当前期刊: Annual Review of Entomology Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • A Life's Journey through Insect Metamorphosis.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Lynn M Riddiford

    This autobiographical article describes the research career of Lynn M. Riddiford from its early beginnings in a summer program for high school students at Jackson Laboratory to the present "retirement" at the Friday Harbor Laboratories. The emphasis is on her forays into many areas of insect endocrinology, supported by her graduate students and postdoctoral associates. The main theme is the hormonal regulation of metamorphosis, especially the roles of juvenile hormone (JH). The article describes the work of her laboratory first in the elucidation of the endocrinology of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and later in the molecular aspects of the regulation of cuticular and pigment proteins and of the ecdysone-induced transcription factor cascade during molting and metamorphosis. Later studies utilized Drosophila melanogaster to answer further questions about the actions of JH. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Invasion Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Flower Thrips.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Stuart R Reitz,Yulin Gao,William D J Kirk,Mark S Hoddle,Kirsten A Leiss,Joe E Funderburk

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, first arose as an important invasive pest of many crops during the 1970s-1980s. The tremendous growth in international agricultural trade that developed then fostered the invasiveness of western flower thrips. We examine current knowledge regarding the biology of western flower thrips, with an emphasis on characteristics that contribute to its invasiveness and pest status. Efforts to control this pest and the tospoviruses that it vectors with intensive insecticide applications have been unsuccessful and have created significant problems because of the development of resistance to numerous insecticides and associated outbreaks of secondary pests. We synthesize information on effective integrated management approaches for western flower thrips that have developed through research on its biology, behavior, and ecology. We further highlight emerging topics regarding the species status of western flower thrips, as well as its genetics, biology, and ecology that facilitate its use as a model study organism and will guide development of appropriate management practices. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Influence of Nesting Characteristics on Health of Wild Bee Communities
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Alexandra Harmon-Threatt

    Nest site availability and quality are important for maintaining robust populations and communities of wild bees. However, for most species, nesting traits and nest site conditions are poorly known, limiting both our understanding of basic ecology for bee species and conservation efforts. Additionally, many of the threats commonly associated with reducing bee populations have effects that can extend into nests but are largely unstudied. In general, threats such as habitat disturbances and climate change likely affect nest site availability and nest site conditions, which in turn affect nest initiation, growth, development, and overwintering success of bees. To facilitate a better understanding of how these and other threats may affect nesting bees, in this review, I quantify key nesting traits and environmental conditions and then consider how these traits may intersect with observed and anticipated changes in nesting conditions experienced by wild bees. These data suggest that the effects of common threats to bees through nesting may strongly influence their survival and persistence but are vastly understudied. Increasing research into nesting biology and incorporating nesting information into conservation efforts may help improve conservation of this declining but critical group.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Sexual Size Dimorphism: Evolution and Perils of Extreme Phenotypes in Spiders.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Matjaž Kuntner,Jonathan A Coddington

    Sexual size dimorphism is one of the most striking animal traits, and among terrestrial animals, it is most extreme in certain spider lineages. The most extreme sexual size dimorphism (eSSD) is female biased. eSSD itself is probably an epiphenomenon of gendered evolutionary drivers whose strengths and directions are diverse. We demonstrate that eSSD spider clades are aberrant by sampling randomly across all spiders to establish overall averages for female (6.9 mm) and male (5.6 mm) size. At least 16 spider eSSD clades exist. We explore why the literature does not converge on an overall explanation for eSSD and propose an equilibrium model featuring clade- and context-specific drivers of gender size variation. eSSD affects other traits such as sexual cannibalism, genital damage, emasculation, and monogyny with terminal investment. Coevolution with these extreme sexual phenotypes is termed eSSD mating syndrome. Finally, as costs of female gigantism increase with size, eSSD may represent an evolutionary dead end. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Balancing Disturbance and Conservation in Agroecosystems to Improve Biological Control
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    John F. Tooker; Matthew E. O'Neal; Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    Disturbances associated with agricultural intensification reduce our ability to achieve sustainable crop production. These disturbances stem from crop-management tactics and can leave crop fields more vulnerable to insect outbreaks, in part because natural-enemy communities often tend to be more susceptible to disturbance than herbivorous pests. Recent research has explored practices that conserve natural-enemy communities and reduce pest outbreaks, revealing that different components of agroecosystems can influence natural-enemy populations. In this review, we consider a range of disturbances that influence pest control provided by natural enemies and how conservation practices can mitigate or counteract disturbance. We use four case studies to illustrate how conservation and disturbance mitigation increase the potential for biological control and provide co-benefits for the broader agroecosystem. To facilitate the adoption of conservation practices that improve top-down control across significant areas of the landscape, these practices will need to provide multifunctional benefits, but should be implemented with natural enemies explicitly in mind.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Ecology of Terrestrial Arthropods in Freshwater Wetlands.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Darold P Batzer,Haitao Wu

    The terrestrial arthropod fauna of wetlands has been largely ignored by scientists compared to other ecological elements, yet these organisms are among the most important influences on the ecology of these systems, with the vast majority of the biodiversity in wetlands found among the terrestrial arthropods. Wetlands present a range of habitat for terrestrial arthropods, with unique faunas being associated with soils and ground litter, living-plant substrates, and peatlands. Myriapoda, Araneae, Collembola, Carabidae, Formicidae, and assorted herbivorous Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the terrestrial arthropod groups that most influence the ecology of wetlands. Despite their success, most terrestrial arthropods possess fairly rudimentary adaptations for life in wetlands, with most simply moving to higher ground or up vegetation during floods, although some species can tolerate immersion. Many terrestrial arthropods are environmentally sensitive and show considerable promise as bioindicators of wetland ecological conditions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The Insect Circulatory System: Structure, Function, and Evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : null
    Julián F Hillyer,Günther Pass

