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  • First navicular remains of a European adapiform (Anchomomys frontanyensis) from the Middle Eocene of the Eastern Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain): implications for early primate locomotor behavior and navicular evolution
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Judit Marigó; Raef Minwer-Barakat; Salvador Moyà-Solà; Doug M. Boyer

    We describe the first known navicular bones for an Eocene euprimate from Europe and assess their implications for early patterns of locomotor evolution in primates. Recovered from the fossil site of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà-3C (Barcelona, Spain), the naviculars are attributed to Anchomomys frontanyensis. The small size of A. frontanyensis allows us to consider behavioral implications of comparisons with omomyiforms, regardless of allometric sources of navicular variation. Researchers usually consider omomyiforms to be more prone to leaping than contemporaneous adapiforms partly because of the more pronounced elongation of omomyiform tarsal elements. However, A. frontanyensis differs from other adapiforms and is similar to some omomyiforms in its more elongated navicular proportions. Although this might raise questions about attribution of these naviculars to A. frontanyensis, the elements exhibit clear strepsirrhine affinities leaving little doubt about the attribution: the bones' mesocuneiform facets contact their cuboid facets. We further propose that this strepsirrhine-specific feature in A. frontanyensis and other adapiforms reflects use of more inverted foot postures and potentially smaller substrates than sympatric omomyiforms that lack it. Thus substrate differences may have influenced niche partitioning in Eocene euprimate communities along with differences in locomotor agility. As previous studies on the astragalus and the calcaneus have suggested, this study on the navicular is consistent with the hypothesis that the locomotor mode of A. frontanyensis was similar to that of extant cheirogaleids, especially species of Microcebus and Mirza.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Cercopithecid fossils from Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya (2007–2015)
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Stephen R. Frost; Carol V. Ward; Fredrick K. Manthi; J. Michael Plavcan

    Recent fieldwork at Kanapoi has expanded the sample of fossil cercopithecids, facilitating a re-appraisal of their taxonomy. The assemblage now includes at least one species of cercopithecin, two papionins, and two colobines. The guenon Nanopithecus browni is similar in dental size to extant Miopithecus. We tentatively re-affirm the identification of Parapapio cf. ado and confirm the presence of Theropithecus. The colobines include a small form tentatively attributed to Kuseracolobus and a second larger species. The Kanapoi fossils represent the oldest occurrences of guenons in Africa and of the important genus Theropithecus, the most abundant and widespread primate in the Neogene of Africa. In the assemblage, Parapapio cf. ado is the most abundant form, comprising the majority of specimens. All of the other taxa are comparatively rare. Colobines make up a small part of the Kanapoi fossil assemblage compared to most other contemporary sites, including Allia Bay, Kenya, where, like Kanapoi, Australopithecus anamensis has been found. The presence of Theropithecus is consistent with the presence of some relatively open habitat at Kanapoi. While the ecological preferences of the small cercopithecin are unknown, most guenons are associated with relatively wooded habitats, as are most colobines, suggesting the availability of at least some wooded areas.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The ecology of Australopithecus anamensis in the early Pliocene of Kanapoi, Kenya
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    René Bobe; Fredrick Kyalo Manthi; Carol V. Ward; J. Michael Plavcan; Susana Carvalho

    Australopithecus anamensis is a pivotal species in human evolution. It is likely to be the direct ancestor of Australopithecus afarensis and the species that may have given rise to the Homo and Paranthropus lineages. It had a suite of adaptations for habitual bipedalism and a diet that differed from that of earlier hominin species. Under what environmental and ecological conditions did this suite of adaptations arise? The early Pliocene site of Kanapoi in the Lake Turkana Basin of Kenya has the largest sample of A. anamensis in eastern Africa and a rich record of fossil vertebrates. Most Kanapoi fossils are chronologically well constrained by radiometrically dated tephras between the ages of 4.2 and 4.1 million years ago. Sedimentological, isotopic, and faunal data indicate that the environments of Kanapoi during the early Pliocene had a complex range of vegetation types that included closed woodlands, shrubs, and grasslands near a river (for most of the sequence) or lake. These were dynamic landscapes that could shift rapidly from fluvial to lacustrine conditions, and then back. Australopithecus anamensis shared its environments with at least 10 species of very large herbivores, which undoubtedly played a major role in modifying the landscape by opening wooded areas and providing pathways for bipedal hominins. Hominins may have competed for terrestrial resources with abundant suids (Nyanzachoerus and Notochoerus) and for arboreal resources with monkeys (Parapapio being the most common cercopithecid). Kanapoi had a formidable group of predators that included a very abundant species of hyena (Parahyaena howelli), two sabre-tooth felids (Dinofelis and Homotherium), a giant otter (Enhydriodon cf. dikikae), and three species of crocodiles. Various measures of abundance indicate that A. anamensis was an important component of the Kanapoi early Pliocene ecosystems, and that its key adaptations allowed this species to thrive in complex and dynamic landscapes.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • A descriptive and comparative study of two Early Pleistocene immature scapulae from the TD6.2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    José María Bermúdez de Castro; Marina Martínez de Pinillos; Lucía López-Polín; Laura Martín-Francés; Cecilia García-Campos; Mario Modesto-Mata; Jordi Rosell; María Martinón-Torres

    Here we present the descriptive and comparative study of two immature scapulae recovered from the TD6.2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) and assigned to Homo antecessor. This is the first time that data on the morphology and dimensions of the scapulae of a European late Early Pleistocene hominin population are provided. Considering the state of development and the linear dimensions, the scapula ATD6-116 could belong to a child of about 2–4 years. The morphology of ATD6-116 clearly departs from that of the Australopithecus afarensis juvenile specimen DIK-1-1, pointing to functional differences in locomotor behavior between Australopithecus and the late Early Pleistocene hominins. The immature scapula ATD6-118 belonged to an immature individual with a development of the scapula equivalent to that of adolescents of recent human populations. The scapulae ATD6-118 and KNM-WT 15000 present a similar state of development. Although the scapula KNM-WT 15000 is clearly larger than ATD6-118, these two specimens share some characteristics such as their relative narrowness and the value of the axilloglenoid and spinoglenoid angles. The glenoid fossa of ATD6-116 show a lateral orientation, whereas in ATD6-118 the glenoid fossa is slightly cranially oriented, but still within the range of variation of modern humans. The glenoid index of both ATD6-116 and ATD6-118 is low in accordance to the values usually observed in other early hominins, thus showing the primitive condition for this feature. Both scapulae show a ventrally placed axillary sulcus. The presence of this primitive feature in ATD-116 confirms that the shape of the axillary border has a genetic basis and it is not related to physical activity.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • A technotypological analysis of the Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian assemblages from Manot Cave (area C) and the interrelation with site formation processes
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    T. Abulafia; M. Goder-Goldberger; F. Berna; O. Barzilai; O. Marder

    For more than a century, prehistoric research has focused on cave sites and rock shelters, mostly because of good preservation of organic remains associated with stratified anthropogenic layers. Manot Cave in the Western Galilee, Israel offers the possibility of studying prehistoric assemblages in pristine condition because of the collapse of the cave entrance some 30 thousand years ago. Nine years of excavations have uncovered an Early Upper Paleolithic archaeological sequence. Area C, situated at the bottom of the talus, was exposed to fast and slow depositional and postdepositional processes affecting sediment accumulation. The central part of area C was selected for this study, as it was least disturbed. Following a technotypological analysis, and taking postdepositional processes into consideration, the assemblages were defined and assigned to the Levantine Aurignacian, and Ahmarian traditions. The two archaeological horizons are separated by a mixed horizon within which indicative artifacts of both traditions alternately appear. The Ahmarian assemblage, dated to 46–42 ka cal BP, fits within the northern Mediterranean Ahmarian sites, which technotypologically differs from and is currently dated earlier than the southern desert region Ahmarian sites. The main technotypological characteristics of the assemblage from the Levantine Aurignacian Horizon, dated to 38–34 ka cal BP, are comparable to those from Manot Cave area E layers V-VI, and Ksâr ‘Akil levels VII-VIII. Yet, several technotypological elements seem more compatible with the unnamed assemblage from Ksâr ‘Akil levels XI-XIII and possibly layer IX from area E.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Preliminary observations on the Levantine Aurignacian sequence of Manot Cave: Cultural affiliations and regional perspectives
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Ofer Marder; Maayan Shemer; Talia Abulafia; Daniella Bar-Yosef Mayer; Francesco Berna; Solene Caux; Lotan Edeltin; Mae Goder-Goldberger; Israel Hershkovitz; Ron Lavi; Roi Shavit; Jose-Miguel Tejero; Reuven Yeshurun; Omry Barzilai

    A well-preserved sequence of Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) occupations has been revealed in the past decade in Manot Cave, the studies of which shed light on the cultural dynamics and subsistence patterns and paleoenvironment. Most intriguing is the series of overlying Levantine Aurignacian occupation layers, exposed near the entrance to the cave. Area E is considered the inner part of the main activity area in Manot Cave. Remains of intact combustion features, as well as numerous flint artifacts and faunal remains, were found, indicating a high level of preservation. Within a 2.5 m sequence, nine distinct occupation layers were defined. The presence of characteristic flint and osseous industries alongside a rich mollusk assemblage led to the initial association of the sequence as a whole to the Levantine Aurignacian. However, as research advanced and variability in the material culture became apparent, it became clear that a division of the sequence into two phases, early and late, is required. A preliminary study of the assemblage variability implies distinct changes in human behavior between the two phases. Most prominently, these are indicated by a change in bladelet production method and morphology alongside an increase in the significance of the bladelet component within the flint assemblage, the disappearance of composite osseous industries, and a steep decrease in mollusk shell representation in the late occupation phase. Radiocarbon dating indicates a short time span between the two phases. The earlier phase defined as, Levantine Aurignacian, was ascribed an age range of 38–34 ka cal BP with a more constrained age range of 37–35 ka cal BP suggested based on Bayesian models. In the late phase, which is temporarily referred to as “post-Levantine Aurignacian,” an age range of 36–33 ka cal BP is suggested.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Jaw kinematics and mandibular morphology in humans
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Myra F. Laird; Callum F. Ross; Paul O'Higgins

    Understanding the influence of feeding behavior on mandibular morphology is necessary for interpreting dietary change in fossil hominins. However, mandibular morphology is also likely to have an effect on feeding behavior, including jaw kinematics. Here we examine the relationships between mandibular morphology and jaw kinematics in humans using landmark-based morphometrics to quantify jaw movement. Three-dimensional movements of reflective markers coupled to the mandible and cranium were used to capture jaw movements while subjects chewed cubes of raw and cooked sweet potato. Geometric morphometric methods were adapted to quantify and analyze gape cycle motion paths. Gape cycles varied significantly across chewing sequences and between raw and cooked sweet potato. Variation in gape cycle size and shape is related to the width (intergonial distance) and length of the mandible. These results underline the fact that jaw kinematic variation within and between taxa is related to and may be influenced by mandibular morphology. Future studies examining kinematic variation should assess the influence of morphological differences on movement.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Trabecular architecture of the capitate and third metacarpal through ontogeny in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla)
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Anna J. Ragni

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) both knuckle-walk in adulthood but are known to develop their locomotor strategies differently. Using dentally defined age-groups of both Pan and Gorilla and behavioral data from the literature, this study presents an internal trabecular bone approach to better understand the morphological ontogeny of knuckle-walking in these taxa. Capitate and third metacarpal bones were scanned by μCT at 23–43 μm resolution with scaled volumes of interest placed centrally within the head of the capitate and base of the third metacarpal. Trabecular measures related to activity level (size-adjusted bone volume/total volume, trabecular number, and bone surface area/bone volume) met expectations of decreasing through ontogeny in both taxa. Degree of anisotropy did not show statistical support for predicted species differences, but this may be due to the sample size as observed changes through ontogeny reflect expected trends in the capitate. Analyses of principal trabecular orientation corroborated known behavioral differences related to variation of hand use in these taxa, but only Pan showed directional patterning associated with suggested wrist posture. Assessment of allometry showed that the trabecular bone of larger animals is characterized by fewer and thinner trabeculae relative to bone size. In combination, these findings confirm the efficacy of trabecular bone in reflecting locomotor ontogeny differences between closely related taxa. These techniques show promise for use within the hominin fossil record, particularly for taxa hypothesized to be arboreal in some capacity.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Metameric variation of upper molars in hominoids and its implications for the diversification of molar morphogenesis
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Wataru Morita, Naoki Morimoto, Reiko T. Kono, Gen Suwa

    Metameric variation of molar size is in part associated with the dietary adaptations of mammals and results from slight alterations of developmental processes. Humans and great apes exhibit conspicuous variation in tooth morphology both between taxa and across tooth types. However, the manner in which metameric variation in molars emerged among apes and humans via evolutionary alterations in developmental processes remains largely unknown. In this study, we compare the enamel-dentine junction of the upper molars of humans—which closely correlates with morphology of the outer enamel surface and is less affected by wear—with that of the other extant hominoids: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons. We used the morphometric mapping method to quantify and visualize three-dimensional morphological variation, and applied multivariate statistical analyses. Results revealed the following: 1) extant hominoids other than humans share a common pattern of metameric variation characterized by a largely linear change in morphospace; this indicates a relatively simple graded change in metameric molar shape; 2) intertaxon morphological differences become less distinct from the mesial to distal molars; and 3) humans diverge from the extant ape pattern in exhibiting a distinct metameric shape change trajectory in the morphospace. The graded shape change and lower intertaxon resolution from the mesial to distal molars are consistent with the concept of a ‘key’ tooth. The common metameric pattern observed among the extant nonhuman hominoids indicates that developmental patterns underlying metameric variation were largely conserved during ape evolution. Furthermore, the human-specific metameric pattern suggests considerable developmental modifications in the human lineage.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dehydration and persistence hunting in Homo erectus
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Martin Hora, Herman Pontzer, Cara M. Wall-Scheffler, Vladimír Sládek

    Persistence hunting has been suggested to be a key strategy for meat acquisition in Homo erectus. However, prolonged locomotion in hot conditions is associated with considerable water losses due to sweating. Consequently, dehydration has been proposed to be a critical limiting factor, effectively curtailing the usefulness of persistence hunting prior to the invention of water containers. In this study, we aimed to determine the extent to which dehydration limited persistence hunting in H. erectus. We simulated ambient conditions and spatiotemporal characteristics of nine previously reported persistence hunts in the Kalahari. We used a newly developed and validated heat exchange model to estimate the water loss in H. erectus and a recent Kalahari hunter. Water loss equivalent to 10% of the hunter's body mass was considered the physiological limit of a hunt with no drinking. Our criterion for ruling dehydration out of being a limit for persistence hunting was the ability to hunt without drinking for at least 5 h, as this was the longest duration reported for a successful persistence hunt of large prey. Our results showed that H. erectus would reach the dehydration limit in 5.5–5.7 h of persistence hunting at the reported Kalahari conditions, which we argue represent a conservative model also for Early Pleistocene East Africa. Maximum hunt duration without drinking was negatively related to the relative body surface area of the hunter. Moreover, H. erectus would be able to persistence hunt over 5 h without drinking despite possible deviations from modern-like heat dissipation capacity, aerobic capacity, and locomotor economy. We conclude that H. erectus could persistence hunt large prey without the need to carry water.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • The Neanderthal teeth from Marillac (Charente, Southwestern France): Morphology, comparisons and paleobiology
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    María Dolores Garralda, Bruno Maureille, Adeline Le Cabec, Gregorio Oxilia, Stefano Benazzi, Matthew M. Skinner, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Bernard Vandermeersch

    Few European sites have yielded human dental remains safely dated to the end of MIS 4/beginning of MIS 3. One of those sites is Marillac (Southwestern France), a collapsed karstic cave where archeological excavations (1967–1980) conducted by B. Vandermeersch unearthed numerous faunal and human remains, as well as a few Mousterian Quina tools. The Marillac sinkhole was occasionally used by humans to process the carcasses of different prey, but there is no evidence for a residential use of the site, nor have any hearths been found. Rare carnivore bones were also discovered, demonstrating that the sinkhole was seasonally used, not only by Neanderthals, but also by predators across several millennia. The lithostratigraphic units containing the human remains were dated to ∼60 kyr. The fossils consisted of numerous fragments of skulls and jaws, isolated teeth and several post-cranial bones, many of them with traces of perimortem manipulations. For those already published, their morphological characteristics and chronostratigraphic context allowed their attribution to Neanderthals. This paper analyzes sixteen unpublished human teeth (fourteen permanent and two deciduous) by investigating the external morphology and metrical variation with respect to other Neanderthal remains and a sample from modern populations. We also investigate their enamel thickness distribution in 2D and 3D, the enamel-dentine junction morphology (using geometric morphometrics) of one molar and two premolars, the roots and the possible expression of taurodontism, as well as pathologies and developmental defects. The anterior tooth use and paramasticatory activities are also discussed. Morphological and structural alterations were found on several teeth, and interpreted in light of human behavior (tooth-pick) and carnivores' actions (partial digestion). The data are interpreted in the context of the available information for the Eurasian Neanderthals.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • First record of Theropithecus (Cercopithecidae) from the Republic of Djibouti
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Denis Geraads, Louis de Bonis

    We describe here several specimens of the genus Theropithecus from the southern shore of Lake Assal in the Republic of Djibouti; they are the first record of the genus from this country. We assign them to a derived stage of T. oswaldi. This identification has implications for the age of the informal ‘Formation 1’ from this area, which should probably be assigned to the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, the presence of T. oswaldi close to the Bab el Mandeb Strait strongly suggests that the species followed this route to India, rather than a more northern one.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Skull reconstruction of the late Miocene ape Rudapithecus hungaricus from Rudabánya, Hungary
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Philipp Gunz, Stephanie Kozakowski, Simon Neubauer, Adeline Le Cabec, Ottmar Kullmer, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, David R. Begun

    We report on a computer-based reconstruction of a well-preserved ape skull from late Miocene deposits in Rudabánya, Hungary. Based on micro-computed tomographic scans of the original Rudapithecus hungaricus partial cranium RUD 200 and the associated mandible RUD 212 we realign displaced bone fragments, and reconstruct the shape of the upper and lower jaws guided by occlusal fingerprint analysis of dental wear patterns. We apply geometric morphometric methods based on several hundred landmarks and sliding semilandmarks to estimate missing data, and create multiple reconstructions of the specimen. We then compare the reconstructed overall cranial shape, as well as the volume and shape of the endocast, with extant primates. Multiple reconstructions of RUD 200 yield an average endocranial volume of 234 cc (S.D.: 9 cc; range: 221–247 cc). RUD 200 is most similar to African apes in overall cranial shape, but in a statistical analysis of endocranial shape the specimen falls closest to extant hylobatids. Our data suggest that R. hungaricus from the late Miocene in Europe displays aspects of the overall cranial geometry typical of extant African great apes, but it does not show an evolutionary reorganization of the brain evident in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Statistical estimates of hominin origination and extinction dates: A case study examining the Australopithecus anamensis–afarensis lineage
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Andrew Du, John Rowan, Steve C. Wang, Bernard A. Wood, Zeresenay Alemseged

    Reliable estimates of when hominin taxa originated and went extinct are central to addressing many paleoanthropological questions, including those relating to macroevolutionary patterns. The timing of hominin temporal ranges can be used to test chronological predictions generated from phylogenetic hypotheses. For example, hypotheses of phyletic ancestor–descendant relationships, based on morphological data, predict no temporal range overlap between the two taxa. However, a fossil taxon's observed temporal range is almost certainly underestimated due to the incompleteness of both the fossil record itself and its sampling, and this decreases the likelihood of observing temporal overlap. Here, we focus on a well-known and widely accepted early hominin lineage, Australopithecus anamensis–afarensis, and place 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on its origination and extinction dates. We do so to assess whether its temporal range is consistent with it being a phyletic descendant of Ardipithecus ramidus and/or a direct ancestor to the earliest claimed representative of Homo (i.e., Ledi-Geraru). We find that the last appearance of Ar. ramidus falls within the origination CI of Au. anamensis–afarensis, whereas the claimed first appearance of Homo postdates the extinction CI. These results are consistent with Homo evolving from Au. anamensis–afarensis, but temporal overlap between Ar. ramidus and Au. anamensis–afarensis cannot be rejected at this time. Though additional samples are needed, future research should extend our initial analyses to incorporate the uncertainties surrounding the range endpoints of Ar. ramidus and earliest Homo. Overall, our findings demonstrate the need for quantifying the uncertainty surrounding the appearances and disappearances of hominin taxa in order to better understand the timing of evolutionary events in our clade's history.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Rodents and other terrestrial small mammals from Kanapoi, north-western Kenya
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Fredrick K. Manthi, Alisa J. Winkler

    Excavations at Kanapoi in north-western Kenya have yielded the most numerically abundant and taxonomically diverse early Pliocene (4.19 Ma) terrestrial small mammal assemblage known from Kenya. A minimum of 15 species are reported, including soricids, sengis, leporids, and rodents: all taxa are referable to extant genera, with the exception of the murine rodent, Saidomys. The majority of the terrestrial small mammals are derived from a bone bed at Nzube's Mandible Site, closely associated with the holotype mandible of Australopithecus anamensis. A smaller number were surface-collected or obtained from screening at several other sites, including the Bat Site. Most small mammals from Nzube's Mandible Site and the Bat Site likely represent prey accumulated as regurgitated pellets from owls, in particular barn owls or giant eagle owls. The small mammal fauna is dominated by the spiny mouse, Acomys: the next most commonly recovered taxa are the multimammate mouse, Mastomys, and the African gerbil, Gerbilliscus. Comparisons of the Kanapoi fauna to other eastern African late Miocene-Pliocene (and one Pleistocene) faunas at the generic level suggest the greatest similarity is to Lemudong'o, Kenya, and Omo B and Aramis, Ethiopia. Further similarities with other localities such as Laetoli, Tanzania, and Hadar, Ethiopia, suggest the existence of a corridor for dispersal along the East African Rift Valley between Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania in the early Pliocene. Further comparisons of the relative abundances of individuals in different families (or subfamilies) emphasize the distinctiveness of the Kanapoi small mammal fauna. The Kanapoi fauna is likely derived from a heterogeneous but relatively arid environment.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Early Upper Paleolithic subsistence in the Levant: Zooarchaeology of the Ahmarian–Aurignacian sequence at Manot Cave, Israel
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Reuven Yeshurun, Nehora Schneller-Pels, Omry Barzilai, Ofer Marder

    The Early Upper Paleolithic period in the Levant is essential in the studies of the establishment of modern human communities outside Africa, and corresponding archaeological evidence may be used to shed light on human ecology, economy and demography. Specifically, cultural differences between two Early Upper Paleolithic entities, the Early Ahmarian and the Levantine Aurignacian, raise the question of differing adaptations. In this article we use archaeofaunal remains from the Early Upper Paleolithic sequence at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel), to track human hunting patterns, carcass transport and processing within the Early Ahmarian (46–42 ka) and Levantine Aurignacian (38–34 ka) phases. We test two hypotheses: 1) the Ahmarian and Aurignacian represent adaptations to different environments; and 2) the two entities differ in mobility patterns and site use. Our multivariate taphonomic analysis showed subtle differences in depositional processes between the two phases and demonstrated a primarily anthropogenic complex. In both phases, human subsistence was based on two ungulate species, mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella) and Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), with some contribution from birds, tortoises and small mammals. Among the gazelles, it appears that female herds were targeted, and that hunting took place close to the cave. The results of the research show great similarity in environmental exploitation between the Ahmarian and Aurignacian phases concerning prey spectrum and choice, carcass transport and processing. These patterns occupy a middle position between the Middle Paleolithic and the late Epipaleolithic of the region. Despite this, there are also several significant differences between the phases such as increased exploitation of small game (especially birds) and faster accumulation and higher densities of material in the Aurignacian. This may indicate greater occupation intensity during the Aurignacian compared to the Ahmarian, and thus could explain the outstanding character of this entity in the Levant.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Climatic and environmental conditions in the Western Galilee, during Late Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, based on speleothems from Manot Cave, Israel
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Gal Yasur, Avner Ayalon, Alan Matthews, Tami Zilberman, Ofer Marder, Omry Barzilai, Elisabetta Boaretto, Israel Hershkovitz, Miryam Bar-Matthews

    Early Ahmarian, Levantine Aurignacian and Post-Levantine Aurignacian archeological assemblages show that the karstic Manot Cave, located 5 km east of the Mediterranean coast in the Western Galilee region of Israel, was intensively occupied during the Early Upper Paleolithic. The coexistence of these rich archaeological layers with speleothems in Manot Cave provides a window of opportunity for determining the relationships between climatic conditions and the nature of human activity and mobility patterns in the Western Galilee region during the Early Upper Paleolithic period. This study, based on four stalagmites that grew almost continuously from ∼75 to 26.5 ka, covers most of the last glacial, and overlaps with the human occupation of the cave. The speleothems oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic records indicate that climate and environmental conditions fluctuated during the last glacial, some of which correspond with Dansgaard–Oeschger (D-O) cycles 12, 10, 7 and Heinrich (H) events VI and V. Consistent with independent evidence from botanic and faunal remains, these climatic shifts brought about significant environmental changes in the region, ranging from dominant thick Mediterranean forest to more open landscape. A good correlation with less negative δ13C values is most pronounced during the Early Ahmarian time period, but there was also a change to less negative δ13C values during the Levantine Aurignacian and Post-Levantine Aurignacian industries in the Levant. These positive δ13C shifts suggest that environmental transformation towards a more open grassy landscape dominated by C4 vegetation might have played an important role in the development of these cultural entities (mainly the Early Ahmarian) in Manot Cave region.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Karst terrain in the western upper Galilee, Israel: Speleogenesis, hydrogeology and human preference of Manot Cave
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Amos Frumkin, Omry Barzilai, Israel Hershkovitz, Micka Ullman, Ofer Marder

    A karst survey of the western upper Galilee in Israel shows that karst has been a dominant geomorphic factor throughout the Cenozoic. We discuss the geomorphic character of Manot Cave on the background of other karst features of the region, in order to decipher the preferences of the humans who favored this cave over others. Tens of caves distributed over the study area demonstrate that phreatic and hypogene isolated voids and conduit segments are more abundant than vadose shafts, sinking stream caves and spring caves, although all these types are present. Most caves belong to old stages of landform development, prior to Plio-Pleistocene uplift and stream entrenchment. Manot Cave is a relict chamber cave, which corresponds to a plaeo-water table and the erosion plain above it. Subaerial denudation and slope processes have opened the cave to the surface during the mid-late Pleistocene. Manot Cave is compared with other caves in the region, demonstrating its unique character. It may have been selected due to the small entrance facing to the SW, and the large inner chamber which could be used for non-domestic purposes. This suggests a possible role of a unique behavioral and cultural suite of characters which influenced hominin preferences. The cave was used by hominins and animals until being closed again by colluvium and possibly collapse, ∼30 ka. Clastic, chemical, archaeozoological and anthropogenic accumulations reflect the various stages of cave development and gradual sealing of the entrance.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The last glacial cycle of the southern Levant: Paleoenvironment and chronology of modern humans
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-05-26
    Amos Frumkin, Orr Comay

    The spectrum of glacial-interglacial environmental shifts in the southern Levant Mediterranean zone is evaluated based upon carbon isotopic records of speleothems from several caves, faunal records of Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic layers in caves, together with additional evidence from the base levels of the region. The studied evidence suggests that food resources were commonly abundant, but some water scarcity and increase in summer rains occurred during MIS 5e, when soils and C3 vegetation were eliminated, causing soil erosion. This was followed by penetration of summer rainfall and lightning storms from the south, and associated C4 vegetation and fires. Faunal resources remained abundant, and humans using the southern Levant corridor enjoyed also a favorable passage through the greening Sahara Desert during MIS 5e, which was crucial for human and faunal dispersion. Qafzeh and Rantis caves’ environmental records indicate xeric grassland-type ecosystem with Afro–Arabian elements that can be attributed to MIS 5e. As the environmental conditions of MIS 5e were unique, faunal and isotopic records within this region can be used in the future as chronologic markers for MIS 5e. During the last glacial period, conditions became gradually cooler and wetter, and C3 vegetation dominated the Mediterranean zone. Lower temperatures promoted the entry of Palearctic mammals. Fluctuations of speleothem δ13C increased during the latest Pleistocene – early Holocene, indicating environmental instability through the deglaciation. Significantly, the δ13C records indicate that vegetation did not change from the last glacial period to the Holocene in spite of the observed fluctuations. The extreme environmental event of MIS 5e was not repeated during the Holocene in terms of natural vegetation and fauna. Anthropogenic environmental change, accelerating towards the present, is overriding the natural trend.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The hunters or the hunters: Human and hyena prey choice divergence in the Late Pleistocene Levant
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-03-06
    Meir Orbach, Reuven Yeshurun

    Hunting preferences reveal a great deal about the life of Paleolithic humans, and may reflect changes in human demography, technology, and adaptations to changing environments. However, the effects of hunting preferences and environmental availability are often conflated, stressing the need for comparisons to other predators that exploited the same environment. Manot Cave (Israel), preserved rich Early Upper Paleolithic (46-33 ka) human occupations, along with repeated spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) occupations, allowing us to compare anthropogenic and biogenic bone assemblages within the same space and time frame. We focused on the faunal remains retrieved in the middle of the cave (Area D), and conducted detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological analyses. The Area D archaeofauna was dominated by Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) and mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella), which showed high abundance of carnivore damage. This and the carnivore-to-ungulate ratio, the presence of juvenile hyena and numerous coprolites match the criteria of a hyena den, confirming that the bone assemblage was created mainly by hyenas. Manot Area D thus reveals hyena prey choice in the Upper Paleolithic Galilee, which we then compared with human prey choice. Our results showed that hyena prey assemblages in Manot and elsewhere in the Levant were Dama-dominated while human assemblages were dominated by Gazella, demonstrating that hyenas and humans hunted different animal size groups, possibly in different habitats. We interpret this phenomenon as resulting from two possible scenarios: the emergence of projectile technology which may favor hunting in open environments, and niche partitioning derived by human-hyena competition. Hyenas were abundant and hunted unselectively while the anthropogenic record presents population turnovers and some dietary diversification. Whereas both scenarios are difficult to test directly with the available evidence, we argue that either one explains quite well the late Pleistocene archaeofaunal patterns in the Levantine record.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Proboscidea from Kanapoi, Kenya
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    William J. Sanders

    The early Pliocene site of Kanapoi (Turkana Basin, Kenya) has a large, diverse vertebrate sample that contains the earliest representatives of the hominin genus Australopithecus. Included in this sample is an impressive assemblage of fossil proboscideans, comprised of deinotheres (Deinotherium bozasi), anancine gomphotheres (Anancus ultimus), and at least three species of elephant (Loxodonta adaurora, a primitive morph of Loxodonta exoptata, and Elephas ekorensis). A single specimen from high in the sequence could plausibly belong to a primitive stage of Elephas recki. A review of dental carbon isotope analyses indicates a range of dietary habits for these taxa, from dedicated browsing (deinotheres) to mixed feeding/grazing (elephants and gomphotheres), which in early Pliocene elephants corresponds to molars with greater crown height and more plates than in late Miocene confamilials, bringing their morphology more in phase with feeding behavior than was the case in their earlier relatives. Variation in feeding preferences among Kanapoi proboscideans corresponds to evidence for habitat heterogeny, including inferred substantial presence of grasses; the occurrence of multiple megaherbivores may have contributed to the fragmentation of ecosystems, positively affecting early hominin success and aiding diversification of other ungulate groups.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Paleoecological implications of dental mesowear and hypsodonty in fossil ungulates from Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Laurence Dumouchel, René Bobe

    The Pliocene site of Kanapoi is key to our understanding of the environmental context of the earliest species of Australopithecus. Various approaches have been used to reconstruct the environments of this site, and here we contribute new data and analyses using mesowear and hypsodonty. The dental traits of 98 bovids, suids and rhinocerotids from Kanapoi were analyzed using these proxies. Results indicate that most of the animals analyzed had a relatively abrasive diet. Bovids in the assemblage incorporated more grass into their diet than do modern species of the same tribe or genus. Although Pliocene Kanapoi likely had complex environments, our analysis indicates that grassy habitats were a dominant component of the ecosystem, a conclusion that supports the results of previous investigations of the paleoecology of the site.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Revisiting the pedogenic carbonate isotopes and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-01-06
    Rhonda L. Quinn, Christopher J. Lepre

    Reconstructed habitats of Australopithecus anamensis at Kanapoi by Wynn (2000) yielded evidence for both wooded and grassy environments. Wynn's study was based on stable isotopic (δ13CPC, δ18OPC) analyses of a small sample of pedogenic nodules (n = 14) collected from paleosols spanning Kanapoi's stratigraphic interval. Whether this small sample size adequately characterized Kanapoi's vegetation or was the result of time averaging remains unclear. To address this uncertainty, we sampled Kanapoi paleosols at 39 locations (78 analyses) from laterally extensive units. Our data demonstrate that Kanapoi offered A. anamensis diverse habitats distributed in temporally discrete stratigraphic horizons. Habitat heterogeneity appears to have been a real aspect of Kanapoi paleoenvironments and not an artifact of Wynn's (2000) small sample size or time averaging. We suggest habitat heterogeneity was influenced by the location of Kanapoi at the confluence of fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine depositional environments. We also compared Kanapoi's δ13CPC and δ18OPC values to those of other Pliocene hominin localities in eastern Africa dated to 4.5–3.7 Ma. Kanapoi's δ18OPC values are significantly higher than most sites, potentially reflecting regional variability in water source δ18O values and/or more arid climatic conditions. Kanapoi's δ13CPC values indicate significantly more woody cover than at all other sites except those in the Turkana Basin. Kanapoi provided A. anamensis with a wide range of C3–C4 resources as the C4 biome spread across eastern Africa. [Wynn, J.G., 2000. Paleosols, stable carbon isotopes and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Kanapoi, Northern Kenya. J. Hum. Evol. 39, 411–432.]

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Pliocene bats (Chiroptera) from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Gregg F. Gunnell, Fredrick K. Manthi

    Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Squamate reptiles from Kanapoi: Faunal evidence for hominin paleoenvironments
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    Jason J. Head, Johannes Müller

    The squamate fossil record from Kanapoi reveals generic to higher-order similarities with modern East African herpetofaunas. The record is derived from surface collection and screen washing, and consists primarily of isolated vertebrae with a few maxillary and mandibular elements. The most abundant remains are vertebrae of large-bodied Python that are morphologically similar to extant Python sebae, and vertebrae of Varanus cf. (Varanus niloticus + Varanus exanthematicus). Additional cranial and vertebral remains indicate the presence of lygosomine skinks, indeterminate Varanus, Viperidae, cf. Atractaspididae, and multiple colubrine morphotypes in the Kanapoi ecosystem. Despite similarities with modern herpetofaunas, the Kanapoi record lacks taxa common to other East African records, including agamids, chamaeleonids, amphisbaenians, the elapid Naja, and typhlopids. The overall composition of the Kanapoi squamate record is consistent with paleoenvironments similar to modern shrub savanna habitats. There are no indicators of canopied forest environments in squamate faunal composition. The fossil record of Kanapoi suggests that assembly of squamate faunas of modern East Africa was well underway by the late Neogene.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Kanapoi revisited: Paleoecological and biogeographical inferences from the fossil fish
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2018-03-27
    Kathlyn M. Stewart, Scott J. Rufolo

    Fish fossils were recovered from three different depositional contexts at the Pliocene Kanapoi site to: 1) test the assumption that habitat and ecology of modern fish taxa can predict habitat and ecology of fossil taxa; 2) reconstruct the lake and river environments in the Kanapoi Formation, with reference to fish fossils from the nearby Lothagam site deposits; and 3) investigate biogeographical inferences from the fossils. We compare the Kanapoi fish taxa and their depositional environments with the taxa and environments in modern Lake Turkana, and with another Plio-Pleistocene fauna from the eastern Turkana Basin. Taphonomic caveats are discussed. Our results support the use of ecological preferences of modern fish to predict past preferences. Our analysis of the Kanapoi fossils also indicates that the Pliocene Lonyumun Lake had a diverse fauna, with an unusual mix of taxa compared to the modern lake. The presence of possibly endemic species in the Pliocene lake may additionally represent a period of isolation during this epoch. Few fish fossils were recovered in the deposits of the ancestral Kerio River, a primary affluent of Lonyumun Lake then as now, but those present indicate a different ecology than that interpreted for the modern lake. Previously unknown fish taxa which enter the lake during the Pliocene suggest the existence of a connection between the Nile River and the Turkana Basin, which may have been viable for other vertebrates, including hominins.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Pliocene crocodiles from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-11-11
    Christopher A. Brochu

    Three crocodylid species are known from the Pliocene Kanapoi locality in the western Turkana Basin. One of these, Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni, includes material previously referred to Crocodylus niloticus (the modern Nile crocodile currently living in Lake Turkana) and Rimasuchus lloydi. C. thorbjarnarsoni was a gigantic horned crocodile similar in overall shape to most other generalized crocodylids, but its closest known relative is another extinct species, Crocodylus anthropophagus from the Pleistocene of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. It is not closely related to C. niloticus. The second is an extinct form of sharp-nosed crocodile (Mecistops), a group of slender-snouted crocodylids currently restricted to western and central Africa. The third is Euthecodon, a crocodylid with an extremely long, slender, and distinctively notched snout. Euthecodon and C. thorbjarnarsoni are known from substantial numbers of specimens, but only one Mecistops specimen has been identified from the locality. The crocodylian fauna at Kanapoi is taxonomically similar to that of most other Plio-Pleistocene fluviolacustrine deposits in the Turkana Basin. Crocodylian diversity in the Turkana region contracted from a peak of five co-existing species in the late Miocene to one today; this contraction was underway by the early Pliocene, but crocodylian diversity remained stable at three species until well into the Quaternary.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Suidae from Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Denis Geraads, René Bobe

    The whole collection of Suidae from Kanapoi is revised in the context of the systematics and evolution of Nyanzachoerus in the Pliocene of Eastern Africa. It contains only two species, Nyanzachoerus kanamensis and Notochoerus jaegeri. The size and morphology of their premolars overlap, but not those of their m3s. No transitional form between them is known in Kenya, but some populations from Uganda and Ethiopia display intermediate characters, suggesting that No. jaegeri could be descended from a kanamensis-like ancestor. However, the cranial remains of No. jaegeri from Kanapoi are insufficient to formally establish the affinities of the species. On the basis of the dentition, Notochoerus euilus could be descended from No. jaegeri. The noticeable absence of Kolpochoerus at Kanapoi (and in the whole Turkana Basin at that time) remains unexplained. The presence of a species with affinity to Nyanzachoerus tulotos at Ekora raises the possibility that uppermost Miocene sediments occur there.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Diets of mammalian fossil fauna from Kanapoi, northwestern Kenya
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-10-13
    Fredrick K. Manthi, Thure E. Cerling, Kendra L. Chritz, Scott A. Blumenthal

    Carbon isotope ratios of mammalian teeth from the Kanapoi site in northern Kenya are interpreted in the context of C3 and C4 derived resources to investigate the paleoecology of Australopithecus anamensis. δ13C values of large mammals, when compared at the taxon level, show an ecosystem that is strongly biased towards mixed feeders and browsers. However, sufficient C4 resources were present such that some C4 dominated grazers were also present in the large mammal fauna. Analyses of micromammals shows that their diets were C3 dominated or C3–C4 mixed. Carbon isotope studies of primates shows that the major primate tribes—Colobini, Papioini, Hominini—all made some use of C4 resources in their respective diets; the Hominini had a higher fraction of C3 diet resources than the other primate tribes represented in the fossil record.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Ruminants (Giraffidae and Bovidae) from Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-10-06
    Denis Geraads, René Bobe

    We update here our recent revision of the Kanapoi ruminants and describe recently collected material. We now regard the occurrence of reduncins as doubtful, we revise the identification of a large raphicerin as being more probably Gazella, and we add Gazella cf. janenschi and the Cephalophini to the faunal list. New material of Tragelaphus kyaloi suggests that this species held its head unlike other tragelaphins, and was not an exclusive dedicated browser, but Kanapoi pre-dates the Pliocene change of Sivatherium, Aepyceros, Alcelaphini, and even Tragelaphini toward more grazing diets. Kanapoi shares several ruminant taxa with sites in Ethiopia and Tanzania, attesting to latitudinal exchanges.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Hippopotamidae (Cetartiodactyla, Hippopotamoidea) from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the taxonomic status of the late early Pliocene hippopotamids from the Turkana Basin
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Jean-Renaud Boisserie

    New hippopotamid specimens recently collected at Kanapoi (ca. 4 Ma) are similar to the taxon previously recognized in this site and referred to aff. Hippopotamus protamphibius. Their examination provided the opportunity to reassess the taxonomic status of this taxon. It appears different from the late Miocene hippopotamids from the Turkana Basin (prominently Archaeopotamus harvardi), but also differs from the late Pliocene–early Pleistocene aff. Hip. protamphibius, which is smaller and displays more advanced features (notably canine expansion and orbit elevation). In contrast, the Kanapoi material appears very similar to the material from the Hadar Formation (3.4 Ma–2.9 Ma). However, the current confusion surrounding the taxonomic status of the Hadar specimens, previously attributed to various taxa that may be identical, does not allow attribution of a specific name to the Kanapoi material for now and, while waiting for the revision of Hadar hippopotamid diversity, it is referred here to aff. Hippopotamus cf. sp. Hadar. This contribution allows recognizing that a large hippopotamid, possibly a transitional form between the late Miocene species and Plio-Pleistocene species, was distributed from Afar to Turkana between 4.2 Ma and 2.95 Ma. The marked endemism of hippopotamids in the Pleistocene rift basins therefore initiated after 2.9 Ma.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Preliminary paleoecological insights from the Pliocene avifauna of Kanapoi, Kenya: Implications for the ecology of Australopithecus anamensis
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Daniel J. Field

    Fossil bird remains from the Pliocene hominin-bearing locality of Kanapoi comprise >100 elements representing at least 10 avian families, including previously undescribed elements referred to the ‘giant’ Pliocene marabou stork Leptoptilos cf. falconeri. The taxonomic composition of the Kanapoi fossil avifauna reveals an assemblage with a substantial aquatic component, corroborating geological evidence of this locality's close proximity to a large, slow-moving body of water. Both the taxonomic composition and relative abundance of avian higher-level clades at Kanapoi stand in stark contrast to the avifauna from the slightly older (∼4.4 Ma vs. 4.2 Ma) hominin-bearing Lower Aramis Member of Ethiopia, which has been interpreted as representing a mesic woodland paleoenvironment far from water. In general, the taxonomic composition of the Kanapoi avifauna resembles that from the Miocene hominoid-bearing locality of Lothagam (though Kanapoi is more diverse), and the aquatic character of the Kanapoi avifauna supports the idea that the environmental conditions experienced by Australopithecus anamensis at Kanapoi were markedly different from those experienced by Ardipithecus ramidus at Aramis. Additionally, the relative abundance of marabou stork (Leptoptilos) remains at Kanapoi may suggest a longstanding commensal relationship between total-clade humans and facultatively scavenging marabous. Additional avian remains from nearby fossil localities (e.g., the Nachukui Formation), ranging in age from 3.26 to 0.8 Ma, reveal the long-term persistence of an aquatic avifauna in the region.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Perissodactyla (Rhinocerotidae and Equidae) from Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-09-28
    Denis Geraads

    The Kanapoi collection of Rhinocerotidae, first studied by Hooijer and Patterson (1972), now consists of 25 specimens and substantial reinterpretation of their affinities is made here. Kanapoi post-dates the extinction of Brachypotherium and the whole collection belongs to the Dicerotini. It is important because it includes the type-specimen of Diceros praecox, a species that remains poorly known, but looks slightly larger and more primitive than the modern ‘black’ rhino, Diceros bicornis. A second species is probably ancestral to the modern ‘white’ rhino, Ceratotherium simum; it looks identical to the Pleistocene North African Ceratotherium mauritanicum, of which Ceratotherium efficax is probably a synonym. The evolution of the Dicerotini in Africa can be regarded as an increasing divergence in diet and related morphofunctional adaptations in the two lineages. The co-occurrence at Kanapoi of both Diceros and Ceratotherium, with distinct dietary preferences, suggests some habitat heterogeneity, although the low sample size prevents robust paleoecological conclusions. The Equidae are also rare and consist mostly of isolated teeth. I take the most parsimonious option of tentatively including all of them in a single species, whose identification is left open. Dental features of eastern African Pliocene to Pleistocene hipparions may reflect increasing adaptation to grazing.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Paleoecological insights from fossil freshwater mollusks of the Kanapoi Formation (Omo-Turkana Basin, Kenya)
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-09-13
    Bert Van Bocxlaer

    The Early Pliocene Kanapoi Formation of the Omo-Turkana Basin consists of two fluvial/deltaic sedimentary sequences with an intermediate lacustrine sequence that was deposited in Paleolake Lonyumun, the earliest large lake in the basin. Overall, the geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Kanapoi Formation are well studied, but its freshwater mollusks, despite being a major component of the benthic ecosystem, have not been subjected to in-depth study. Here I present the first treatment of these mollusks, which have been retrieved mainly from the lacustrine but also from the upper fluvial sediments, with a focus on paleoecological implications. Overall, the freshwater mollusk fauna is reasonably diverse and contains the gastropods Bellamya (Viviparidae), Melanoides (Thiaridae), Cleopatra (Paludomidae) and Gabbiella (Bithyniidae), as well as the unionoid bivalves Coelatura, Pseudobovaria (Unionidae), Aspatharia, Iridina (Iridinidae) and Etheria (Etheriidae). Material is typically recrystallized and lithified and its taphonomy suggests deposition in a system with intermediate energy, such as a beach, with post-depositional deformation and abrasion. The mollusk assemblage is indicative of perennial, fresh and well-oxygenated waters in the Kanapoi region. It suggests that Paleolake Lonyumun had largely open shores with limited vegetation and that swampy or ephemeral backwaters were rare. Overall, these findings support earlier paleoecological interpretations based on the fish assemblage of Paleolake Lonyumun at Kanapoi. Moreover, mollusk assemblages from this lake are very similar across the Omo-Turkana Basin (Nachukui, Usno, Mursi and Koobi Fora Formations) suggesting that the lacustrine paleoecological conditions found in the Kanapoi Formation existed throughout the basin.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • New fossils of Australopithecus anamensis from Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya (2012–2015)
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    C.V. Ward, J.M. Plavcan, F.K. Manthi

    Kanapoi, Kenya, has yielded the earliest evidence of the genus Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis. Renewed fieldwork from 2012 through 2015 yielded 18 new fossils attributable to this species. The new specimens include the second maxillary fragment known from a Kanapoi hominin and the first from a relatively young adult. The new maxilla has the distinctive rounded nasal aperture margin characteristic of A. anamensis. A second partial proximal tibia from the site is the first postcranial element from a small A. anamensis individual. A new partial mandible and complete mandibular dentition display distinctive Kanapoi hominin morphology, but the mandible displays a larger trigonid on its fourth premolar than any known so far. Two new complete sets of mandibular incisors are also notably large, especially the lateral ones, a distinctive feature of A. anamensis compared with Australopithecus afarensis. The new fossils also highlight the distinctive morphology of Kanapoi A. anamensis compared to later hominins.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Early Pliocene anuran fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the first fossil record for the African burrowing frog Hemisus (Neobatrachia: Hemisotidae)
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-07-13
    Massimo Delfino

    Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet. because of poor preservation or non congruence with the relatively few African extant taxa whose osteology is known in detail. The Hemisus material represents the first fossil record for Hemisotidae, an endemic African family of peculiar, head-first burrowing frogs, whose sister taxon relationships indicate a divergence from brevicipitids in the Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. The ecological requirements of extant H. marmoratus suggest that the Kanapoi area surrounding the fluvial and deltaic settings, from where the fossil remains of vertebrates were buried, was likely a grassland or relatively dry, open low tree-shrub savanna.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A contextual review of the Carnivora of Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Lars Werdelin, Margaret E. Lewis

    The Early Pliocene is a crucial time period in carnivoran evolution. Holarctic carnivoran faunas suffered a turnover event at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. This event is also observed in Africa but its onset is later and the process more drawn-out. Kanapoi is one of the earliest faunas in Africa to show evidence of a fauna that is more typical Pliocene than Miocene in character. The taxa recovered from Kanapoi are: Torolutra sp., Enhydriodon (2 species), Genetta sp., Helogale sp., Homotherium sp., Dinofelis petteri, Felis sp., and Parahyaena howelli. Analysis of the broader carnivoran context of which Kanapoi is an example shows that all these taxa are characteristic of Plio-Pleistocene African faunas, rather than Miocene ones. While some are still extant and some went extinct in the Early Pleistocene, P. howelli is unique in both originating and going extinct in the Early Pliocene.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Dental microwear and Pliocene paleocommunity ecology of bovids, primates, rodents, and suids at Kanapoi
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2017-05-09
    Peter S. Ungar, Elicia F. Abella, Jenny H.E. Burgman, Ignacio A. Lazagabaster, Jessica R. Scott, Lucas K. Delezene, Fredrick K. Manthi, J. Michael Plavcan, Carol V. Ward

    Reconstructions of habitat at sites like Kanapoi are key to understanding the environmental circumstances in which hominins evolved during the early Pliocene. While Australopithecus anamensis shows evidence of terrestrial bipedality traditionally associated with a more open setting, its enamel has low δ13C values consistent with consumption of C3 foods, which predominate in wooded areas of tropical Africa. Habitat proxies, ranging from paleosols and their carbonates to associated herbivore fauna and their carbon isotope ratios, suggest a heterogeneous setting with both grass and woody plant components, though the proportions of each have been difficult to pin down. Here we bring dental microwear texture analysis of herbivorous fauna to bear on the issue. We present texture data for fossil bovids, primates, rodents, and suids (n = 107 individuals in total) from the hominin bearing deposits at Kanapoi, and interpret these in the light of closely related extant mammals with known differences in diet. The Kanapoi bovid results, for example, are similar to those for extant variable grazers or graze-browse intermediate taxa. The Kanapoi suid data vary by taxon, with one similar to the pattern of extant grazers and the other more closely resembling mixed feeders. The Kanapoi primates and rodents are more difficult to associate with a specific environment, though it seems that grass was likely a component in the diets of both. All taxa evince microwear texture patterns consistent with a mosaic of discrete microhabitats or a heterogeneous setting including both tree and grass components.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Potential adaptations for bipedalism in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of Homo sapiens: A 3D comparative analysis
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Kimberly Plomp, Una Strand Viðarsdóttir, Keith Dobney, Darlene Weston, Mark Collard

    A number of putative adaptations for bipedalism have been identified in the hominin spine. However, it is possible that some have been overlooked because only a few studies have used 3D and these studies have focused on cervical vertebrae. With this in mind, we used geometric morphometric techniques to compare the 3D shapes of three thoracic and two lumbar vertebrae of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus. The study had two goals. One was to confirm the existence of traits previously reported to distinguish the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of H. sapiens from those of the great apes. The other was to, if possible, identify hitherto undescribed traits that differentiate H. sapiens thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from those of the great apes. Both goals were accomplished. Our analyses not only substantiated a number of traits that have previously been discussed in the literature but also identified four traits that have not been described before: (1) dorsoventrally shorter pedicles in the upper thoracic vertebrae; (2) dorsoventrally longer laminae in all five of the vertebrae examined; (3) longer transverse processes in the upper thoracic vertebrae; and (4) craniocaudally ‘pinched’ spinous process tips in all of the vertebrae examined. A review of the biomechanical literature suggests that most of the traits highlighted in our analyses can be plausibly linked to bipedalism, including three of the four new ones. As such, the present study not only sheds further light on the differences between the spines of H. sapiens and great apes but also enhances our understanding of how the shift to bipedalism affected the hominin vertebral column.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Faster growth corresponds with shallower linear hypoplastic defects in great ape canines
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Kate McGrath, Donald J. Reid, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, Keely Arbenz-Smith, Sireen El Zaatari, Lawrence M. Fatica, Alexandra E. Kralick, Michael R. Cranfield, Tara S. Stoinski, Timothy G. Bromage, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C. McFarlin

    Deeper or more ‘severe’ linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) defects are hypothesized to reflect more severe stress during development, but it is not yet clear how depth is influenced by intrinsic enamel growth patterns. Recent work documented inter- and intraspecific differences in LEH defect depth in extant great apes, with mountain gorillas having shallower defects than other taxa, and females having deeper defects than males. Here, we assess the correspondence of inter- and intraspecific defect depth and intrinsic aspects of enamel growth: enamel extension rates, outer enamel striae of Retzius angles, and linear enamel thickness. Thin sections of great ape canines (n = 40) from Gorilla beringei beringei, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Pongo spp. were analyzed. Enamel extension rates were calculated within deciles of enamel-dentine junction length. Linear enamel thickness and the angle of intersection between striae of Retzius and the outer enamel surface were measured in the imbricational enamel. Mountain gorillas have faster enamel extension rates and shallower striae angles than the other taxa examined. Mountain gorillas have thinner imbricational enamel than western lowland gorillas and orangutans, but not chimpanzees. In the combined-taxon sample, females exhibit larger striae angles and thicker imbricational enamel than males. Enamel extension rates are highly negatively correlated with striae angles and LEH defect depth. Enamel growth variation corresponds with documented inter- and intraspecific differences in LEH defect depth in great ape canines. Mountain gorillas have shallower striae angles and faster extension rates than other taxa, which might explain their shallow LEH defect morphology and the underestimation of their LEH prevalence in previous studies. These results suggest that stressors of similar magnitude and timing might produce defects of different depths in one species or sex vs. another, which has implications for interpretations of stress histories in hominins with variable enamel growth patterns.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Late survival of dryopithecine hominoids in Southern Caucasus.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2019-11-24
    J Agustí,O Oms,P Piñero,G Chochisvili,M Bukhsianidze,D Lordkipanidze

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comparative evidence for the independent evolution of hair and sweat gland traits in primates.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2018-12-07
    Yana G Kamberov,Samantha M Guhan,Alessandra DeMarchis,Judy Jiang,Sara Sherwood Wright,Bruce A Morgan,Pardis C Sabeti,Clifford J Tabin,Daniel E Lieberman

    Humans differ in many respects from other primates, but perhaps no derived human feature is more striking than our naked skin. Long purported to be adaptive, humans' unique external appearance is characterized by changes in both the patterning of hair follicles and eccrine sweat glands, producing decreased hair cover and increased sweat gland density. Despite the conspicuousness of these features and their potential evolutionary importance, there is a lack of clarity regarding how they evolved within the primate lineage. We thus collected and quantified the density of hair follicles and eccrine sweat glands from five regions of the skin in three species of primates: macaque, chimpanzee and human. Although human hair cover is greatly attenuated relative to that of our close relatives, we find that humans have a chimpanzee-like hair density that is significantly lower than that of macaques. In contrast, eccrine gland density is on average 10-fold higher in humans compared to chimpanzees and macaques, whose density is strikingly similar. Our findings suggest that a decrease in hair density in the ancestors of humans and apes was followed by an increase in eccrine gland density and a reduction in fur cover in humans. This work answers long-standing questions about the traits that make human skin unique and substantiates a model in which the evolution of expanded eccrine gland density was exclusive to the human lineage.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phillip Vallentine Tobias (1925–2012).
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2013-01-17

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • The first hominid fossil recovered from West Java, Indonesia.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2005-07-15
    Andrew Kramer,Tony Djubiantono,Fachroel Aziz,James S Bogard,Robert A Weeks,Daniel C Weinand,Willis E Hames,J Michael Elam,Arthur C Durband,Agus

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Oreopithecus bambolii: an unlikely case of hominid-like grip capability in a Miocene ape.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-31
    Randall L Susman

    Oreopithecus bambolii, an ape from the late Miocene of Italy, is said to possess a hand capable of a precision grip like that of humans. Relative hand length, proportions of the thumb, and morphological features of the thumb and wrist were adduced to support the idea that Oreopithecus had a hand that closely matched the pattern in Australopithecus. A reappraisal of earlier arguments and comparisons of Oreopithecus with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys, reveals that Oreopithecus had an essentially ape-like hand that emphasized ape-like power grasping over human-like precision grasping.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nacholapithecus skeleton from the Middle Miocene of Kenya.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-31
    Hidemi Ishida,Yutaka Kunimatsu,Tomo Takano,Yoshihiko Nakano,Masato Nakatsukasa

    An almost entire skeleton of a male individual of Nacholapithecus kerioi (KNM-BG 35250) was discovered from Middle Miocene (approximately 15 Ma) sediments at Nachola, northern Kenya. N. kerioi exhibits a shared derived subnasal morphology with living apes. In many postcranial features, such as articular shape, as well as the number of the lumbar vertebrae, N. kerioi resembles Proconsul heseloni and/or P. nyanzae, and lacks suspensory specializations characteristic of living apes. Similarly, N. kerioi shares some postcranial characters with Kenyapithecus spp. However, despite the resemblance, N. kerioi and Proconsul spp. are quite different in their body proportions and some joint morphologies. N. kerioi has proportionally large forelimb bones and long pedal digits compared to its hindlimb bones and lumbar vertebrae. Its distinctive body proportions suggest that N. kerioi was more derived for forelimb dominated arboreal activities than P. nyanzae and P. heseloni. On the other hand, it exhibits a mixture of derived and primitive cranio-dental and postcranial features relative to the contemporaneous Kenyapithecus and Early MioceneMorotopithecus. While the phylogenetic position of N. kerioi is unsettled, it seems necessary to posit parallel evolution of cranio-dental and/or postcranial features in fossil and living apes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New discoveries and interpretations of hominid fossils and artifacts from Vindija Cave, Croatia.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-31
    James C M Ahern,Ivor Karavanić,Maja Paunović,Ivor Janković,Fred H Smith

    Beginning with excavations during the 1970s, Vindija Cave (Croatia) has yielded significant Middle and Upper Paleolithic fossil and archaeological finds. We report on seven recently identified hominid fossils, a newly associated partial hominid cranial vault from level G(3), nine possible bone retouchers, and a revised interpretation of the Mousterian artifact assemblage from the site. This new information reinforces our knowledge of the complex biocultural phenomena revealed in unit G and earlier deposits at Vindija. Six of the new hominid fossils derive from stratigraphic units G and I, while one lacks exact provenience. All specimens preserving diagnostic anatomy are from Neandertals. One of the postcranial remains, a radius fragment which exhibits Neandertal-like anatomy, comes from level G(1)and is congruent with the previously established association of Neandertals with an early Upper Paleolithic industry at the site. The partial cranial vault represents the most complete Neandertal from Vindija. The possible retouchers derive from unit G. Our analysis of these artifacts suggests that both percussion and pressure techniques may have been used by Neandertals in the final stage of tool production (retouching). This paper also presents a revision of the artifact analysis for late Mousterian level G(3). We separated raw materials into two main groups due to the differing ways that the materials fracture and the differing morphology of the debitage. The use of raw material in level G(3)is different from earlier Middle Paleolithic levels at Vindija. This indicates that the G(3)late Neandertals were making choices regarding source material somewhat more like the Upper Paleolithic people at the site. When interpreted within a larger regional framework, the Vindija archaeological and hominid fossil remains demonstrate a complex, mosaic pattern of biocultural change in the Late Pleistocene of south-central Europe.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The paleobiology of Amphipithecidae, South Asian late Eocene primates.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-31
    Richard F Kay,Daniel Schmitt,Christopher J Vinyard,Jonathan M G Perry,Nobuo Shigehara,Masanaru Takai,Naoko Egi

    Analysis of the teeth, orbital, and gnathic regions of the skull, and fragmentary postcranial bones provides evidence for reconstructing a behavioral profile of Amphipithecidae: Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, Myanmarpithecus (late middle Eocene, Myanmar) and Siamopithecus (late Eocene, Thailand). At 5-8 kg, Pondaungia, Amphipithecus, and Siamopithecus are perhaps the largest known Eocene primates. The dental and mandibular anatomy suggest that large-bodied amphipithecids were hard-object feeders. The shape of the mandibular corpus and stiffened symphysis suggest an ability to resist large internal loads during chewing and to recruit significant amounts of muscle forces from both the chewing and non-chewing sides of the jaw so as to increase bite force during mastication. The large spatulate upper central incisor of Pondaungia and projecting robust canines of all the larger amphipithecids suggest that incisal food preparation was important. The molars of Siamopithecus, Amphipithecus, and Pondaungia have weak shearing crests. This, and the thick molar enamel found in Pondaungia, suggests a diet of seeds and other hard objects low in fiber. In contrast, Myanmarpithecus was smaller, about 1-2 kg; its cheek teeth suggest a frugivorous diet and do not imply seed eating. Postcranial bones (humerus, ulna, and calcaneus) of a single large amphipithecid individual from Myanmar suggest an arboreal quadrupedal locomotor style like that of howler monkeys or lorises. The humeral head is rounded, proximally oriented, and the tuberosities are low indicating an extremely mobile glenohumeral joint. The great thickness of the midshaft cortical bone of the humerus implies enhanced ability to resist bending and torsion, as seen among slow moving primate quadrupeds. The elbow joint exhibits articular features for enhanced stability in habitually flexed positions, features also commonly found in slow moving arboreal quadrupeds. The short distal load arm of the calcaneus is consistent with, but not exclusive to, slow, arboreal quadrupedalism, and suggests no reliance on habitual leaping.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • First Neanderthal remains from Greece: the evidence from Lakonis.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Katerina Harvati,Eleni Panagopoulou,Panagiotis Karkanas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A reassessment of living hominoid postcranial variability: implications for ape evolution.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Nathan M Young

    In an analysis of hominoid postcranial variation, 'Evol. Anthrop. 6 (1998) 87' argued that many purportedly unique features of the hominoid postcranium are actually much more variable than previously reported and in many instances overlap with both suspensory (Ateles) and non-suspensory primates. Based on these results, it was concluded that parallelism in the living ape postcranium was a plausible and even likely possibility given the Miocene hominoid postcranial record. However, this analysis did not distinguish whether within-hominoid variability or overlap with non-hominoids involved one or all ape taxa, a distinction which has potentially important effects on the interpretation of results. To address this issue, primate postcranial morphometric data from the trunk and forelimb were reanalyzed using three techniques: cladistic analysis, principle components analysis, and cluster analysis. Results reveal that these postcranial characters distinguish not only suspensory and quadrupedal primates but also discriminate hominoids and Ateles from all other taxa, great apes from lesser apes and Ateles, cercopithecines from colobines, and cercopithecoids from platyrrhines. The majority of hominoid variability and overlap with Ateles occurs with Hylobates humeral head and shoulder joint characters related to brachiation. This suggests that Hylobates' specializations may skew analyses of hominoid postcranial uniqueness and variability, and that great apes are relatively similar in their postcranium.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa?
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Robin Dennell

    This paper examines the evidence for hominids outside East Africa during the Early Pleistocene. Most attention has focused recently on the evidence for or against a late Pliocene dispersal, ca. 1.8 Ma., of hominids out of Africa into Asia and possibly southern Europe. Here, the focus is widened to include North Africa as well as southern Asia and Europe, as well as the evidence in these regions for hominids after their first putative appearance ca. 1.8 Ma. It suggests that overall there is very little evidence for hominids in most of these regions before the Middle Pleistocene. Consequently, it concludes that the colonising capabilities of Homo erectus may have been seriously over-rated, and that even if hominids did occupy parts of North Africa, southern Europe and southern Asia shortly after 2 Ma, there is little evidence of colonisation. Whilst further fieldwork will doubtless slowly fill many gaps in a poorly documented Lower Pleistocene hominid record, it appears premature to conclude that the appearance of hominids in North Africa, Europe and Asia was automatically followed by permanent settlement. Rather, current data are more consistent with the view that Lower Pleistocene hominid populations outside East Africa were often spatially and temporally discontinuous, that hominid expansion was strongly constrained by latitude, and that occupation of temperate latitudes north of latitude 40 degrees was largely confined to interglacial periods.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reassessment of TL age estimates of burnt flints from the Paleolithic site of Tabun Cave, Israel.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Norbert Mercier,Hélène Valladas

    The stratigraphy of Tabun Cave (Mt. Carmel), which comprises one of the longest sequences of Lower and Middle Paleolithic of the Near East, is widely used as a reference in debates on the evolution of Paleolithic industries and on the origin of modern humans and their relationship to the Neandertals. Considering the methodological improvements during the last ten years, the thermoluminescence (TL) dates of heated flints frequently quoted in the literature require an update. New TL results are discussed and compared with radiometric data recently obtained for this site, in particular by the ESR method, and with those obtained for other Levantine sites. The chronological framework previously proposed for the Paleolithic industries of the area is then re-examined.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mothers, not fathers, determine the delayed onset of male carrying in Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii).
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Carsten Schradin,Gustl Anzenberger

    In biparental species, females are thought to accept and even to seek male assistance in rearing of the young. In this study, we present data that suggests that Goeldi's monkey females (Callimico goeldii) actually reject male parental care for a certain period. In Callimico, which have biparental care, mothers carry the infant exclusively for the first three weeks despite the fact that fathers are interested in their infants directly after birth. Fathers initiated significantly more body contact with their mates when newborn infants were present and retrieved one-day-old infants that were experimentally presented to them. The onset of paternal carrying in our colony was 27.5 days compared to 11.5 days (medians) observed in the field. However, presentation of a live potential predator induced earlier onset of paternal carrying by about 10 days. Additional costs to maternal carrying such as foraging and predator avoidance are likely factors influencing the decision of the mother as to when to share the cost of infant carrying with the father. We conclude that Goeldi's monkey fathers start carrying their infants so late because they do not get them earlier from the mother. We suggest that one ultimate explanation for that delay might be increased infant mortality when infant transfer starts at an earlier stage.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Enamel thickness and development in a third permanent molar of Gigantopithecus blacki.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    M Christopher Dean,Friedemann Schrenk

    A ground section was prepared from a lower right M3 attributed to Gigantopithecus blacki as close as possible to axial plane of the mesial cusps. Daily cross striations were imaged, measured and counted in each cusp using polarised light microscopy. Long-period striae of Retzius were counted in the lateral enamel and their periodicity determined from counts and measurements of daily cross striations between adjacent striae. Cross striation spacings in the cusps were between 3.8 microm at the enamel dentine junction and 6 microm close to the enamel surface. Cuspal enamel formation times were long (800 days in the protoconid and 620 days in the metaconid). Linear enamel thickness was as much as 3.75 mm in the protoconid. There were 63 and 61 long-period striae of Retzius in the mesial aspects of the lateral enamel and the periodicity was 11 days. Lateral enamel formation took 1493 and 1291 days and when summed with cuspal enamel formation times totalled 4 years in the protoconid and 3.5 in the metaconid. Relative enamel thickness was 23, calculated through the mesial cusps. This falls short of that in the so-called 'thick hyper-thick' enamel described in 'robust' australopithecines to which Gigantopithecus blacki has previously been compared in both its dental and mandibular morphology. With respect to enamel thickness, therefore, Gigantopithecus blacki falls squarely among an increasingly large number of Miocene hominoids that can all be described as having 'thick enamel'.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dental morphology of the Dawenkou Neolithic population in North China: implications for the origin and distribution of Sinodonty.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Yoshitaka Manabe,Joichi Oyamada,Yoshikazu Kitagawa,Atsushi Rokutanda,Katsutomo Kato,Takayuki Matsushita

    We compare the incidence of 25 nonmetric dental traits of the people of the Neolithic Dawenkou culture (6300-4500 BP) sites in Shandong Province, North China with those of other East Asian populations. The Dawenkou teeth had an overwhelmingly greater resemblance to the Sinodont pattern typical of Northeast Asia than to the Sundadont pattern typical of Southeast Asia. Multidimensional scaling using Smith's mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistic place the Dawenkou sample near the Amur and the North China-Mongolia populations in the area of the plot indicating typical Sinodonty. The existence of the Sinodont population in Neolithic North China suggests a possible continuity of Sinodonty from the Upper Cave population at Zhoukoudian (about 34000-10000 BP) to the modern North Chinese. The presence of Sinodonty in Shandong Province shows that the Japan Sea and East China Sea were strong barriers to gene flow for at least 3000 years, because at this time the Jomonese of Japan were fully Sundadont. In addition, we suggest that the descendants of the Dawenkou population cannot be excluded as one of the source populations that contributed to sinodontification in Japan.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Enamel thickness and microstructure in pitheciin primates, with comments on dietary adaptations of the middle Miocene hominoid Kenyapithecus.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Lawrence B Martin,Anthony J Olejniczak,Mary C Maas

    Many living primates that feed on hard food have been observed to have thick-enameled molars. Among platyrrhine primates, members of the tribe Pitheciini (Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia) are the most specialized seed and nut predators, and Cebus apella also includes exceptionally hard foods in its diet. To examine the hypothesized relationship between thick enamel and hard-object feeding, we sectioned small samples of molars from the platyrrhine primates Aotus trivergatus, Ateles paniscus, Callicebus moloch, Cebus apella, Cacajao calvus, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia monachus, and Pithecia pithecia. We measured relative enamel thickness and examined enamel microstructure, paying special attention to the development of prism decussation and its optical manifestation, Hunter-Schreger Bands (HSB). Cebus apella has thick enamel with well-defined but sinuous HSB overlain by a substantial layer of radial prisms. Aotus and Callicebus have thin enamel consisting primarily of radial enamel with no HSB, Ateles has thin enamel with moderately developed HSB and an outer layer of radial prisms, and the thin enamel of the pitheciins (Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia) has extremely well-defined HSB. Among platyrrhines, two groups that feed on hard objects process these hard foods in different ways. Cebus apella masticates hard and brittle seeds with its thick-enameled cheek teeth. Pitheciin sclerocarpic foragers open hard husks with their canines but chew relatively soft and pliable seeds with their molars. These results reveal that thick enamel per se is not a prerequisite for hard object feeding. The Miocene hominoid Kenyapithecus may have included hard objects in its diet, but its thick-enameled molars indicate that its feeding adaptations differed from those of the pitheciins. The morphology of both the anterior and posterior dentition, including enamel thickness and microstructure, should be taken into consideration when inferring the dietary regime of fossil species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ontogenetic adaptation to bipedalism: age changes in femoral to humeral length and strength proportions in humans, with a comparison to baboons.
    J. Hum. Evol. (IF 3.155) Pub Date : 2003-10-31
    Christopher Ruff

    The increase in lower/upper limb bone length and strength proportions in adult humans compared to most other anthropoid primates is commonly viewed as an adaptation to bipedalism. The ontogenetic development of femoral to humeral proportions is examined here using a longitudinal sample of 20 individuals measured radiographically at semiannual or annual intervals from 6 months of age to late adolescence (a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample). Anthropometric data (body weights, muscle breadths) were also available at each examination age. Results show that while femoral/humeral length proportions close to those of adults are already present in human infants, characteristically human femoral/humeral diaphyseal strength proportions only develop after the adoption of bipedalism at about 1 year of age. A rapid increase in femoral/humeral strength occurs between 1 and 3 years, followed by a slow increase until mid-late adolescence, when adult proportions are reached. When age changes in material properties are factored in, femoral strength shows an almost constant relationship to body size (body mass.bone length) after 5 years of age, while humeral strength shows a progressive decline relative to body size. Femoral/humeral length proportions increase slightly throughout growth, with no apparent change in growth trajectory at the initiation of walking, and with a small decline in late adolescence due to later growth in length of the humerus. A sex difference in femoral/humeral strength proportions (females greater) but not length proportions, develops early in childhood. Thus, growth trajectories in length and strength proportions are largely independent, with strength proportions more responsive to actual changes in mechanical loading. A cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of baboons (n=30) illustrates contrasting patterns of growth, with much smaller age changes in proportions, particularly strength proportions, although there is some indication of an adaptation to altered limb loadings early in baboon development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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