当前期刊: Biological Conservation Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Rapid and varied responses of songbirds to climate change in California coniferous forests
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Brett J. Furnas

    The global climate is changing faster than previously anticipated. Although scientists expect cumulatively deleterious impacts to birds and other wildlife, effects on individual species are likely more complex. The California Department of Fish and Wildlife has monitored >100 songbirds across 37,600 km2 of Northern California conifer forests for close to two decades to facilitate informed, science-based conservation planning. The study area represents 42% of all conifer forests in the state. Autonomous sound recorders were used to survey birds at 1065 randomly distributed sites from 2002 to 2016. The richness of Neotropical migrants declined below 1515 m (90% CI: 1150–1950 m) elevation whereas it increased above this threshold after controlling for changes in tree cover due to forestry and wildfire. This finding suggests an overall upward shift in Neotropical migrant distributions in response to an annual 0.037 °C (90% CI: 0.029–0.045 °C) increase in mean daily May temperature during the timespan. Residents and altitudinal migrants may be less vulnerable to increasing temperatures, conversely, as evidence of elevational shifting was much weaker or non-existent for them. Yet for individual species, there were both declines and increases in occupancy. Rapid and mixed population trends, in combination with elevational range shifts, suggest that songbirds vary widely in their capacity to adapt to climate change and other stressors. Conservation of structurally-complex and fire resilient forests above ~1500 m elevation is paramount in helping to buffer songbirds against rising temperatures. The expansion of biodiversity monitoring across large taxonomic, spatial, and temporal extents is vital to effective conservation planning.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Using multiple palaeoecological indicators to guide biodiversity conservation in tropical dry islands: The case of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Alvaro Castilla-Beltrán; Ivani Duarte; Lea de Nascimento; José María Fernández-Palacios; Maria Romeiras; Robert J. Whittaker; Margarita Jambrina-Enríquez; Carolina Mallol; Andrew B. Cundy; Mary Edwards; Sandra Nogué
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A stitch in time – Synergistic impacts to platypus metapopulation extinction risk
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Gilad Bino; Richard T. Kingsford; Brendan A. Wintle

    The unique platypus is currently listed as ‘Near-Threatened’ under the IUCN Red List based on observed population declines and local extinctions, though significant uncertainty exists about its current distribution and abundance. We did the first population viability analysis across its entire range, using distribution and metapopulation data and models that integrate key threatening processes. We quantified the individual and synergistic impacts of water resource development, land clearing and invasive species on population viability of the platypus. Under current climate and threats, platypus abundance and metapopulation occupancy were predicted to respectively decline by 47%–66% and 22%–32% over 50 years. This would cause extinction of local populations across about 40% of the range. Under climate change projections (2070), increased extreme drought frequencies and duration were predicted to further expose platypuses to increased local extinctions, reducing abundance and metapopulation occupancy by 51–73% and 36–56% within 50 years respectively. Predicted estimates of key threatening processes on platypus populations strongly suggested increased risk of extinction, including listing as ‘Vulnerable’, under IUCN criterion A. This adds to the increasing evidence of decline and local extinction of platypus populations. There is an urgent need to implement national conservation efforts for this unique mammal by increasing surveys, tracking trends, mitigating threats and improving management of platypus habitat in rivers.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A comprehensive assessment of diversity loss in a well-documented tropical insect fauna: Almost half of Singapore's butterfly species extirpated in 160 years
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Meryl Theng; Wan F.A. Jusoh; Anuj Jain; Blanca Huertas; David J.X. Tan; Hui Zhen Tan; Nadiah P. Kristensen; Rudolf Meier; Ryan A. Chisholm

    Insects as a group are suffering rapid declines in many parts of the world but are also poorly studied relative to vertebrate taxa. Comprehensive assessments of insect declines must account for both detected and undetected species. We studied extirpations among butterflies, a particularly well-known insect group, in the highly developed and biologically well-surveyed island city-state of Singapore. Building on existing butterfly species lists, we collated museum and naturalist records over the last two centuries and used statistical models to estimate the total extirpation rate since the first major collections in 1854. In addition, we compiled a set of traits for each butterfly species and explored how they relate to species discovery and extirpation. With a database of 413 native species, 132 (32%) of which are recorded as extirpated in Singapore, we used a statistical model to infer that, in addition, 104 unknown species (95% CI 60–162) were likely extirpated before they were ever discovered, suggesting a total extirpation rate of 46% (41–51%). In the trait analyses, we found that butterfly species that were discovered later were weakly associated with rarer larval host plants and smaller wingspans, while species that persisted for longer were weakly associated with higher larval host plant abundance and lower forest-dependence. This exercise is one of the first to offer a holistic estimate of extirpations for a group of insects by accounting for undetected extirpations. It suggests that extirpations among insects, specifically in the tropics, may be higher than naïve estimates based only on known records.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Challenges for leveraging citizen science to support statistically robust monitoring programs
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Emily L. Weiser; Jay E. Diffendorfer; Laura Lopez-Hoffman; Darius Semmens; Wayne E. Thogmartin

    Large samples and long time series are often needed for effective broad-scale monitoring of status and trends in wild populations. Obtaining those sample sizes can be more feasible when volunteers contribute to the dataset, but volunteer-selected sites are not always representative of a population. Previous work to account for biased site selection has relied on knowledge of covariates to explain differences between site types, but such knowledge is often unavailable. For cases where relevant covariates have not been defined, we used a simulation study to identify the consequences of including non-probabilistically selected sites (NP sites) in addition to sites selected from a probability-based design (P sites), test modeling frameworks that might correct for biases, and evaluate whether those frameworks could allow NP sites to reduce the sampling requirement for P sites and potentially reduce costs of monitoring. We informed the simulation with pilot data from surveys of monarch butterflies and their obligate larval host plant, milkweed. We found strong biases in NP sites versus P sites in density and trends of monarchs and milkweed. Modeling frameworks that accounted for site type with a group effect or that strongly downweighted NP sites successfully produced unbiased estimates. However, sampling more NP sites typically did not improve accuracy or precision, and adding NP sites sometimes required also adding P sites to prevent biases. Further work on novel modeling frameworks would be useful to allow citizen-science data to contribute useful information to conservation.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Reducing nest predation of ground-nesting birds through conditioned food aversion
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jorge Tobajas; Esther Descalzo; Rafael Mateo; Pablo Ferreras

    Populations of many ground-nesting bird species have declined substantially due to several factors, and predation can be a leading contributor to these declines. As a method for reducing the nest predation on ground-nesting birds, we tested whether conditioned food aversion (CFA) can reduce red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) nest predation by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). With a before-after control-impact design we deployed 1329 artificial nests in two different habitats in Central Spain using thiram as an aversive. Artificial nests were monitored by camera traps to identify the red fox individuals during the predation events. 26 foxes were GPS-tagged to monitor their spatial movements and feeding behavior. Partridge density and productivity were monitored to assess the thiram treatment effect on partridge population. Thiram treatment decreased artificial nest predation by foxes in both study sites by 26.8–50.1%, but this was compensated by an increased predation by other predators, possibly enhanced by the availability of our artificial nests. 78% of identified foxes that ingested thiram-treated eggs, stopped nest predation after treatment. Foxes maintained stable territories during the whole study period. Partridge productivity was 132–677% higher in thiram-treatment areas than in control areas, and partridge density after treatment increased more in thiram-treated areas (193–292%) than in control areas (1.8–99%). Our study shows that CFA reduced ground nest predation by foxes, and had a positive effect on the partridge population despite the compensatory predation. This method could be used as a non-lethal tool for conservation of endangered ground-nesting bird species.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Effects of grazing intensity, habitat area and connectivity on snail-shell nesting bees
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Sebastian Hopfenmüller; Andrea Holzschuh; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter

    The effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on wild bee populations are still not fully understood. Availability of resources, parasitism and habitat connectivity might influence population sizes of bees. Whereas floral resources for wild bees have been considered in research and conservation, nesting resources have been largely neglected as these are challenging to investigate. Snail shells are the exclusive nesting cavities for several Osmia species and provide a good - but so far unused - tool to study factors driving bee population dynamics. We investigated the effects of habitat area, connectivity and management of semi-natural grasslands on populations of snail-shell nesting bees. On 23 calcareous grasslands, we monitored snail shell colonization by providing empty snail shells as nesting resources, and recorded flower-visitor interactions. Five snail-shell nesting Osmia species were found on the grasslands, which made almost a quarter of recorded bee flower visits. Three species colonized the offered snail shells with high variation between study sites, Osmia species, and snail shell size. Habitat area had a positive effect on the population size of the habitat specialist Osmia aurulenta, whereas the more generalist species Osmia bicolor was positively influenced by habitat connectivity. Destruction rates of snail shells increased with sheep grazing intensity, leading to an estimated loss of more than a third of all bee nests. We conclude that large and connected habitats benefit bee populations in fragmented landscapes, while conservation management regimes should take into account potential negative effects of grazing on specific nesting resources of specialized bee species.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Climate-induced spatial mismatch may intensify giant panda habitat loss and fragmentation
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Zhenhua Zang; Shuyu Deng; Guofang Ren; Zhixia Zhao; Junqing Li; Zongqiang Xie; Guozhen Shen

    Climate change may disrupt the spatial matching of interacting species, thus compromise the persistence of species. Giant pandas form specialized trophic interactions with bamboo, and empirical evidence indicated that climate in panda distribution range has warmed during the past half-century. A critical effort to reduce giant panda extinction risk is to measure the stability state of panda-bamboo and detect the trends of recent change. However, most studies projected what would happen only for a single component of the panda-bamboo system under future climate scenarios. Little has been known about whether climate warming has decoupled spatial matching between giant panda and bamboo. Here, we investigated the spatial matching between giant panda and bamboo, and explored the extent to which the panda thermally suitable habitats shifted and fragmented over the past half-century. We found that giant pandas gained 4750 km2 of thermally suitable areas. However, the thermally suitable habitat shrank by 8.2%, and the thermally suitable habitat patches became smaller and more exposed to the forest edge, resulting in 41.1% decline of metapopulation capacity, which indicated that giant pandas were facing high risks of habitat fragmentation. The protected thermally suitable habitat increased by 3.5 times from 1980 to 2010. In contrast to the habitat fragmentation outside nature reserves, the nature reserves have mitigated the habitat loss and fragmentation for giant pandas. Our findings suggested that conservation effort to reduce giant panda extinction risk should focus on maintaining spatial matching between panda and bamboo in the face of future climate change.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Poaching impedes the selection of optimal post-fire forage in three large grazing herbivores
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Christopher F. Brooke; Daniel Fortin; Tineke Kraaij; Hervé Fritz; Margaret J. Kalule-Sabiti; Jan A. Venter