    Although the insect circulatory system is involved in a multitude of vital physiological processes, it has gone grossly understudied. This review aims to highlight this critical physiological system by detailing the structure and function of the circulatory organs, including the dorsal heart and the accessory pulsatile organs that supply hemolymph to the appendages. It also emphasizes how the circulatory system develops and ages and how, by means of reflex bleeding and functional integration with the immune system, it supports mechanisms for defense against predators and microbial invaders, respectively. Beyond that, this review details evolutionary trends and novelties associated with this system, as well as the ways in which this system also plays critical roles in thermoregulation and tracheal ventilation in high-performance fliers. Finally, this review highlights how novel discoveries could be harnessed for the control of vector-borne diseases and for translational medicine, and it details principal knowledge gaps that necessitate further investigation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Versatile and Dynamic Symbioses Between Insects and Burkholderia Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Martin Kaltenpoth,Laura V Flórez

    Symbiotic associations with microorganisms represent major sources of ecological and evolutionary innovations in insects. Multiple insect taxa engage in symbioses with bacteria of the genus Burkholderia, a diverse group that is widespread across different environments and whose members can be mutualistic or pathogenic to plants, fungi, and animals. Burkholderia symbionts provide nutritional benefits and resistance against insecticides to stinkbugs, defend Lagria beetle eggs against pathogenic fungi, and may be involved in nitrogen metabolism in ants. In contrast to many other insect symbioses, the known associations with Burkholderia are characterized by environmental symbiont acquisition or mixed-mode transmission, resulting in interesting ecological and evolutionary dynamics of symbiont strain composition. Insect-Burkholderia symbioses present valuable model systems from which to derive insights into general principles governing symbiotic interactions because they are often experimentally and genetically tractable and span a large fraction of the diversity of functions, localizations, and transmission routes represented in insect symbioses. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Microbial Symbionts of Parasitoids.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Marcel Dicke,Antonino Cusumano,Erik H Poelman

    Parasitoids depend on other insects for the development of their offspring. Their eggs are laid in or on a host insect that is consumed during juvenile development. Parasitoids harbor a diversity of microbial symbionts including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. In contrast to symbionts of herbivorous and hematophagous insects, parasitoid symbionts do not provide nutrients. Instead, they are involved in parasitoid reproduction, suppression of host immune responses, and manipulation of the behavior of herbivorous hosts. Moreover, recent research has shown that parasitoid symbionts such as polydnaviruses may also influence plant-mediated interactions among members of plant-associated communities at different trophic levels, such as herbivores, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. This implies that these symbionts have a much more extended phenotype than previously thought. This review focuses on the effects of parasitoid symbionts on direct and indirect species interactions and the consequences for community ecology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The Global Expansion of Dengue: How Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Enabled the First Pandemic Arbovirus.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Oliver J Brady,Simon I Hay

    Dengue is an emerging viral disease principally transmitted by the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti mosquito. It is one of the fastest-growing global infectious diseases, with 100-400 million new infections a year, and is now entrenched in a growing number of tropical megacities. Behind this rapid rise is the simple adaptation of Ae. aegypti to a new entomological niche carved out by human habitation. This review describes the expansion of dengue and explores how key changes in the ecology of Ae. aegypti allowed it to become a successful invasive species and highly efficient disease vector. We argue that characterizing geographic heterogeneity in mosquito bionomics will be a key research priority that will enable us to better understand future dengue risk and design control strategies to reverse its global spread. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Global Trends in Bumble Bee Health.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Sydney A Cameron,Ben M Sadd

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are unusually important pollinators, with approximately 260 wild species native to all biogeographic regions except Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. As they are vitally important in natural ecosystems and to agricultural food production globally, the increase in reports of declining distribution and abundance over the past decade has led to an explosion of interest in bumble bee population decline. We summarize data on the threat status of wild bumble bee species across biogeographic regions, underscoring regions lacking assessment data. Focusing on data-rich studies, we also synthesize recent research on potential causes of population declines. There is evidence that habitat loss, changing climate, pathogen transmission, invasion of nonnative species, and pesticides, operating individually and in combination, negatively impact bumble bee health, and that effects may depend on species and locality. We distinguish between correlational and causal results, underscoring the importance of expanding experimental research beyond the study of two commercially available species to identify causal factors affecting the diversity of wild species. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Botanical Insecticides in the Twenty-First Century-Fulfilling Their Promise?
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Murray B Isman

    Academic interest in plant natural products with insecticidal properties has continued to grow in the past 20 years, while commercialization of new botanical insecticides and market expansion of existing botanicals has lagged considerably behind. Insecticides based on pyrethrum and neem (azadirachtin) continue to be standard bearers in this class of pesticides, but globally, their increased presence is largely a consequence of introduction into new jurisdictions. Insecticides based on plant essential oils are just beginning to emerge as useful plant protectants. Some countries (such as Turkey, Uruguay, the United Arab Emirates, and Australia) have relaxed regulatory requirements for specific plant extracts and oils, while in North America and the European Union, stricter requirements have slowed progress toward commercialization of new products. Botanicals are likely to remain niche products in many agricultural regions and may have the greatest impact in developing countries in tropical regions where the source plants are readily available and conventional products are both expensive and dangerous to users. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Insect Sterol Nutrition: Physiological Mechanisms, Ecology, and Applications.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Xiangfeng Jing,Spencer T Behmer

    Insects, like all eukaryotes, require sterols for structural and metabolic purposes. However, insects, like all arthropods, cannot make sterols. Cholesterol is the dominant tissue sterol for most insects; insect herbivores produce cholesterol by metabolizing phytosterols, but not always with high efficiency. Many insects grow on a mixed-sterol diet, but this ability varies depending on the types and ratio of dietary sterols. Dietary sterol uptake, transport, and metabolism are regulated by several proteins and processes that are relatively conserved across eukaryotes. Sterol requirements also impact insect ecology and behavior. There is potential to exploit insect sterol requirements to (a) control insect pests in agricultural systems and (b) better understand sterol biology, including in humans. We suggest that future studies focus on the genetic mechanism of sterol metabolism and reverse transportation, characterizing sterol distribution and function at the cellular level, the role of bacterial symbionts in sterol metabolism, and interrupting sterol trafficking for pest control. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Insect-Resistant Genetically Engineered Crops in China: Development, Application, and Prospects for Use.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Yunhe Li,Eric M Hallerman,Kongming Wu,Yufa Peng

