondt, Dieter Heylen
  • No barrier breakdown between human and cattle schistosome species in the Senegal River Basin in the face of hybridisation
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Nele A.M. Boon, Moustapha Mbow, Linda Paredis, Pieter Moris, Ibrahima Sy, Tim Maes, Bonnie L. Webster, Moussa Sacko, Filip A.M. Volckaert, Katja Polman, Tine Huyse
  • 更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) sterol-binding protein Mi-SBP-1 as a target for its management
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Tagginahalli N. Shivakumara, Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Victor Phani, Sonam Chaudhary, Alkesh Hada, Roli Budhwar, Rohit Nandan Shukla, Uma Rao
  • 更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Prevalence and species richness of trematode parasites only partially recovers after the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake tsunami
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Osamu Miura, Gen Kanaya, Shizuko Nakai, Hajime Itoh, Satoshi Chiba
  • Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) genes modulate plant root exudate composition and the attraction of plant parasitic nematodes
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Steven Dyer, Ryan Weir, Deborah Cox, Xavier Cheseto, Baldwyn Torto, Johnathan J. Dalzell
  • Proteomic, metabolic and immunological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Tiago Manuel Fernandes Mendes, Emanuel Carrilho, Ana Júlia Pinto Fonseca Sieuve Afonso, Carlos Alexandre Galinaro, Fernanda Janku Cabral, Silmara Marques Allegretti
  • Imaging effector functions of human cytotoxic CD4+ T cells specific for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Ute Frevert,Alberto Moreno,J Mauricio Calvo-Calle,Christian Klotz,Elizabeth Nardin

    Malaria vaccines, comprised of irradiated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites or a synthetic peptide containing T and B cell epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), elicit multifunctional cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells in immunised volunteers. Both lytic and non-lytic CD4(+)T cell clones recognised a series of overlapping epitopes within a 'universal' T cell epitope EYLNKIQNSLSTEWSPCSVT of CSP (NF54 isolate) that was presented in the context of multiple DR molecules. Lytic activity directly correlated with T cell receptor (TCR) functional avidity as measured by stimulation indices and recognition of naturally occurring variant peptides. CD4(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity was contact-dependent and did not require de novo synthesis of cytotoxic mediators, suggesting a granule-mediated mechanism. Live cell imaging of the interaction of effector and target cells demonstrated that CD4(+) cytotoxic T cells recognise target cells with their leading edge, reorient their cytotoxic granules towards the zone of contact, and form a stable immunological synapse. CTL attacks induced chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies in target cells. Together, these findings suggest that CD4(+) CTLs trigger target cell apoptosis via classical perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity, similar to CD8(+) CTLs, and these multifunctional sporozoite- and peptide-induced CD4(+) T cells have the potential to play a direct role as effector cells in targeting the exoerythrocytic forms within the liver.

  • The search for the missing link: a relic plastid in Perkinsus?
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2011-09-06
    José A Fernández Robledo,Elisabet Caler,Motomichi Matsuzaki,Patrick J Keeling,Dhanasekaran Shanmugam,David S Roos,Gerardo R Vasta

    Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa) is a protozoan parasite that has devastated natural and farmed oyster populations in the USA, significantly affecting the shellfish industry and the estuarine environment. The other two genera in the phylum, Parvilucifera and Rastrimonas, are parasites of microeukaryotes. The Perkinsozoa occupies a key position at the base of the dinoflagellate branch, close to its divergence from the Apicomplexa, a clade that includes parasitic protista, many harbouring a relic plastid. Thus, as a taxon that has also evolved toward parasitism, the Perkinsozoa has attracted the attention of biologists interested in the evolution of this organelle, both in its ultrastructure and the conservation, loss or transfer of its genes. A review of the recent literature reveals mounting evidence in support of the presence of a relic plastid in P. marinus, including the presence of multimembrane structures, characteristic metabolic pathways and proteins with a bipartite N-terminal extension. Further, these findings raise intriguing questions regarding the potential functions and unique adaptation of the putative plastid and/or plastid genes in the Perkinsozoa. In this review we analyse the above-mentioned evidence and evaluate the potential future directions and expected benefits of addressing such questions. Given the rapidly expanding molecular/genetic resources and methodological toolbox for Perkinsus spp., these organisms should complement the currently established models for investigating plastid evolution within the Chromalveolata.

  • The Schistosoma mansoni T2 ribonuclease omega-1 modulates inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion in macrophages.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2015-09-20
    Brian J Ferguson,Stephen A Newland,Sarah E Gibbs,Panagiotis Tourlomousis,Paula Fernandes dos Santos,Meghana N Patel,Samuel W Hall,Henning Walczak,Gabriele Schramm,Helmut Haas,David W Dunne,Anne Cooke,Paola Zaccone

    The T2 ribonuclease omega-1 is a powerful Th2-inducing factor secreted by the eggs of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. Omega-1 can modulate pattern recognition receptor-induced inflammatory signatures and alter antigen presentation by dendritic cells. Recent findings have suggested that component(s) contained in or secreted by S. mansoni eggs (soluble egg antigen) can also enhance IL-1β secretion by dendritic cells stimulated with pattern recognition receptor ligands. Here we show that omega-1 enhances IL-1β secretion in macrophages stimulated with Toll-like receptor 2 ligand, and propose omega-1 as the factor in soluble egg antigen capable of regulating inflammasome activity. This effect is dependent on the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1, caspase-8 and the ASC inflammasome adaptor protein, highlighting the ability of omega-1 to regulate multiple pattern recognition receptor signalling pathways. These mechanistic insights into manipulation of host immunity by a parasite product have implications for the design of anti-inflammatory therapeutic drugs.

  • A novel Sarcocystis neurona genotype XIII is associated with severe encephalitis in an unexpectedly broad range of marine mammals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2015-05-23
    Lorraine Barbosa,Christine K Johnson,Dyanna M Lambourn,Amanda K Gibson,Katherine H Haman,Jessica L Huggins,Amy R Sweeny,Natarajan Sundar,Stephen A Raverty,Michael E Grigg

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of protozoal encephalitis among marine mammals in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To characterise the genetic type of S. neurona in this region, samples from 227 stranded marine mammals, most with clinical or pathological evidence of protozoal disease, were tested for the presence of coccidian parasites using a nested PCR assay. The frequency of S. neurona infection was 60% (136/227) among pinnipeds and cetaceans, including seven marine mammal species not previously known to be susceptible to infection by this parasite. Eight S. neurona fetal infections identified this coccidian parasite as capable of being transmitted transplacentally. Thirty-seven S. neurona-positive samples were multilocus sequence genotyped using three genetic markers: SnSAG1-5-6, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4. A novel genotype, referred to as Type XIII within the S. neurona population genetic structure, has emerged recently in the northeastern Pacific Ocean and is significantly associated with an increased severity of protozoal encephalitis and mortality among multiple stranded marine mammal species.

  • Small molecule analogues of the immunomodulatory parasitic helminth product ES-62 have anti-allergy properties.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2014-06-15
    Justyna Rzepecka,Michelle L Coates,Moninder Saggar,Lamyaa Al-Riyami,Jennifer Coltherd,Hwee Kee Tay,Judith K Huggan,Lucia Janicova,Abedawn I Khalaf,Ivonne Siebeke,Colin J Suckling,Margaret M Harnett,William Harnett

    ES-62, a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine moieties. Screening of a library of ES-62 phosphorylcholine-based small molecule analogues (SMAs) revealed that two compounds, termed 11a and 12b, mirrored the helminth product both in inhibiting mast cell degranulation and cytokine responses in vitro and in preventing ovalbumin-induced Th2-associated airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration of the lungs in mice. Furthermore, the two SMAs inhibited neutrophil infiltration of the lungs when administered therapeutically. ES-62-SMAs 11a and 12b thus represent starting points for novel drug development for allergies such as asthma.

  • Immunisation against a serine protease inhibitor reduces intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in mosquitoes.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2013-07-23
    Andrew R Williams,Sara E Zakutansky,Kazutoyo Miura,Matthew D J Dicks,Thomas S Churcher,Kerry E Jewell,Aisling M Vaughan,Alison V Turner,Melissa C Kapulu,Kristin Michel,Carole A Long,Robert E Sinden,Adrian V S Hill,Simon J Draper,Sumi Biswas

    The mosquito innate immune response is able to clear the majority of Plasmodium parasites. This immune clearance is controlled by a number of regulatory molecules including serine protease inhibitors (serpins). To determine whether such molecules could represent a novel target for a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine, we vaccinated mice with Anopheles gambiae serpin-2. Antibodies against Anopheles gambiae serpin-2 significantly reduced the infection of a heterologous Anopheles species (Anopheles stephensi) by Plasmodium berghei, however this effect was not observed with Plasmodium falciparum. Therefore, this approach of targeting regulatory molecules of the mosquito immune system may represent a novel approach to transmission-blocking malaria vaccines.

  • Helminth mediated modulation of Type 1 diabetes (T1D).
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2013-01-08
    Paola Zaccone,Anne Cooke

    Type 1 diabetes is increasing dramatically in incidence in the developed world. While there may be several reasons for this, improved sanitation and public health measures have altered our interactions with certain infectious agents such as helminths. There is increasing interest in the use of helminths or their products to alleviate inflammatory or allergic conditions. Using rodent models of diabetes, it has been possible to explore the therapeutic potential of both live infections as well as helminth-derived products on the development of autoimmunity. This review provides an overview of the findings from animal models and additionally explores the potential for translation to the clinic.

  • Amelioration of the periparturient relaxation of immunity to parasites through a reduction in mammalian reproductive effort.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2012-10-24
    L A Jones,P Sakkas,J G M Houdijk,D P Knox,I Kyriazakis

    The degree of periparturient relaxation of immunity to gastrointestinal parasites has a nutritional basis, as overcoming protein scarcity through increased protein supply improves lactational performance, enhances local immune responses and reduces worm burdens. Herein lactating rats, re-infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, are used to test the hypothesis that a similar and rapid improvement of immunity can be achieved through reducing nutrient demand at times of dietary protein scarcity. Reducing litter size from 12 to three pups during lactation resulted, as expected, in cessation of maternal body weight loss and increased pup body weight gain compared with dams which continued to nurse 12 pups. This increase in performance concurred with a rapid decrease in parasitism; within 3 days post nutrient reduction, a 87% reduction in the number of worm eggs found in the colon and 83% reduction in worm burdens was observed, which concurred with increased local immune responses, i.e. 70% more mast cells and 44% more eosinophils in the small intestinal mucosa, to levels similar to those in dams nursing three pups throughout. However, there were no concurrent changes in goblet cell hyperplasia, serum anti-N. brasiliensis-specific antibody levels or mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-10 or IL-13 in the mesenteric lymph nodes. To our knowledge the current study is the first to employ a litter reduction strategy to assess the rate of immune improvement upon overcoming nutrient scarcity in a non-ruminant host. These data support the hypothesis that periparturient relaxation of immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes can be reduced by restoring nutrient adequacy and, importantly, that this improvement can occur very rapidly.

  • Dissecting the impact of protein versus energy host nutrition on the expression of immunity to gastrointestinal parasites during lactation.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2011-03-15
    L A Jones,J G M Houdijk,P Sakkas,A D Bruce,M Mitchell,D P Knox,I Kyriazakis

    Many mammals exhibit a periparturient relaxation of previously established immune responses (PPRI) to gastrointestinal nematodes culminating in increased worm burdens. It has been suggested that the extent of PPRI may have a nutritional basis as it is considerably augmented when protein supply is scarce. Subsequent studies have shown that increased dietary protein intake can ameliorate this phenomenon. However, this effect is often confounded with increased food intake and thus increased energy levels. Herein, we aimed to dissect the effects of protein and energy nutrition on the immune status and resistance to re-infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in the periparturient host. The lactating, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis re-infected rat was utilised as an established model for mammalian PPRI. Experimental animals were assigned to restricted feeding regimens designed to achieve four pre-determined levels of crude protein (CP) at one of two levels of metabolisable energy (ME) and parasitological and immunological measurements taken at either day 6 or day 9 post re-infection. We clearly show that increased supply of dietary CP, but not increased dietary ME, significantly reduced worm burdens. The increased magnitude of worm expulsion with increased dietary CP supply strongly correlated with mucosal mast cell accumulation in the small intestine. In addition, increased CP and not ME supply increased mucosal eosinophil numbers. Furthermore, increased CP led to higher levels of total IgG at high ME only and there were interactive effects of CP and ME on serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a. Perhaps surprisingly, CP nutrition did not affect expression of either Th1 (IFN-γ) or Th2 (IL-4, IL-13) cytokines in the mesenteric lymph nodes. These data emphasise the role of immunonutrition, and particularly dietary protein, in combating infectious disease such as gastrointestinal parasitism.

  • Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2010-07-14
    Martin Walker,Andrew Hall,María-Gloria Basáñez

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the population dynamics of helminth parasites.

  • Sialic acids: key determinants for invasion by the Apicomplexa.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2010-05-01
    Nikolas Friedrich,Stephen Matthews,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    Sialic acids are ubiquitously found on the surface of all vertebrate cells at the extremities of glycan chains and widely exploited by viruses and bacteria to enter host cells. Carbohydrate-bearing receptors are equally important for host cell invasion by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. Host cell entry is an active process relying crucially on proteins that engage with receptors on the host cell surface and promote adhesion and internalisation. Assembly into complexes, proteolytic processing and oligomerization are important requirements for the functionality of these adhesins. The combination of adhesive proteins with varying stringency in specificity confers some flexibility to the parasite in face of receptor heterogeneity and immune pressure. Sialic acids are now recognised to critically contribute to selective host cell recognition by various species of the phylum.

  • Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2010-04-14
    Martin Walker,Andrew Hall,María-Gloria Basáñez

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  • Non-archetypal Type II-like and atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii infecting marsupials of Australia.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2010-03-30
    N Parameswaran,R C A Thompson,N Sundar,S Pan,M Johnson,N C Smith,M E Grigg

    Australia is geographically isolated and possesses a remarkable diversity of wildlife species. Marsupials are highly susceptible to infection with the cosmopolitan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Of 46 marsupials screened for T. gondii by multilocus PCR-DNA sequencing at polymorphic genes (B1, SAG3, GRA6, GRA7), 12 were PCR-positive; the majority (67%; 9/12) were infected by non-archetypal Type II-like or atypical strains. Six novel alleles were detected at B1, indicating greater diversity of genotypes than previously envisaged. Two isolates lethal to marsupials, were avirulent to mice. The data support the conclusion that Australia's isolation may have favoured the persistence of non-archetypal ancestral genotypes.

  • Classical CD11c+ dendritic cells, not plasmacytoid dendritic cells, induce T cell responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-12-09
    Cecile Voisine,Beatris Mastelic,Anne-Marit Sponaas,Jean Langhorne

    Dendritic cells play an important role in the development of immune responses in malaria, but the contribution of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) to CD4 T cell activation and immunopathology is unknown. We have investigated pDC in a Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice. During infection, pDC increased in number and transiently up-regulated expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II and co-stimulatory molecules. However, in contrast to classical CD11c(high) DC, pDC could not phagocytose parasites or process parasite proteins, to activate CD4 T cells. Activation of naïve pDC, but not CD11c(high) DC, by infected red blood cells induced IFN alpha in vitro, which was dependent on the Toll-like receptor, TLR9. However, inactivation of TLR9 in knock-out mice had no effect on a P. chabaudi infection suggesting that TLR9 was not crucial for parasite elimination or pathology. Neither pDC nor IFN alpha beta were essential for parasite clearance as mice depleted of pDC or IFN alpha beta Receptor-knock-out mice could control infection. However, these mice lost significantly more weight than untreated or wild-type mice. We conclude that classical DC are the major antigen-presenting cells for CD4 T cells in this infection, but that pDC and IFN alpha beta may play minor roles in controlling the magnitude of acute stage pathology.

  • Evolution in a multi-host parasite: chronobiological circadian rhythm and population genetics of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae indicates contrasting definitive host reservoirs by habitat.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-07-07
    Da-Bing Lu,Tian-Ping Wang,James W Rudge,Christl A Donnelly,Guo-Ren Fang,Joanne P Webster

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a disease of profound medical and veterinary importance which has remained endemic in many regions and has re-emerged where previously controlled in China. Although over 40 mammalian species are suspected as reservoirs for Schistosoma japonicum, their relative roles, particularly wildlife, remain to be ascertained. As cercarial emergence is a heritable trait shaped by the definitive hosts' behaviour, three chronobiological trials of cercarial emergence from field-collected snails from two contrasting ecological regions within China were performed, followed by genetic analyses of the parasites. Two distinct modes were identified, with late afternoon emergence mainly found in the hill region, compatible with a nocturnal rodent reservoir, and early emergence within the marshland consistent with a diurnal cattle reservoir. Furthermore, genetic analyses pointed to a clear separation between cercariae with different biological traits. The phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of the parasites identified here between and within two regions may indicate a strain complex. Such parasite diversity could, in turn, provide an explanation for the different infection scenarios observed between the two regions, and hence have important applied implications in terms of targeted control of key reservoirs.

  • Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-06-17
    M A Miller,B C Barr,R Nordhausen,E R James,S L Magargal,M Murray,P A Conrad,S Toy-Choutka,D A Jessup,M E Grigg

    In 2004, three wild sea otters were diagnosed with putative Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Schizonts, free merozoites and tissue cysts were observed in the brains of all three infected animals. Tissue cysts walls from sea otter 1 (SO1) stained positively using anti-S. neurona polyclonal antiserum. However, positive staining does not preclude infection by closely related or cross-reactive tissue cyst-forming coccidian parasites. Two immature tissue cysts in the brain of SO1 were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural features included cyst walls with thin villous projections up to 1 microm long with tapered ends and a distinctive, electron-dense outer lining layer composed of linearly-arranged, semi-circular structures with a "hobnailed" surface contour. Small numbers of microtubules extended down through the villi into the underlying granular layer. Metrocytes were short and plump with an anterior apical complex, 22 sub-pellicular microtubules, numerous free ribosomes and no rhoptries. Some metrocytes appeared to be dividing, with two adjacent nuclear profiles. Collectively these ultrastructural features were compatible with developing protozoal cysts and were similar to prior descriptions of S. neurona tissue cysts. Panspecific 18S rDNA primers were utilized to identify protozoa infecting the brains of these otters and DNA amplification and additional sequencing at the ITS1 locus confirmed that all three otters were infected with S. neurona. No other Sarcocystis spp. were detected in the brains or skeletal muscles of these animals by immunohistochemistry or PCR. We believe this is the first ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of S. neurona tissue cysts in the CNS of any animal.

  • Trypanosoma vivax displays a clonal population structure.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-06-13
    Craig W Duffy,Liam J Morrison,Alana Black,Gina L Pinchbeck,Robert M Christley,Andreas Schoenefeld,Andy Tait,C Michael R Turner,Annette MacLeod

    African animal trypanosomiasis, or Nagana, is a debilitating and economically costly disease with a major impact on animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosoma vivax, one of the principal trypanosome species responsible for the disease, infects a wide host range including cattle, goats, horses and donkeys and is transmitted both cyclically by tsetse flies and mechanically by other biting flies, resulting in a distribution covering large swathes of South America and much of sub-Saharan Africa. While there is evidence for mating in some of the related trypanosome species, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma cruzi, very little work has been carried out to examine this question in T. vivax. Understanding whether mating occurs in T. vivax will provide insight into the dynamics of trait inheritance, for example the spread of drug resistance, as well as examining the origins of meiosis in the order Kinetoplastida. With this in mind we have identified orthologues of eight core meiotic genes within the genome, the presence of which imply that the potential for mating exists in this species. In order to address whether mating occurs, we have investigated a sympatric field population of T. vivax collected from livestock in The Gambia, using microsatellite markers developed for this species. Our analysis has identified a clonal population structure showing significant linkage disequilibrium, homozygote deficits and disagreement with Hardy-Weinberg predictions at six microsatellite loci, indicative of a lack of mating in this population of T. vivax.

  • Plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films: further evidence that human infections are widely distributed and not newly emergent in Malaysian Borneo.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-04-11
    Kim-Sung Lee,Janet Cox-Singh,George Brooke,Asmad Matusop,Balbir Singh

    Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. Although microscopy-identified P. malariae cases have been reported in the state of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) as early as 1952, recent epidemiological studies suggest the absence of indigenous P. malariae infections. The present study aimed to determine the past incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi infections in the state of Sarawak based on archival blood films from patients diagnosed by microscopy as having P. malariae infections. Nested PCR assays were used to identify Plasmodium species in DNA extracted from 47 thick blood films collected in 1996 from patients in seven different divisions throughout the state of Sarawak. Plasmodium knowlesi DNA was detected in 35 (97.2%) of 36 blood films that were positive for Plasmodium DNA, with patients originating from all seven divisions. Only one sample was positive for P. malariae DNA. This study provides further evidence of the widespread distribution of human infections with P. knowlesi in Sarawak and its past occurrence. Taken together with data from previous studies, our findings suggest that P. knowlesi malaria is not a newly emergent disease in humans.

  • Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis did not adapt to long-term exposure to sheep that were genetically resistant or susceptible to nematode infections.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2008-11-26
    K E Kemper,R L Elwin,S C Bishop,M E Goddard,R R Woolaston

    We tested the hypothesis that Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis would adapt to long-term exposure to sheep that were either genetically resistant or susceptible to H. contortus. Sheep genotypes were from lines with 10 years prior selection for low (resistant, R) or high (susceptible, S) faecal worm egg count (WEC) following H. contortus infection. Long-term exposure of H. contortus and T.colubriformis to R or S genotypes was achieved using serial passage for up to 30 nematode generations. Thus, we generated four nematode strains; one strain of each species solely exposed to R sheep and one strain of each species solely exposed to S sheep. Considerable host genotype differences in mean WEC during serial passage confirmed adequate nematode selection pressure for both H. contortus (R 4900 eggs per gram (epg), S 19,900 epg) and T. colubriformis (R 5300 epg, S 13,500 epg). Adaptation of nematode strain to host genotype was tested using seven cross-classified tests for H. contortus, and two cross-classified and one outbred genotype test for T. colubriformis. In the cross-classified design, where each strain infects groups of R, S or randomly bred control sheep, parasite adaptation would be indicated by a significant host genotype by nematode strain interaction for traits indicating parasite reproductive success; specifically WEC and, for H. contortus strains, packed cell volume. We found no significant evidence of parasite adaptation to host genotype (P>0.05) for either the H. contortus or T. colubriformis strains. Therefore, we argue that nematodes will not adapt quickly to sheep bred for nematode resistance, where selection is based on low WEC, although selecting sheep using a subset of immune functions may increase adaptation risk. Our results support the hypothesis that nematode resistance is determined by many genes each with relatively small effect. In conclusion, selection of sheep for nematode resistance using WEC should be sustainable in the medium to long-term.

  • Characterisation by RNAi of pioneer genes expressed in the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell of Heterodera glycines and the effects of combinatorial RNAi.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2008-06-27
    M Bakhetia,P E Urwin,H J Atkinson

    Changes in transcript abundance of 24 genes expressed in the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell of Heterodera glycines encoding for putative secretions of unknown function were monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at 0, 2, 7, 14 and 21 days post-invasion (pi) of soybean plantlets. Five groups of temporal patterns (A, B1, B2, C and D) were defined for the 24 genes plus data for two previously studied genes expressed in the same cell. Group D (two genes) showed no significant increase between 0 and 2 days pi and were the least abundantly expressed at 7-21 days pi. Transcripts of group C (nine genes including one studied previously) increased in abundance from 0 to 2 days pi but were the second least expressed for 7-21 days pi. Groups A (three genes), B1 (seven genes) and B2 (five genes including one studied previously) were all abundant at 7-21 days pi. B1 and B2 were discriminated by their relative abundance at 0 and 2 days pi. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting two genes of group A and one each of B1 and B2 in nematodes prior to invasion resulted in phenotypic effects on total parasites per plant and sexual fate at 10 days pi. Phenotype penetrance was reduced for three genes showing such effects and one with a strong effect in earlier work when two genes rather than one were concurrently targeted for RNAi. One gene (dg13) was more abundantly expressed after combinatorial RNAi than for either control nematodes or when targeting singly by RNAi. This work reports the unexpected elevation in mRNA expression after combinatorial RNAi that requires understanding before combinatorial RNAi can be advanced for highly effective cyst nematode control via plant biotechnology.

  • Failure to respond to the surface of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes predicts susceptibility to clinical malaria amongst African children.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2008-06-07
    C L Mackintosh,T Mwangi,S M Kinyanjui,M Mosobo,R Pinches,T N Williams,C I Newbold,K Marsh

    Following infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, children in endemic areas develop antibodies specific to antigens on the parasite-infected red cell surface of the infecting isolate, antibodies associated with protection against subsequent infection with that isolate. In some circumstances induction of antibodies to heterologous parasite isolates also occurs and this has been suggested as evidence for cross-reactivity of responses against the erythrocyte surface. The role of these relatively cross-reactive antibodies in protection from clinical malaria is currently unknown. We studied the incidence of clinical malaria amongst children living on the coast of Kenya through one high transmission season. By categorising individuals according to their pre-season parasite status and antibody response to the surface of erythrocytes infected with four parasite isolates we were able to identify a group of children, those who failed to make a concomitant antibody response in the presence of an asymptomatic parasitaemia, at increased susceptibility to clinical malaria in the subsequent 6 months. The fact that this susceptible group was identified regardless of the parasite isolate tested infers a cross-reactive or conserved target is present on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Identification of this target will significantly aid understanding of naturally acquired immunity to clinical malaria amongst children in endemic areas.

  • sTNFR-II and sICAM-1 are associated with acute disease and hepatic inflammation in schistosomiasis japonica.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2007-11-16
    Magda K Ellis,Yuesheng Li,Xunya Hou,Honggen Chen,Donald P McManus

    Soluble intracellular adhesive molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and tumour necrosis factor receptors I (TNFR-1) and II (TNFR-II) have been shown to be associated with numerous liver disorders. Shedding of these membrane proteins can be triggered by the Th1 cytokines, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, which are associated with susceptibility or resistance to hepatic schistosomiasis, respectively. Further, TNF-alpha receptors and sICAM-1 have been implicated in periportal fibrosis in advanced human schistosomiasis mansoni and correlate with schistosome granuloma formation in the murine model. We measured serum levels of sICAM-1, TNFR-I and TNFR-II in Chinese patients with different clinically defined stages of schistosomiasis japonica and controls; these included 35 patients with acute schistosomiasis, 45 patients with chronic schistosome infections, 34 advanced patients with evidence of severe morbidity and 20 patients with no known history of exposure to infection. Markedly elevated levels of soluble TNFRs (sTNFRs) and sICAM-1 were observed in the acute and advanced patients compared with the chronic and control groups. Mean sTNFR-II levels were significantly higher in acute patients compared with advanced (P<0.00001) and chronic patients (P<0.00001) and showed the strongest association of the markers with acute disease (odds ratio (OR)=1.099). sTNFR-II and sICAM-1 levels both correlated with infection intensity and there were significant positive correlations observed between eosinophil count and infection intensity (P=0.0072) and sICAM-1 (P=0.0014). Although there were significantly higher levels of antigen-specific IgG4 and total IgG in infected individuals compared with controls, none correlated with infection intensity. Further, no differences in IgG4 and total IgG levels were observed between the acute and chronic groups. The results suggest sTNFRs and sICAM-1 are associated with liver inflammation and disease progression. Measurement of sTNFR-II and sICAM-1 levels in serum could serve as additional markers for the diagnosis of acute stage disease and the monitoring of hepatic inflammation in human schistosomiasis japonica.

  • Comparative genomics: from genotype to disease phenotype in the leishmaniases.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2007-07-25
    Deborah F Smith,Christopher S Peacock,Angela K Cruz

    Recent progress in sequencing the genomes of several Leishmania species, causative agents of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, is revealing unusual features of potential relevance to parasite virulence and pathogenesis in the host. While the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum are highly similar in content and organisation, species-specific genes and mechanisms distinguish one from another. In particular, the presence of retrotransposons and the components of a putative RNA interference machinery in L. braziliensis suggest the potential for both greater diversity and more tractable experimentation in this Leishmania Viannia species.

  • Brasiliensin: A novel intestinal thrombin inhibitor from Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with an important role in blood intake.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2007-06-20
    R N Araujo,I T N Campos,A S Tanaka,A Santos,N F Gontijo,M J Lehane,M H Pereira

    Every hematophagous invertebrate studied to date produces at least one inhibitor of coagulation. Among these, thrombin inhibitors have most frequently been isolated. In order to study the thrombin inhibitor from Triatoma brasiliensis and its biological significance for the bug, we sequenced the corresponding gene and evaluated its biological function. The T. brasiliensis intestinal thrombin inhibitor, termed brasiliensin, was sequenced and primers were designed to synthesize double strand RNA (dsRNA). Gene knockdown (RNAi) was induced by two injections of 15mug of dsRNA into fourth instar nymphs. Forty-eight hours after the second injection, bugs from each group were allowed to feed on hamsters. PCR results showed that injections of dsRNA reduced brasiliensin expression in the anterior midgut by approximately 71% in knockdown nymphs when compared with controls. The reduction in gene expression was confirmed by the thrombin inhibitory activity assay and the citrated plasma coagulation time assay which showed activity reductions of approximately 18- and approximately 3.5-fold, respectively. Knockdown nymphs ingested approximately 39% less blood than controls. In order to confirm the importance of brasiliensin in blood ingestion, fourth instar nymphs were allowed to ingest feeding solution alone or feeding solution containing 15U of thrombin prior to blood feeding. Fifty-five percent less blood was ingested by nymphs which were fed thrombin prior to blood feeding. The results suggest that anticoagulant activity in the midgut is an important determinant of the amount of blood taken from the host. The role of anticoagulants during blood ingestion is discussed in the light of this novel insight.

  • Familial aggregation of human susceptibility to co- and multiple helminth infections in a population from the Poyang Lake region, China.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2007-04-05
    Magda K Ellis,Giovanna Raso,Yue-Sheng Li,Zhu Rong,Hong-Gen Chen,Donald P McManus

    Human helminthiases are common in China, especially in rural areas where sanitation conditions are poor. Co- and multiple infections with helminths are strikingly frequent. A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was carried out in a population of 3205 individuals belonging to 498 families from five villages in the Poyang Lake region, Jiangxi Province, China, to assess their helminth infection status and to collect information on risk factors for infection. The prevalences for Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma japonicum and Trichuris trichiura were 30.9%, 15.7% and 47%, respectively. Hookworm infection prevalence was low (0.7%). A significant association was observed between A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection, and also between S. japonicum and T. trichiura infection. Variance components analysis was undertaken to investigate the aggregation of S. japonicum and the soil-transmitted helminths, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. While A. lumbricoides was found to aggregate only at a household level, T. trichiura was shown to cluster predominantly in families. Both genetic and household effects were found to be important in determining the risk of infection with S. japonicum. Variance components analysis for A. lumbricoides/T. trichiura co-infections indicated a significant domestic environmental effect, attributable for 32.7% of the co-infection risk. Aggregation of S. japonicum/T. trichiura co-infection was also observed at a household level. The risk of infection with multiple helminth species, although mainly environmentally influenced, was also shown to have significant involvement of genetic and household components. The results of this study indicate that a shared household is a major contributing risk factor for helminth co-infections and emphasises the need for increased standards of sanitation and hygiene to prevent parasite transmission. Further, the results suggest that susceptibility to one helminth infection is not completely independent of another, and that there exist common genetic factors underlying infection with multiple helminth species.

  • Antibody responses of domestic animals to salivary antigens of Triatomainfestans as biomarkers for low-level infestation of triatomines.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-03-03
    Alexandra Schwarz,Jeremy M Sternberg,Valerie Johnston,Nora Medrano-Mercado,Jennifer M Anderson,Jen C C Hume,Jesus G Valenzuela,Günter A Schaub,Peter F Billingsley

    Hematophagous arthropods such as Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, elicit host-immune responses during feeding. Characterization of antibody responses to salivary antigens offers the potential to develop immunologically based monitoring techniques for exposure to re-emergent triatomine bug populations in peridomestic animals. IgG-antibody responses to the salivary antigens of T.infestans have been detected in chickens as soon as 2 days after the first exposure to five adult bugs. Chickens and guinea pigs regularly exposed to this number of triatomines showed a significantly lower anti-saliva antibody titre than animals exposed to 25 adults and fifth instars of four different T.infestans strains originating from Bolivia and from Northern Chile. Highly immunogenic salivary antigens of 14 and 21kDa were recognised by all chicken sera and of 79kDa by all guinea pig sera. Cross-reactivity studies using saliva or salivary gland extracts from different hematophagous species, e.g. different triatomines, bed bugs, mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks, as well as chicken sera exposed to triatomines and mosquitoes, demonstrated that the 14 and 21kDa salivary antigens were only found in triatomines. Sera from peridomestic chickens and guinea pigs in sites of known T.infestans challenge in Bolivia also recognised the 14 and 21kDa antigens. These represent promising epidemiological markers for the detection of small numbers of feeding bugs and hence may be a new tool for vector surveillance in Chagas disease control programs.

  • Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2009-02-17
    Michael E Grigg,Natarajan Sundar

    The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe's human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite's host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma's current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer.

  • Schistosoma mansoni arginase shares functional similarities with human orthologs but depends upon disulphide bridges for enzymatic activity.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Jennifer M Fitzpatrick,Jose M Fuentes,Iain W Chalmers,Thomas A Wynn,Manuel Modolell,Karl F Hoffmann,Matthias Hesse

    Schistosome helminths constitute a major health risk for the human population in many tropical areas. We demonstrate for the first time that several developmental stages of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni express arginase, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of l-arginine to l-ornithine and urea. Arginase activity by alternatively activated macrophages is an essential component of the mammalian host response in schistosomiasis. However, it has not been previously shown that the parasite also expresses arginase when it is in contact with the mammalian host. After cloning and sequencing the cDNA encoding the parasite enzyme, we found that many structural features of human arginase are well conserved in the parasite ortholog. Subsequently, we discovered that S. mansoni arginase shares many similar molecular, biochemical and functional properties with both human arginase isoforms. Nevertheless, our data also reveal striking differences between human and schistosome arginase. Particularly, we found evidence that schistosome arginase activity depends upon disulphide bonds by cysteines, in contrast to human arginase. In conclusion, we report that S. mansoni arginase is well adapted to the physiological conditions that exist in the human host.

  • Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: current status.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2007-02-13
    Henry M Staines,Abdulnaser Alkhalil,Richard J Allen,Hugo R De Jonge,Elvira Derbyshire,Stéphane Egée,Hagai Ginsburg,David A Hill,Stephan M Huber,Kiaran Kirk,Florian Lang,Godfrey Lisk,Eugene Oteng,Ajay D Pillai,Kempaiah Rayavara,Sherin Rouhani,Kevin J Saliba,Crystal Shen,Tsione Solomon,Serge L Y Thomas,Patrick Verloo,Sanjay A Desai

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came together for a week of discussion and experimentation. In this article, the various models for altered transport are reviewed, together with the areas of consensus in the field and those that require a better understanding.

  • Ostertagia ostertagi macrophage migration inhibitory factor is present in all developmental stages and may cross-regulate host functions through interaction with the host receptor.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2014-03-04
    Guanggang Qu,Raymond Fetterer,Lin Leng,Xin Du,Dante Zarlenga,Zhiqiang Shen,Wenyu Han,Richard Bucala,Wenbin Tuo

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) of Ostertagia ostertagi, an abomasal parasite of cattle, was characterised in the present study. Phylogenetic analysis identified at least three O. ostertagi MIFs (Oos-MIFs), each encoded by a distinct transcript: Oos-MIF-1.1, Oos-MIF-1.2 and Oos-MIF-2. Oos-MIF-2 is only distantly related to Oos-MIF-1s, but has higher sequence similarity with the Caenorhabditis elegans MIF2. Oos-MIF-1.1 and Oos-MIF-1.2 are similar (93%) and thus collectively referred to as Oos-MIF-1 when characterised with immunoassays. Recombinant Oos-MIF-1.1 (rOos-MIF-1.1) is catalytically active as a tautomerase. A mutation (rOos-MIF-1.1P1G) or duplication of Pro1 residue (rOos-MIF-1.1P1+P) resulted in reduced oligomerisation and loss of tautomerase activity. The tautomerase activity of rOos-MIF-1.1 was only partially inhibited by ISO-1 but was abrogated by a rOos-MIF-1.1-specific antibody. Oos-MIF-1 was detected in all developmental stages of O. ostertagi, with higher levels in the adult stage; it was also detected in adult worm excretory/secretory product. Oos-MIF-1 was localised to the hypodermis/muscle, reproductive tract and intestine, but not to the cuticle. rOos-MIF-1.1, but not rOos-MIF-1.1P1G, was able to specifically bind to human CD74, a MIF cell surface receptor, with an affinity comparable with human MIF. Immunostaining indicated that macrophages were able to internalise rOos-MIF-1.1, further supporting receptor-mediated transportation. Herein we also show that rOos-MIF-1.1 inhibited migration of bovine macrophages and restored glucocorticoid-suppressed, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α and IL-8 in human and/or bovine macrophages. Given its dual role in self-regulation and molecular mimicry, this secreted parasite protein warrants investigation as a vaccine candidate against O. ostertagi infections in cattle.

  • Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: One Health, spillover and human activity.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2013-07-31
    R C Andrew Thompson

    This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania.

  • Mitochondrial gene order change in Schistosoma (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Schistosomatidae).
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2013-01-31
    Bonnie L Webster,D Timothy J Littlewood

    In the flatworm genus Schistosoma, species of which include parasites of biomedical and veterinary importance, mitochondrial gene order is radically different in some species. A PCR-based survey of 19 schistosomatid spp. established which of 14 Schistosoma spp. have the ancestral (plesiomorphic) or derived gene order condition. A phylogeny for Schistosoma was estimated and used to infer the origin of the gene order change which is present in all members of a clade containing Schistosoma incognitum and members of the traditionally recognised Schistosoma indicum, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosomahaematobium spp. groups. Schistosoma turkestanicum, with the plesiomorphic gene order state, is sister to this clade. Common interval analysis suggests change in gene order, from ancestral to derived, consisted of two sequential transposition events: (a) nad1_nad3 to nad3_nad1 and (b) [atp6,nad2]_[nad3,-nad1,cox1,rrnL,rrnS,cox2,nad6] to [nad3,nad1,cox1,rrnL,rrnS,cox2,nad6]_[atp6,nad2], where gene order offragments within square brackets remain unchanged. Gene order change is rare in parasitic flatworms and is a robust synapomorphy for schistosome spp. that exhibit it. The schistosomatid phylogeny casts some doubt on the origin of Schistosoma (Asian or African), highlights the propensity for species to hosts witch amongst mammalian (definitive) hosts, and indicates the likely importance of snail (intermediate)hosts in determining and defining patterns of schistosome radiation and continental invasion. Mitogenomic sampling of Schistosoma dattai and Schistosoma harinasutai to determine gene order, and within key species, especially S. turkestanicum and S. incognitum, to determine ancestral ranges, may help discover the geographic origins of gene order change in the genus. Samples of S. incognitum from India and Thailand suggest this taxon may include cryptic species.

  • Genetic diversity patterns of Haemonchus placei and Haemonchus contortus populations isolated from domestic ruminants in Brazil.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2012-07-13
    Bruno S A F Brasil,Ronaldo L Nunes,Eduardo Bastianetto,Marcela G Drummond,Daniel C Carvalho,Romário C Leite,Marcelo B Molento,Denise A A Oliveira

    Parasitic nematodes of the genus Haemonchus infect a range of ruminant hosts and are of major veterinary and economic importance. In this study, the genetic variability of seven isolates of Haemonchus placei and Haemonchus contortus was evaluated using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the nuclear gene b-tubulin isotype 1. A total of 156 specimens were obtained from cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo herds raised on commercial properties from the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil and identified to the species level by sequencing of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2. Thirty-four percent of the specimens were identified as H. placei and 66% as H. contortus. Cattle were the preferred hosts for H. placei, whereas H. contortus was most frequent in the other three ruminant species. Analysis of genetic differentiation between isolates revealed that high rates of gene flow are operating among populations of both nematode species, including among those from different ruminant host species. Populations of H. placei were less polymorphic and presented a lower frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with benzimidazole resistance compared with H. contortus. In line with the low amount of genetic structure observed among isolates, alleles of b-tubulin 1 associated with benzimidazole resistance were present at relatively high frequencies of 5–20% in isolates of H. contortus from farms that never used this class of anthelmintic. The results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis of multiple origins of alleles associated with benzimidazole resistance, with the trade of animals among properties acting as the main factor promoting the spread of anthelmintic resistance.

  • How effective is preening against mobile ectoparasites? An experimental test with pigeons and hippoboscid flies.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2012-07-13
    Waite Jessica L,Autumn R Henry,Dale H Clayton

    Birds combat ectoparasites with many defences but the first line of defence is grooming behaviour, which includes preening with the bill and scratching with the feet. Preening has been shown to be very effective against ectoparasites. However, most tests have been with feather lice, which are relatively slow moving. Less is known about the effectiveness of preening as a defence against more mobile and evasive ectoparasites such as hippoboscid flies. Hippoboscids, which feed on blood, have direct effects on the host such asanaemia, as well as indirect effects as vectors of pathogens. Hence, effective defence against hippoboscid flies is important. We used captive Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) to test whether preening behaviour helps to control pigeon flies (Pseudolynchia canariensis). We found that pigeons responded to fly infestation by preening twice as much as pigeons without flies. Preening birds killed twice as many flies over the course of our week-long experiment as birds with impaired preening; however, preening did not kill all of the flies. We also tested the role of the bill overhang, which is critical for effective preening against feather lice, by experimentally removing the overhang and re-measuring the effectiveness of preening against flies. Birds without overhangs were as effective at controlling flies as were birds with overhangs. Overall, we found that preening is effective against mobile hippoboscid flies, yet it does not eliminate them. We discuss the potential impact of preening on the transmission dynamics of blood parasites vectored by hippoboscid flies.

  • Effects of ultraviolet radiation on an intertidal trematode parasite: an assessment of damage and protection.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2012-07-13
    A Studer,V M Cubillos,M D Lamare,R Poulin,D J Burritt

    Trematode parasites are integral components of intertidal ecosystems which experience high levels of ultraviolet radiation. Although these parasites mostly live within hosts, their life cycle involves free-living larval transmission stages such as cercariae which are directly exposed to ambient conditions. UV has previously been shown to considerably reduce the survival of cercariae. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms of protection and damage related to UV in the intertidal trematode Maritrema novaezealandensis. Firstly, the presence of sunscreen compounds (i.e. mycosporine-like amino acids) was quantified in the parasite tissue producing cercariae within a snail host, as well as in the free-swimming cercariae themselves. Secondly, levels of oxidative stress in cercariae after exposure to UV were investigated (i.e.protein carbonyls, catalase and superoxide dismutase). Thirdly, the DNA damage (i.e. cyclobutane–pyrimidine dimers) was compared between cercariae exposed and not exposed to UV. Lastly, functional aspects(survival and infectivity) of cercariae were assessed, comparing cercariae under light conditions versus dark after exposure to UV. We confirmed the presence of my cosporine-like amino acids in cercariae-producing tissue from within snail hosts, but were unable to do so in cercariae directly. Results further suggested that exposure to UV induced high levels of oxidative stress in cercariae which was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes present. We also identified higher levels of DNA damage in cercariae exposed to UV, compared with those not exposed. Moreover, no clear effect of light condition was found on survival and infectivity of cercariae after exposure to UV. We concluded that cercariae are highly susceptible to UV damage and that they have very little scope for protection against or repair of UV-induced damage.

  • Giardia lamblia: a new target for miltefosine.
    Int. J. Parasitol. (IF 3.478) Pub Date : 2012-07-13
    Maha M Eissa,Eglal I Amer

    Giardia lamblia, the causative agent of giardiasis, is an intestinal infection with worldwide distribution and high rates of prevalence. Increased resistance of the parasite and the side effects of the reference drugs employed in the treatment of giardiasis make it necessary to seek new therapeutic agents. Therefore,the aim of this study was to examine the activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine), a membrane active alkylphospholipid, that is licensed as an antileishmanial agent against giardiasis. The efficacy of miltefosine was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in Swiss albino mice. Results of the in vitro testing revealed susceptibility of G. lamblia trophozoites to miltefosine with the following effective concentrations:EC50s of between 20 and 40 lM, and EC90s of between 20 and 80 lM. Immediate total lysis of the organisms was achieved by 100 lM. In vivo testing showed that oral administration of miltefosine,in a daily dose regimen course of 20 mg/kg for three successive days, to infected mice resulted in total elimination of the parasite from the intestine and amelioration of intestinal pathology. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that miltefosine induced severe morphological alterations to G. lamblia trophozoites, mainly at the level of cell membrane and adhesive disc. In conclusion,we believe that this is the first study highlighting G. lamblia as a possible new target for miltefosine.

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上海纽约大学William Glover