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  • The conceptual understanding of depth rather than the low-level processing of spatial frequencies drives the corridor illusion
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Gizem Y. Yildiz; Irene Sperandio; Christine Kettle; Philippe A. Chouinard

    Our objective was to determine how different spatial frequencies affect the perceptual size rescaling of stimuli in the corridor illusion. Two experiments were performed using the method of constant stimuli. In experiment 1, the task required participants to compare the size of comparison and standard rings displayed over the same background image. ANOVA on the points of subject equality (PSEs) revealed

  • The meaning and structure of scenes
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Melissa Le-Hoa Võ

    We live in a rich, three dimensional world with complex arrangements of meaningful objects. For decades, however, theories of visual attention and perception have been based on findings generated from lines and color patches. While these theories have been indispensable for our field, the time has come to move on from this rather impoverished view of the world and (at least try to) get closer to the

  • Unmet expectations delay sensory processes
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2021-01-02
    Buse M. Urgen; Huseyin Boyaci

    Expectations strongly affect and shape our perceptual decision-making processes. Specifically, valid expectations speed up perceptual decisions, and determine what we see in a noisy stimulus. Despite the well-established effects of expectations on decision-making, whether and how they affect low-level sensory processes remain elusive. To address this problem, we investigated the effect of expectation

  • A dark decrement for enhanced dynamic sensitivity of retinal photoreceptors
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    Shen Hu; Ivan A. Anastassov; Matthew A. Kreitzer; Malcolm M. Slaughter; Richard L. Chappell

    The skate retina provides a native all-rod retina suited for investigating a single type of photoreceptor regarding its properties and signaling to second order cells. Using the aspartate-induced isolated A-wave of the skate eyecup electroretinogram (ERG), it has been shown that adaptation in rods remains Weber-Fechner-like over a 6-log unit increase in background light intensity. Zinc, which can block

  • The vergence horopter
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-26
    Ashleigh L. Harrold; Philip M. Grove

    The horopter is defined by the criterion with which it is measured; these include the apparent frontoparallel plane, the region of binocular single vision, and identical visual direction. Another criterion is one that “the positions of the points are such that none provides a stimulus for fusional movement of the eyes”. Measuring the horopter using this criterion is the aim of the current paper. Based

  • Degraded visual and auditory input individually impair audiovisual emotion recognition from speech-like stimuli, but no evidence for an exacerbated effect from combined degradation
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Minke J. de Boer; Tim Jürgens; Frans W. Cornelissen; Deniz Başkent

    Emotion recognition requires optimal integration of the multisensory signals from vision and hearing. A sensory loss in either or both modalities can lead to changes in integration and related perceptual strategies. To investigate potential acute effects of combined impairments due to sensory information loss only, we degraded the visual and auditory information in audiovisual video-recordings, and

  • Surface slant impairs disparity discontinuity discrimination
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Ross Goutcher; Laurie M. Wilcox

    Binocular disparity signals are highly informative about the three-dimensional structure of visual scenes, including aiding the detection of depth discontinuities between surfaces. Here, we examine factors affecting sensitivity to such surface discontinuities. Participants were presented with random dot stereograms depicting two planar surfaces slanted in opposite directions and were asked to judge

  • Threshold vision under full-field stimulation: Revisiting the minimum number of quanta necessary to evoke a visual sensation
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Ashim Dey; Andrew J. Zele; Beatrix Feigl; Prakash Adhikari

    At the absolute threshold of vision, Hecht, Shlaer and Pirenne estimate that 5–14 photons are absorbed within a retinal area containing ~500 rods. Other estimates of scotopic threshold vision based on stimuli with different durations and focal areas range up to ~100,000 photons. Given that rod density varies with retinal eccentricity and the magnitude of the intrinsic noise increases with increasing

  • A unified model for binocular fusion and depth perception
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Jian Ding; Dennis M. Levi

    We describe a new unified model to explain both binocular fusion and depth perception, over a broad range of depths. At each location, the model consists of an array of paired spatial frequency filters, with different relative horizontal shifts (position disparity) and interocular phase disparities of 0, 90, ±180, or −90°. The paired filters with different spatial profiles (non-zero phase disparity)

  • Adaptation to geometrically skewed moving images: An asymmetrical effect on the double-drift illusion
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Miguel Garcia Garcia; Katharina Rifai; Siegfried Wahl; Tamara Watson

    Progressive addition lenses introduce distortions in the peripheral visual field that alter both form and motion perception. Here we seek to understand how our peripheral visual field adapts to complex distortions. The adaptation was induced across the visual field by geometrically skewed image sequences, and aftereffects were measured via changes in perception of the double-drift illusion. The double-drift

  • Dyslexia and the magnocellular-parvocellular coactivaton hypothesis
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Ambra Ciavarelli; Giulio Contemori; Luca Battaglini; Michele Barollo; Clara Casco

    Previous studies showed that the lateral masking of a fast-moving low spatial frequency (SF) target was strong when exerted by static flankers of lower or equal to the target SF and absent when flankers’ SF was higher than the target’s one. These masking and unmasking effects have been interpreted as due to Magnocellular-Magnocellular (M-M) inhibition and Parvocellular-on-Magnocellular (P-M) disinhibitory

  • Binocular summation and efficient coding
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Frederick A.A. Kingdom; Philipp Woessner

    Two eyes are better than one at detecting a pattern, an advantage termed binocular summation. It is widely believed that binocular summation is mediated by neurons that sum the two eyes’ inputs. Here we suggest an alternative model based on a model of binocular interactions proposed by Cohn, Leong & Lasley (Vision Research, 1981, 21, 1017–1023) and further motivated by the efficient coding framework

  • Reorganization in the representation of face-race categories from 6 to 9 months of age: Behavioral and computational evidence
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    Paul C. Quinn; Benjamin J. Balas; Olivier Pascalis

    Prior research has reported developmental change in how infants represent categories of other-race faces (Developmental Science 19 (2016) 362–371). In particular, Caucasian 6-month-olds were shown to represent African versus Asian face categories, whereas Caucasian 9 month-olds represented different classes of other-race faces in one category, inclusive of African and Asian faces but exclusive of Caucasian

  • Uncertainty-based overestimation in the perception of group actions
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Mel W. Khaw; Phoebe Nichols; David Freedberg

    Individuals are adept at estimating average properties of group visual stimuli, even following brief presentations. In estimating the directional heading of walking human figures, judgments are biased in a peculiar manner: groups facing intermediate directions are perceived to be more leftward- or rightward-facing than actual averages. This effect was previously explained as a repulsive bias away from

  • Interocular transfer effects of linear perspective cues and texture gradients in the perceptual rescaling of size
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Gizem Y. Yildiz; Irene Sperandio; Christine Kettle; Philippe A. Chouinard

    Our objective was to determine whether the influence of linear perspective cues and texture gradients in the perceptual rescaling of stimulus size transfers from one eye to the other. In experiment 1, we systematically added linear perspective cues and texture gradients in a background image of the corridor illusion. To determine whether perceptual size rescaling takes place at earlier or later stages

  • The size of attentional focus modulates the perception of object location
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-29
    Wladimir Kirsch; Wilfried Kunde

    The present study examined how the size of attended area affects the repulsion of perceived object location from the focus of attention reported previously (attentional repulsion effect). We induced sustained changes in the size of attentional focus and tested the impact of this experimental variation on the perception of object location. The results of three experiments revealed reliable repulsion

  • Number of flankers influences foveal crowding and contour interaction differently
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    František Pluháček; Lenka Musilová; Harold E. Bedell; John Siderov

    Nearby flanking objects degrade visual resolution. If the flankers are similar to the acuity target, this influence is called crowding (CW), whereas if the flanking stimuli are simple bars then the phenomenon is known as contour interaction (CI). The aim of this study was to compare the influence of the number and position of flankers on foveal CW and CI to investigate possible differences in mechanism

  • On the dichromatic object-colour palette
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Alexander D. Logvinenko

    The object- and light-colour palettes prove to be different for both trichromats and dichromats. This explains why there is no consensus on what colours dichromats see, since, until now, studies of dichromatic vision have mainly focused on the light-colour palette. By contrast, this study concentrates on the dichromatic object-colour palette, assuming that it is as much determined by optimal reflectances

  • Orientation-specific long-term neural adaptation of the visual system in keratoconus
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Gareth D. Hastings; Alexander W. Schill; Chuan Hu; Daniel R. Coates; Raymond A. Applegate; Jason D. Marsack

    Eyes with the corneal ectasia keratoconus have performed better than expected (e.g. visual acuity) given their elevated levels of higher-order aberrations that cause rotationally asymmetric retinal blur. Adapted neural processing has been suggested as an explanation but has not been measured across multiple meridional orientations. Using a custom Maxwellian-view laser interferometer to bypass ocular

  • Putative ratios of facial attractiveness in a deep neural network
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Song Tong; Xuefeng Liang; Takatsune Kumada; Sunao Iwaki
  • Blind spot and visual field anisotropy detection with flicker pupil perimetry across brightness and task variations
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Brendan L. Portengen; Carlien Roelofzen; Giorgio L. Porro; Saskia M. Imhof; Alessio Fracasso; Marnix Naber

    The pupil can be used as an objective measure for testing sensitivities across the visual field (pupil perimetry; PP). The recently developed gaze-contingent flicker PP (gcFPP) is a promising novel form of PP, with improved sensitivity due to retinotopically stable and repeated flickering stimulations, in a short time span. As a diagnostic tool gcFPP has not yet been benchmarked in healthy individuals

  • Stereoscopic depth constancy from a different direction
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Robert S. Allison; Laurie M. Wilcox

    To calibrate stereoscopic depth from disparity our visual system must compensate for an object’s egocentric location. Ideally, the perceived three-dimensional shape and size of objects in visual space should be invariant with their location such that rigid objects have a consistent identity and shape. These percepts should be accurate enough to support both perceptual judgments and visually-guided

  • Brightness perception changes related to pupil size
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Unni Sulutvedt; Daniele Zavagno; Jamie Lubell; Siri Leknes; Sigrid A. de Rodez Benavent; Bruno Laeng

    Dilating the pupils allow more quanta of light to impact the retina. Consequently, if one pupil is dilated with a pharmacological agent (Tropicamide), the brightness of a surface under observation should increase proportionally to the pupil dilation. Little is known about causal effects of changes in pupil size on perception of an object’s brightness. In a psychophysical procedure of brightness adjustment

  • False memories for scenes using the DRM paradigm
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Filip Děchtěrenko; Jiří Lukavský; Jiří Štipl

    People are remarkably good at remembering photographs. To further investigate the nature of the stored representations and the fidelity of human memories, it would be useful to evaluate the visual similarity of stimuli presented in experiments. Here, we explored the possible use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) as a measure of perceptual or representational similarity of visual scenes with respect

  • Rapid spatial oculomotor updating across saccades is malleable
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-25
    Jonathan van Leeuwen; Artem V. Belopolsky

    The oculomotor system uses a sophisticated updating mechanism to adjust for large retinal displacements which occur with every saccade. Previous studies have shown that updating operates rapidly and starts before saccade is initiated. Here we used saccade adaptation to alter life-long expectations about how a saccade changes the location of an object on the retina. Participants made a sequence of one

  • Exploring biological motion perception in two-stream convolutional neural networks
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Yujia Peng; Hannah Lee; Tianmin Shu; Hongjing Lu

    Visual recognition of biological motion recruits form and motion processes supported by both dorsal and ventral pathways. This neural architecture inspired the two-stream convolutional neural network (CNN) model, which includes a spatial CNN to process appearance information in a sequence of image frames, a temporal CNN to process optical flow information, and a fusion network to integrate the features

  • Flexible face processing: Holistic processing of facial identity is modulated by task-irrelevant facial expression
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Wei Chen; Olivia S. Cheung

    Holistic processing is a hallmark of face perception and has been observed separately for facial identity and expression. While the identity of a face remains constant regardless of any changes in facial expressions, to what extent is holistic processing of facial identity affected by task-irrelevant facial expressions? If holistic processing is flexible and integrates both identity and expression

  • Visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in children with peripheral visual impairment
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Giulia Purpura; Elena Febbrini Del Magro; Roberto Caputo; Giovanni Cioni; Francesca Tinelli

    It is well known how early visual experience is critical for the development of multisensory processing abilities, and for this reason an early vision impairment could hinder the transfer of different sensory information during the exploration and recognition of the surrounding environment. Recently, we verified that visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition emerges early in typically developing

  • Persistent grasping errors produce depth cue reweighting in perception
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Evan Cesanek; Jordan A. Taylor; Fulvio Domini

    When a grasped object is larger or smaller than expected, haptic feedback automatically recalibrates motor planning. Intriguingly, haptic feedback can also affect 3D shape perception through a process called depth cue reweighting. Although signatures of cue reweighting also appear in motor behavior, it is unclear whether this motor reweighting is the result of upstream perceptual reweighting, or a

  • An independent contribution of colour to the aesthetic preference for paintings
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Anke Marit Albers; Karl R. Gegenfurtner; Sérgio M.C. Nascimento

    Walking around an art museum we can see how colours influence our aesthetic preferences: many great works of art would not be as impressive in grey scales. Is the beauty of colours in abstract paintings anchored to the spatial composition of the paintings, or can it be preserved even with random spatial arrangements? To test whether colour can have an independent contribution to aesthetic appreciation

  • The effect of action on perceptual feature binding
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Inci Ayhan; Melisa Kurtcan; Lucas Thorpe

    Color-motion asynchrony (CMA) refers to an apparent lag of direction of motion when a dynamic stimulus changes both color and direction at the same time. The subjective order of simultaneous events, however, is not only perceptual but also subject to illusions during voluntary actions. Self-initiated actions, for example, seem to precede their sensory outcomes following an adaptation to a delay between

  • Visual and kinesthetic alleys formed with rods
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Atsuki Higashiyama

    Geometries of visual and kinesthetic spaces were estimated by alley experiments. For the visual alley, 24 observers set rods that extended in depth so that they appeared 1) to neither diverge nor converge, 2) to be separated by the same lateral distance, or 3) to be perpendicular to the frontal plane. The separation of rods and the height of the observer’s eyes were varied. Under each instruction,

  • 3D shape-from-shading relies on a light source prior that does not change with age
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Beverley Pickard-Jones; Giovanni d'Avossa; Ayelet Sapir

    The light-from-above prior enables observers to infer an object’s three-dimensional shape-from-shading information. Young, Western adults implicitly assume the light source is placed not only above, but also to the left of, the observer. Previous evidence reached conflicting conclusions regarding the development of the assumed light source direction. In the present study, we measured the light source

  • The response to symmetry in extrastriate areas and its time course are modulated by selective attention
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-26
    Marco Bertamini; Giulia Rampone; John Tyson-Carr; Alexis D.J. Makin

    Neurophysiological studies have shown a strong activation in visual areas in response to symmetry. Electrophysiological (EEG) studies, in particular, have confirmed that amplitude at posterior electrodes is more negative for symmetrical compared to asymmetrical patterns. This response is present even when observers perform tasks that do not require processing of symmetry. In this sense the activation

  • Collinear facilitation and contour integration in autistic adults: Examining lateral and feedback connectivity
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Emma Gowen; Stephen Jachim; Sabrina Subri; Christine Dickinson; Benjamin Hamblin-Pyke; Paul A. Warren

    Alongside difficulties with communication and social interaction, autism is often accompanied by unusual sensory and perceptual experiences including enhanced visual performance on tasks that involve separating local parts from global context. This superiority may be the result of atypical integrative processing, involving feedback and lateral connections between visual neurons. The current study investigated

  • On the relative (un)importance of foveal vision during letter search in naturalistic scenes.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Adam C Clayden,Robert B Fisher,Antje Nuthmann

    The importance of high-acuity foveal vision to visual search can be assessed by denying foveal vision using the gaze-contingent Moving Mask technique. Foveal vision was necessary to attain normal performance when searching for a target letter in alphanumeric displays, Perception & Psychophysics, 62 (2000) 576–585. In contrast, foveal vision was not necessary to correctly locate and identify medium-sized

  • Eccentricity-dependent effects of simultaneous competing defocus on emmetropization in infant rhesus monkeys.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Earl L Smith Iii,Baskar Arumugam,Li-Fang Hung,Zhihui She,Krista Beach,Padmaja Sankaridurg

    Dual-focus lenses that impose simultaneous competing myopic defocus over the entire visual field produce axial hyperopic shifts in refractive error. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of eccentricity on the ability of myopic defocus signals to influence central refractive development in infant monkeys. From 24 to 152 days of age, rhesus monkeys were reared with binocular, dual-focus

  • A decision-time account of individual variability in context-dependent orientation estimation.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Ron Dekel,Dov Sagi

    Following exposure to an oriented stimulus, the perceived orientation is slightly shifted, a phenomenon termed the tilt aftereffect (TAE). This estimation bias, as well as other context-dependent biases, is speculated to reflect statistical mechanisms of inference that optimize visual processing. Importantly, although measured biases are extremely robust in the population, the magnitude of individual

  • Residual contrast response in primary visual cortex of rats with inherited retinal degeneration.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    Ke Chen,Bojun Hou,Yilei Zhao,Peimin Yuan,Dezhong Yao,Leanne Lai Hang Chan

    Rhodopsin S334ter-3 retinal degeneration rats have been widely used to investigate degenerative diseases of the retina. In this model, morphological and electrophysiological changes have been observed in the retina, superior colliculus and primary visual cortex (V1). However, no study so far has examined rhodopsin S334ter-3 rats with regards to their contrast response in V1 — a fundamental property

  • Spatial dynamics of the eggs illusion: Visual field anisotropy and peripheral vision.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    Kun Qian,Hiroyuki Mitsudo

    The eggs illusion is a visual phenomenon in which bright circular patches located at the midpoints between the intersections of a dark grid are perceived as being elongated along the direction orthogonal to the grid line. In the four experiments we report here, we explored the spatial properties of the eggs illusion by manipulating retinal eccentricity and the location of the stimulus in the visual

  • Low-spatial-frequency priming potentiates the high-level mechanisms of contextual influence.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Anqi Wang,Xuhua Hu,Baoyu Wu,Lihong Chen,Wenbo Luo

    The context sensitivity of visual size perception can be enhanced by prior exposure to low-spatial-frequency (LSF) relative to high-spatial-frequency information. Whether LSF priming affects low- or high-level mechanisms of contextual influence remains to be clarified. By using the Ebbinghaus illusion, which is a classic example of context-dependent size perception, we reduced the lightness contrast

  • Color illusions also deceive CNNs for low-level vision tasks: Analysis and implications.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    A Gomez-Villa,A Martín,J Vazquez-Corral,M Bertalmío,J Malo

    The study of visual illusions has proven to be a very useful approach in vision science. In this work we start by showing that, while convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained for low-level visual tasks in natural images may be deceived by brightness and color illusions, some network illusions can be inconsistent with the perception of humans. Next, we analyze where these similarities and differences

  • The role of contrast polarities in binocular luster: Low-level and high-level processes.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Gunnar Wendt,Franz Faul

    The binocular fusion of two center-surround configurations, where one center is brighter, the other darker than the common surround, leads to a strong impression of luster in the central patch. Without reversed contrast polarities of the center patches, this impression is much weaker or even absent. However, we observed that in the latter case the perceived luster can be considerably enhanced by enclosing

  • Watchers do not follow the eye movements of Walkers.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    M Papinutto,J Lao,D Lalanne,R Caldara

    Eye movements are a functional signature of how the visual system effectively decodes and adapts to the environment. However, scientific knowledge in eye movements mostly arises from studies conducted in laboratories, with well-controlled stimuli presented in constrained unnatural settings. Only a few studies have attempted to directly compare and assess whether eye movement data acquired in the real

  • Rethinking amblyopia 2020.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Dennis M Levi

    Recent work has transformed our ideas about the neural mechanisms, behavioral consequences and effective therapies for amblyopia. Since the 1700′s, the clinical treatment for amblyopia has consisted of patching or penalizing the strong eye, to force the “lazy” amblyopic eye, to work. This treatment has generally been limited to infants and young children during a sensitive period of development. Over

  • No effect of feedback, level of processing or stimulus presentation protocol on perceptual learning when easy and difficult trials are interleaved.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Jordi M Asher,Paul B Hibbard

    The role of feedback during training is a topic of great theoretical importance in perceptual learning. Feedback can be provided externally by the environment or internally by the observer. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning with internal versus external feedback, we performed a large multi-level experiment, varying the type of training task (Motion or Form), the level of processing

  • Do eye movements enhance visual memory retrieval?
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Hikari Kinjo,Jolande Fooken,Miriam Spering

    When remembering an object at a given location, participants tend to return their gaze to that location even after the object has disappeared, known as Looking-at-Nothing (LAN). However, it is unclear whether LAN is associated with better memory performance. Previous studies reporting beneficial effects of LAN have often not systematically manipulated or assessed eye movements. We asked 20 participants

  • Can we recognize people based on their body-alone? The roles of body motion and whole person context.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Noa Simhi,Galit Yovel

    While most studies on person recognition examine the face alone, recent studies have shown evidence for the contribution of the body and gait to person recognition beyond the face. Nevertheless, little is known on whether person recognition can be performed based on the body alone. In this study, we examined two sources of information that may enhance body-based person recognition: body motion and

  • Orientation-dependency of perceptual surround suppression and orientation decoding of centre-surround stimuli are preserved with healthy ageing.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-15
    Bao N Nguyen,Yu Man Chan,Stefan Bode,Allison M McKendrick

    A key visual neuronal property that is mirrored in human behaviour is centre-surround contrast suppression, which is orientation-dependent. When a target is embedded in a high-contrast surround, the centre appears reduced in contrast, the magnitude of which depends on the relative orientation between centre and surround. Previous reports demonstrate changes in perceptual surround suppression with ageing;

  • Neural correlates of task-related refixation behavior.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Radha Nila Meghanathan,Cees van Leeuwen,Marcello Giannini,Andrey R Nikolaev

    Eye movement research has shown that attention shifts from the currently fixated location to the next before a saccade is executed. We investigated whether the cost of the attention shift depends on higher-order processing at the time of fixation, in particular on visual working memory load differences between fixations and refixations on task-relevant items. The attention shift is reflected in EEG

  • Are there any 'object detectors' in the hidden layers of CNNs trained to identify objects or scenes?
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    Ella M Gale,Nicholas Martin,Ryan Blything,Anh Nguyen,Jeffrey S Bowers

    Various methods of measuring unit selectivity have been developed with the aim of better understanding how neural networks work. But the different measures provide divergent estimates of selectivity, and this has led to different conclusions regarding the conditions in which selective object representations are learned and the functional relevance of these representations. In an attempt to better characterize

  • Size aftereffect is non-local.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Ecem Altan,Huseyin Boyaci

    It is well known that prolonged exposure to a certain size stimulus alters the perceived size of a subsequently presented stimulus at the same location. How the rest of the visual space is affected by this size adaptation, however, has not been systematically studied before. Here, to fill this gap in literature, we tested size adaptation at the adapter location as well as the rest of the visual space

  • Effects of low intensity ambient lighting on refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Zhihui She,Li-Fang Hung,Baskar Arumugam,Krista M Beach,Earl L Smith

    Studies in chickens suggest low intensity ambient lighting causes myopia. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of low intensity ambient lighting (dim light) on normal refractive development in macaque monkeys. Seven infant rhesus monkeys were reared under dim light (room illumination level: ~55 lx) from 24 to ~310 days of age with otherwise unrestricted vision. Refractive error

  • Modelling binocular disparity processing from statistics in natural scenes.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Tushar Chauhan,Yseult Héjja-Brichard,Benoit R Cottereau

    The statistics of our environment impact not only our behavior, but also the selectivity and connectivity of the early sensory cortices. Over the last fifty years, powerful theories such as efficient coding, sparse coding, and the infomax principle have been proposed to explain the nature of this influence. Numerous computational and theoretical studies have since demonstrated solid, testable evidence

  • The role of hue in visual search for texture differences: Implications for camouflage design.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Geoffrey W Stuart,Dominic Yip,Hinze Hogendoorn

    The purpose of camouflage is to be inconspicuous against a given background. Colour is an important component of camouflage, and the task of designing a single camouflage pattern for use against multiple different backgrounds is particularly challenging. As it is impossible to match the colour gamut of each background exactly, the question arises which colours from the different backgrounds should

  • Integration of contours defined by second-order contrast-modulation of texture.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Alex S Baldwin,Madeleine Kenwood,Robert F Hess

    Boundaries in the visual world can be defined by changes in luminance and texture in the input image. A “contour integration” process joins together local changes into percepts of lines or edges. A previous study tested the integration of contours defined by second-order contrast-modulation. Their contours were placed in a background of random wavelets. Participants performed near chance. We re-visited

  • Angular tuning of tilt illusion depends on stimulus duration.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Saki Takao,Katsumi Watanabe,Colin W G Clifford

    In the tilt illusion, the orientation of a central stimulus appears tilted away from a surrounding stimulus when angular difference is between 0 deg and 50 deg. Studies have repeatedly shown that the tilt illusion exhibits the strongest effect with the angular difference around 15 deg and this angular tuning is robust to various changes in stimulus parameters. We revisited the well-reported angular

  • Amphibious vision - Optical design model of the hooded merganser eye.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Ilka Urban,Xavier Uwurukundo,Daniela Stumpf,Katharina Frey,Andreas Reichenbach,Mike Francke,Robert Brüning,Robert Brunner

    A comprehensive schematic eye model of the hooded merganser is introduced for the first time to advance the understanding of amphibious vision. It is comprised of two different configurations, the first one modeling its visual system in air (unaccommodated state) and the second one representing the case where the eye is immersed in water (accommodated state). The model was designed using available

  • Evidence for different spatiotemporal mechanisms using duration thresholds: An individual differences approach.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Raúl Luna,Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza

    The study of motion perception through classical psychophysical methods has suggested that independent spatiotemporal filters acting over specific locations in retinal images carry out early motion processing. On the other hand, individual differences approaches have been able to identify a structure of spatiotemporal filters too. In this same fashion—through an individual differences approach—the

  • Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination: Location specificity and the uncertain roles of dorsal and ventral areas.
    Vision Res. (IF 2.61) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Xin-Yu Xie,Xing-Nan Zhao,Cong Yu

    One interesting observation of perceptual learning is the asymmetric transfer between stimuli at different external noise levels: learning at zero/low noise can transfer significantly to the same stimulus at high noise, but not vice versa. The mechanisms underlying this asymmetric transfer have been investigated by psychophysical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and computational modeling studies

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