    With 20% of the world's population but just 7% of the arable land, China has invested heavily in crop biotechnology to increase agricultural productivity. We examine research on insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) crops in China, including strategies to promote their sustainable use. IRGE cotton, rice, and corn lines have been developed and proven efficacious for controlling lepidopteran crop pests. Ecological impact studies have demonstrated conservation of natural enemies of crop pests and halo suppression of crop-pest populations across a local scale. Economic, social, and human health effects are largely positive and, in the case of Bt cotton, have proven sustainable over 20 years of commercial production. Wider adoption of IRGE crops in China is constrained by relatively limited innovation capacity, public misperception, and regulatory inaction, suggesting the need for further financial investment in innovation and greater scientific engagement with the public. The Chinese experience with Bt cotton might inform adoption of other Bt crops in China and other developing countries. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Mechanisms, Applications, and Challenges of Insect RNA Interference.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Kun Yan Zhu,Subba Reddy Palli

    The RNA interference (RNAi) triggered by short/small interfering RNA (siRNA) was discovered in nematodes and found to function in most living organisms. RNAi has been widely used as a research tool to study gene functions and has shown great potential for the development of novel pest management strategies. RNAi is highly efficient and systemic in coleopterans but highly variable or inefficient in many other insects. Differences in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) degradation, cellular uptake, inter- and intracellular transports, processing of dsRNA to siRNA, and RNA-induced silencing complex formation influence RNAi efficiency. The basic dsRNA delivery methods include microinjection, feeding, and soaking. To improve dsRNA delivery, various new technologies, including cationic liposome-assisted, nanoparticle-enabled, symbiont-mediated, and plant-mediated deliveries, have been developed. Major challenges to widespread use of RNAi in insect pest management include variable RNAi efficiency among insects, lack of reliable dsRNA delivery methods, off-target and nontarget effects, and potential development of resistance in insect populations. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Chikungunya Virus: Role of Vectors in Emergence from Enzootic Cycles.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Scott C Weaver,Rubing Chen,Mawlouth Diallo

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a re-emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus, has caused millions of cases of severe, often chronic arthralgia during recent outbreaks. In Africa, circulation in sylvatic, enzootic cycles involves several species of arboreal mosquito vectors that transmit among diverse nonhuman primates and possibly other amplifying hosts. Most disease occurs when CHIKV emerges into a human-amplified cycle involving Aedes aegypti and sometimes Aedes albopictus transmission and extensive spread via travelers. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the transition from enzootic to epidemic cycles begins when people are infected via spillover in forests. However, efficient human amplification likely only ensues far from enzootic habitats where peridomestic vector and human densities are adequate. Recent outbreaks have been enhanced by mutations that adapt CHIKV for more efficient infection of Ae. albopictus, allowing for geographic expansion. However, epistatic interactions, sometimes resulting from founder effects following point-source human introductions, have profound effects on transmission efficiency, making CHIKV emergence unpredictable. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Resistance to the Fumigant Phosphine and Its Management in Insect Pests of Stored Products: A Global Perspective.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Manoj K Nayak,Gregory J Daglish,Thomas W Phillips,Paul R Ebert

    Development of resistance in major grain insect pest species to the key fumigant phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) across the globe has put the viability and sustainability of phosphine in jeopardy. The resistance problem has been aggravated over the past two decades, due mostly to the lack of suitable alternatives matching to the major attributes of phosphine, including its low price, ease of application, proven effectiveness against a broad pest spectrum, compatibility with most storage conditions, and international acceptance as a residue-free treatment. In this review, we critically analyze the published literature in the area of phosphine resistance with special emphasis on the methods available for detection of resistance, the genetic basis of resistance development, key management strategies, and research gaps that need to be addressed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Ecology of Francisella tularensis.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Sam R Telford,Heidi K Goethert

    Tularemia is a Holarctic zoonosis caused by the gamma proteobacterium Francisella tularensis and is considered to be a vector-borne disease. In many regions, human risk is associated with the bites of flies, mosquitoes, or ticks. But the biology of the agent is such that risk may be fomite related, and large outbreaks can occur due to inhalation or ingestion of contaminated materials. Such well-documented human risk factors suggest a role for these risk factors in the enzootic cycle as well. Many arthropods support the growth or survival of the agent, but whether arthropods (ticks in particular) are obligately required for the perpetuation of F. tularensis remains to be demonstrated. As with most zoonoses, our knowledge of the ecology of F. tularensis has been driven with the objective of understanding human risk. In this review, we focus on the role of the arthropod in maintaining F. tularensis, particularly with respect to long-term enzootic persistence. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Dormancy, Diapause, and the Role of the Circadian System in Insect Photoperiodism.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    David S Saunders

    Whole-animal experiments devised to investigate possible association between photoperiodic time measurement and the circadian system (Bünning's hypothesis) are compared with more recent molecular investigations of circadian clock genes. In Sarcophaga argyrostoma and some other species, experimental cycles of light and darkness revealed a photoperiodic oscillator, set to constant phase at dusk and measuring night length repeatedly during extended periods of darkness. In some species, however, extreme dampening revealed an unrepetitive (i.e., hourglass-like) response. Rhythms of clock gene transcript abundance may also show similar phase relationships to the light cycle, and gene silencing of important clock genes indicates that they play a crucial role in photoperiodism either alone or in concert. However, the multiplicity of peripheral oscillators in the insect circadian system indicates that more complex mechanisms might also be important. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Non-Bee Insects as Visitors and Pollinators of Crops: Biology, Ecology and Management.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    R Rader,S A Cunningham,B G Howlett,D W Inouye

    Insects other than bees (i.e., non-bees) have been acknowledged as important crop pollinators, but our understanding of which crop plants they visit and how effective they are as crop pollinators is limited. To compare visitation and efficiency of crop-pollinating bees and non-bees at a global scale, we review the literature published from 1950 to 2018 concerning the visitors and pollinators of 105 global food crops that are known to benefit from animal pollinators. Of the 105 animal-pollinated crops, a significant proportion are visited by both bee and non-bee taxa (n = 82; 77%), with a total gross domestic product (GDP) value of US$780.8 billion. For crops with a narrower range of visitors, those that favor non-bees (n = 8) have a value of US$1.2 billion, compared to those that favor bees (n = 15), with a value of US$19.0 billion. Limited pollinator efficiency data were available for one or more taxa in only half of the crops (n = 61; 58%). Among the non-bees, some families were recorded visiting a wide range of crops (>12), including six families of flies (Syrphidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Tachinidae, and Bombyliidae), two beetle families (Coccinelidae and Nitidulidae), ants (Formicidae), wasps (Vespidae), and four families of moths and butterflies (Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, and Pieridae). Among the non-bees, taxa within the dipteran families Syrphidae and Calliphoridae were the most common visitors to the most crops, but this may be an artifact of the limited data available. The diversity of species and life histories in these groups of lesser-known pollinators indicates that diet, larval requirements, and other reproductive needs will require alternative habitat management practices to bees. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Pesticide-Induced Planthopper Population Resurgence in Rice Cropping Systems.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Jincai Wu,Linquan Ge,Fang Liu,Qisheng Song,David Stanley

    Planthoppers are serious rice pests in Asia. Their population resurgence was first reported in the early 1960s, caused mainly by insecticides that indiscriminately killed beneficial arthropods and target pests. The subsequent resurgence involved two mechanisms, the loss of beneficial insects and insecticide-enhanced planthopper reproduction. In this review, we identify two forms of resurgence, acute and chronic. Acute resurgence is caused by traditional insecticides with rapid resurgence in the F1 generation. Chronic resurgence follows application of modern pesticides, including fungicides and herbicides, with low natural enemy toxicity, coupled with stimulated planthopper reproduction. The chemical-driven syndrome of changes leads to later resurgence in the F2 or later generations. Chronic resurgence poses new threats to global rice production. We review findings on the physiological and molecular mechanisms of chronic planthopper resurgence and suggest research directions that may help manage these new threats. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Ecology and Evolution of Insect-Fungus Mutualisms.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Peter H W Biedermann,Fernando E Vega

    The evolution of a mutualism requires reciprocal interactions whereby one species provides a service that the other species cannot perform or performs less efficiently. Services exchanged in insect-fungus mutualisms include nutrition, protection, and dispersal. In ectosymbioses, which are the focus of this review, fungi can be consumed by insects or can degrade plant polymers or defensive compounds, thereby making a substrate available to insects. They can also protect against environmental factors and produce compounds antagonistic to microbial competitors. Insects disperse fungi and can also provide fungal growth substrates and protection. Insect-fungus mutualisms can transition from facultative to obligate, whereby each partner is no longer viable on its own. Obligate dependency has (a) resulted in the evolution of morphological adaptations in insects and fungi, (b) driven the evolution of social behaviors in some groups of insects, and (c) led to the loss of sexuality in some fungal mutualists. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Insect Declines in the Anthropocene.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    David L Wagner

    Insect declines are being reported worldwide for flying, ground, and aquatic lineages. Most reports come from western and northern Europe, where the insect fauna is well-studied and there are considerable demographic data for many taxonomically disparate lineages. Additional cases of faunal losses have been noted from Asia, North America, the Arctic, the Neotropics, and elsewhere. While this review addresses both species loss and population declines, its emphasis is on the latter. Declines of abundant species can be especially worrisome, given that they anchor trophic interactions and shoulder many of essential ecosystem services of their respective communities. A review of the factors believed to be responsible for observed collapses and those perceived to be especially threatening to insects form the core of this treatment. In addition to widely recognized threats to insect biodiversity, e.g., habitat destruction, agricultural intensification (including pesticide use), climate change, and invasive species, this assessment highlights a few less commonly considered factors such as atmospheric nitrification from the burning of fossil fuels and the effects of droughts and changing precipitation patterns. Because the geographic extent and magnitude of insect declines are largely unknown, there is an urgent need for monitoring efforts, especially across ecological gradients, which will help to identify important causal factors in declines. This review also considers the status of vertebrate insectivores, reporting bias, challenges inherent in collecting and interpreting insect demographic data, and cases of increasing insect abundance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • An Unlikely Beginning: A Fortunate Life
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Elizabeth A. Bernays

    Elizabeth A. Bernays grew up in Australia and studied at the University of Queensland before traveling in Europe and teaching high school in London. She later obtained a PhD in entomology at London University. Then, as a British government scientist, she worked in England and in developing countries on a variety of projects concerned with feeding by herbivorous insects and their physiology and behavior. In 1983, she was appointed professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where her research expanded to a variety of topics, all related to the physiology, behavior, and ecology of feeding in insects. She was awarded a DSc from the University of London, and at about the same time became head of the Department of Entomology and regents’ professor at the University of Arizona. In Arizona, most of her research involved multiple approaches to the understanding of diet breadth in a variety of phytophagous insect species.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Locust and Grasshopper Management
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Long Zhang, Michel Lecoq, Alexandre Latchininsky, David Hunter

    Locusts and grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) are among the most dangerous agricultural pests. Their control is critical to food security worldwide and often requires governmental or international involvement. Although locust and grasshopper outbreaks are now better controlled and often shorter in duration and reduced in extent, large outbreaks, often promoted by climate change, continue to occur in many parts of the world. While some locust and grasshopper control systems are still curative, the recognition of the damage these pests can cause and the socioeconomic consequences of locust and grasshopper outbreaks have led to an increasing paradigm shift from crop protection to preventive management. Effective preventive management strategy relies on an improved knowledge of the pest biology and ecology and more efficient monitoring and control techniques.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Ecology of Collective Behavior in Ants
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Deborah M. Gordon

    Nest choice in Temnothorax spp.; task allocation and the regulation of activity in Pheidole dentata, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, and Atta spp.; and trail networks in Monomorium pharaonis and Cephalotes goniodontus all provide examples of correspondences between the dynamics of the environment and the dynamics of collective behavior. Some important aspects of the dynamics of the environment include stability, the threat of rupture or disturbance, the ratio of inflow and outflow of resources or energy, and the distribution of resources. These correspond to the dynamics of collective behavior, including the extent of amplification, how feedback instigates and inhibits activity, and the extent to which the interactions that provide the information to regulate behavior are local or spatially centralized.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Invasion Success and Management Strategies for Social Vespula Wasps
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Philip J. Lester, Jacqueline R. Beggs

    Three species of Vespula have become invasive in Australia, Hawai‘i, New Zealand, and North and South America and continue to spread. These social wasp species can achieve high nest densities, and their behavioral plasticity has led to substantial impacts on recipient communities. Ecologically, they affect all trophic levels, restructuring communities and altering resource flows. Economically, their main negative effect is associated with pollination and the apicultural industry. Climate change is likely to exacerbate their impacts in many regions. Introduced Vespula spp. likely experience some degree of enemy release from predators or parasites, although they are exposed to a wide range of microbial pathogens in both their native and introduced range. Toxic baits have been significantly improved over the last decade, enabling effective landscape-level control. Although investigated extensively, no effective biological control agents have yet been found. Emerging technologies such as gene drives are under consideration.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Invasive Cereal Aphids of North America: Ecology and Pest Management
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Michael J. Brewer, Frank B. Peairs, Norman C. Elliott

    Aphid invasions of North American cereal crops generally have started with colonization of a new region or crop, followed by range expansion and outbreaks that vary in frequency and scale owing to geographically variable influences. To improve understanding of this process and management, we compare the invasion ecology of and management response to three cereal aphids: sugarcane aphid, Russian wheat aphid, and greenbug. The region exploited is determined primarily by climate and host plant availability. Once an area is permanently or annually colonized, outbreak intensity is also affected by natural enemies and managed inputs, such as aphid-resistant cultivars and insecticides. Over time, increases in natural enemy abundance and diversity, improved compatibility among management tactics, and limited threshold-based insecticide use have likely increased resilience of aphid regulation. Application of pest management foundational practices followed by a focus on compatible strategies are relevant worldwide. Area-wide pest management is most appropriate to large-scale cereal production systems, as exemplified in the Great Plains of North America.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Blueberry IPM: Past Successes and Future Challenges
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs

    Blueberry is a crop native to North America with expanding production and consumption worldwide. In the historical regions of production, integrated pest management (IPM) programs have been developed and provided effective control of key insect pests. These have integrated monitoring programs with physical, cultural, biological, behavioral, and chemical controls to meet the intense demands of consumers and modern food systems. Globalization of the blueberry industry has resulted in new pest-crop associations and the introduction of invasive pests into existing and new blueberry-growing areas. Invasive pests—in particular spotted wing drosophila—have been highly disruptive to traditional IPM programs, resulting in increased use of insecticides and the potential to disrupt beneficial insects. Moreover, regulatory agencies have reduced the number of broad-spectrum insecticides available to growers while facilitating registration and adoption of reduced-risk insecticides that have a narrower spectrum of activity. Despite these new tools, increasing international trade has constrained insecticide use because of maximum residue limits, which are often not standardized across countries. Great potential remains for biological, behavioral, cultural, and physical methods to contribute to blueberry IPM, and with more regions investing in blueberry research, we expect regionally relevant IPM programs to develop in the new production regions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Development of Baits for Population Management of Subterranean Termites
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Nan-Yao Su

    The objective of bait application envisioned by early researchers was to eliminate the source of infestation, the colony, but because of the lack of adequate evaluation tools, results of field trials with mirex baits in the 1960s were mostly inconclusive. On-the-ground monitoring stations and mark-recapture protocol developed in the 1970s marked the turning point in the field studies of termite baits. Results of field studies with metabolic inhibitors and chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) in the 1990s indicated that a bait toxicant has to be slow-acting and nonrepellent, and its lethal time has to be dose independent. A recent discovery that termites return to the central nest to molt and CSI-poisoned termites die near the royal pair further explains the success of CSI baits in eliminating colonies. Owing to the availability of durable baits that require less-frequent site inspection, more termite control professionals have adopted baiting systems in recent years.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Biology and Control of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium, a Major Quarantine Threat to Global Food Security
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Christos G. Athanassiou, Thomas W. Phillips, Waqas Wakil

    The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is a voracious feeder of stored products and is considered one of the most important quarantine pests globally. Its ability to survive for long periods under extreme conditions facilitates its spread through international commerce, which has led to invasions of new geographic regions. The khapra beetle is an important quarantine pest for many countries, including the major wheat-producing countries the United States, Canada, Russia, and Australia, and has been classified as one of the 100 worst invasive species worldwide. This species cannot always be controlled by insecticides and other nonchemical methods that are usually effective against other pests of stored products, particularly owing to its diapausing late larval stage. It can rapidly develop at elevated temperatures and under dry conditions, which are not favorable for many major stored-product insects. We synthesize key published work to draw attention to advances in biology, detection and control of the khapra beetle, and directions to consider for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Vectors of Babesiosis
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Jeremy S. Gray, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Annetta Zintl

    Babesiosis, caused by piroplasmid protozoans in the genus Babesia, is arguably the most important vector-borne disease of livestock and companion animals and is growing in importance as a zoonosis. Ixodid ticks were identified as vectors more than a hundred years ago, but the particular tick species transmitting some significant pathogens are still unknown. Moreover, it is only recently that the complexity of the pathogen–tick relationship has been revealed as a result of studies enabled by gene expression and RNA interference methodology. In this article, we provide details of demonstrated and incriminated vectors, maps of the current knowledge of vector distribution, a summary of established features of the pathogen life cycle in the vector, and an outline of molecular research on pathogen–tick relationships. The article concludes with a discussion of vector ecology and disease epidemiology in a global-change context and with suggestions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Movement and Demography of At-Risk Butterflies: Building Blocks for Conservation
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Cheryl B. Schultz, Nick M. Haddad, Erica H. Henry, Elizabeth E. Crone

    The number of insect species at risk of population decline and extinction is increasing rapidly. Yet we know almost nothing about the ecology of these species, except for at-risk butterflies. A growing body of literature shows how butterfly vital rates, including demography and movement, are essential for guiding conservation and recovery. History has shown us that without these data, conservation decisions often weaken, rather than enhance, population viability. This is especially true in changing landscapes. We review knowledge of vital rates across all at-risk butterflies. We have information on movement for 17 of 283 butterfly species and information on demography for 19 species. We find that habitat-specific movement behavior is key to understanding how to connect populations, and habitat-specific demography is central to managing habitats. Methods and analyses worked out for butterflies can provide a scaffold around which to build studies for the conservation of other at-risk insects.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Epigenetics in Insects: Genome Regulation and the Generation of Phenotypic Diversity
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Karl M. Glastad, Brendan G. Hunt, Michael A.D. Goodisman

    Epigenetic inheritance is fundamentally important to cellular differentiation and developmental plasticity. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of molecular epigenetics in insects. Epigenetic information is passed across cell divisions through the methylation of DNA, the modification of histone proteins, and the activity of noncoding RNAs. Much of our knowledge of insect epigenetics has been gleaned from a few model species. However, more studies of epigenetic information in traditionally nonmodel taxa will help advance our understanding of the developmental and evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance in insects. To this end, we also provide a brief overview of techniques for profiling and perturbing individual facets of the epigenome. Doing so in diverse cellular, developmental, and taxonomic contexts will collectively help shed new light on how genome regulation results in the generation of diversity in insect form and function.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Bee Viruses: Ecology, Pathogenicity, and Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Christina M. Grozinger, Michelle L. Flenniken

    Bees—including solitary, social, wild, and managed species—are key pollinators of flowering plant species, including nearly three-quarters of global food crops. Their ecological importance, coupled with increased annual losses of managed honey bees and declines in populations of key wild species, has focused attention on the factors that adversely affect bee health, including viral pathogens. Genomic approaches have dramatically expanded understanding of the diversity of viruses that infect bees, the complexity of their transmission routes—including intergenus transmission—and the diversity of strategies bees have evolved to combat virus infections, with RNA-mediated responses playing a prominent role. Moreover, the impacts of viruses on their hosts are exacerbated by the other major stressors bee populations face, including parasites, poor nutrition, and exposure to chemicals. Unraveling the complex relationships between viruses and their bee hosts will lead to improved understanding of viral ecology and management strategies that support better bee health.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular Evolution of the Major Arthropod Chemoreceptor Gene Families
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Hugh M. Robertson

    The evolutionary origins of the three major families of chemoreceptors in arthropods—the odorant receptor (OR), gustatory receptor (GR), and ionotropic receptor (IR) families—occurred at the base of the Insecta, Animalia, and Protostomia, respectively. Comparison of receptor family sizes across arthropods reveals a generally positive correlation with their widely disparate complexity of chemical ecology. Closely related species reveal the ongoing processes of gene family evolution, including gene duplication, divergence, pseudogenization, and loss, that mediate these larger patterns. Sets of paralogous receptors within species reveal positive selection on amino acids in regions likely to contribute to ligand binding and specificity. Ligands of many ORs and some GRs and IRs have been identified; however, ligand identification for many more chemoreceptors is needed, as are structures for the OR/GR superfamily, to improve our understanding of the molecular evolution of these ecologically important receptors in arthropods.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Life and Death at the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel: Evolution in Response to Insecticide Use
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Jeffrey G. Scott

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) is a critical component of the insect nervous system. Pyrethroids and DDT are insecticides that have been widely used, and they kill insects by perturbations of the VSSC. Decades of insecticide use selected for mutations in Vssc that give rise to resistance in almost all pest insects. However, the mutations responsible for the resistance are not always the same, and some unusual patterns have emerged. This review focuses on what pyrethroid/DDT selection has done, in terms of Vssc changes that have occurred, using four well-studied species as examples of the differences that have evolved. Information is provided about the mutations that occur, potential pathways by which alleles with multiple mutations arose, the relative fitness of the alleles, the levels of resistance conferred, and the geographic distribution of the mutations. The lessons learned and exciting new areas of research are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Nonreproductive Effects of Insect Parasitoids on Their Hosts
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Paul K. Abram, Jacques Brodeur, Alberto Urbaneja, Alejandro Tena

    The main modes of action of insect parasitoids are considered to be killing their hosts with egg laying followed by offspring development (reproductive mortality), and adults feeding on hosts directly (host feeding). However, parasitoids can also negatively affect their hosts in ways that do not contribute to current or future parasitoid reproduction (nonreproductive effects). Outcomes of nonreproductive effects for hosts can include death, altered behavior, altered reproduction, and altered development. On the basis of these outcomes and the variety of associated mechanisms, we categorize nonreproductive effects into (a) nonconsumptive effects, (b) mutilation, (c) pseudoparasitism, (d) immune defense costs, and (e) aborted parasitism. These effects are widespread and can cause greater impacts on host populations than successful parasitism or host feeding. Nonreproductive effects constitute a hidden dimension of host–parasitoid trophic networks, with theoretical implications for community ecology as well as applied importance for the evaluation of ecosystem services provided by parasitoid biological control agents.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Movement Ecology of Pest Helicoverpa: Implications for Ongoing Spread
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Christopher M. Jones, Hazel Parry, Wee Tek Tay, Don R. Reynolds, Jason W. Chapman

    The recent introduction and spread of Helicoverpa armigera throughout South America highlight the invasiveness and adaptability of moths in the Helicoverpa genus. Long-range movement in three key members, H. armigera, H. zea, and H. punctigera, occurs by migration and international trade. These movements facilitate high population admixture and genetic diversity, with important economic, biosecurity, and control implications in today's agricultural landscape. This is particularly true for the spread of resistance alleles to transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that are planted over vast areas to suppress Helicoverpa spp. The ability to track long-distance movement through radar technology, population genetic markers, and/or long-distance dispersal modeling has advanced in recent years, yet we still know relatively little about the population trajectories or migratory routes in Helicoverpa spp. Here, we consider how experimental and theoretical approaches can be integrated to fill key knowledge gaps and assist management practices.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Wing Polymorphism in Insects
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jennifer A. Brisson, Hai-Jun Xu

    Many insects are capable of developing into either long-winged or short-winged (or wingless) morphs, which enables them to rapidly match heterogeneous environments. Thus, the wing polymorphism is an adaptation at the root of their ecological success. Wing polymorphism is orchestrated at various levels, starting with the insect's perception of environmental cues, then signal transduction and signal execution, and ultimately the transmitting of signals into physiological adaption in accordance with the particular morph produced. Juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid pathways have long been proposed to regulate wing polymorphism in insects, but rigorous experimental evidence is lacking. The breakthrough findings of ecdysone receptor regulation on transgenerational wing dimorphism in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and of insulin signaling in the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens greatly broaden our understanding of wing polymorphism at the molecular level. Recently, the advent of high-throughput sequencing coupled with functional genomics provides powerful genetic tools for future insights into the molecular bases underlying wing polymorphism in insects.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Fat Body Biology in the Last Decade
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Sheng Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng

    The insect fat body is analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver. In this review, the new and exciting advancements made in fat body biology in the last decade are summarized. Controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals, insect fat body cells undergo mitosis during embryogenesis, endoreplication during the larval stages, and remodeling during metamorphosis and regulate reproduction in adults. Fat body tissues are major sites for nutrient storage, energy metabolism, innate immunity, and detoxification. Recent studies have revealed that the fat body plays a central role in the integration of hormonal and nutritional signals to regulate larval growth, body size, circadian clock, pupal diapause, longevity, feeding behavior, and courtship behavior, partially by releasing fat body signals to remotely control the brain. In addition, the fat body has emerged as a fascinating model for studying metabolic disorders and immune diseases. Potential future directions for fat body biology are also proposed herein.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Braconid Wasps: 30 Years of Progress
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Xue-xin Chen, Cornelis van Achterberg

    The parasitoid wasp family Braconidae is likely the second-most species-rich family in the animal kingdom. Braconid wasps are widely distributed and often encountered. They constitute one of the principal groups of natural enemies of phytophagous insects, of which many are serious pest species. The enormous biological diversification of braconid wasps has led to many homoplasies, which contributed widely to instabilities in historical classifications. Recent studies using combinations of genetic markers or total mitochondrial genomes allow for better founded groupings and will ultimately lead to a stable classification. We present the current status of the phylogenetics of the Braconidae in a historical perspective and our understanding of the effects on higher classification.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Water Beetles as Models in Ecology and Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    David T. Bilton, Ignacio Ribera, Andrew Edward Z. Short

    Beetles have colonized water many times during their history, with some of these events involving extensive evolutionary radiations and multiple transitions between land and water. With over 13,000 described species, they are one of the most diverse macroinvertebrate groups in most nonmarine aquatic habitats and occur on all continents except Antarctica. A combination of wide geographical and ecological range and relatively accessible taxonomy makes these insects an excellent model system for addressing a variety of questions in ecology and evolution. Work on water beetles has recently made important contributions to fields as diverse as DNA taxonomy, macroecology, historical biogeography, sexual selection, and conservation biology, as well as predicting organismal responses to global change. Aquatic beetles have some of the best resolved phylogenies of any comparably diverse insect group, and this, coupled with recent advances in taxonomic and ecological knowledge, is likely to drive an expansion of studies in the future.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Phylogeography of Ticks (Acari: Ixodida)
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Lorenza Beati, Hans Klompen

    Improved understanding of tick phylogeny has allowed testing of some biogeographical patterns. On the basis of both literature data and a meta-analysis of available sequence data, there is strong support for a Gondwanan origin of Ixodidae, and probably Ixodida. A particularly strong pattern is observed for the genus Amblyomma, which appears to have originated in Antarctica/southern South America, with subsequent dispersal to Australia. The endemic Australian lineages of Ixodidae (no other continent has such a pattern) appear to result from separate dispersal events, probably from Antarctica. Minimum ages for a number of divergences are determined as part of an updated temporal framework for tick evolution. Alternative hypotheses for tick evolution, such as a very old Pangean group, a Northern hemisphere origin, or an Australian origin, fit less well with observed phylogeographic patterns.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2015-02-26
    Rensen Zeng

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Edward Arthur Steinhaus, 1914-1969.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 1971-01-01

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neural and hormonal control of postecdysial behaviors in insects.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2013-10-29
    Benjamin H White,John Ewer

    The shedding of the old exoskeleton that occurs in insects at the end of a molt (a process called ecdysis) is typically followed by the expansion and tanning of a new one. At the adult molt, these postecdysial processes include expansion and hardening of the wings. Here we describe recent advances in understanding the neural and hormonal control of wing expansion and hardening, focusing on work using Drosophila melanogaster in which genetic manipulations have permitted detailed investigation of postecdysial processes and their modulation by sensory input. To place this work in context, we briefly review recent progress in understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of ecdysis, which appears to be largely conserved across insect species. Investigations into the neuroendocrine networks that regulate ecdysial and postecdysial behaviors provide insights into how stereotyped, yet environmentally responsive, sequences are generated and how they develop and evolve.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The developmental, molecular, and transport biology of Malpighian tubules.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2009-12-08
    Klaus W Beyenbach,Helen Skaer,Julian A T Dow

    Molecular biology is reaching new depths in our understanding of the development and physiology of Malpighian tubules. In Diptera, Malpighian tubules derive from ectodermal cells that evaginate from the primitive hindgut and subsequently undergo a sequence of orderly events that culminates in an active excretory organ by the time the larva takes its first meal. Thereafter, the tubules enlarge by cell growth. Just as modern experimental strategies have illuminated the development of tubules, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic studies have uncovered new tubule functions that serve immune defenses and the breakdown and renal clearance of toxic substances. Moreover, genes associated with specific diseases in humans are also found in flies, some of which, astonishingly, express similar pathophenotypes. However, classical experimental approaches continue to show their worth by distinguishing between -omic possibilities and physiological reality while providing further detail about the rapid regulation of the transport pathway through septate junctions and the reversible assembly of proton pumps.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structure of the mushroom bodies of the insect brain.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2005-12-08
    Susan E Fahrbach

    The past decade has produced an explosion of new information on the development, neuroanatomy, and possible functions of the mushroom bodies. This review provides a concise, contemporary overview of the structure of the mushroom bodies. Two topics are highlighted: the volume plasticity of mushroom body neuropils evident in the brains of some adult insects and a possible essential role for the gamma lobe in olfactory memory.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Insect odor and taste receptors.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2005-12-08
    Elissa A Hallem,Anupama Dahanukar,John R Carlson

    Insect odor and taste receptors are highly sensitive detectors of food, mates, and oviposition sites. Following the identification of the first insect odor and taste receptors in Drosophila melanogaster, these receptors were identified in a number of other insects, including the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae; the silk moth, Bombyx mori; and the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. The chemical specificities of many of the D. melanogaster receptors, as well as a few of the A. gambiae and B. mori receptors, have now been determined either by analysis of deletion mutants or by ectopic expression in in vivo or heterologous expression systems. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of odor and taste coding in insects.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of allatostatins in juvenile hormone synthesis in insects and crustaceans.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    Barbara Stay,Stephen S Tobe

    Allatostatins are pleiotropic neuropeptides for which one function in insects is the inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis. Juvenile hormone, an important regulator of development and reproduction in insects, is produced by the corpora allata. Mandibular organs, the crustacean homologs of insect corpora allata, produce precursors of juvenile hormone with putatively similar functions. Three types of allatostatins in insects have been isolated: FGLamides, W(X)(6)Wamides, and PISCFs. All act rapidly and reversibly; however, although these types occur in all groups of insects studied, they act as inhibitors of juvenile hormone production in only some groups. Only the FGLamide-type peptides have been isolated in crustaceans, in which they may function to stimulate production of hormone by the mandibular glands, as occurs in early cockroach embryos. Much remains to be learned in order to understand the role of allatostatins in the modulation of hormone production.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Preface.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Angela E Douglas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Preface: Valedictory from a Gadfly Grammarian.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2018-01-13
    May R Berenbaum

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reproduction-Immunity Trade-Offs in Insects.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2015-12-17
    Robin A Schwenke,Brian P Lazzaro,Mariana F Wolfner

    Immune defense and reproduction are physiologically and energetically demanding processes and have been observed to trade off in a diversity of female insects. Increased reproductive effort results in reduced immunity, and reciprocally, infection and activation of the immune system reduce reproductive output. This trade-off can manifest at the physiological level (within an individual) and at the evolutionary level (genetic distinction among individuals in a population). The resource allocation model posits that the trade-off arises because of competition for one or more limiting resources, and we hypothesize that pleiotropic signaling mechanisms regulate allocation of that resource between reproductive and immune processes. We examine the role of juvenile hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling in regulating both oogenesis and immune system activity, and propose a signaling network that may mechanistically regulate the trade-off. Finally, we discuss implications of the trade-off in an ecological and evolutionary context.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sex differences in phenotypic plasticity affect variation in sexual size dimorphism in insects: from physiology to evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2009-09-05
    R Craig Stillwell,Wolf U Blanckenhorn,Tiit Teder,Goggy Davidowitz,Charles W Fox

    Males and females of nearly all animals differ in their body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The degree and direction of SSD vary considerably among taxa, including among populations within species. A considerable amount of this variation is due to sex differences in body size plasticity. We examine how variation in these sex differences is generated by exploring sex differences in plasticity in growth rate and development time and the physiological regulation of these differences (e.g., sex differences in regulation by the endocrine system). We explore adaptive hypotheses proposed to explain sex differences in plasticity, including those that predict that plasticity will be lowest for traits under strong selection (adaptive canalization) or greatest for traits under strong directional selection (condition dependence), but few studies have tested these hypotheses. Studies that combine proximate and ultimate mechanisms offer great promise for understanding variation in SSD and sex differences in body size plasticity in insects.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Feeding mechanisms of adult Lepidoptera: structure, function, and evolution of the mouthparts.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2009-12-08
    Harald W Krenn

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2008-12-11
    Steven A Juliano

    Biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. Relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. Asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. Predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emergent effects of multiple predators, particularly interference among predators. Nonlethal effects of predators on mosquito oviposition, foraging, and life history are common, and their consequences for populations and for mosquito-borne disease are poorly understood. Context-dependent beneficial effects of detritus shredders on mosquitoes occur in container habitats, but these interactions appear to involve more than simple resource modification by shredders. Investigations of context-dependent interactions among mosquito larvae will yield greater understanding of mosquito population dynamics and provide useful model systems for testing theories of context dependence in communities.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2004-03-12
    F Gould

    This review examines potential impacts of transgenic cultivars on insect population dynamics and evolution. Experience with classically bred, insecticidal cultivars has demonstrated that a solid understanding of both the target insect's ecology and the cultivar's performance under varied field conditions will be essential for predicting area-wide effects of transgenic cultivars on pest and natural enemy dynamics. This experience has also demonstrated the evolutionary capacity of pests for adaptive response to insecticidal traits in crops. Biochemical and genetic studies of insect adaptation to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins expressed by currently marketed transgenic cultivars indicate a high risk for rapid adaptation if these cultivars are misused. Theoretical and practical issues involved in implementing strategies to delay pest adaptation to insecticidal cultivars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on examining the "high dose"/refuge strategy that has become the goal of industry and regulatory authorities.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biology and use of the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa.
    Annu. Rev. Entomol. (IF 11.796) Pub Date : 2004-03-12
    M S Hoddle,R G Van Driesche,J P Sanderson

    Encarsia formosa is a parasitoid used worldwide for the biological control of whiteflies on vegetables and ornamental plants grown in greenhouses. Because of outstanding success in controlling Trialeurodes vaporariorum on tomatoes, the biology and behavior of this wasp have been intensively studied to identify attributes that contribute to successful biological control and how best to manipulate augmentative releases into greenhouses to suppress whitefly population growth. In this article, we review the biology of adult and immature E. formosa, population dynamics of whitefly-parasitoid interactions, and commercial use in greenhouses. Deficits in knowledge of aspects of E. formosa's biology and use are noted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
加州大学洛杉矶分校
上海纽约大学William Glover
南开大学化学院周其林
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug