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  • Brightness perception changes related to pupil size
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Unni Sulutvedt; Daniele Zavagno; Jamie Lubell; Siri Leknes; Sigrid A. de Rodez Benavent; Bruno Laeng

    Dilating the pupils allow more quanta of light to impact the retina. Consequently, if one pupil is dilated with a pharmacological agent (Tropicamide), the brightness of a surface under observation should increase proportionally to the pupil dilation. Little is known about causal effects of changes in pupil size on perception of an object’s brightness. In a psychophysical procedure of brightness adjustment

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • False memories for scenes using the DRM paradigm
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Filip Děchtěrenko; Jiří Lukavský; Jiří Štipl

    People are remarkably good at remembering photographs. To further investigate the nature of the stored representations and the fidelity of human memories, it would be useful to evaluate the visual similarity of stimuli presented in experiments. Here, we explored the possible use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) as a measure of perceptual or representational similarity of visual scenes with respect

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Rapid spatial oculomotor updating across saccades is malleable
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-25
    Jonathan van Leeuwen; Artem V. Belopolsky

    The oculomotor system uses a sophisticated updating mechanism to adjust for large retinal displacements which occur with every saccade. Previous studies have shown that updating operates rapidly and starts before saccade is initiated. Here we used saccade adaptation to alter life-long expectations about how a saccade changes the location of an object on the retina. Participants made a sequence of one

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Exploring biological motion perception in two-stream convolutional neural networks
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Yujia Peng; Hannah Lee; Tianmin Shu; Hongjing Lu

    Visual recognition of biological motion recruits form and motion processes supported by both dorsal and ventral pathways. This neural architecture inspired the two-stream convolutional neural network (CNN) model, which includes a spatial CNN to process appearance information in a sequence of image frames, a temporal CNN to process optical flow information, and a fusion network to integrate the features

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Flexible face processing: Holistic processing of facial identity is modulated by task-irrelevant facial expression
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Wei Chen; Olivia S. Cheung

    Holistic processing is a hallmark of face perception and has been observed separately for facial identity and expression. While the identity of a face remains constant regardless of any changes in facial expressions, to what extent is holistic processing of facial identity affected by task-irrelevant facial expressions? If holistic processing is flexible and integrates both identity and expression

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in children with peripheral visual impairment
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Giulia Purpura; Elena Febbrini Del Magro; Roberto Caputo; Giovanni Cioni; Francesca Tinelli

    It is well known how early visual experience is critical for the development of multisensory processing abilities, and for this reason an early vision impairment could hinder the transfer of different sensory information during the exploration and recognition of the surrounding environment. Recently, we verified that visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition emerges early in typically developing

    更新日期:2020-10-16
  • Persistent grasping errors produce depth cue reweighting in perception
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Evan Cesanek; Jordan A. Taylor; Fulvio Domini

    When a grasped object is larger or smaller than expected, haptic feedback automatically recalibrates motor planning. Intriguingly, haptic feedback can also affect 3D shape perception through a process called depth cue reweighting. Although signatures of cue reweighting also appear in motor behavior, it is unclear whether this motor reweighting is the result of upstream perceptual reweighting, or a

    更新日期:2020-10-16
  • An independent contribution of colour to the aesthetic preference for paintings
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Anke Marit Albers; Karl R. Gegenfurtner; Sérgio M.C. Nascimento

    Walking around an art museum we can see how colours influence our aesthetic preferences: many great works of art would not be as impressive in grey scales. Is the beauty of colours in abstract paintings anchored to the spatial composition of the paintings, or can it be preserved even with random spatial arrangements? To test whether colour can have an independent contribution to aesthetic appreciation

    更新日期:2020-10-11
  • The effect of action on perceptual feature binding
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Inci Ayhan; Melisa Kurtcan; Lucas Thorpe

    Color-motion asynchrony (CMA) refers to an apparent lag of direction of motion when a dynamic stimulus changes both color and direction at the same time. The subjective order of simultaneous events, however, is not only perceptual but also subject to illusions during voluntary actions. Self-initiated actions, for example, seem to precede their sensory outcomes following an adaptation to a delay between

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Visual and kinesthetic alleys formed with rods
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Atsuki Higashiyama

    Geometries of visual and kinesthetic spaces were estimated by alley experiments. For the visual alley, 24 observers set rods that extended in depth so that they appeared 1) to neither diverge nor converge, 2) to be separated by the same lateral distance, or 3) to be perpendicular to the frontal plane. The separation of rods and the height of the observer’s eyes were varied. Under each instruction,

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • 3D shape-from-shading relies on a light source prior that does not change with age
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Beverley Pickard-Jones; Giovanni d'Avossa; Ayelet Sapir

    The light-from-above prior enables observers to infer an object’s three-dimensional shape-from-shading information. Young, Western adults implicitly assume the light source is placed not only above, but also to the left of, the observer. Previous evidence reached conflicting conclusions regarding the development of the assumed light source direction. In the present study, we measured the light source

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • The response to symmetry in extrastriate areas and its time course are modulated by selective attention
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-26
    Marco Bertamini; Giulia Rampone; John Tyson-Carr; Alexis D.J. Makin

    Neurophysiological studies have shown a strong activation in visual areas in response to symmetry. Electrophysiological (EEG) studies, in particular, have confirmed that amplitude at posterior electrodes is more negative for symmetrical compared to asymmetrical patterns. This response is present even when observers perform tasks that do not require processing of symmetry. In this sense the activation

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • Collinear facilitation and contour integration in autistic adults: Examining lateral and feedback connectivity
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Emma Gowen; Stephen Jachim; Sabrina Subri; Christine Dickinson; Benjamin Hamblin-Pyke; Paul A. Warren

    Alongside difficulties with communication and social interaction, autism is often accompanied by unusual sensory and perceptual experiences including enhanced visual performance on tasks that involve separating local parts from global context. This superiority may be the result of atypical integrative processing, involving feedback and lateral connections between visual neurons. The current study investigated

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • On the relative (un)importance of foveal vision during letter search in naturalistic scenes.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Adam C Clayden,Robert B Fisher,Antje Nuthmann

    The importance of high-acuity foveal vision to visual search can be assessed by denying foveal vision using the gaze-contingent Moving Mask technique. Foveal vision was necessary to attain normal performance when searching for a target letter in alphanumeric displays, Perception & Psychophysics, 62 (2000) 576–585. In contrast, foveal vision was not necessary to correctly locate and identify medium-sized

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Eccentricity-dependent effects of simultaneous competing defocus on emmetropization in infant rhesus monkeys.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Earl L Smith Iii,Baskar Arumugam,Li-Fang Hung,Zhihui She,Krista Beach,Padmaja Sankaridurg

    Dual-focus lenses that impose simultaneous competing myopic defocus over the entire visual field produce axial hyperopic shifts in refractive error. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of eccentricity on the ability of myopic defocus signals to influence central refractive development in infant monkeys. From 24 to 152 days of age, rhesus monkeys were reared with binocular, dual-focus

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • A decision-time account of individual variability in context-dependent orientation estimation.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Ron Dekel,Dov Sagi

    Following exposure to an oriented stimulus, the perceived orientation is slightly shifted, a phenomenon termed the tilt aftereffect (TAE). This estimation bias, as well as other context-dependent biases, is speculated to reflect statistical mechanisms of inference that optimize visual processing. Importantly, although measured biases are extremely robust in the population, the magnitude of individual

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • Residual contrast response in primary visual cortex of rats with inherited retinal degeneration.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    Ke Chen,Bojun Hou,Yilei Zhao,Peimin Yuan,Dezhong Yao,Leanne Lai Hang Chan

    Rhodopsin S334ter-3 retinal degeneration rats have been widely used to investigate degenerative diseases of the retina. In this model, morphological and electrophysiological changes have been observed in the retina, superior colliculus and primary visual cortex (V1). However, no study so far has examined rhodopsin S334ter-3 rats with regards to their contrast response in V1 — a fundamental property

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Spatial dynamics of the eggs illusion: Visual field anisotropy and peripheral vision.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    Kun Qian,Hiroyuki Mitsudo

    The eggs illusion is a visual phenomenon in which bright circular patches located at the midpoints between the intersections of a dark grid are perceived as being elongated along the direction orthogonal to the grid line. In the four experiments we report here, we explored the spatial properties of the eggs illusion by manipulating retinal eccentricity and the location of the stimulus in the visual

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Low-spatial-frequency priming potentiates the high-level mechanisms of contextual influence.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Anqi Wang,Xuhua Hu,Baoyu Wu,Lihong Chen,Wenbo Luo

    The context sensitivity of visual size perception can be enhanced by prior exposure to low-spatial-frequency (LSF) relative to high-spatial-frequency information. Whether LSF priming affects low- or high-level mechanisms of contextual influence remains to be clarified. By using the Ebbinghaus illusion, which is a classic example of context-dependent size perception, we reduced the lightness contrast

    更新日期:2020-09-07
  • Color illusions also deceive CNNs for low-level vision tasks: Analysis and implications.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    A Gomez-Villa,A Martín,J Vazquez-Corral,M Bertalmío,J Malo

    The study of visual illusions has proven to be a very useful approach in vision science. In this work we start by showing that, while convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained for low-level visual tasks in natural images may be deceived by brightness and color illusions, some network illusions can be inconsistent with the perception of humans. Next, we analyze where these similarities and differences

    更新日期:2020-09-05
  • The role of contrast polarities in binocular luster: Low-level and high-level processes.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Gunnar Wendt,Franz Faul

    The binocular fusion of two center-surround configurations, where one center is brighter, the other darker than the common surround, leads to a strong impression of luster in the central patch. Without reversed contrast polarities of the center patches, this impression is much weaker or even absent. However, we observed that in the latter case the perceived luster can be considerably enhanced by enclosing

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Watchers do not follow the eye movements of Walkers.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    M Papinutto,J Lao,D Lalanne,R Caldara

    Eye movements are a functional signature of how the visual system effectively decodes and adapts to the environment. However, scientific knowledge in eye movements mostly arises from studies conducted in laboratories, with well-controlled stimuli presented in constrained unnatural settings. Only a few studies have attempted to directly compare and assess whether eye movement data acquired in the real

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Rethinking amblyopia 2020.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Dennis M Levi

    Recent work has transformed our ideas about the neural mechanisms, behavioral consequences and effective therapies for amblyopia. Since the 1700′s, the clinical treatment for amblyopia has consisted of patching or penalizing the strong eye, to force the “lazy” amblyopic eye, to work. This treatment has generally been limited to infants and young children during a sensitive period of development. Over

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • No effect of feedback, level of processing or stimulus presentation protocol on perceptual learning when easy and difficult trials are interleaved.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Jordi M Asher,Paul B Hibbard

    The role of feedback during training is a topic of great theoretical importance in perceptual learning. Feedback can be provided externally by the environment or internally by the observer. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning with internal versus external feedback, we performed a large multi-level experiment, varying the type of training task (Motion or Form), the level of processing

    更新日期:2020-08-21
  • Do eye movements enhance visual memory retrieval?
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Hikari Kinjo,Jolande Fooken,Miriam Spering

    When remembering an object at a given location, participants tend to return their gaze to that location even after the object has disappeared, known as Looking-at-Nothing (LAN). However, it is unclear whether LAN is associated with better memory performance. Previous studies reporting beneficial effects of LAN have often not systematically manipulated or assessed eye movements. We asked 20 participants

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Can we recognize people based on their body-alone? The roles of body motion and whole person context.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Noa Simhi,Galit Yovel

    While most studies on person recognition examine the face alone, recent studies have shown evidence for the contribution of the body and gait to person recognition beyond the face. Nevertheless, little is known on whether person recognition can be performed based on the body alone. In this study, we examined two sources of information that may enhance body-based person recognition: body motion and

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • Orientation-dependency of perceptual surround suppression and orientation decoding of centre-surround stimuli are preserved with healthy ageing.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-15
    Bao N Nguyen,Yu Man Chan,Stefan Bode,Allison M McKendrick

    A key visual neuronal property that is mirrored in human behaviour is centre-surround contrast suppression, which is orientation-dependent. When a target is embedded in a high-contrast surround, the centre appears reduced in contrast, the magnitude of which depends on the relative orientation between centre and surround. Previous reports demonstrate changes in perceptual surround suppression with ageing;

    更新日期:2020-08-15
  • Neural correlates of task-related refixation behavior.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Radha Nila Meghanathan,Cees van Leeuwen,Marcello Giannini,Andrey R Nikolaev

    Eye movement research has shown that attention shifts from the currently fixated location to the next before a saccade is executed. We investigated whether the cost of the attention shift depends on higher-order processing at the time of fixation, in particular on visual working memory load differences between fixations and refixations on task-relevant items. The attention shift is reflected in EEG

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • Are there any 'object detectors' in the hidden layers of CNNs trained to identify objects or scenes?
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    Ella M Gale,Nicholas Martin,Ryan Blything,Anh Nguyen,Jeffrey S Bowers

    Various methods of measuring unit selectivity have been developed with the aim of better understanding how neural networks work. But the different measures provide divergent estimates of selectivity, and this has led to different conclusions regarding the conditions in which selective object representations are learned and the functional relevance of these representations. In an attempt to better characterize

    更新日期:2020-08-09
  • Size aftereffect is non-local.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Ecem Altan,Huseyin Boyaci

    It is well known that prolonged exposure to a certain size stimulus alters the perceived size of a subsequently presented stimulus at the same location. How the rest of the visual space is affected by this size adaptation, however, has not been systematically studied before. Here, to fill this gap in literature, we tested size adaptation at the adapter location as well as the rest of the visual space

    更新日期:2020-08-08
  • Effects of low intensity ambient lighting on refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Zhihui She,Li-Fang Hung,Baskar Arumugam,Krista M Beach,Earl L Smith

    Studies in chickens suggest low intensity ambient lighting causes myopia. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of low intensity ambient lighting (dim light) on normal refractive development in macaque monkeys. Seven infant rhesus monkeys were reared under dim light (room illumination level: ~55 lx) from 24 to ~310 days of age with otherwise unrestricted vision. Refractive error

    更新日期:2020-08-08
  • Modelling binocular disparity processing from statistics in natural scenes.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Tushar Chauhan,Yseult Héjja-Brichard,Benoit R Cottereau

    The statistics of our environment impact not only our behavior, but also the selectivity and connectivity of the early sensory cortices. Over the last fifty years, powerful theories such as efficient coding, sparse coding, and the infomax principle have been proposed to explain the nature of this influence. Numerous computational and theoretical studies have since demonstrated solid, testable evidence

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • The role of hue in visual search for texture differences: Implications for camouflage design.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Geoffrey W Stuart,Dominic Yip,Hinze Hogendoorn

    The purpose of camouflage is to be inconspicuous against a given background. Colour is an important component of camouflage, and the task of designing a single camouflage pattern for use against multiple different backgrounds is particularly challenging. As it is impossible to match the colour gamut of each background exactly, the question arises which colours from the different backgrounds should

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Integration of contours defined by second-order contrast-modulation of texture.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Alex S Baldwin,Madeleine Kenwood,Robert F Hess

    Boundaries in the visual world can be defined by changes in luminance and texture in the input image. A “contour integration” process joins together local changes into percepts of lines or edges. A previous study tested the integration of contours defined by second-order contrast-modulation. Their contours were placed in a background of random wavelets. Participants performed near chance. We re-visited

    更新日期:2020-08-01
  • Angular tuning of tilt illusion depends on stimulus duration.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Saki Takao,Katsumi Watanabe,Colin W G Clifford

    In the tilt illusion, the orientation of a central stimulus appears tilted away from a surrounding stimulus when angular difference is between 0 deg and 50 deg. Studies have repeatedly shown that the tilt illusion exhibits the strongest effect with the angular difference around 15 deg and this angular tuning is robust to various changes in stimulus parameters. We revisited the well-reported angular

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Amphibious vision - Optical design model of the hooded merganser eye.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Ilka Urban,Xavier Uwurukundo,Daniela Stumpf,Katharina Frey,Andreas Reichenbach,Mike Francke,Robert Brüning,Robert Brunner

    A comprehensive schematic eye model of the hooded merganser is introduced for the first time to advance the understanding of amphibious vision. It is comprised of two different configurations, the first one modeling its visual system in air (unaccommodated state) and the second one representing the case where the eye is immersed in water (accommodated state). The model was designed using available

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Evidence for different spatiotemporal mechanisms using duration thresholds: An individual differences approach.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Raúl Luna,Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza

    The study of motion perception through classical psychophysical methods has suggested that independent spatiotemporal filters acting over specific locations in retinal images carry out early motion processing. On the other hand, individual differences approaches have been able to identify a structure of spatiotemporal filters too. In this same fashion—through an individual differences approach—the

    更新日期:2020-07-23
  • Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination: Location specificity and the uncertain roles of dorsal and ventral areas.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Xin-Yu Xie,Xing-Nan Zhao,Cong Yu

    One interesting observation of perceptual learning is the asymmetric transfer between stimuli at different external noise levels: learning at zero/low noise can transfer significantly to the same stimulus at high noise, but not vice versa. The mechanisms underlying this asymmetric transfer have been investigated by psychophysical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and computational modeling studies

    更新日期:2020-07-21
  • Binocular rivalry from luminance and contrast.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-18
    S X Qiu,C L Caldwell,J Y You,J D Mendola

    Binocular rivalry is the phenomenon that when two incompatible images are simultaneously presented, one to each eye, the two images compete with each other to be the dominant percept. Studying the underlying neural mechanisms of binocular rivalry is useful for understanding the mechanisms of interocular inhibition. Levelt’s Propositions, a set of four propositions that were originally published over

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Accommodation and pupil dynamics as potential objective predictors of behavioural performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Beatriz Redondo,Jesús Vera,Ruben Molina,José Antonio Garcia,Andrés Catena,Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos,Raimundo Jimenez

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently exhibit different types of visual deficits. This study investigates the dynamics of ocular accommodation and pupil size in a population of children with ADHD (6–14 years old) and assesses the association between these ocular variables with behavioural performance during a continuous performance task. The accommodation and pupil

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Lessons from reinforcement learning for biological representations of space.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Alex Muryy,N Siddharth,Nantas Nardelli,Andrew Glennerster,Philip H S Torr

    Neuroscientists postulate 3D representations in the brain in a variety of different coordinate frames (e.g. 'head-centred', 'hand-centred' and 'world-based'). Recent advances in reinforcement learning demonstrate a quite different approach that may provide a more promising model for biological representations underlying spatial perception and navigation. In this paper, we focus on reinforcement learning

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Selection history is relative.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-11
    Ming-Ray Liao,Mark K Britton,Brian A Anderson

    Visual attention can be tuned to specific features to aid in visual search. The way in which these search strategies are established and maintained is flexible, reflecting goal-directed attentional control, but can exert a persistent effect on selection that remains even when these strategies are no longer advantageous, reflecting an attentional bias driven by selection history. Apart from feature-specific

    更新日期:2020-07-13
  • Action-induced changes in the perceived temporal features of visual events.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Inci Ayhan,Duygu Ozbagci

    Perceived duration can be subject to deviations around the time of a voluntary action. Whether the mechanisms underlying action-induced visual duration effects are effector-specific or require a more generalized action-linked multimodal calibration with the transient visual system, however, is a question yet to be answered. Here, we investigate this using dynamic visual stimuli presented as contingent

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Coherence of achromatic, primary and basic classes of colour categories.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Dimitris Mylonas,Lewis D Griffin

    A range of explanations have been advanced for the systems of colour names found in different languages. Some explanations give special, fundamental status to a subset of colour categories. We argue that a subset of colour categories, if fundamental, will be coherent - meaning that a non-trivial criterion distinguishes them from the other colour categories. We test the coherence of subsets of achromatic

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • New developments in non-invasive visual electrophysiology.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Neil R A Parry,Declan J McKeefry,Ian J Murray,Jan Kremers

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • A new perceptual training strategy to improve vision impaired by central vision loss.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Xin-Yu Xie,Lei Liu,Cong Yu

    Patients with central vision loss depend on peripheral vision for everyday functions. A preferred retinal locus (PRL) on the intact retina is commonly trained as a new “fovea” to help. However, reprogramming the fovea-centered oculomotor control is difficult, so saccades often bring the defunct fovea to block the target. Aligning PRL with distant targets also requires multiple saccades and sometimes

    更新日期:2020-06-29
  • Hiding a plane with a pixel: examining shape-bias in CNNs and the benefit of building in biological constraints.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Gaurav Malhotra,Benjamin D Evans,Jeffrey S Bowers

    When deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are trained “end-to-end” on raw data, some of the feature detectors they develop in their early layers resemble the representations found in early visual cortex. This result has been used to draw parallels between deep learning systems and human visual perception. In this study, we show that when CNNs are trained end-to-end they learn to classify images

    更新日期:2020-06-28
  • Developments in non-invasive visual electrophysiology.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Jan Kremers,Declan J McKeefry,Ian J Murray,Neil R A Parry

    To study the physiology of the primate visual system, non-invasive electrophysiological techniques are of major importance. Two main techniques are available: the electroretinogram (ERG), a mass potential originating in the retina, and the visual evoked potential (VEP), which reflects activity in the primary visual cortex. In this overview, the history and the state of the art of these techniques are

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Sensory loss due to object formation.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Pascal Mamassian,Marina Zannoli

    The precision to locate individual features in depth can often be improved by integrating information over space. However, this integration can sometimes be extremely detrimental, as for example in the case of the Westheimer-McKee phenomenon where features are grouped to form an object. We replicate here the known loss of precision in this phenomenon and document an additional loss of accuracy. These

    更新日期:2020-06-07
  • Distinct strategies for estimating the temporal average of numerical and perceptual information.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Hiromi Sato,Isamu Motoyoshi

    Humans can estimate global trends in dynamic information presented either as perceptual features or as symbolic codes such as numbers. Previous studies on temporal statistics estimation have shown that observers judge the temporal average of visual attributes according to information from the last few frames of the presentation sequence (in what is referred to as the recency effect). Here, we investigated

    更新日期:2020-06-07
  • Non-retinotopic adaptive center-surround modulation in motion processing.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Boris Peñaloza,Michael H Herzog,Haluk Öğmen

    The early visual system is organized retinotopically. However, under ecological viewing conditions, motion perception occurs in non-retinotopic coordinates. Even though many studies revealed the central role of non-retinotopic processes, very little is known about their mechanisms and neural correlates. Tadin and colleagues found that increasing the spatial size of a high-contrast drifting-Gabor deteriorates

    更新日期:2020-06-04
  • The electrophysiological response to polarization-modulated patterned visual stimuli.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-31
    Stephen J Anderson,Andrea Edson-Scott,Gary P Misson

    Recent reports indicate that the subjective ability of humans to discriminate between polarization E-vector orientations approaches that of many invertebrates. Here, we show that polarization-modulated patterned stimuli generate an objectively recordable electrophysiological response in humans with normal vision. We investigated visual evoked potential (VEP) and electroretinographic (ERG) responses

    更新日期:2020-05-31
  • A stratified process for the perception of objects: From optical transformations to 3D relief structure to 3D similarity structure to slant or aspect ratio.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Xiaoye Michael Wang,Mats Lind,Geoffrey P Bingham

    Previously, we developed a stratified process for slant perception. First, optical transformations in structure-from-motion (SFM) and stereo were used to derive 3D relief structure (where depth scaling remains arbitrary). Second, with sufficient continuous perspective change (≥45°), a bootstrap process derived 3D similarity structure. Third, the perceived slant was derived. As predicted by theoretical

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Deciphering image contrast in object classification deep networks.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Arash Akbarinia,Raquel Gil-Rodríguez

    The ultimate goal of neuroscience is to explain how complex behaviour arises from neuronal activity. A comparable level of complexity also emerges in deep neural networks (DNNs) while exhibiting human-level performance in demanding visual tasks. Unlike in biological systems, all parameters and operations of DNNs are accessible. Therefore, in theory, it should be possible to decipher the exact mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Visual discomfort from flicker: Effects of mean light level and contrast.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Sanae Yoshimoto,Fang Jiang,Tatsuto Takeuchi,Arnold J Wilkins,Michael A Webster

    Uncomfortable images generally have a particular spatial structure, which deviates from a reciprocal relationship between amplitude and spatial frequency (f) in the Fourier domain (1/f). Although flickering patterns with similar temporal structure also appear uncomfortable, the discomfort is affected by not only the amplitude spectrum but also the phase spectrum. Here we examined how discomfort from

    更新日期:2020-05-28
  • Mechanisms underlying simultaneous brightness contrast: Early and innate.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Pawan Sinha,Sarah Crucilla,Tapan Gandhi,Dylan Rose,Amy Singh,Suma Ganesh,Umang Mathur,Peter Bex

    In the phenomenon of simultaneous brightness contrast, two patches, one on a dark background and the other on a light one, appear to have different brightness despite being physically equi-luminant. Elucidating the phenomenon’s underlying mechanisms is relevant for the larger question of how the visual system makes photometric judgments in images. Accounts over the past century have spanned low-, mid-

    更新日期:2020-05-25
  • Short-term monocular deprivation reduces inter-ocular suppression of the deprived eye.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-24
    Mengxin Wang,Paul McGraw,Timothy Ledgeway

    The adult visual system was traditionally thought to be relatively hard-wired, but recent studies have challenged this view by demonstrating plasticity following short-term monocular deprivation. Depriving one eye of spatial information for 2–3 h increased subsequent sensory dominance of that eye. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. The present study sought to address this

    更新日期:2020-05-24
  • Probing the mechanisms of probe-mediated binocular rivalry.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Brian A Metzger,Diane M Beck

    Binocular rivalry occurs when incompatible images are presented simultaneously but separately to each eye. Perceptual dominance reverses over time such that one image temporarily dominates perception, while the other image is suppressed. Prior research has shown that briefly-presented probes modulate perception such that probes presented to the suppressed eye tend to produce shorter percept durations

    更新日期:2020-05-20
  • An opponent dual-detector spectral drive model of emmetropization.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Timothy J Gawne,Thomas T Norton
    更新日期:2020-05-19
  • Saccades reset the priority of visual information to access awareness.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Yun Ding,Marnix Naber,Chris L E Paffen,Jasper H Fabius,Stefan Van der Stigchel

    Subjectively, we experience a stable representation of the outside world across saccades. Although previous studies have reported that presaccadically acquired visual information influences postsaccadic perception, whether such information's priority to access visual awareness is either reset by each saccade or continuous across saccades remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we combined a breaking

    更新日期:2020-05-18
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