    Optimal foraging theory provides a powerful quantitative framework to reveal how foraging constraints and options define the interplay between forager and resource distributions. Although illegal hunting threatens wildlife worldwide, few studies have assessed the impact of poaching on the ability of animals to optimise their use of resources. We assessed how the risk of poaching hinders the ability of common reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), red hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), and plains zebra (Equus quagga) to maximise their daily intake of digestible energy in a complex mosaic of post-fire vegetation, in a small fenced nature reserve. Optimality models predict that all species can maximise their intake of digestible energy by feeding in young post-fire patches (29–37 days). We show that for all species, probability of finding and selectively using such high-value vegetation patches was higher at greater distance from points where poachers were likely to enter the reserve. For reedbuck, optimal patches were used only if they were >3.4 km from poacher entry-points. Red hartebeest became more likely to occur in optimal vegetation patches as the distance to likely poacher entry points increased. Only zebra maximized their daily intake of digestible energy regardless of the distance to poachers, but still selected areas where poaching was less likely. This study demonstrates how spatial patterns in poacher activities and post-fire vegetation interact to shape herbivore distribution. Understanding how herbivores track and use this post fire green-up of vegetation is important for protected area managers to understand the trade-offs that herbivores make when foraging.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Informal forest product harvesting in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: A recent assessment
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jessica Leaver; Michael I. Cherry

    Forest management in many developing nations aims to balance the needs of resource users and the ecological integrity of indigenous forests, in terms of both biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, particularly carbon sequestration. While South Africa has legislated management policies to achieve this, implementation has been lacking, resulting in concern that unregulated resource use is compromising forest biodiversity. However, there is little information regarding resource use since these regulations were promulgated a decade ago. This study reports on the current nature and extent of forest product harvesting in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, which contains just under half of the country's indigenous forests. Extraction rates and target species of key products, namely poles, timber and bark, were assessed across six forests, representing five forest types. Harvest intensities indicated low to moderate levels of use, but there was considerable variation in levels of resource use at the forest-scale, illustrating the importance of site-specific assessments. Furthermore, resource use was species-specific, indicating that sustainability is dependent on the ecology of preferred species. Of concern was widespread commercial-scale bark harvesting; and relatively high timber extraction from a Pondoland scarp forest, a threatened forest type. We urge implementation of existing regulations, which distinguish between subsistence and commercial use; and commensurate capacitation of the new Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries. In the case of timber and bark, we recommend licencing of the de facto commercial harvesting taking place in order to promote regulation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Poisoning poached megafauna can boost trade in African vultures
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Patricia Mateo-Tomás; José Vicente López-Bao

    Illegal wildlife trade threatens iconic species, such as elephants, rhinos or giraffes, on which poaching pressure has increased in recent times. By poisoning the carcasses of poached megafauna to prevent the early detection of poachers, this illegal activity is contributing to push African vultures to the brink of extinction. But poisoning vultures at poached carcasses of megafauna can also boost belief-based trade of vulture body parts by facilitating access to otherwise difficult-to-reach species. Since increased vulture availability through megafauna poaching could stimulate not only domestic, but also international trade, we call for transboundary coordination to effectively track the real dimension of this pervasive synergy. Existing monitoring schemes of megafauna poaching (e.g. CITES Monitoring of the Illegal Killing of Elephants, MIKE) and wildlife poisoning (e.g. African Wildlife Poison Database) can be a promising starting point. For example, by counting the number of vultures with missing parts at each megafauna carcass, while guiding the implementation of similar monitoring for other species threatened by poaching. Besides straightforward impacts on target species, illegal wildlife trade affects non-target species, with collateral damages being increasingly highlighted. Pervasive synergies such as the one we describe here deserves further international attention to prevent that poaching will spread for other purposes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Integrating multiple data sources and multi-scale land-cover data to model the distribution of a declining amphibian
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Jonathan P. Rose; Brian J. Halstead; Robert N. Fisher

    Determining the spatial scale at which landscape features influence population persistence is an important task for conservation planning. One challenge is that sampling biases confound factors that influence species occurrence and survey effort. Recent developments in Point Process Models (PPMs) enable researchers to disentangle the sampling process from ecological drivers of species' distributions. Land-cover change is a driver of decline for the western spadefoot (Spea hammondii), which has been extirpated from much of its range in California. Assessing this species' status requires information on the current distribution of suitable habitat within its historical range, but little is known about the effect of the landscape surrounding breeding ponds on spadefoot occurrence. Critically, surveys for western spadefoots often occur along roads, potentially biasing data used to fit species distribution models. We created PPMs integrating historical presence/non-detection and presence-only data for western spadefoots and land-cover data at multiple spatial scales to model the distribution of this species while removing the influence of sampling bias. There was spatial sampling bias in presence-only data; records were more likely to be reported near roads and urban centers and PPMs that removed sampling bias outperformed models that ignored sampling bias. The occurrence of western spadefoots was positively related to the proportion of grassland within a 2000 m buffer. The remaining habitat for western spadefoots is largely found in the foothills surrounding California's Central Valley. Our study illustrates how PPMs can improve projections of habitat suitability and our understanding of the drivers of species' distributions.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Facilitated adaptation for conservation – Can gene editing save Hawaii's endangered birds from climate driven avian malaria?
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Michael D. Samuel; Wei Liao; Carter T. Atkinson; Dennis A. LaPointe

    Avian malaria has played a significant role in causing extinctions, population declines, and limiting the elevational distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers. Most threatened and endangered honeycreepers only exist in high-elevation forests where the risk of malaria infection is limited. Because Culex mosquito vectors and avian malaria dynamics are strongly influenced by temperature and rainfall, future climate change is predicted to expand malaria infection to high-elevation forests and intensify malaria infection at lower elevations, likely resulting in future extinctions and loss of avian biodiversity in Hawaii. Novel, landscape-level mosquito control strategies are promising, but are logistically challenging and require costly long-term efforts. As an alternative or supplemental strategy, we evaluated the potential of releasing a gene-edited malaria-resistant honeycreeper (Iiwi, Drepanis coccinea) in Hawaiian rainforests; a strategy known as facilitated adaptation. While this approach also has significant technical challenges and costs, it may offer a more permanent solution to increasing malaria threats. If malaria-resistant honeycreepers can be developed, facilitated adaptation may provide a practical strategy for the reestablishment of abundant avian populations in Hawaiian forests. A successful strategy could be the release of malaria-resistant Iiwi in mid-elevation forests where development of a resistant population has the best chance of success. Establishment of a resistant Iiwi population could provide a source for dispersal and development of resistant populations in high-elevation forests and a permanent source of resistant individuals for translocation to other vulnerable areas.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Should we protect extirpated fish spawning aggregation sites?
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Iliana Chollett; Mark Priest; Stuart Fulton; William D Heyman

    Some locations have extraordinary ecological and conservation significance and subsequently need protection to guarantee the persistence of species that depend on them. Fish Spawning Aggregation (FSA) sites, where fish congregate to breed, are examples of such places, but are being extirpated worldwide through overfishing. Although transient FSA sites figure prominently as priority areas for conservation, extirpated aggregations, that due to current low abundance at spawning times are no longer recognizable as FSAs, represent a dilemma for managers. Given the limited resources available for conservation actions, should we protect extirpated FSAs or omit them from spatial management plans? Here we present two contrasting points of view, look into the mechanisms associated with the emergence and maintenance of aggregation sites, and review available evidence of recovery in the field. Of the 53 extirpated FSA sites examined, 9 (17%) reported recovery, always after strict management was implemented. All recovered sites were located in the wider Caribbean and western Atlantic. We make the case that extirpated FSAs seem to have the potential to recover and their protection may provide a cost effective way to help rebuild fisheries. It is unclear, however, if a remnant population is needed to allow recovery. Current methods used to monitor and assess FSA status and extirpation are not consistent, hindering site trend analysis, between-site comparisons and meta-analysis. We suggest that monitoring and management should be made more consistent and strengthened to boost FSA recovery.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Livestock guarding dogs enable human-carnivore coexistence: First evidence of equivalent carnivore occupancy on guarded and unguarded farms
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Katie Spencer; Melissa Sambrook; Samantha Bremner-Harrison; Deon Cilliers; Richard W. Yarnell; Rox Brummer; Katherine Whitehouse-Tedd

    Livestock guarding dogs (LGDs) are advocated to reduce livestock depredation on agricultural lands. However, LGDs have been proposed as excluding carnivores from guarded farms; this study is the first to test this hypothesis in an African ecosystem. We investigated carnivore occupancy (black-backed jackal, leopard and brown hyaena) from 1029 camera-trap days (126 camera locations) in relation to the presence of LGDs and a range of habitat and land-use covariates across eight South African farms, five of which utilised an LGD. Models containing LGDs had little support in explaining leopard or black-backed jackal occupancy, although LGD presence had a positive relationship with brown hyaena occupancy (β = 1.14, 95 % CI = 0.05, 2.23). Leopard detection was positively related to the presence of black-backed jackals (β = 1.47, 95 % CI = 0.18, 2.74) and sheep (β = 1.13, 95 % CI = 0.14, 2.12), whilst black-backed jackal detection was negatively related to lures (β = −1.33, 95 % CI = −2.00, −0.65) and positively related to the presence of brown hyaena (β = 0.90, 95 % CI = 0.43, 1.40). Previous research in this LGD population has demonstrated the cessation of livestock depredation in 91 % of cases, making dog ineffectiveness unlikely to explain their lack of influence on carnivore occupancy. Our results provide the first empirical evidence based on ecological data of the capacity for LGDs to promote human-carnivore coexistence in an African agricultural context, further validating the use of specialist guarding dogs as a conservation tool of benefit to both human and wildlife populations.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Defining priorities for global snow leopard conservation landscapes
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Juan Li; Byron V. Weckworth; Thomas M. McCarthy; Xuchuang Liang; Yanlin Liu; Rui Xing; Diqiang Li; Yuguang Zhang; Yadong Xue; Rodney Jackson; Lingyun Xiao; Chen Cheng; Sheng Li; Feng Xu; Ming Ma; Xin Yang; Kunpeng Diao; Yufang Gao; Steven R. Beissinger
    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Extinction debt of fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Fielding Montgomery; Scott M. Reid; Nicholas E. Mandrak

    Declines in North American freshwater biodiversity can be largely attributed to anthropogenic disturbances that reduce habitat quantity, quality, and connectivity. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, wetlands have been significantly lost as a result of agricultural land-use practice, yet high species richness and several at-risk fishes persist. These patterns lead to the hypothesis that Great Lakes wetland fishes are in extinction debt, meaning there is a time lag between habitat loss and local extinction. To test this hypothesis, we sampled current species richness of wetland-specialist fishes in protected and unprotected wetlands in the Lake Erie basin. We predicted species richness in unprotected wetlands using parameter estimates (slope and intercept) from protected wetlands. Extinction debt was measured as a positive difference between predicted and observed species richness. We determined how much area would be required to support current species richness and compared this to minimum-area requirements for eight at-risk fishes. Species richness was significantly higher than predicted in unprotected wetlands, indicating that fishes in them are in extinction debt. This result indicates that there is time available to restore disturbed wetlands and prevent local extinction. We identified 17 wetlands of high priority for restoration (>10 species bound for extinction) and determined that the restoration of 178 km2 of wetland habitat would reduce the risk of future biodiversity loss. This is the first direct study of extinction debt in freshwater fishes. Additional extinction-debt assessments in aquatic systems are needed to extend the ecological theory and fundamental application of extinction debt beyond terrestrial systems.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Indirect effects of habitat loss via habitat fragmentation: A cross-taxa analysis of forest-dependent species
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Thomas Püttker; Renato Crouzeilles; Mauricio Almeida-Gomes; Marina Schmoeller; Daniel Maurenza; Helena Alves-Pinto; Renata Pardini; Marcus V. Vieira; Cristina Banks-Leite; Carlos R. Fonseca; Jean Paul Metzger; Gustavo M. Accacio; Eduardo R. Alexandrino; Camila S. Barros; Juliano A. Bogoni; Danilo Boscolo; Pedro H.S. Brancalion; Adriana A. Bueno; Jayme A. Prevedello

    Recent studies suggest that habitat amount is the main determinant of species richness, whereas habitat fragmentation has weak and mostly positive effects. Here, we challenge these ideas using a multi-taxa database including 2230 estimates of forest-dependent species richness from 1097 sampling sites across the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot. We used a structural equation modeling approach, accounting not only for direct effects of habitat loss, but also for its indirect effects (via habitat fragmentation), on the richness of forest-dependent species. We reveal that in addition to the effects of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation has negative impacts on animal species richness at intermediate (30–60%) levels of habitat amount, and on richness of plants at high (>60%) levels of habitat amount, both of which are mediated by edge effects. Based on these results, we argue that dismissing habitat fragmentation as a powerful force driving species extinction in tropical forest landscapes is premature and unsafe.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Contrasting demographic responses of toad populations to regionally synchronous pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) dynamics
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Blake R. Hossack; Robin E. Russell; Rebecca McCaffery

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that causes amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been implicated in population declines globally. To better understand how Bd affects survival and how threats vary spatially and temporally, we conducted long-term (range: 9–13 yrs) capture-recapture studies of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas) from three similar communities in western Montana. We also estimated temporal and spatial variation in population-level Bd prevalence among populations and the potential role of co-occurring Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in driving infection dynamics. Hierarchical models that accounted for detection uncertainty revealed Bd reduced apparent survival in one population that declined, was unassociated with survival in one stationary population, and was associated with increased survival in one population that is near extirpation. Despite different effects of Bd on hosts, pathogen prevalence was similar and synchronous across the populations separated by 111–176 km. Variation in Bd prevalence was driven partly by seasonal temperatures, but opposite the direction expected. Bd prevalence also decreased sharply over time across all populations, unrelated to trends in temperature, boreal toad survival, or infection dynamics of co-occurring Columbia spotted frogs. Toad Bd prevalence increased when frog abundance was high, consistent with an amplification effect. However, Bd prevalence of toads decreased as Bd prevalence of spotted frogs increased, consistent with a dilution effect. Our results reveal surprising variation in responses to Bd and show pathogen prevalence is not predictive of survival or population risk, and they illustrate the complexity in understanding disease dynamics across multiple populations.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Identifying important at-sea areas for seabirds using species distribution models and hotspot mapping
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Ian R. Cleasby; Ellie Owen; Linda Wilson; Ewan D. Wakefield; Peadar O'Connell; Mark Bolton

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) underpin the sustainable management of marine ecosystems but require accurate knowledge of species distributions. Recently, advances in tracking technology and habitat modelling have enabled the production of large-scale species distribution models (SDM), which provide the basis for hotspot mapping. In the UK, hotspot mapping to inform seabird MPA identification has involved converting observed or predicted distributions to polygons using either Maximum Curvature or Getis-Ord (Gi*) analysis. Here, we apply both mapping techniques to UK-wide, breeding season SDM predictions for four seabird species (Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, Common Guillemots Uria aalge, Razorbills Alca torda and European Shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in order to compare their performance and inform seabird MPA. When using Maximum Curvature, grid cells within the identified maximum curvature boundaries were defined as hotspots. For Getis-Ord analysis, we defined hotspots as either (1) grid cells containing the top 1% or (2) the top 5% Gi* scores or (3) cells in which Gi* scores were statistically significant. Hotspots based upon Maximum Curvature or statistically significant Gi* scores covered the greatest area and were generally larger than current marine Special Protection Areas. Hotspots based on the top 1% or top 5% of Gi* scores were smaller and were concentrated around the largest breeding colonies. All hotspot methods consistently identified several high-density areas that should be prioritised for seabird conservation. Ultimately, the choice of hotspot identification method should be informed by considering species ecology alongside conservation goals to ensure hotspots are of sufficient size to protect target populations.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Habitat amount versus connectivity: An empirical study of bird responses
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    David B. Lindenmayer; Wade Blanchard; Claire N. Foster; Ben C. Scheele; Martin J. Westgate; John Stein; Mason Crane; Dan Florance

    Habitat loss is widely acknowledged as a key driver of global biodiversity decline. However, whether biodiversity loss occurs in response to reductions in habitat amount versus reductions in connectivity in fragmented landscapes is debated. A challenge in resolving this issue is that measures of the amount of native woody vegetation cover and those calculated for structural connectivity are often highly correlated. Using multi-season detection-occupancy models we address the question: After accounting for the effects of native woody vegetation cover, what is the contribution of structural connectivity to site occupancy, site persistence and site colonization by birds? In this context, structural connectivity corresponded to the configuration of vegetation cover in the landscape surrounding our sites. We constructed multi-season detection-occupancy models for 44 individual bird species based on long-term field surveys in the temperate woodlands of eastern Australia. We found responses to vegetation amount were far more prevalent than responses to structural connectivity (35 vs 6 species). The range of responses by different species to vegetation amount, to structural connectivity, or to both, suggests that these elements have different effects on the processes of occupancy, persistence and colonization. The predominance of vegetation amount effects in our study, particularly the positive effects for a range of species of conservation concern, suggests the critical importance of both conserving existing areas of native vegetation cover and increasing the amount of that cover. At least for birds, efforts to physically connect particular patches may have relatively less benefit compared to programs to boost overall vegetation cover.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Does biodiversity benefit when the logging stops? An analysis of conservation risks and opportunities in active versus inactive logging concessions in Borneo
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Zuzana Burivalova; Edward T. Game; Bambang Wahyudi; Ruslandi; Mohamad Rifqi; Ewan MacDonald; Samuel Cushman; Maria Voigt; Serge Wich; David S. Wilcove

    The island of Borneo is a biodiversity hotspot of global importance that continues to suffer from one of the highest deforestation rates in the tropics. Selective logging concessions overlay a third of the remaining natural forests in the Indonesian part of Borneo, but many of these concessions have become inactive in recent years. Whereas the cessation of logging could be beneficial to biodiversity, the absence of a logging company's presence in the forest could also leave the concession open to deforestation by other actors. Using remote sensing analyses, we evaluate 1) whether inactive concessions are more likely to suffer from deforestation than active ones, 2) the possible reasons why concessions become inactive, and 3) which inactive concessions hold the most potential for biodiversity conservation, if protected from deforestation. Our analysis shows that, counterintuitively, inactive concessions overall suffer a higher rate of forest loss than active ones. We find that small concession size and high elevation are correlated with inactive status. We identified several inactive concessions that, if maintained as natural forest, could significantly contribute to biodiversity conservation, as exemplified by their importance to two umbrella species: Bornean orangutan (Critically Endangered) and Sunda clouded leopard (Vulnerable). Because timber operations in other tropical regions are likely to experience similar cycles of activity and inactivity, the fate of inactive timber concessions and the opportunities they create for conservation deserve much greater attention from conservation scientists and practitioners.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Optimizing biodiversity gain of European agriculture through regional targeting and adaptive management of conservation tools
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Elena D. Concepción; Ina Aneva; Marion Jay; Simeon Lukanov; Katrina Marsden; Gerardo Moreno; Rainer Oppermann; Adara Pardo; Stephan Piskol; Víctor Rolo; Antonia Schraml; Mario Díaz

    Agricultural intensification continues being a major threat for biodiversity worldwide. Despite the incorporation of diverse conservation tools in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) since the 1990s, European agriculture continues intensifying. The last CAP reform introduced compulsory greening, including measures to support semi-natural habitats across the wider countryside (referred to in this paper as Green and Blue Infrastructure, GBI), and by these means biodiversity. However, the actual benefits of greening implementation have not been evaluated formally through field studies, and its effectiveness is questioned. We assess the capacity of a variety of GBI features that can be supported by CAP greening to promote biodiversity across a variety of agricultural systems. We analyze the relationships between diversity (birds and plants) and a set of habitat indicators linked to distinct greening options in 115 plots from six case study areas, including arable land, pastures and mixed farming systems in Spain, Germany and Bulgaria. Relationships between biodiversity and the different GBI elements varied considerably between regions, systems and organisms' groups. Some of these relationships were non-linear. Although most GBI elements showed potential for promoting biodiversity, they should be adapted to specific conservation targets and landscape constraints regionally. The next CAP reform could include compulsory measures that support connectivity, heterogeneity and small-landscape elements characteristic in each region (e.g. field margins and trees or preventing field size enlargement), combined with more regionally-orientated voluntary measures (e.g., promoting grassland and fallow). Performance evaluation and adaptation ought to accompany the implementation of these measures to ensure their ecological success.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Plight of the commons: 17 years of wildlife trafficking in Cambodia
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Sarah Heinrich; Joshua V. Ross; Thomas N.E. Gray; Steven Delean; Nick Marx; Phillip Cassey

    Southeast Asia is a hub for wildlife trafficking. Since 2001, the Wildlife Rapid Rescue Team (WRRT), a multi-agency law enforcement unit under the authority of the Cambodian Forestry Administration, has operated in Cambodia to counteract wildlife trafficking. We have analysed confiscation records from the WRRT for 2001–2018 to determine the compositional trends of trafficked species in Cambodia, and identify any detectable conservation gaps. Confiscations involved 95% native species. Over 60% of all confiscated species were either: (i) not listed in CITES; (ii) listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List; and/or (iii) Common under the Cambodian Forestry Law. These common, and usually less appreciated, species in trade may face greater future threats through trafficking and thus require better protection. Birds had the most number of animals confiscated, and songbirds were particularly heavily trafficked. In terms of the number of incidents, reptiles were the most confiscated Class. A small number of specific reptile species were consistently targeted, and particularly prominent was turtle and tortoise trafficking. Conversely, birds appeared to be trafficked opportunistically. Most bird species were only confiscated in a single year, and almost two thirds of all bird species were replaced by different species each year. We show that Cambodia is contributing substantially to the bird trade and this may be an under-reported element of the Asian songbird crisis.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Human presence and human footprint have non-equivalent effects on wildlife spatiotemporal habitat use
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Barry A. Nickel; Justin P. Suraci; Maximilian L. Allen; Christopher C. Wilmers

    Human impacts on wildlife stem from both our footprint on the landscape and the presence of people in wildlife habitat. Each may influence wildlife at very different spatial and temporal scales, yet efforts to disentangle these two classes of anthropogenic disturbance in their effects on wildlife have remained limited, as have efforts to predict the spatial extent of human presence and its impacts independently of human footprint. We used camera trap data from a 1400-km2 grid spanning wildlands and residential development in central California to compare the effects of human presence (human detections on camera) and footprint (building density) on mammalian predators. We then developed a model predicting the spatial extent of human presence and its impacts across the broader landscape. Occupancy modeling and temporal activity analyses showed that human presence and footprint had non-equivalent and often opposing effects on wildlife. Larger predators (pumas Puma concolor, bobcats Lynx rufus, coyotes Canis latrans) were less active where human footprint was high but avoided high human presence temporally rather than spatially. Smaller predators (striped skunks Mephitis mephitis, Virginia opossums Didelphis virginiana) preferred developed areas but exhibited reduced activity where human presence was high. A spatial model, based on readily available landscape covariates (parking lots, trails, topography), performed well in predicting human activity outside of developed areas, and revealed high human presence even in remote protected areas that provide otherwise intact wildlife habitat. This work highlights the need to integrate multiple disturbance types when evaluating the impacts of anthropogenic activity on wildlife.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Removal of cattle grazing correlates with increases in vegetation productivity and in abundance of imperiled breeding birds
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Sharon A. Poessel; Joan C. Hagar; Patricia K. Haggerty; Todd E. Katzner

    Livestock grazing is the most prevalent land use practice in the western United States and a widespread cause of degradation of riparian vegetation. Riparian areas provide high-quality habitat for many species of declining migratory breeding birds. We analyzed changes in vegetation and bird abundance at a wildlife refuge in southeastern Oregon over 24 years, following cessation of 120 years of livestock grazing. We quantified long-term changes in overall avian abundance and species richness and, specifically, in the abundances of 20 focal species. We then compared the local responses of the focal species to population-scale trends of the same species at three different large spatial scales. Overall avian abundance increased 23% during the 12 years after removal and remained consistent from then through year 24. Three times as many species colonized the survey sites as dropped out. Of the focal species, most riparian woodland-tree or shrub dependent, sagebrush obligate, and grassland or meadow taxa increased in abundance or remained stable locally. As these species were generally of conservation concern, the population increases contradicted regionally declining or stable trends. In contrast, most riparian woodland-cavity nester species decreased in abundance locally, reflecting disruption of aspen stand dynamics by decades of grazing. Avian nest parasites and competitors of native species declined in abundance locally, matching regional trends. Restoring riparian ecosystems by removing livestock appeared to be beneficial to the conservation of many of these declining populations of migratory birds.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Assessing protected area overlaps and performance to attain China's new national park system
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Ruidong Wu; Chaolang Hua; Guangzhi Yu; Jianzhong Ma; Feiling Yang; Junjun Wang; Tong Jin; Yongcheng Long; Yang Guo; Haiwei Zhao

    Overlapping protected area (PA) designations are a global widespread phenomenon and have seriously deteriorated the performance of China's PA system. However, a comprehensive investigation on the extents of both overlapping designations and conservation complementation among different PA categories is still lacking in China. Here, we used the case of Yunnan, southwest China, to quantitatively assess the spatial and institutional overlaps among six primary PA categories. We then investigated the conservation complementation among the different PA categories by measuring their contributions to improving the ecological representation, coverage of areas of conservation importance, and connectivity of the entire PA network. Overlaps existed within most pairs of PA categories; approximately 10% of the total PA area was designated as multiple categories and simultaneously managed by more than one institution. Different PA categories could complement each other in terms of protection coverage, ecological representation and connectivity. The sustainable use PAs effectively complemented the strict PAs by doubling the total PA coverage, increasing the ecological representation, raising the overall connectivity index from 1.44% to 4.03% and taking ~50% of the total area of key connecting PAs. Conflicting management regimes in combination with expanded PA objectives are the major drivers of the overlapping PA designations. By explicitly measuring the extents of overlapping and complementation among different PA categories, our analysis helps to efficiently assess the existing PAs and integrate them into China's new national park system. This study provides insights into empirical generalities about overlapping designations and conservation complementation among multiple PA categories.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Twenty-eight years of decline: Nesting population demographics and trajectory of the north-east Queensland endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    I.P. Bell; J.J. Meager; T. Eguchi; K.A. Dobbs; J.D. Miller; C.A. Madden Hof

    Globally, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are listed as Critically Endangered, the cause of which is largely attributed to excessive historical take by the tortoiseshell industry. Yet few long-term data analyses describing population trend or survivorship exist. Here we analyse a long-term dataset for a globally significant western Pacific E. imbricata nesting population on Milman Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Three demographic indicators were used: (1) number of egg clutches laid, (2) nester abundance and survival, and (3) the body-size distribution of nesters (curved carapace length, CCL). Models were developed for a time series from the 1990–91 to 2016–17 nesting season that included 21 years of sampling, with predicted trends evaluated against samples from the 2017–18 nesting season. The number of clutches laid and nester abundance rate of decline varied over the study period, but the decline was markedly similar with a 58 and 57% overall reduction, respectively. Annual survival rate was high (0.972, 95% CI = 0.965 to 0.977), but was not estimated separately for all years. Models predicted that the current rate of decline would lead to nesting extirpation by 2036 (95% CI: 2026–2058) and 2032–2037 (95% CI: from 2020 to increasing), for the models of nester abundance and number of eggs laid, respectively; and aligned with the observed values for the test dataset (2017–18 season). The rate of decline of E. imbricata nesting at Milman Island highlights the urgency to understand and mitigate risks faced by this endangered population and more broadly across the western Pacific.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Development perspectives for the application of autonomous, unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in wildlife conservation
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Pascal Fust; Jacqueline Loos

    Conservation management requires reliable and up-to-date data on land use, wildlife population sizes and resource distribution across highly variable ecosystems. Simultaneously, limited funding in conservation often restrict the assessment and interpretation of these datasets. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) appear as promising and cost-efficient tools to deliver high-quality data, especially when combined with advanced sensor technologies, e.g. based on specific light features such as spectral signature, short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflection and/or polarization. However, their application rates for conservation purposes remain low, partly because of current technology's inaptitude to extrapolate findings onto large spatial scales due to limited flight ranges of the vehicles and difficulties in animal detection and identification. Particularly, using SWIR cameras and polarization filters combined with thermal cameras may improve animal detection, but only few tests have so far investigated the reliability of these technologies. The analysis of large datasets e.g. from hyperspectral cameras requires skills and time, whereas most interest lies in the results of these surveys. Additionally, legal constraints and high initial investment costs confront their application. Overcoming these challenges requires advancing technological robustness of the tool as well as defining the applicability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) within conservation management. Moreover, its application needs validation in contrast to ground and/or aerial surveys to recommend protocols in different ecological settings and for different management questions. We conclude that UAVs may not serve as panaceas for monitoring land use changes and wildlife trends, but as additional, intermediary data collection tools to support management decisions.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Use of study design principles would increase the reproducibility of reviews in conservation biology
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Eliza M. Grames; Chris S. Elphick

    Despite the importance of reviews and syntheses in advancing our understanding of the natural world and informing conservation policy, they frequently are not conducted with the same careful methods as primary studies. This discrepancy can lead to controversy over review conclusions because the methods employed to gather evidence supporting the conclusions are not reproducible. To illustrate this problem, we assessed whether the methods of reviews involved in two recent controversies met the common scientific standard of being reported in sufficient detail to be repeated by an independent researcher. We found that none of the reviews were repeatable by this standard. Later stages of the review process, such as quantitative analyses, were generally described well, but the more fundamental, data-gathering stage was not fully described in any of the reviews. To address the irreproducibility of review conclusions, we believe that ecologists and conservation biologists should recognize that literature searches for reviews are a data gathering exercise and apply the same rigorous study design principles and reporting standards that they would use for primary studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • New and emerging directions in coral reef conservation
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Graeme S. Cumming; Morgan S. Pratchett; Georgina G. Gurney

    Coral reefs around the world have recently been decimated by successive years of worldwide mass bleaching linked to global climate change and the increasing incidence of marine heatwaves. Coral reef scientists, managers, and users are struggling to come to terms with the impacts of what is a very large-scale and seemingly unmanageable driver of change, at least at the localised scale of most management jurisdictions. Although coral reefs will undoubtedly persist in some form, sustained and ongoing anthropogenic disturbances have drastically altered their biodiversity, composition, ecological roles and functions, and ecosystem services. This demands a re-think of conservation objectives, directions, and approaches, including assessment of key management tools and approaches that we have relied on; and the incorporation of governance approaches that take a social-ecological systems perspective. This special issue, which presents a range of perspectives relating to coral reef conservation, will help scientists and managers to think through opportunities and constraints for coral reef conservation in a changing world.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • When the winners are the losers: Invasive alien bird species outcompete the native winners in the biotic homogenization process
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Agathe Colléony; Assaf Shwartz

    Species are declining worldwide, but while some are becoming threatened, few others thrive under novel environmental conditions. Land use changes and biological invasion are the main drivers of this ‘biotic homogenization’ (BH) that increasingly occurs in human-dominated landscapes. Among birds, several groups of species have been identified as ‘winners’ in this process (e.g. invasive and native urban specialists and generalist species). Yet, as populations continue to grow, competition can appear between those groups and it is not yet clear who are the primary ‘winners’ in the BH process. Here, we analyze trends of common native and non-native birds during the last 15 years across Israel, where large populations of very destructive invasive alien bird species were introduced towards the end of the previous century, using a nation-wide citizen-science program, and two local standardized surveys. Community and population analyses showed that the non-native species are the primary ‘winners’ of the BH process. Native urban specialists and generalist species that were previously considered as ‘winners’ are now among the ‘losers’. For instance, populations of the invasive common myna increased dramatically, while populations of the previously widespread house sparrow strongly decreased. Previous studies conducted in Israel have shed light on the mechanisms through which invasive bird species can impact native species, notably competition. We show that these processes are among the key factors that drive population declines and changes in bird communities. This highlights the importance of acting now, especially since non-native species are currently spreading from human-dominated areas to more natural environments.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Comparing an automated high-definition oblique camera system to rear-seat-observers in a wildlife survey in Tsavo, Kenya: Taking multi-species aerial counts to the next level
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Richard Lamprey; Frank Pope; Shadrack Ngene; Michael Norton-Griffiths; Howard Frederick; Benson Okita-Ouma; Iain Douglas-Hamilton

    In aerial wildlife counts, human observers often fail to detect animals. We conducted a multi-species sample-count in Tsavo National Park, Kenya, with traditional rear-seat-observers (RSOs) and an automated ‘oblique-camera-count’ (OCC) imaging system to compare estimates of 23 wildlife species derived from these two survey methods. An aerial Total Count of elephant, buffalo and giraffe, conducted a month previously, provided a further comparison. In the Tsavo Core (9560 km2), which harbours 80% of Tsavo’s elephants, the OCC system acquired 81 000 images for interpretation, of which 67 000 were obtained in parallel with RSO-counting along 3004 km of flight line. The Tsavo outer blocks (24 171 km2) were surveyed using the OCC system without RSOs to acquire a further 84 000 images. A random sample of 11 553 images were re-interpreted to derive species-specific probabilities of detection and correction factors. Using ‘Jolly II’, non-parametric and Bayesian analyses, and applying correction factors, we demonstrate that the RSOs did not detect 14% of elephants, 60% of giraffe, 48% of zebra and 66% of the large antelopes. For comparison, the Total Count observers did not detect 27% of elephant, 33% of buffalo, 57% of giraffe and 85% of carcasses. The OCC method raises the elephant population estimate to 16 681 ± 4047 (95% cl) from the 12 722 counted in the Total Count (Z = 1.917, p = .0276). These results suggest that RSO-based methods have significantly undercounted wildlife populations. To align with improved counting methods, previous results need to be re-calibrated.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • High land-use intensity in grasslands constrains wild bee species richness in Europe
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Johan Ekroos, David Kleijn, Péter Batáry, Matthias Albrecht, András Báldi, Nico Blüthgen, Eva Knop, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Henrik G Smith

    There is widespread concern regarding declines in bee populations given their importance for the functioning of both natural and managed ecosystems. An increasing number of studies find negative relations between bee species richness and simplification of agricultural landscapes, but the role of land-use intensity and its relative importance compared to landscape simplification remain less clear. We compared the relative effects of nitrogen inputs, as a proxy for land-use intensity, and proportion of natural and semi-natural habitat, as a measure of landscape complexity on total bee species richness, rare species richness and dominant crop-visiting species richness. We used data from 282 grasslands across five countries, covering the entire range of low intensity, no-input systems, to high-input sites (>400 kg N/ha/year). We found consistent negative impacts of increasing land-use intensity at a regional scale on total bee species richness and dominant crop-visiting species across Europe, but no such effects of landscape complexity. In contrast, the richness of rare bee species was not significantly related to increasing land-use intensity. Nevertheless, based on species accumulation curves, grasslands with no nitrogen inputs had higher total bee richness and higher shares of rare species compared with sites with high nitrogen inputs (>125 kg N/ha/year). Our results highlight the importance of retaining grasslands characterised by low land-use intensity across agricultural landscapes to promote bee diversity.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Dynamics of ground-dwelling arthropod metacommunities in intermittent streams: The key role of dry riverbeds
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    María Mar Sánchez-Montoya, Klement Tockner, Daniel von Schiller, Jesús Miñano, Chema Catarineu, Jose L. Lencina, Gonzalo G. Barberá, Albert Ruhi
    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Using Rao's quadratic entropy to define environmental heterogeneity priority areas in the European Mediterranean biome
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Aggeliki Doxa, Poulicos Prastacos

    Although environmental heterogeneity (EH) has recently gained increasing attention, its connection to conservation planning still remains limited. We aim to assess the efficiency of Rao's quadratic entropy for measuring EH and conducting prioritization schemes. We focus on EH priority areas in the European Mediterranean biome and we estimate to which extent they are included in national and international protected area networks. We estimate Rao and Shannon EH indices for the bioclimatic and topographic variables of the CHELSA and the ENVIREM datasets. We use systematic conservation planning algorithms, for each dataset and for several moving window extends and we estimate the overlaps among the different schemes. The Rao and Shannon EH indices do not measure EH levels in a similar way and Shannon indices tend to overestimate EH comparing to Rao. The overlaps between the ENVIREM and CHELSA prioritization schemes are moderate (Jaccard index = 0.4–0.6) and not sensitive to the moving window extend. We consider only the priority areas that are identified as such by both independent datasets. One third of the EH priority areas are located in Greece, one forth in Italy and one fifth in France and Spain. Only one third of the EH priority areas are located within nationally designated protected areas and up to half are located in Key Biodiversity Areas and the Natura 2000 network. We conclude that Rao's methodology should be further used for environmental heterogeneity analyses. EH priority conservation areas are only partially included in protected area networks, mostly in mountainous areas.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Higher fish biomass inside than outside marine protected areas despite typhoon impacts in a complex reefscape
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Eva C. McClure, Katherine T. Sievers, Rene A. Abesamis, Andrew S. Hoey, Angel C. Alcala, Garry R. Russ

    No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are an important tool for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, with increasing environmental change driven by local and global stressors, it is critical to understand whether MPAs can continue to provide social, economic and conservation benefits in the long-term. Here, we compare coral reef benthic and fish assemblages across 17 paired MPA-fished control sites on three heavily populated, high elevation “mainland” islands, and four lowly populated, low elevation “offshore” islands that differed in their exposure to recent typhoons. Despite lower cover of macroalgae in MPAs compared to fished areas, especially on mainland islands, there were no consistent differences in benthic assemblages or total hard coral cover between paired MPA and fished reefs. Typhoons had severe negative effects on live hard coral cover, regardless of island type or MPA protection, and typhoon impacted reefs supported different fish assemblages and lower total biomass of fish, compared to non-impacted reefs. Although fish assemblage structure and total biomass differed between mainland and offshore islands, MPAs consistently supported a higher total biomass of fish than fished areas, with the magnitude of the MPA effect lower on typhoon impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that despite inherent differences in environmental conditions between mainland and offshore island coral reefs, MPAs can provide benefits to fish biomass, even when reefs are affected by typhoons. The development of management strategies that incorporate sound coastal land-use practices, while positioning MPAs in areas less prone to typhoon impact, will provide MPAs the best chance of success if climatic extremes increase.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Multi-scale habitat selection by Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in a fire-prone forest
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Rachel V. Blakey, Rodney B. Siegel, Elisabeth B. Webb, Colin P. Dillingham, Matthew Johnson, Dylan C. Kesler

    Increasing frequency and severity of wildfire may jeopardize persistence of large tracts of late seral forest, raising concerns over population viability of forest-dependent species like the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). We tracked 20 adult Northern Goshawks with GPS loggers over 4 years to investigate roosting (nocturnal) and foraging (diurnal) habitat selection in a heterogeneously burned forest landscape of the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, United States. Goshawks selected late seral forest attributes for both roosting and foraging at multiple spatio-temporal scales, although at the finest (daily) scale, goshawks selected more diverse forest structure that included small trees and medium canopy cover. Less than 6% of roosts were in areas burned in the last 50 years and goshawks avoided areas burned at high severity when roosting and when foraging across spatial scales. Four goshawks (3 males, 1 female) undertook forays >5 km from their nest location, two of which forayed into burned areas during at least one season. High severity fire is likely to make forests unsuitable foraging or roosting habitat for Northern Goshawks, although lower severity fire may provide foraging opportunities for this generalist predator. Eighty percent of foraging space use and 87% of roost locations were considered high fire hazard potential, suggesting that goshawk habitat in western North America is likely to be reduced by predicted increases in fire frequency and severity in the region.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Alessandra Bielli, J. Alfaro-Shigueto, P.D. Doherty, B.J. Godley, C. Ortiz, A. Pasara, J.H. Wang, J.C. Mangel

    Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) - a visual cue - on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Using completeness and defaunation indices to understand nature reserve’s key attributes in preserving medium- and large-bodied mammals
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Zhixin Wen, Tianlong Cai, Anderson Feijó, Lin Xia, Jilong Cheng, Deyan Ge, Qisen Yang

    Medium- and large-bodied mammals (MLM) are of global interest of conservation due to their indispensable role in ecosystem functioning and sensitivity to human activities. Conservationists regard MLMs’ species richness as an important indicator of the conservation effectiveness of nature reserves (NR). However, species richness alone is unable to detect how much of the species pool is realized within local communities, nor the different consequences of loss of species having varying importance in ecosystem functioning on the communities. Here, we simultaneously studied the completeness and defaunation indices (both are useful in informing conservation practices) of MLMs in 33 NRs of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. We evaluated the main correlate (area, habitat heterogeneity, energy, water availability, anthropogenic impact) of each index using Pearson’s correlations and generalized least squares regressions. The effects of species’ body size, trophic guild and protection status on the defaunation index were also assessed. The results revealed a significant negative relationship between the two indices across the studied NRs. The NRs with larger elevation ranges (greater habitat heterogeneity) tended to have a more complete MLM fauna and less defaunated than NRs with smaller elevation ranges, and NRs with higher mean annual temperature were also more defaunated. At the species level, large-bodied protected herbivores were more defaunated than other MLM groups. Based on the findings, we argue that habitat heterogeneity and temperature should be the key considerations during NR designing of Sichuan Province to conserve MLM biodiversity, and large-bodied protected herbivores are the priority taxa in further conservation practices.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • How anthropomorphism is changing the social context of modern wildlife conservation
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Michael J. Manfredo, Esmeralda G. Urquiza-Haas, Andrew W. Don Carlos, Jeremy T. Bruskotter, Alia M. Dietsch

    This study proposes that anthropomorphism is a key factor in stimulating both wildlife value shift and changing attitudes toward wildlife management in modernized countries. Evidence suggests that cultural shift due to modernization increases anthropomorphic attributions which leads to seeing wildlife as more human-like. This provides a foundation for a shift in values from domination, in which wildlife are for human uses, to mutualism in which wildlife are seen as part of one’s social community. This theoretical proposition was tested with a nationwide study of 43,949 U.S. subjects obtained by mail survey and e-mail panel. Values and anthropomorphism were measured using established item scaling. We found that, as expected, anthropomorphism is strongly related to mutualist values. It was weakly associated with modernization variables (income, urbanization, education) at the individual level and moderately associated at the state level. Results suggest a modernized environment fosters anthropomorphic attribution, but the variables we used are not the proximate cause of this process at individual level. To provide a partial test of the likely causal sequence, we found that the effect of anthropomorphism on attitudes is mediated by wildlife values. Anthropomorphism, through its effect in stimulating value shift, leads to challenges of traditional approaches to wildlife management. It emphasizes consideration of individual animals and the avoidance of lethal control techniques such as is proposed in the concept of compassionate conservation. Further research in other modernized countries with similar cultural characteristics is needed to establish the broader generalizability of our findings.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Ponds as insect chimneys: Restoring overgrown farmland ponds benefits birds through elevated productivity of emerging aquatic insects
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Jonathan Lewis-Phillips, Stephen J. Brooks, Carl Derek Sayer, Ian R. Patmore, Geoff M. Hilton, Anne Harrison, Hannah Robson, Jan C. Axmacher

    Farmland bird populations have experienced severe declines across Europe and elsewhere. Agricultural intensification is believed to be a main factor behind these declines, with losses of non-cropped features, such as farmland ponds, identified as a key driver. Since the 1950s, many European farmland ponds have been in-filled or, through lack of management, become terrestrialised. Restoring terrestrialised farmland ponds has been shown to significantly increase the abundance and diversity of local farmland bird communities. It has been hypothesised that farmland birds are specifically attracted to open-canopy ponds due to increased emergent aquatic insect availability, but this link has hitherto been little explored. This study investigates how farmland pond management influences emergent aquatic insects, and how emergent insect abundance and biomass is linked to local bird assemblages. Insect emergences showed an 18-fold higher abundance and a 25-fold higher biomass at managed open-canopy ponds in comparison to their unmanaged overgrown counterparts, with day-to-day fluctuations in pond water temperature a key predictor of insect emergences. Species richness and abundance of birds at farmland ponds were strongly positively linked to the abundance of emergent insects. Furthermore, insect emergence peaks occurred on different days in different restored ponds such that the pond landscape afforded extended feeding opportunities for birds. Our findings suggest that restoring networks of terrestrialised farmland ponds to open-canopy macrophyte-dominated conditions could be a highly effective way of increasing the availability of aquatic insect prey for birds. This study highlights an urgent need to re-evaluate pond restoration and management within agri-environmental schemes in Europe and beyond.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Patterns of species richness and endemism of butterflies and day-flying moths in the monsoon tropics of northern Australia
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    M.F. Braby, M.R. Williams, R.A.M. Coppen, A.A.E. Williams, D.C. Franklin

    Patterns of species richness and endemism were analyzed for 154 resident/breeding diurnal Lepidoptera in 153 grid cells (100 km × 100 km) based on a recently published set of spatial distribution maps (range-map and atlas data) in the western and central Australian Monsoon Tropics biome of northern Australia (~1.2 million km2). Biodiversity hotspots were then identified on the basis of coincidence of high values of species richness, endemic richness and weighted endemism. Spatial and environmental variables accounting for significant variation in species and endemic richness were determined using multivariate generalized linear models. Broad patterns of species and endemic richness showed a pronounced north-south latitudinal gradient that was significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall, from the wetter northern coastal areas to the drier southern inland areas of the semi-arid zone. Analysis of weighted endemism identified three putative centers of endemism: the Top End (north-western corner), the Kimberley (northern) and Arnhem Land (Gove Peninsula). Overall, the north-western corner of the Top End (86,860 km2) – including the Arnhem Land Plateau (Kakadu NP-Nitmiluk NP and Warddeken IPA), reserves in the Darwin region, Litchfield NP, the Tiwi Islands, Fish River-Daly River, and Cobourg Peninsula (Garig Gunak Barlu NP) – is a major biodiversity hotspot for the conservation of diurnal Lepidoptera based on congruent patterns of species richness, endemic richness and weighted endemism. Large discrepancies between actual survey lists (atlas data) and inferred lists (range-map data) indicate the need for further inventory of the National Reserve System, particularly for several reserves identified as significant for diurnal Lepidoptera diversity (Marri-Jabin IPA, Djukbinj NP, Warddeken IPA and Nitmiluk NP).

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • A review of successes, challenges, and lessons from Indigenous protected and conserved areas
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Tanya C. Tran, Natalie C. Ban, Jonaki Bhattacharyya

    Indigenous Peoples’ protected and conserved areas have gained global attention due to growing interest in protecting biodiversity during a time of Indigenous resurgence. We reviewed the academic literature to synthesize the motivations, successes, challenges, and lessons from protected and conserved areas led by Indigenous Peoples globally. We found and analyzed 58 papers, describing 86 specific initiatives involving at least 68 Indigenous Peoples across 25 countries. We found that Indigenous Peoples established protected and conserved areas independently and through local- and broad-scale partnerships. States that supported such efforts did so through formal legislation, agreements, and policies, and informally through local relationships and shared values. Indigenous Peoples’ protected and conserved areas created socio-cultural, political, and ecological benefits such as improving Indigenous livelihoods, increasing governance and management capacities, and improving species populations and habitat protection. However, some challenges (e.g. restrictive legislations, burdensome partnerships, insufficient funding) limited benefits, and demanded additional capacities and resources for mitigation. We recommend that states and other external actors: create and improve policies, legislations, and resources for Indigenous Peoples’ protected and conserved areas as defined by Indigenous Peoples; provide resources and facilitate Indigenous leadership to shape external mechanisms for protected area establishment and development; and create new internal mechanisms for Indigenous engagement and partnerships. Indigenous Peoples would benefit from building partnerships to support and manage their areas. Finally, we suggest that managers commit more resources to effectively monitor and manage these areas, including integrating management priorities with local and larger scale socio-cultural and environmental issues that affect these areas.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Improving recovery planning for threatened species through Bayesian belief networks
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Alejandro Ortega-Argueta

    Threatened species management is a priority in global conservation. Despite many international and national initiatives, this strategy faces challenges posed by a wide range of institutional and organizational factors that influence planning and effective implementation. Empirical research of this issue is scarce given the complexity of addressing management issues. Systems analysis and participatory modeling were applied in this study to construct a conceptualization of a management system in the context of Australian governmental programs. This allowed examination of the structure, key elements and dynamics in order to address two research questions: a) which management factors have most influence on implementation of recovery planning? and b) what modifications could be made to improve recovery planning effectiveness? The methods employed comprised stakeholder interviews, expert workshops and qualitative and quantitative analyses to estimate management performance and effectiveness. The management system model was constructed using a Bayesian belief network to assess the most influential factors: a) coordination among federal, state and territory agencies, b) inconsistency of strategies and programs across jurisdictions, c) management of threatened species on private land, d) incorporation of science into recovery planning, e) prioritization schemes of conservation action and f) funding for plan implementation. Recovery planning effectiveness could be improved by establishing mandatory monitoring and review reports, creating a national forum on threatened species, designing an appropriate insurance regime for volunteers and establishing a national management information system.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Feral horse activity reduces environmental quality in ecosystems globally
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    David J. Eldridge, Jingyi Ding, Samantha K. Travers

    Feral horses occur on several continents, across a wide range of terrestrial biomes, and have had marked impacts on ecosystems worldwide. Despite their oft-reported negative impacts on plants and soils, a global synthesis of their effects has not been attempted. Here we present a meta-analysis of the global impacts of feral horses on ecosystem structure, function and composition using data from 78 studies across five continents. Two-thirds of these studies were from North America (47%) and Oceania (21%), and most studies examined feral horse effects on plants (58%) or soils (35%). Feral horse activity reduced environmental quality by 13% overall, and the magnitude of this decline increased with increases in the intensity of horse activity. Feral horse activity strongly reduced measures of ecosystem function by 19% on average, and had variable effects on composition, with measures of composition most strongly increased (by 21%) at arid sites. There were no overall effects of feral horse activity on ecosystem structure, with insufficient data to assess effects on plant height and cover. We found that feral horse activity had negative effects on soil, increasing erosion (by 31% on average) and reducing plant biomass and litter cover (by 25% and 31% on average respectively). Increases in soil physical properties generally intensified with increasing aridity. Given the generally negative effects of feral horses on ecosystems worldwide, resource managers and governments need to balance the needs of maintaining healthy functional ecosystems and their biota with social- and cultural-driven commitments to maintaining free-ranging herds of feral horses.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Title: Recruitment is key to understanding amphibian’s different population-level responses to chytrid fungus infection
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Matt West, Charles R. Todd, Graeme R. Gillespie, Michael McCarthy

    Understanding why related species have differing population-level responses to threats can be key to identifying conservation options for declining populations. However, this is difficult when multiple threats are implicated. Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: Bd) is implicated in at least 500 amphibian population declines globally, although few tangible options exist to mitigate pathogen impacts. Other threatening processes also invariably operate on most amphibians. Non-native fish, for example, can contribute to amphibian declines and may exacerbate Bd impacts. We disentangled the impacts of Bd and non-native fish upon two stream breeding frog species with differing conservation statuses to reveal vital rates that are crucial for species persistence. Litoria spenceri are threatened and historically occurred at elevations between 300–1100 m asl in southeastern Australia. Litoria lesueurii are non-threatened and sympatric with L. spenceri at some sites. Using mark-recapture derived demographic rates known to correlate with climate and elevation, discrete-time deterministic population models were constructed for each species at high, moderate and low elevation sites, and multiple management scenarios. Our study reveals that age to maturation, clutch size and egg-year 1 survival influenced interspecific and intraspecific population-level responses of the two frogs to Bd impacts. Importantly, our results highlight that an amphibian population’s capacity to counteract Bd-mediated adult mortality is clearly constrained by other threats and environment interactions that moderate species recruitment. Furthermore, understanding limits to recruitment may help identify Bd mitigation strategies. In our study, disease mitigation may be best achieved at some sites by enhancing recruitment through non-native fish management.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • How urbanization is driving pollinator diversity and pollination – A systematic review
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Arne Wenzel, Ingo Grass, Vasuki V. Belavadi, Teja Tscharntke

    Urban areas are growing worldwide and alter landscapes in a persistent fashion, thereby affecting biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination in a little understood way. Here we present a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to identify the drivers of urban pollinator populations and pollination. A total of 141 studies were reviewed and qualitatively analyzed. Pollinator responses to urbanization were contrasting. We contend that positive responses were often associated with urban sprawl, i.e. moderate levels of urbanization of rural, mostly agricultural land below 50% impervious surface, whereas high levels of densification with high percentages of sealed and built-up area (above 50%), largely led to pollinator declines and loss of pollination services. Further, urbanization generally reduced pollinator diversity when compared to natural or semi-natural areas, but enhanced it when compared to intensified agricultural landscapes. In addition, pollinator responses were commonly highly trait- and scale-specific. Cavity nesters and generalist species usually profited more from urbanization than ground nesters and specialists. Overall, urban pollinator communities still seem to provide sufficient pollination services to wild vegetation and crops. Pollinator diversity generally increased with the amount of urban green spaces at the landscape scale, and locally with availability of nesting resources and flowering plants. Positive effects of floral additions were largely independent of the plant’s origin, whether native or non-native. Only a few studies included landscape configuration. Likewise, abiotic urban drivers, e.g. heat island effects and air and light pollution, remain little studied. Tropical and developing regions, most heavily impacted by current and future urbanization, are strongly underrepresented. We conclude that biodiversity-friendly urbanization can make a valuable contribution to pollinator conservation, in particular in face of the continued intensification of rural agriculture.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Benefits and pitfalls of captive conservation genetic management: Evaluating diversity in scimitar-horned oryx to support reintroduction planning
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Rob Ogden, Justin Chuven, Tania Gilbert, Caroline Hosking, Karim Gharbi, Mark Craig, Shaikha Salem Al Dhaheri, Helen Senn
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Envisioning the future with ‘compassionate conservation’: An ominous projection for native wildlife and biodiversity
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Alex Callen, Matt W. Hayward, Kaya Klop-Toker, Benjamin L. Allen, Guy Ballard, Femke Broekhuis, Rohan H. Clarke, John Clulow, Simon Clulow, Jennifer C. Daltry, Harriet T. Davies-Mostert, Yamil E. Di Blanco, Victoria Dixon, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lachlan G. Howell, Graham I.H. Kerley, Sarah M. Legge, Dean J. Lenga, Wolfgang Wüster

    The ‘Compassionate Conservation’ movement is gaining momentum through its promotion of ‘ethical’ conservation practices based on self-proclaimed principles of ‘first-do-no-harm’ and ‘individuals matter’. We argue that the tenets of ‘Compassionate Conservation’ are ideological - that is, they are not scientifically proven to improve conservation outcomes, yet are critical of the current methods that do. In this paper we envision a future with ‘Compassionate Conservation’ and predict how this might affect global biodiversity conservation. Taken literally, ‘Compassionate Conservation’ will deny current conservation practices such as captive breeding, introduced species control, biocontrol, conservation fencing, translocation, contraception, disease control and genetic introgression. Five mainstream conservation practices are used to illustrate the far-reaching and dire consequences for global biodiversity if governed by ‘Compassionate Conservation’. We acknowledge the important role of animal welfare science in conservation practices but argue that ‘Compassionate Conservation’ aligns more closely with animal liberation principles protecting individuals over populations. Ultimately we fear that a world of ‘Compassionate Conservation’ could stymie the global conservation efforts required to meet international biodiversity targets derived from evidenced based practice, such as the Aichi targets developed by the Convention on Biological Diversity and adopted by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and the United Nations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Believed effect - A prerequisite but not a guarantee for acceptance of carnivore management interventions
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Ann Eklund, Maria Johansson, Anders Flykt, Henrik Andrén, Jens Frank

    Conflicts over wildlife and their potential impacts on human practices and livelihoods are widespread. Large carnivore predation on livestock often becomes a contested topic which has led to global declines in carnivore numbers over centuries. To minimise impacts of carnivores on human livelihoods and allow conservation, various interventions are used to prevent attacks. However, these interventions can only be effective if they are used and implemented. According to the Technology Acceptance Model, end user acceptance depends on perceived usefulness and ease of use. This study investigates the former as believed effect through a modified version of the Potential for Conflict Index. Using a web-based questionnaire we assess acceptance levels and believed effect of interventions intended to prevent carnivore predation on livestock, dogs, and reindeer among animal owners/keepers and members of the public in Sweden. The analysis shows that believed effect is a prerequisite for acceptance of an intervention, but not a guarantee. Interventions promoted by authorities are in some cases highly acceptable to users and the public, but in other cases believed contra-productive and are opposed by the end users. Active promotion of the latter may undermine mitigation efforts. Carnivore removal is generally more acceptable to animal owners than to members of the public. The results are useful to minimise conflicts within carnivore management and increase transparency and success of conservation. The results are discussed in relation to how similar questions may be approached in other systems using combined measures of believed effect, accept-intention, and the Potential for Conflict Index.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The influence of artificial night at night and polarized light on bird-building collisions
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Sirena Lao, Bruce A. Robertson, Abigail W. Anderson, Robert B. Blair, Joanna W. Eckles, Reed J. Turner, Scott R. Loss

    Collisions with buildings annually kill up to 1 billion birds in the United States. Bird-building collisions primarily occur at glass surfaces: birds often fail to perceive glass as a barrier and appear to be attracted to artificial light emitted from windows. However, some aspects of avian vision are poorly understood, including how bird responses to different types of light influence building collisions. Some evidence suggests birds can detect polarized light, which may serve as a cue to assist with migration orientation and/or detect water bodies. Dark, reflective surfaces, including glass, reflect high degrees of polarized light, causing polarized light pollution (PLP). However, no studies have analyzed the relationship between bird collisions and PLP reflected from buildings. Additionally, while artificial light at night (ALAN) is frequently implicated as a major factor influencing bird-building collisions, few studies have analyzed this relationship. We investigated both types of light pollution—PLP and ALAN—and their association with bird collisions at 48 façades of 13 buildings in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. We found that the area of glass emitting ALAN was the most important factor influencing collisions, and that this effect of ALAN was independent of overall glass area; this result provides strong support for turning off lights at night to reduce bird-building collisions. Although we found no relationship between PLP and collisions, additional research is needed to better understand bird responses to polarized light. Fully understanding how different aspects of light influence bird-building collisions can inform conservation efforts to reduce this major threat to birds.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Evidence from eleven countries in four continents suggests that protected areas are not associated with higher poverty rates
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Christos Mammides

    Countries across the globe are expanding their networks of protected areas in an effort to address the increasing rates of biodiversity loss. Protected areas, though, have been criticized extensively for their negative impact on the local communities. Case studies have shown that protected areas can exacerbate poverty. However, these case studies represent only a small proportion of the over two-hundred thousand protected areas available worldwide today. Hence, it is possible that most protected areas do not impoverish the local communities. In fact, a few recent studies have suggested that protected areas do not impact negatively the local people. The findings of those studies, however, are based predominately on data from small geographical regions. Consequently, it is unclear whether their results are widely applicable. In this study, I have used a large dataset from 5800 administrative regions in eleven countries and four continents to explore in more detail the link between protected areas and local poverty rates. Particularly, I have used the quasi-experimental matching method to test whether administrative regions with protected areas have higher proportions of people living below the poverty line. I found no evidence to support this pattern. Protected areas do not appear to be associated with higher poverty rates. Considering that, firstly, biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation represent two of the most urgent challenges of our time, and, secondly, that most efforts to conserve biodiversity are channeled through protected areas, it is crucial to know that protected areas do not interfere with our efforts to alleviate poverty.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Pesticides in the real world: The consequences of GMO-based intensive agriculture on native amphibians
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    M. Gabriela Agostini, Ignacio Roesler, Carlos Bonetto, Alicia E. Ronco, David Bilenca

    Pesticide use has been suggested as one of the major drivers of the global amphibian decline. Laboratory and mesocosm studies have addressed several questions to understand the mechanism by which pesticides cause detrimental effects on amphibians. However, the extrapolation of those results to natural populations may not be adequate to predict environmental impacts or to understand the role of pesticides in the amphibian decline. By using in situ enclosures, we evaluated the effects (survival and mobility) of common pesticides applied by farmers (cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, glyphosate, and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on tadpoles. We assessed these effects in four common amphibian species from South America across 91 ponds located in the Pampas of central Argentina. We found that survival decreased in 13 out of 20 pesticides applications concomitantly with detection of pesticides in water ponds. 48 h after applications, mixtures containing endosulfan or chlorpyrifos reduced tadpole survival to <1% while the cypermethrin mixtures reduced survival to 10%. In addition, we found impairment of mobility in all combination of pesticides, including glyphosate. The ecological context involved in our study represents the common exposure scenarios related to GMO-based agriculture practices in South America, with relevance at regional levels. We emphasize that multifaceted approaches developed to understand the role of pesticides in the amphibian decline need a conservation perspective. This will be achieved by work focusing on the integrated use of state-of-the-art techniques and resources for documenting pesticide effects over wild amphibians' populations, allowing conservation scientists to generate better management recommendations.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Misinterpretation of Asian savannas as degraded forest can mislead management and conservation policy under climate change
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Dushyant Kumar, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Camille Gaillard, Liam Langan, Carola Martens, Simon Scheiter
    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Bees and pesticide regulation: Lessons from the neonicotinoid experience
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Fabio Sgolastra, Piotr Medrzycki, Laura Bortolotti, Stefano Maini, Claudio Porrini, Noa Simon-Delso, Jordi Bosch

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been signaled as an important driver of widespread declines in bee diversity and abundance. Neonicotinoids were registered in the 1990s and by 2010 accounted for one third of the global insecticide market. Following a moratorium in 2013, their use on open-field crops was completely banned in the EU in 2018. Pesticide regulation should be based on solid and updated scientific evidence, whereby products showing unacceptable effects on the environment are not approved. Clearly, pesticide regulation failed to detect the ecological threats posed by neonicotinoids. We argue that at the time neonicotinoids were authorized, risk assessment (RA) protocols were inadequate to detect some of the risks associated with neonicotinoid properties, including high efficacy, long persistence, high systemicity, high mobility, and application versatility. We advocate for the adoption of a more holistic RA approach that should account for: a) temporal and spatial dimensions of pesticide exposure; b) co-exposure to multiple compounds; c) differences among bee species with different life histories in levels of exposure and sensitivity; and d) sublethal effects (mostly ignored in current RA procedures). We also argue that regulatory studies conducted to support pesticide registration should be publicly available, and that pesticide regulation should not be discontinued once a product has been authorized. We should use the knowledge acquired through the neonicotinoid experience as an opportunity to profoundly revise bee RA schemes. These efforts should be initiated promptly; the neonicotinoid story has also taught us that the regulatory system is reluctant to react.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Conservation genomics from a practitioner lens: Evaluating the research-implementation gap in a managed freshwater fishery
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Andrew N. Kadykalo, Steven J. Cooke, Nathan Young

    Fish and wildlife managers are faced with the daunting task of making informed and sensible decisions in the face of conflicting objectives and rapid environmental change. Conservation genomics – the use of new genomic techniques and genome-wide information to solve biological conservation problems – is an emerging scientific field that holds much promise in delivering practical knowledge to inform decisions, policies, and practices for conservation and management. However, the impact of genomics on conservation and management has been rather limited to date, described as the “conservation genomics gap”. We set out to identify perceived benefits and existing barriers supporting or limiting the use of conservation genomics in conservation practice by analyzing how potential knowledge users (conservation practitioners) perceive and evaluate genomics using the case of managed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fisheries in the Canadian province of British Columbia. We interviewed 33 government employees and 32 representatives from nongovernmental stakeholder groups involved in fisheries management. We found that very few knowledge users were familiar with genomics or understood the difference between genetics and genomics. Despite low genomics familiarity, respondents generally view conservation genomics favorably, as a reliable and promising tool that could provide them with novel knowledge that would help them improve management or make better decisions. However, the exact benefits or outcomes genomics could provide in applied contexts are potentially limited by politics, communication, expertise, interpretation, cost, competing conservation practices, and time. Our research suggests that genomics has considerable potential in applied conservation and management if clearer communication between researchers and practitioners is achieved. We recommend genomic researchers and funding agencies identify wide-ranging practitioners and instate knowledge and sharing interfaces at project outset focused on practitioner objectives and improving practitioner knowledge and familiarity.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Protected areas as potential refugia for biodiversity under climatic change
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jeffrey Haight, Edd Hammill

    Climate change is among the greatest challenges to biodiversity conservation globally. In response to climatic changes, species around the world have already started to shift their ranges along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. However, it remains unclear whether the areas currently managed for biodiversity protection are optimized for these shifting ranges. Climate velocities represent a method to quantify the rate at which organisms must alter their range to maintain their current climate envelope. Here we use a case study of the Southern Rockies region in the western United States to show how forward and backward climate velocities can be used to quantify potential impacts of climatic changes and delineate abiotic climate refugia. We further illustrate how climate velocities can integrate into a process that simultaneously identifies climate refugia for suites of species while accounting for additional landscape factors contributing to protected area success. These results demonstrate how potential climatic changes may be used to prioritize the efficient selection of climate refugia, potentially aiding multi-target climate adaptation decision-making across broad regions.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Heterogeneity in the allocation of reintroduction efforts among terrestrial mammals in Europe
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Charles Thévenin, Aïssa Morin, Christian Kerbiriou, François Sarrazin, Alexandre Robert

    Reintroductions offer a powerful tool to reverse adverse anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity by restoring extirpated populations within the indigenous range of species. Reintroductions have become popular and have been increasingly used over the last decades. However, this species-centred conservation approach has been criticized for being taxonomically biased and for focusing on large and charismatic species. Studies investigating taxonomic biases in the allocation of reintroduction efforts at large scale generally consider taxonomic bias within and among higher taxa (e.g. vertebrates, plants), by comparing the number of reintroduced species within a taxon to its prevalence in nature. Here, we show that the bias is even more striking when accounting for the differences in the number of implemented programs among reintroduced species. We conducted a comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature to inventory reintroduction programs of European terrestrial mammals. We identified 28 species that have been reintroduced at least one time. For each reintroduced mammal, we extensively searched two literature search engines and found 414 relevant publications, which described 375 distinguishable reintroduction programs implemented in Europe from the early 20th century to 2013. We used the number of implemented programs and the number of associated publications to investigate the distribution of reintroduction efforts among species. Our results show a substantial heterogeneity in the allocation of reintroduction efforts, with 68% of implemented reintroductions in Europe involving only three species: the beaver (Castor fiber), the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the European bison (Bison bonasus).

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Combining spatial prioritization and expert knowledge facilitates effectiveness of large-scale mire protection process in Finland
    Biol. Conserv. (IF 4.451) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    S. Kareksela, K. Aapala, A. Alanen, T. Haapalehto, J.S. Kotiaho, J. Lehtomäki, N. Leikola, N. Mikkonen, A. Moilanen, E. Nieminen, S. Tuominen, R. Virkkala

    Conservation resource allocation involves a complex set of considerations including species, habitats, connectivity, local to global biodiversity objectives, alternative protection and restoration actions, while requiring cost-efficiency and effective implementation. We present a national scale spatial conservation prioritization analysis for complementing the network of protected mires in Finland. We show how spatial prioritization coupled with regional targets and expert knowledge can facilitate structured decision-making. In our application, discussion between experts was structured around the prioritization model enabling integration of quantitative analysis with expert knowledge. The used approach balances requirements of many biodiversity features over large landscapes, while aiming at a cost-effective solution. As a special analytical feature, mire complexes were defined prior to prioritization to form hydrologically functional planning units, including also their drained parts that require restoration for the planning unit to remain or potentially increase in value. This enabled selection of mires where restoration effort is supporting and benefitting from the core mire areas of high conservation value. We found that a key to successful implementation was early on structured co-producing between analysts, mire experts, and decision-makers. This allowed effective multidirectional knowledge transfer and evaluation of trade-offs related to the focal conservation decisions. Quantitative trade-off information was seen especially helpful by the stakeholders to decide how to follow the analysis results. Overall, we illustrate a realistic and applicable spatial conservation prioritization case supporting real world conservation decision-making. The introduced approach can be applied globally to increase effectiveness of large-scale protection and management planning of the diverse wetland ecosystem complexes.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
中国科学院微生物研究所潘国辉
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug