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  • The complete mitochondrial genome of Taxus cuspidata (Taxaceae): eight protein-coding genes have transferred to the nuclear genome
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Sheng-Long Kan; Ting-Ting Shen; Ping Gong; Jin-Hua Ran; Xiao-Quan Wang

    Gymnosperms represent five of the six lineages of seed plants. However, most sequenced plant mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) have been generated for angiosperms, whereas mitogenomic sequences have been generated for only six gymnosperms. In particular, complete mitogenomes are available for all major seed plant lineages except Conifer II (non-Pinaceae conifers or Cupressophyta), an important lineage including six families, which impedes a comprehensive understanding of the mitogenomic diversity and evolution in gymnosperms. Here, we report the complete mitogenome of Taxus cuspidata in Conifer II. In comparison with previously released gymnosperm mitogenomes, we found that the mitogenomes of Taxus and Welwitschia have lost many genes individually, whereas all genes were identified in the mitogenomes of Cycas, Ginkgo and Pinaceae. Multiple tRNA genes and introns also have been lost in some lineages of gymnosperms, similar to the pattern observed in angiosperms. In general, gene clusters could be less conserved in gymnosperms than in angiosperms. Moreover, fewer RNA editing sites were identified in the Taxus and Welwitschia mitogenomes than in other mitogenomes, which could be correlated with fewer introns and frequent gene losses in these two species. We have sequenced the Taxus cuspidata mitogenome, and compared it with mitogenomes from the other four gymnosperm lineages. The results revealed the diversity in size, structure, gene and intron contents, foreign sequences, and mutation rates of gymnosperm mitogenomes, which are different from angiosperm mitogenomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Activity of two key toxin groups in Australian elapid venoms show a strong correlation to phylogeny but not to diet
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Theo Tasoulis; Michael S. Y. Lee; Manon Ziajko; Nathan Dunstan; Joanna Sumner; Geoffrey K. Isbister

    The relative influence of diet and phylogeny on snake venom activity is a poorly understood aspect of snake venom evolution. We measured the activity of two enzyme toxin groups – phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) – in the venom of 39 species of Australian elapids (40% of terrestrial species diversity) and used linear parsimony and BayesTraits to investigate any correlation between enzyme activity and phylogeny or diet. PLA2 activity ranged from 0 to 481 nmol/min/mg of venom, and LAAO activity ranged from 0 to 351 nmol/min/mg. Phylogenetic comparative methods, implemented in BayesTraits showed that enzyme activity was strongly correlated with phylogeny, more so for LAAO activity. For example, LAAO activity was absent in both the Vermicella and Pseudonaja/Oxyuranus clade, supporting previously proposed relationships among these disparate taxa. There was no association between broad dietary categories and either enzyme activity. There was strong evidence for faster initial rates of change over evolutionary time for LAAO (delta parameter mean 0.2), but no such pattern in PLA2 (delta parameter mean 0.64). There were some exceptions to the phylogenetic patterns of enzyme activity: different PLA2 activity in the ecologically similar sister-species Denisonia devisi and D. maculata; large inter-specific differences in PLA2 activity in Hoplocephalus and Austrelaps. We have shown that phylogeny is a stronger influence on venom enzyme activity than diet for two of the four major enzyme families present in snake venoms. PLA2 and LAAO activities had contrasting evolutionary dynamics with the higher delta value for PLA2 Some species/individuals lacked activity in one protein family suggesting that the loss of single protein family may not incur a significant fitness cost.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Fruit syndromes in Viburnum: correlated evolution of color, nutritional content, and morphology in bird-dispersed fleshy fruits
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Miranda A. Sinnott-Armstrong; Chong Lee; Wendy L. Clement; Michael J. Donoghue

    A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit traits have evolved across the clade. We find that blue Viburnum fruits are not very juicy, and have high lipid content and large, round endocarps surrounded by a small quantity of pulp. Red fruits display the opposite suite of traits: they are very juicy with low lipid content and smaller, flatter endocarps. The ancestral Viburnum fruit may have gone through a sequence of color changes before maturation (green to yellow to red to black), though our reconstructions are equivocal. In one major clade of Viburnum (Nectarotinus), fruits mature synchronously with reduced intermediate color stages. Most transitions between fruit colors occurred in this synchronously fruiting clade. It is widely accepted that fruit trait diversity has primarily been driven by the differing perceptual abilities of bird versus mammal frugivores. Yet within a clade of largely bird-dispersed fruits, we find clear correlations between color, morphology, and nutrition. These correlations are likely driven by a shift from sequential to synchronous development, followed by diversification in color, nutrition, and morphology. A deeper understanding of fruit evolution within clades will elucidate the degree to which such syndromes structure extant fruit diversity.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • How long do Red Queen dynamics survive under genetic drift? A comparative analysis of evolutionary and eco-evolutionary models
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Hanna Schenk; Hinrich Schulenburg; Arne Traulsen

    Red Queen dynamics are defined as long term co-evolutionary dynamics, often with oscillations of genotype abundances driven by fluctuating selection in host-parasite systems. Much of our current understanding of these dynamics is based on theoretical concepts explored in mathematical models that are mostly (i) deterministic, inferring an infinite population size and (ii) evolutionary, thus ecological interactions that change population sizes are excluded. Here, we recall the different mathematical approaches used in the current literature on Red Queen dynamics. We then compare models from game theory (evo) and classical theoretical ecology models (eco-evo), that are all derived from individual interactions and are thus intrinsically stochastic. We assess the influence of this stochasticity through the time to the first loss of a genotype within a host or parasite population. The time until the first genotype is lost (“extinction time”), is shorter when ecological dynamics, in the form of a changing population size, is considered. Furthermore, when individuals compete only locally with other individuals extinction is even faster. On the other hand, evolutionary models with a fixed population size and competition on the scale of the whole population prolong extinction and therefore stabilise the oscillations. The stabilising properties of intra-specific competitions become stronger when population size is increased and the deterministic part of the dynamics gain influence. In general, the loss of genotype diversity can be counteracted with mutations (or recombination), which then allow the populations to recurrently undergo negative frequency-dependent selection dynamics and selective sweeps. Although the models we investigated are equal in their biological motivation and interpretation, they have diverging mathematical properties both in the derived deterministic dynamics and the derived stochastic dynamics. We find that models that do not consider intraspecific competition and that include ecological dynamics by letting the population size vary, lose genotypes – and thus Red Queen oscillations – faster than models with competition and a fixed population size.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Adaptive divergence in shell morphology in an ongoing gastropod radiation from Lake Malawi
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Bert Van Bocxlaer; Claudia M. Ortiz-Sepulveda; Pieter R. Gurdebeke; Xavier Vekemans

    Ecological speciation is a prominent mechanism of diversification but in many evolutionary radiations, particularly in invertebrates, it remains unclear whether supposedly critical ecological traits drove or facilitated diversification. As a result, we lack accurate knowledge on the drivers of diversification for most evolutionary radiations along the tree of life. Freshwater mollusks present an enigmatic example: Putatively adaptive radiations are being described in various families, typically from long-lived lakes, whereas other taxa represent celebrated model systems in the study of ecophenotypic plasticity. Here we examine determinants of shell-shape variation in three nominal species of an ongoing ampullariid radiation in the Malawi Basin (Lanistes nyassanus, L. solidus and Lanistes sp. (ovum-like)) with a common garden experiment and semi-landmark morphometrics. We found significant differences in survival and fecundity among these species in contrasting habitats. Morphological differences observed in the wild persisted in our experiments for L. nyassanus versus L. solidus and L. sp. (ovum-like), but differences between L. solidus and L. sp. (ovum-like) disappeared and re-emerged in the F1 and F2 generations, respectively. These results indicate that plasticity occurred, but that it is not solely responsible for the observed differences. Our experiments provide the first unambiguous evidence for genetic divergence in shell morphology in an ongoing freshwater gastropod radiation in association with marked fitness differences among species under controlled habitat conditions. Our results indicate that differences in shell morphology among Lanistes species occupying different habitats have an adaptive value. These results also facilitate an accurate reinterpretation of morphological variation in fossil Lanistes radiations, and thus macroevolutionary dynamics. Finally, our work testifies that the shells of freshwater gastropods may retain signatures of adaptation at low taxonomic levels, beyond representing an evolutionary novelty responsible for much of the diversity and disparity in mollusks altogether.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The transcriptional correlates of divergent electric organ discharges in Paramormyrops electric fish
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mauricio Losilla; David Michael Luecke; Jason R. Gallant

    Understanding the genomic basis of phenotypic diversity can be greatly facilitated by examining adaptive radiations with hypervariable traits. In this study, we focus on a rapidly diverged species group of mormyrid electric fish in the genus Paramormyrops, which are characterized by extensive phenotypic variation in electric organ discharges (EODs). The main components of EOD diversity are waveform duration, complexity and polarity. Using an RNA-sequencing based approach, we sought to identify gene expression correlates for each of these EOD waveform features by comparing 11 specimens of Paramormyrops that exhibit variation in these features. Patterns of gene expression among Paramormyrops are highly correlated, and 3274 genes (16%) were differentially expressed. Using our most restrictive criteria, we detected 145–183 differentially expressed genes correlated with each EOD feature, with little overlap between them. The predicted functions of several of these genes are related to extracellular matrix, cation homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins. These genes are of significant interest given the known morphological differences between electric organs that underlie differences in the EOD waveform features studied. In this study, we identified plausible candidate genes that may contribute to phenotypic differences in EOD waveforms among a rapidly diverged group of mormyrid electric fish. These genes may be important targets of selection in the evolution of species-specific differences in mate-recognition signals.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Fossils from South China redefine the ancestral euarthropod body plan
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Cédric Aria; Fangchen Zhao; Han Zeng; Jin Guo; Maoyan Zhu

    Early Cambrian Lagerstätten from China have greatly enriched our perspective on the early evolution of animals, particularly arthropods. However, recent studies have shown that many of these early fossil arthropods were more derived than previously thought, casting uncertainty on the ancestral euarthropod body plan. In addition, evidence from fossilized neural tissues conflicts with external morphology, in particular regarding the homology of the frontalmost appendage. Here we redescribe the multisegmented megacheirans Fortiforceps and Jianfengia and describe Sklerolibyon maomima gen. et sp. nov., which we place in Jianfengiidae, fam. nov. (in Megacheira, emended). We find that jianfengiids show high morphological diversity among megacheirans, both in trunk ornamentation and head anatomy, which encompasses from 2 to 4 post-frontal appendage pairs. These taxa are also characterized by elongate podomeres likely forming seven-segmented endopods, which were misinterpreted in their original descriptions. Plesiomorphic traits also clarify their connection with more ancestral taxa. The structure and position of the “great appendages” relative to likely sensory antero-medial protrusions, as well as the presence of optic peduncles and sclerites, point to an overall homology with the anterior head of radiodontans. This is confirmed by our Bayesian phylogeny, which places jianfengiids as the basalmost euarthropods, paraphyletic with other megacheirans, and in contiguity with isoxyids and radiodontans. Sklerolibyon and other jianfengiids expand the disparity of megacheirans and suggest that the common euarthropod ancestor possessed a remarkable phenotypic variability associated with the externalized cephalon, as well as endopods that were already heptopodomerous, which differs from previous hypotheses and observations. These animals also demonstrate that the frontalmost pair of arthrodized appendage is homologous between radiodontans and megacheirans, refuting the claim that the radiodontan frontal appendages evolved into the euarthropod labrum, and questioning its protocerebral identity. This evidence based on external anatomy now constitutes a solid benchmark upon which we should address issues of homology, with the help of carefully examined palaeoneurological data.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Genetic diversity of a widespread annual killifish from coastal Tanzania
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Veronika Bartáková; Béla Nagy; Matej Polačik; Radim Blažek; Hieromin Lamtane; Martin Reichard

    African annual killifishes (Nothobranchius spp.) are adapted to seasonally desiccating habitats (ephemeral pools), surviving dry periods as dormant eggs. Given their peculiar life history, geographic aspects of their diversity uniquely combine patterns typical for freshwater taxa (river basin structure and elevation gradient) and terrestrial animals (rivers acting as major dispersal barriers). However, our current knowledge on fine-scale inter-specific and intra-specific genetic diversity of African annual fish is limited to a single, particularly dry region of their distribution (subtropical Mozambique). Using a widespread annual killifish from coastal Tanzania and Kenya, we tested whether the same pattern of genetic divergence pertains to a wet equatorial region in the centre of Nothobranchius distribution. In populations of Nothobranchius melanospilus species group across its range, we genotyped a part of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (83 individuals from 22 populations) and 10 nuclear microsatellite markers (251 individuals from 16 populations). We found five lineages with a clear phylogeographic structure but frequent secondary contact. Mitochondrial lineages were largely congruent with main population genetic clusters identified on microsatellite markers. In the upper Wami basin, populations are isolated as a putative Nothobranchius prognathus, but include also a population from a periphery of the middle Ruvu basin. Other four lineages (including putative Nothobranchius kwalensis) coexisted in secondary contact zones, but possessed clear spatial pattern. Main river channels did not form apparent barriers to dispersal. The most widespread lineage had strong signal of recent population expansion. We conclude that dispersal of a Nothobranchius species from a wet part of the genus distribution (tropical lowland) is not constrained by main river channels and closely related lineages frequently coexist in secondary contact zones. We also demonstrate contemporary connection between the Ruvu and Rufiji river basins. Our data do not provide genetic support for existence of recently described cryptic species from N. melanospilus complex, but cannot resolve this issue.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Characterizing the ribosomal tandem repeat and its utility as a DNA barcode in lichen-forming fungi
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Michael Bradshaw; Felix Grewe; Anne Thomas; Cody H. Harrison; Hanna Lindgren; Lucia Muggia; Larry L. St. Clair; H. Thorsten Lumbsch; Steven D. Leavitt

    Regions within the nuclear ribosomal operon are a major tool for inferring evolutionary relationships and investigating diversity in fungi. In spite of the prevalent use of ribosomal markers in fungal research, central features of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) evolution are poorly characterized for fungi in general, including lichenized fungi. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nrDNA has been adopted as the primary DNA barcode identification marker for fungi. However, little is known about intragenomic variation in the nrDNA in symbiotic fungi. In order to better understand evolution of nrDNA and the utility of the ITS region for barcode identification of lichen-forming fungal species, we generated nearly complete nuclear ribosomal operon sequences from nine species in the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species complex using short reads from high-throughput sequencing. We estimated copy numbers for the nrDNA operon, ranging from nine to 48 copies for members of this complex, and found low levels of intragenomic variation in the standard barcode region (ITS). Monophyly of currently described species in this complex was supported in phylogenetic inferences based on the ITS, 28S, intergenic spacer region, and some intronic regions, independently; however, a phylogenetic inference based on the 18S provided much lower resolution. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated ITS and intergenic spacer sequence data generated from 496 specimens collected worldwide revealed previously unrecognized lineages in the nrDNA phylogeny. The results from our study support the general assumption that the ITS region of the nrDNA is an effective barcoding marker for fungi. For the R. melanophthalma group, the limited amount of potential intragenomic variability in the ITS region did not correspond to fixed diagnostic nucleotide position characters separating taxa within this species complex. Previously unrecognized lineages inferred from ITS sequence data may represent undescribed species-level lineages or reflect uncharacterized aspects of nrDNA evolution in the R. melanophthalma species complex.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Living on the edge: comparative phylogeography and phylogenetics of Oreohelix land snails at their range edge in Western Canada
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Z. W. Dempsey; C. P. Goater; T. M. Burg

    The biodiversity and distributions of terrestrial snails at local and regional scales are influenced by their low vagility and microhabitat specificity. The accessibility of large-bodied species and their characteristically high levels of genetic polymorphism make them excellent ecological and evolutionary models for studies on the phylogeography, phylogenetics, and conservation of organisms in fragmented populations. This study aims to elucidate the biodiversity, systematics, and distributions of genetic lineages within the genus Oreohelix at the northern and western periphery of their range. We found four mitochondrial clades, three of which are putative subspecies of Oreohelix subrudis. One clade was geographically widespread, occurring within numerous sites in Cypress Hills and in the Rocky Mountains, a second was geographically restricted to the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, and a third was restricted to the Cypress Hills region. A fourth clade was the small-bodied species, O. cooperi. ITS2 sequence and screening data revealed three genetic clusters, of which one was O. cooperi. Cluster 1 contained most individuals in COI clade X and some from clade B and cluster 2 was predominantly made up of individuals from COI clades B and B′ and a few from clade X. ITS2 alleles were shared in a narrow contact zone between two COI clades, suggestive of hybridization between the two. A sky island known as Cypress Hills, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, is a biodiversity hotspot for terrestrial land snails in the genus Oreohelix. The observed phylogeographic patterns likely reflect reproductive isolation during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by secondary contact due to passive, long-range dispersal resulting from low vagility, local adaptation, and complex glacial history.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • The geography of evolutionary divergence in the highly endemic avifauna from the Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Alberto Rocha-Méndez; Luis A. Sánchez-González; Clementina González; Adolfo G. Navarro-Sigüenza

    Mesoamerica is a remarkable region with a high geological and ecological complexity. Within northern Mesoamerica, the biotic province of the Sierra Madre del Sur (SMS) in southwestern Mexico harbors exceptionally high avian endemism and diversity. Herein, we searched for spatially and temporally concordant phylogeographic patterns, in four bird genera from three distinct avian orders co-distributed across Mesoamerica and investigated their causes through hypothesis testing regarding historical processes. Selected species include endemic and differentiated populations across the montane forests of Mesoamerica, and particularly within the SMS. We gathered mitochondrial DNA sequences for at least one locus from 177 individuals across all species. We assessed genetic structure, demographic history, and defined a framework for the coalescent simulations used in biogeographic hypothesis testing temporal and spatial co-variance. Our analyses suggested shared phylogeographic breaks in areas corresponding to the SMS populations, and between the main montane systems in Mesoamerica, with the Central Valley of Oaxaca and the Nicaragua Depression being the most frequently shared breaks among analyzed taxa. Nevertheless, dating analyses and divergence patterns observed were consistent with the hypothesis of broad vicariance across Mesoamerica derived from mechanisms operating at distinct times across taxa in the SMS. Our study provides a framework for understanding the evolutionary origins and historical factors enhancing speciation in well-defined regions within Mesoamerica, indicating that the evolutionary history of extant biota inhabiting montane forests is complex and often idiosyncratic.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Morphology and evolutionary significance of phosphatic otoliths within the inner ears of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Lisa Schnetz; Cathrin Pfaff; Eugen Libowitzky; Zerina Johanson; Rica Stepanek; Jürgen Kriwet

    Chondrichthyans represent a monophyletic group of crown group gnathostomes and are central to our understanding of vertebrate evolution. Like all vertebrates, cartilaginous fishes evolved concretions of material within their inner ears to aid with equilibrium and balance detection. Up to now, these materials have been identified as calcium carbonate-bearing otoconia, which are small bio-crystals consisting of an inorganic mineral and a protein, or otoconial masses (aggregations of otoconia bound by an organic matrix), being significantly different in morphology compared to the singular, polycrystalline otolith structures of bony fishes, which are solidified bio-crystals forming stony masses. Reinvestigation of the morphological and chemical properties of these chondrichthyan otoconia revises our understanding of otolith composition and has implications on the evolution of these characters in both the gnathostome crown group, and cartilaginous fishes in particular. Dissections of Amblyraja radiata, Potamotrygon leopoldi, and Scyliorhinus canicula revealed three pairs of singular polycrystalline otolith structures with a well-defined morphology within their inner ears, as observed in bony fishes. IR spectroscopy identified the material to be composed of carbonate/collagen-bearing apatite in all taxa. These findings contradict previous hypotheses suggesting these otoconial structures were composed of calcium carbonate in chondrichthyans. A phylogenetic mapping using 37 chondrichthyan taxa further showed that the acquisition of phosphatic otolith structures might be widespread within cartilaginous fishes. Differences in the size and shape of otoliths between taxa indicate a taxonomic signal within elasmobranchs. Otoliths made of carbonate/collagen-bearing apatite are reported for the first time in chondrichthyans. The intrinsic pathways to form singular, polycrystalline otoliths may represent the plesiomorphic condition for vertebrates but needs further testing. Likewise, the phosphatic composition of otoliths in early vertebrates such as cyclostomes and elasmobranchs is probably closely related to the lack of bony tissue in these groups, supporting a close relationship between skeletal tissue mineralization patterns and chemical otolith composition, underlined by physiological constraints.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The phylogenetic significance of the morphology of the syrinx, hyoid and larynx, of the southern cassowary, Casuarius casuarius (Aves, Palaeognathae)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Phoebe L. McInerney; Michael S. Y. Lee; Alice M. Clement; Trevor H. Worthy

    Palaeognathae is a basal clade within Aves and include the large and flightless ratites and the smaller, volant tinamous. Although much research has been conducted on various aspects of palaeognath morphology, ecology, and evolutionary history, there are still areas which require investigation. This study aimed to fill gaps in our knowledge of the Southern Cassowary, Casuarius casuarius, for which information on the skeletal systems of the syrinx, hyoid and larynx is lacking - despite these structures having been recognised as performing key functional roles associated with vocalisation, respiration and feeding. Previous research into the syrinx and hyoid have also indicated these structures to be valuable for determining evolutionary relationships among neognath taxa, and thus suggest they would also be informative for palaeognath phylogenetic analyses, which still exhibits strong conflict between morphological and molecular trees. The morphology of the syrinx, hyoid and larynx of C. casuarius is described from CT scans. The syrinx is of the simple tracheo-bronchial syrinx type, lacking specialised elements such as the pessulus; the hyoid is relatively short with longer ceratobranchials compared to epibranchials; and the larynx is comprised of entirely cartilaginous, standard avian anatomical elements including a concave, basin-like cricoid and fused cricoid wings. As in the larynx, both the syrinx and hyoid lack ossification and all three structures were most similar to Dromaius. We documented substantial variation across palaeognaths in the skeletal character states of the syrinx, hyoid, and larynx, using both the literature and novel observations (e.g. of C. casuarius). Notably, new synapomorphies linking Dinornithiformes and Tinamidae are identified, consistent with the molecular evidence for this clade. These shared morphological character traits include the ossification of the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages, and an additional cranial character, the articulation between the maxillary process of the nasal and the maxilla. Syrinx, hyoid and larynx characters of palaeognaths display greater concordance with molecular trees than do other morphological traits. These structures might therefore be less prone to homoplasy related to flightlessness and gigantism, compared to typical morphological traits emphasised in previous phylogenetic studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Modelling the evolution of cognitive styles
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Jannis Liedtke; Lutz Fromhage

    Individuals consistently differ in behaviour, exhibiting so-called personalities. In many species, individuals differ also in their cognitive abilities. When personalities and cognitive abilities occur in distinct combinations, they can be described as ‘cognitive styles’. Both empirical and theoretical investigations produced contradicting or mixed results regarding the complex interplay between cognitive styles and environmental conditions. Here we use individual-based simulations to show that, under just slightly different environmental conditions, different cognitive styles exist and under a variety of conditions, can also co-exist. Co-existences are based on individual specialization on different resources, or, more generally speaking, on individuals adopting different niches or microhabitats. The results presented here suggest that in many species, individuals of the same population may adopt different cognitive styles. Thereby the present study may help to explain the variety of styles described in previous studies and why different, sometimes contradicting, results have been found under similar conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Russell J. S. Orr; Marianne N. Haugen; Björn Berning; Philip Bock; Robyn L. Cumming; Wayne K. Florence; Masato Hirose; Emanuela Di Martino; Mali H. Ramsfjell; Maja M. Sannum; Abigail M. Smith; Leandro M. Vieira; Andrea Waeschenbach; Lee Hsiang Liow

    Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among species is one of the main goals of systematic biology. Simultaneously, credible phylogenetic hypotheses are often the first requirement for unveiling the evolutionary history of traits and for modelling macroevolutionary processes. However, many non-model taxa have not yet been sequenced to an extent such that statistically well-supported molecular phylogenies can be constructed for these purposes. Here, we use a genome-skimming approach to extract sequence information for 15 mitochondrial and 2 ribosomal operon genes from the cheilostome bryozoan family, Adeonidae, Busk, 1884, whose current systematics is based purely on morphological traits. The members of the Adeonidae are, like all cheilostome bryozoans, benthic, colonial, marine organisms. Adeonids are also geographically widely-distributed, often locally common, and are sometimes important habitat-builders. We successfully genome-skimmed 35 adeonid colonies representing 6 genera (Adeona, Adeonellopsis, Bracebridgia, Adeonella, Laminopora and Cucullipora). We also contributed 16 new, circularised mitochondrial genomes to the eight previously published for cheilostome bryozoans. Using the aforementioned mitochondrial and ribosomal genes, we inferred the relationships among these 35 samples. Contrary to some previous suggestions, the Adeonidae is a robustly supported monophyletic clade. However, the genera Adeonella and Laminopora are in need of revision: Adeonella is polyphyletic and Laminopora paraphyletically forms a clade with some Adeonella species. Additionally, we assign a sequence clustering identity using cox1 barcoding region of 99% at the species and 83% at the genus level. We provide sequence data, obtained via genome-skimming, that greatly increases the resolution of the phylogenetic relationships within the adeonids. We present a highly-supported topology based on 17 genes and substantially increase availability of circularised cheilostome mitochondrial genomes, and highlight how we can extend our pipeline to other bryozoans.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Molecular differentiation of the Murraya paniculata Complex (Rutaceae: Aurantioideae: Aurantieae)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Chung Huy Nguyen; G. Andrew C. Beattie; Anthony M. Haigh; Inggit Puji Astuti; David J. Mabberley; Peter H. Weston; Paul Holford

    Orange jasmine has a complex nomenclatural history and is now known as Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. Our interest in this common ornamental stemmed from the need to resolve its identity and the identities of closely related taxa as hosts of the pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and its vector Diaphorina citri. Understanding these microbe-vector-plant relationships has been hampered by taxonomic confusion surrounding Murraya at both the generic and specific levels. To resolve the taxonomic uncertainty, six regions of the maternally-inherited chloroplastal genome and part of the nuclear-encoded ITS region were amplified from 85 accessions of Murraya and Merrillia using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clustering used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Chronograms were produced for molecular dating, and to test the monophyly of Murraya rigorously, using selected accessions of Murraya and 26 accessions of the Rutaceae and Simarubaceae. Sequence data from the ITS and chloroplastal regions suggest that Murraya paniculata (sensu (Swingle WT and Reece CR, The Citrus Industry, p. 190–430, 1967)) can be separated into four distinct but morphologically somewhat cryptic taxa: Murraya paniculata (sensu (Mabberley DJ, Taxon 65:366–371, 2016)), M. elongata, M. sumatrana and M. lucida. In addition, Murraya omphalocarpa was identified as a putative hybrid of M. paniculata and M. lucida with two geographically isolated nothovarieties representing reciprocal crosses. Murraya is monophyletic, and molecular dating suggests that it diverged from Merrillia during the Miocene (23–5 Ma) with this Murraya group speciating and dispersing during the Middle Miocene onwards. The accessions from Asia and Australasia used in this study grouped into biogeographical regions that match herbarium specimen records for the taxa that suggest natural allopatric distributions with limited overlap and hybridity. Murraya paniculata has been distributed around the world as an ornamental plant. The division of the Murraya paniculata complex into four species with a rare hybrid also confirms morphological studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Phenotypic plasticity of natural Populus trichocarpa populations in response to temporally environmental change in a common garden
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Yang Liu; Yousry A. El-Kassaby

    Natural selection on fitness-related traits can be temporally heterogeneous among populations. As climate changes, understanding population-level responses is of scientific and practical importance. We examined 18 phenotypic traits associated with phenology, biomass, and ecophysiology in 403 individuals of natural Populus trichocarpa populations, growing in a common garden. Compared with tree origin settings, propagules likely underwent drought exposures in the common garden due to significantly low rainfall during the years of measurement. All study traits showed population differentiation reflecting adaptive responses due to local genetic adaptation. Phenology and biomass traits were strongly under selection and showed plastic responses between years, co-varying with latitude. While phenological events (e.g., bud set and growth period) and biomass were under positive directional selection, post-bud set period, particularly from final bud set to the onset of leaf drop, was selected against. With one exception to water-use efficiency, ecophysiology traits were under negative directional selection. Moreover, extended phenological events jointly evolved with source niches under increased temperature and decreased rainfall exposures. High biomass coevolved with climatic niches of high temperature; low rainfall promoted high photosynthetic rates evolution. This work underpins that P. trichocarpa is likely to experience increased fitness (height gain) by evolving toward extended bud set and growth period, abbreviated post-bud set period, and increased drought resistance, potentially constituting a powerful mechanism for long-lived tree species in surviving unpredictably environmental extremes (e.g., drought).

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The ability of single genes vs full genomes to resolve time and space in outbreak analysis
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Gytis Dudas; Trevor Bedford

    Inexpensive pathogen genome sequencing has had a transformative effect on the field of phylodynamics, where ever increasing volumes of data have promised real-time insight into outbreaks of infectious disease. As well as the sheer volume of pathogen isolates being sequenced, the sequencing of whole pathogen genomes, rather than select loci, has allowed phylogenetic analyses to be carried out at finer time scales, often approaching serial intervals for infections caused by rapidly evolving RNA viruses. Despite its utility, whole genome sequencing of pathogens has not been adopted universally and targeted sequencing of loci is common in some pathogen-specific fields. In this study we highlighted the utility of sequencing whole genomes of pathogens by re-analysing a well-characterised collection of Ebola virus sequences in the form of complete viral genomes (≈19 kb long) or the rapidly evolving glycoprotein (GP, ≈2 kb long) gene. We have quantified changes in phylogenetic, temporal, and spatial inference resolution as a result of this reduction in data and compared these to theoretical expectations. We propose a simple intuitive metric for quantifying temporal resolution, i.e. the time scale over which sequence data might be informative of various processes as a quick back-of-the-envelope calculation of statistical power available to molecular clock analyses.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Neutral genomic signatures of host-parasite coevolution
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Daniel živković; Sona John; Mélissa Verin; Wolfgang Stephan; Aurélien Tellier

    Coevolution is a selective process of reciprocal adaptation in hosts and parasites or in mutualistic symbionts. Classic population genetics theory predicts the signatures of selection at the interacting loci of both species, but not the neutral genome-wide polymorphism patterns. To bridge this gap, we build an eco-evolutionary model, where neutral genomic changes over time are driven by a single selected locus in hosts and parasites via a simple biallelic gene-for-gene or matching-allele interaction. This coevolutionary process may lead to cyclic changes in the sizes of the interacting populations. We investigate if and when these changes can be observed in the site frequency spectrum of neutral polymorphisms from host and parasite full genome data. We show that changes of the host population size are too smooth to be observable in its polymorphism pattern over the course of time. Conversely, the parasite population may undergo a series of strong bottlenecks occurring on a slower relative time scale, which may lead to observable changes in a time series sample. We also extend our results to cases with 1) several parasites per host accelerating relative time, and 2) multiple parasite generations per host generation slowing down rescaled time. Our results show that time series sampling of host and parasite populations with full genome data are crucial to understand if and how coevolution occurs. This model provides therefore a framework to interpret and draw inference from genome-wide polymorphism data of interacting species.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Influence of environmental factors on the genetic variation of the aquatic macrophyte Ranunculus subrigidus on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Zhigang Wu; Xinwei Xu; Juan Zhang; Gerhard Wiegleb; Hongwei Hou

    Due to the environmental heterogeneity along elevation gradients, alpine ecosystems are ideal study objects for investigating how ecological variables shape the genetic patterns of natural species. The highest region in the world, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a hotspot for the studies of evolutionary processes in plants. Many large rivers spring from the plateau, providing abundant habitats for aquatic and amphibious organisms. In the present study, we examined the genetic diversity of 13 Ranunculus subrigidus populations distributed throughout the plateau in order to elucidate the relative contribution of geographic distance and environmental dissimilarity to the spatial genetic pattern. A relatively low level of genetic diversity within populations was found. No spatial genetic structure was suggested by the analyses of molecular variance, Bayesian clustering analysis and Mantel tests. Partial Mantel tests and multiple matrix regression analysis showed a significant influence of the environment on the genetic divergence of the species. Both climatic and water quality variables contribute to the habitat heterogeneity of R. subrigidus populations. Our results suggest that historical processes involving long-distance dispersal and local adaptation may account for the genetic patterns of R. subrigidus and current environmental factors play an important role in the genetic differentiation and local adaptation of aquatic plants in alpine landscapes.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Variability of mitochondrial ORFans hints at possible differences in the system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria among families of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Davide Guerra; Manuel Lopes-Lima; Elsa Froufe; Han Ming Gan; Paz Ondina; Rafaela Amaro; Michael W. Klunzinger; Claudia Callil; Vincent Prié; Arthur E. Bogan; Donald T. Stewart; Sophie Breton

    Supernumerary ORFan genes (i.e., open reading frames without obvious homology to other genes) are present in the mitochondrial genomes of gonochoric freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida) showing doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria. DUI is a system in which distinct female-transmitted and male-transmitted mitotypes coexist in a single species. In families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae, the transition from dioecy to hermaphroditism and the loss of DUI appear to be linked, and this event seems to affect the integrity of the ORFan genes. These observations led to the hypothesis that the ORFans have a role in DUI and/or sex determination. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are however scarce for most families of freshwater mussels, therefore hindering a clear localization of DUI in the various lineages and a comprehensive understanding of the influence of the ORFans on DUI and sexual systems. Therefore, we sequenced and characterized eleven new mitogenomes from poorly sampled freshwater mussel families to gather information on the evolution and variability of the ORFan genes and their protein products. We obtained ten complete plus one almost complete mitogenome sequence from ten representative species (gonochoric and hermaphroditic) of families Margaritiferidae, Hyriidae, Mulleriidae, and Iridinidae. ORFan genes are present only in DUI species from Margaritiferidae and Hyriidae, while non-DUI species from Hyriidae, Iridinidae, and Mulleriidae lack them completely, independently of their sexual system. Comparisons among the proteins translated from the newly characterized ORFans and already known ones provide evidence of conserved structures, as well as family-specific features. The ORFan proteins show a comparable organization of secondary structures among different families of freshwater mussels, which supports a conserved physiological role, but also have distinctive family-specific features. Given this latter observation and the fact that the ORFans can be either highly mutated or completely absent in species that secondarily lost DUI depending on their respective family, we hypothesize that some aspects of the connection among ORFans, sexual systems, and DUI may differ in the various lineages of unionids.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Correction to: Multiple selective sweeps of ancient polymorphisms in and around LTα located in the MHC class III region on chromosome 6
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Michael C. Campbell; Bryan Ashong; Shaolei Teng; Jayla Harvey; Christopher N. Cross

    After publication of our article [1] we were notified that a few duplicate sentences were included on Figure 3 and Figure 4 legends.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • 3D shape analyses of extant primate and fossil hominin vertebrae support the ancestral shape hypothesis for intervertebral disc herniation
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Kimberly A. Plomp; Keith Dobney; Darlene A. Weston; Una Strand Viðarsdóttir; Mark Collard

    Recently we proposed an evolutionary explanation for a spinal pathology that afflicts many people, intervertebral disc herniation (Plomp et al. [2015] BMC Evolutionary Biology 15, 68). Using 2D data, we found that the bodies and pedicles of lower vertebrae of pathological humans were more similar in shape to those of chimpanzees than were those of healthy humans. Based on this, we hypothesized that some individuals are more prone to intervertebral disc herniation because their vertebrae exhibit ancestral traits and therefore are less well adapted for the stresses associated with bipedalism. Here, we report a study in which we tested this “Ancestral Shape Hypothesis” with 3D data from the last two thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae of pathological Homo sapiens, healthy H. sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and several extinct hominins. We found that the pathological and healthy H. sapiens vertebrae differed significantly in shape, and that the pathological H. sapiens vertebrae were closer in shape to the P. troglodytes vertebrae than were the healthy H. sapiens vertebrae. Additionally, we found that the pathological human vertebrae were generally more similar in shape to the vertebrae of the extinct hominins than were the healthy H. sapiens vertebrae. These results are consistent with the predictions of the Ancestral Shape Hypothesis. Several vertebral traits were associated with disc herniation, including a vertebral body that is both more circular and more ventrally wedged, relatively short pedicles and laminae, relatively long, more cranio-laterally projecting transverse processes, and relatively long, cranially-oriented spinous processes. We found that there are biomechanical and comparative anatomical reasons for suspecting that all of these traits are capable of predisposing individuals to intervertebral disc herniation. The results of the present study add weight to the hypothesis that intervertebral disc herniation in H. sapiens is connected with vertebral shape. Specifically, they suggest that individuals whose vertebrae are towards the ancestral end of the range of shape variation within H. sapiens have a greater propensity to develop the condition than other individuals. More generally, the study shows that evolutionary thinking has the potential to shed new light on human skeletal pathologies.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Low adaptive potential for tolerance to ethynylestradiol, but also low toxicity, in a grayling population (Thymallus thymallus)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Lucas Marques da Cunha; Diane Maitre; Claus Wedekind

    The presence of a novel pollutant can induce rapid evolution if there is additive genetic variance for the tolerance to the stressor. Continuous selection over some generations can then reduce the toxicity of the pollutant but also deplete the additive genetic variance for the tolerance and thereby slow down adaptation. One common pollutant that has been ecologically relevant for some time is 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic compound of oral contraceptives since their market launch in the 1960s. EE2 is typically found in higher concentrations in rivers than in lakes. Recent experimental work revealed significant genetic variance for the tolerance to EE2 in two lake-spawning salmonid species but no such variance in river-spawning brown trout. We used another river-spawning salmonid, the European grayling Thymallus thymallus, to study the toxicity of an ecologically relevant concentration of EE2. We also used a full-factorial in vitro breeding design and singly rearing of 1555 embryos and larvae of 40 sib groups to test whether there is additive genetic variance for the tolerance to this pollutant. We found that exposure to EE2 reduced larval growth after hatching, but contrary to what has been found in the other salmonids, there were no significant effects of EE2 on embryo growth and survival. We found additive genetic variance for embryo viability, i.e. heritability for fitness. However, there was no significant additive variance for the tolerance to EE2. Our findings support the hypothesis that continuous selection has reduced the toxicity of EE2 and depleted genetic variance for tolerance to this synthetic stressor.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • tRNA functional signatures classify plastids as late-branching cyanobacteria
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Travis J Lawrence; Katherine CH Amrine; Wesley D Swingley; David H Ardell

    Eukaryotes acquired the trait of oxygenic photosynthesis through endosymbiosis of the cyanobacterial progenitor of plastid organelles. Despite recent advances in the phylogenomics of Cyanobacteria, the phylogenetic root of plastids remains controversial. Although a single origin of plastids by endosymbiosis is broadly supported, recent phylogenomic studies are contradictory on whether plastids branch early or late within Cyanobacteria. One underlying cause may be poor fit of evolutionary models to complex phylogenomic data. Using Posterior Predictive Analysis, we show that recently applied evolutionary models poorly fit three phylogenomic datasets curated from cyanobacteria and plastid genomes because of heterogeneities in both substitution processes across sites and of compositions across lineages. To circumvent these sources of bias, we developed CYANO-MLP, a machine learning algorithm that consistently and accurately phylogenetically classifies (“phyloclassifies”) cyanobacterial genomes to their clade of origin based on bioinformatically predicted function-informative features in tRNA gene complements. Classification of cyanobacterial genomes with CYANO-MLP is accurate and robust to deletion of clades, unbalanced sampling, and compositional heterogeneity in input tRNA data. CYANO-MLP consistently classifies plastid genomes into a late-branching cyanobacterial sub-clade containing single-cell, starch-producing, nitrogen-fixing ecotypes, consistent with metabolic and gene transfer data. Phylogenomic data of cyanobacteria and plastids exhibit both site-process heterogeneities and compositional heterogeneities across lineages. These aspects of the data require careful modeling to avoid bias in phylogenomic estimation. Furthermore, we show that amino acid recoding strategies may be insufficient to mitigate bias from compositional heterogeneities. However, the combination of our novel tRNA-specific strategy with machine learning in CYANO-MLP appears robust to these sources of bias with high accuracy in phyloclassification of cyanobacterial genomes. CYANO-MLP consistently classifies plastids as late-branching Cyanobacteria, consistent with independent evidence from signature-based approaches and some previous phylogenetic studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Leaps and bounds: geographical and ecological distance constrained the colonisation of the Afrotemperate by Erica
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Michael D. Pirie; Martha Kandziora; Nicolai M. Nürk; Nicholas C. Le Maitre; Ana Mugrabi de Kuppler; Berit Gehrke; Edward G. H. Oliver; Dirk U. Bellstedt

    The coincidence of long distance dispersal (LDD) and biome shift is assumed to be the result of a multifaceted interplay between geographical distance and ecological suitability of source and sink areas. Here, we test the influence of these factors on the dispersal history of the flowering plant genus Erica (Ericaceae) across the Afrotemperate. We quantify similarity of Erica climate niches per biogeographic area using direct observations of species, and test various colonisation scenarios while estimating ancestral areas for the Erica clade using parametric biogeographic model testing. We infer that the overall dispersal history of Erica across the Afrotemperate is the result of infrequent colonisation limited by geographic proximity and niche similarity. However, the Drakensberg Mountains represent a colonisation sink, rather than acting as a “stepping stone” between more distant and ecologically dissimilar Cape and Tropical African regions. Strikingly, the most dramatic examples of species radiations in Erica were the result of single unique dispersals over longer distances between ecologically dissimilar areas, contradicting the rule of phylogenetic biome conservatism. These results highlight the roles of geographical and ecological distance in limiting LDD, but also the importance of rare biome shifts, in which a unique dispersal event fuels evolutionary radiation.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Phylogenetic signals in pest abundance and distribution range of spider mites
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Peng-Yu Jin; Jing-Tao Sun; Ary Hoffmann; Yan-Fei Guo; Jin-Cheng Zhou; Yu-Xi Zhu; Lei Chen; Xiao-Yue Hong

    Attributes of pest species like host range are frequently reported as being evolutionarily constrained and showing phylogenetic signal. Because these attributes in turn could influence the abundance and impact of species, phylogenetic information could be useful in predicting the likely status of pests. In this study, we used regional (China) and global datasets to investigate phylogenetic patterns in occurrence patterns and host ranges of spider mites, which constitute a pest group of many cropping systems worldwide. We found significant phylogenetic signal in relative abundance and distribution range both at the regional and global scales. Relative abundance and range size of spider mites were positively correlated with host range, although these correlations became weaker after controlling for phylogeny. The results suggest that pest impacts are evolutionarily constrained. Information that is easily obtainable – including the number of known hosts and phylogenetic position of the mites – could therefore be useful in predicting future pest risk of species.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Analysis of substitution rates showed that TLR5 is evolving at different rates among mammalian groups
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Ana Pinheiro; Ana Águeda-Pinto; José Melo-Ferreira; Fabiana Neves; Joana Abrantes; Pedro J. Esteves

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most widely studied innate immunity receptors responsible for recognition of invading pathogens. Among the TLR family, TLR5 is the only that senses and recognizes flagellin, the major protein of bacterial flagella. TLR5 has been reported to be under overall purifying selection in mammals, with a small proportion of codons under positive selection. However, the variation of substitution rates among major mammalian groups has been neglected. Here, we studied the evolution of TLR5 in mammals, comparing the substitution rates among groups. In this study we analysed the TLR5 substitution rates in Euungulata, Carnivora, Chiroptera, Primata, Rodentia and Lagomorpha, groups. For that, Tajima’s relative rate test, Bayesian inference of evolutionary rates and genetic distances were estimated with CODEML’s branch model and RELAX. The combined results showed that in the Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Carnivora and Chiroptera lineages TLR5 is evolving at a higher substitution rate. The RELAX analysis further suggested a significant relaxation of selective pressures for the Lagomorpha (K = 0.22, p < 0.01), Rodentia (K = 0.58, p < 0.01) and Chiroptera (K = 0.65, p < 0.01) lineages and for the Carnivora ancestral branches (K = 0.13, p < 0.01). Our results show that the TLR5 substitution rate is not uniform among mammals. In fact, among the different mammal groups studied, the Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Carnivora and Chiroptera are evolving faster. This evolutionary pattern could be explained by 1) the acquisition of new functions of TLR5 in the groups with higher substitution rate, i.e. TLR5 neofunctionalization, 2) by the beginning of a TLR5 pseudogenization in these groups due to some redundancy between the TLRs genes, or 3) an arms race between TLR5 and species-specific parasites.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Multiple selective sweeps of ancient polymorphisms in and around LTα located in the MHC class III region on chromosome 6
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Michael C. Campbell; Bryan Ashong; Shaolei Teng; Jayla Harvey; Christopher N. Cross

    Lymphotoxin-α (LTα), located in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6, encodes a cytotoxic protein that mediates a variety of antiviral responses among other biological functions. Furthermore, several genotypes at this gene have been implicated in the onset of a number of complex diseases, including myocardial infarction, autoimmunity, and various types of cancer. However, little is known about levels of nucleotide variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in and near LTα, which could also influence phenotypic variance. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined sequence variation across ~ 10 kilobases (kbs), encompassing LTα and the upstream region, in 2039 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project originating from 21 global populations. Here, we observed striking patterns of diversity, including an excess of intermediate-frequency alleles, the maintenance of multiple common haplotypes and a deep coalescence time for variation (dating > 1.0 million years ago), in global populations. While these results are generally consistent with a model of balancing selection, we also uncovered a signature of positive selection in the form of long-range LD on chromosomes with derived alleles primarily in Eurasian populations. To reconcile these findings, which appear to support different models of selection, we argue that selective sweeps (particularly, soft sweeps) of multiple derived alleles in and/or near LTα occurred in non-Africans after their ancestors left Africa. Furthermore, these targets of selection were predicted to alter transcription factor binding site affinity and protein stability, suggesting they play a role in gene function. Additionally, our data also showed that a subset of these functional adaptive variants are present in archaic hominin genomes. Overall, this study identified candidate functional alleles in a biologically-relevant genomic region, and offers new insights into the evolutionary origins of these loci in modern human populations.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • PhySpeTree: an automated pipeline for reconstructing phylogenetic species trees
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yang Fang; Chengcheng Liu; Jiangyi Lin; Xufeng Li; Kambiz N. Alavian; Yi Yang; Yulong Niu

    Phylogenetic species trees are widely used in inferring evolutionary relationships. Existing software and algorithms mainly focus on phylogenetic inference. However, less attention has been paid to intermediate steps, such as processing extremely large sequences and preparing configure files to connect multiple software. When the species number is large, the intermediate steps become a bottleneck that may seriously affect the efficiency of tree building. Here, we present an easy-to-use pipeline named PhySpeTree to facilitate the reconstruction of species trees across bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic organisms. Users need only to input the abbreviations of species names; PhySpeTree prepares complex configure files for different software, then automatically downloads genomic data, cleans sequences, and builds trees. PhySpeTree allows users to perform critical steps such as sequence alignment and tree construction by adjusting advanced options. PhySpeTree provides two parallel pipelines based on concatenated highly conserved proteins and small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences, respectively. Accessory modules, such as those for inserting new species, generating visualization configurations, and combining trees, are distributed along with PhySpeTree. Together with accessory modules, PhySpeTree significantly simplifies tree reconstruction. PhySpeTree is implemented in Python running on modern operating systems (Linux, macOS, and Windows). The source code is freely available with detailed documentation (https://github.com/yangfangs/physpetools).

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Human-specific mutations in VMAT1 confer functional changes and multi-directional evolution in the regulation of monoamine circuits
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Daiki X. Sato; Yuu Ishii; Tomoaki Nagai; Kazumasa Ohashi; Masakado Kawata

    Neurochemicals like serotonin and dopamine play crucial roles in human cognitive and emotional functions. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) transports monoamine neurotransmitters, and its variant (136Thr) is associated with various psychopathological symptoms and reduced monoamine uptake relative to 136Ile. We previously showed that two human-specific amino acid substitutions (Glu130Gly and Asn136Thr/Ile) of VMAT1 were subject to positive natural selection. However, the potential functional alterations caused by these substitutions (Glu130Gly and Asn136Thr) remain unclear. To assess functional changes in VMAT1 from an evolutionary perspective, we reconstructed ancestral residues and examined the role of these substitutions in monoamine uptake in vitro using fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFN), which are newly developed substances used to quantitatively assay VMATs. Immunoblotting confirmed that all the transfected YFP-VMAT1 variants are properly expressed in HEK293T cells at comparable levels, and no significant difference was seen in the density and the size of vesicles among them. Our fluorescent assays revealed a significant difference in FFN206 uptake among VMAT1 variants: 130Glu/136Asn, 130Glu/136Thr, and 130Gly/136Ile showed significantly higher levels of FFN206 uptake than 130Gly/136Asn and 130Gly/136Thr, indicating that both 130Glu and 136Ile led to increased neurotransmitter uptake, for which 136Thr and 136Asn were comparable by contrast. These findings suggest that monoamine uptake by VMAT1 initially declined (from 130Glu/136Asn to 130Gly/136Thr) in human evolution, possibly resulting in higher susceptibility to the external environment of our ancestors.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Evolutionary patterns of diadromy in fishes: more than a transitional state between marine and freshwater
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Joel B. Corush

    Across the tree of life there are numerous evolutionary transitions between different habitats (i.e., aquatic and terrestrial or marine and freshwater). Many of these dramatic evolutionary shifts parallel developmental shifts that require physiological, anatomical and behavioral changes for survival and reproduction. Diadromy (scheduled movement between marine and freshwater) has been characterized as a behavior that acts as an evolutionary intermediate state between marine and freshwater environments, implying that diadromous lineages are evolutionarily transient. This hypothesis comes with assumptions regarding the rates of evolutionary transitions in and out of diadromy as well as rates of speciation and extinction in diadromous fishes. Based on a published phylogeny of 7822 species of ray-finned fishes, state speciation and extinction models of evolutionary transition between marine, freshwater, and diadromous species suggest transition rates out of diadromy are 5–100 times higher that transition between marine and freshwater or into diadromy. Additionally, high speciation and low extinction rates separate diadromous fishes from marine and freshwater species. As a result, net diversification (net diversification = speciation – extinction) is about 7–40 times higher in diadromous fishes compared to freshwater and marine respectively. Together the transition, speciation, and extinction rates suggest diadromy is the least stable of the three states. Evolutionary transitions to diadromy are rare in fishes. However, once established, diversification rates in diadromous lineages are high compared to both marine and freshwater species. Diadromous lineages tend to be more transient than marine or freshwater lineages and are found to give rise to marine and freshwater specialists in addition to diadromous descendants. Although diadromy is not a necessary evolutionary intermediate between marine and freshwater, these results support the interpretation of diadromy as an important, occasionally intermediate state, that contributes to biodiversity in fishes in all environments. This evolutionary instability of diadromous lineages is counteracted by their relatively high diversification rates. These findings highlight the importance of integrating the dynamics of diversification and major evolutionary transitions for understanding macroevolutionary patterns.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A little bit of sex prevents mutation accumulation even in apomictic polyploid plants
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Ladislav Hodač; Simone Klatt; Diego Hojsgaard; Timothy F. Sharbel; Elvira Hörandl

    In the absence of sex and recombination, genomes are expected to accumulate deleterious mutations via an irreversible process known as Muller’s ratchet, especially in the case of polyploidy. In contrast, no genome-wide mutation accumulation was detected in a transcriptome of facultative apomictic, hexaploid plants of the Ranunculus auricomus complex. We hypothesize that mutations cannot accumulate in flowering plants with facultative sexuality because sexual and asexual development concurrently occurs within the same generation. We assume a strong effect of purging selection on reduced gametophytes in the sexual developmental pathway because previously masked recessive deleterious mutations would be exposed to selection. We test this hypothesis by modeling mutation elimination using apomictic hexaploid plants of the R. auricomus complex. To estimate mean recombination rates, the mean number of recombinants per generation was calculated by genotyping three F1 progeny arrays with six microsatellite markers and character incompatibility analyses. We estimated the strength of purging selection in gametophytes by calculating abortion rates of sexual versus apomictic development at the female gametophyte, seed and offspring stage. Accordingly, we applied three selection coefficients by considering effects of purging selection against mutations on (1) male and female gametophytes in the sexual pathway (additive, s = 1.000), (2) female gametophytes only (s = 0.520), and (3) on adult plants only (sporophytes, s = 0.212). We implemented recombination rates into a mathematical model considering the three different selection coefficients, and a genomic mutation rate calculated from genome size of our plants and plant-specific mutation rates. We revealed a mean of 6.05% recombinants per generation. This recombination rate eliminates mutations after 138, 204 or 246 generations, depending on the respective selection coefficients (s = 1.000, 0.520, and 0.212). Our results confirm that the empirically observed frequencies of facultative recombination suffice to prevent accumulation of deleterious mutations via Muller’s ratchet even in a polyploid genome. The efficiency of selection is in flowering plants strongly increased by acting on the haplontic (reduced) gametophyte stage.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Molecular phylogenetics of the African horseshoe bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae): expanded geographic and taxonomic sampling of the Afrotropics
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Terrence C. Demos; Paul W. Webala; Steven M. Goodman; Julian C. Kerbis Peterhans; Michael Bartonjo; Bruce D. Patterson

    The Old World insectivorous bat genus Rhinolophus is highly speciose. Over the last 15 years, the number of its recognized species has grown from 77 to 106, but knowledge of their interrelationships has not kept pace. Species limits and phylogenetic relationships of this morphologically conservative group remain problematic due both to poor sampling across the Afrotropics and to repeated instances of mitochondrial-nuclear discordance. Recent intensive surveys in East Africa and neighboring regions, coupled with parallel studies by others in West Africa and in Southern Africa, offer a new basis for understanding its evolutionary history. We investigated phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific genetic variation in the Afro-Palearctic clade of Rhinolophidae using broad sampling. We sequenced mitochondrial cytochrome-b (1140 bp) and four independent and informative nuclear introns (2611 bp) for 213 individuals and incorporated sequence data from 210 additional individuals on GenBank that together represent 24 of the 33 currently recognized Afrotropical Rhinolophus species. We addressed the widespread occurrence of mito-nuclear discordance in Rhinolophus by inferring concatenated and species tree phylogenies using only the nuclear data. Well resolved mitochondrial, concatenated nuclear, and species trees revealed phylogenetic relationships and population structure of the Afrotropical species and species groups. Multiple well-supported and deeply divergent lineages were resolved in each of the six African Rhinolophus species groups analyzed, suggesting as many as 12 undescribed cryptic species; these include several instances of sympatry among close relatives. Coalescent lineage delimitation offered support for new undescribed lineages in four of the six African groups in this study. On the other hand, two to five currently recognized species may be invalid based on combined mitochondrial and/or nuclear phylogenetic analyses. Validation of these cryptic lineages as species and formal relegation of current names to synonymy will require integrative taxonomic assessments involving morphology, ecology, acoustics, distribution, and behavior. The resulting phylogenetic framework offers a powerful basis for addressing questions regarding their ecology and evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Genetic variation at MHC class II loci influences both olfactory signals and scent discrimination in ring-tailed lemurs
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Kathleen E. Grogan; Rachel L. Harris; Marylène Boulet; Christine M. Drea

    Diversity at the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is critical to health and fitness, such that MHC genotype may predict an individual’s quality or compatibility as a competitor, ally, or mate. Moreover, because MHC products can influence the components of bodily secretions, an individual’s body odors may signal its MHC composition and influence partner identification or mate choice. Here, we investigated MHC-based signaling and recipient sensitivity by testing for odor-gene covariance and behavioral discrimination of MHC diversity and pairwise dissimilarity in a strepsirrhine primate, the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). First, we coupled genotyping of the MHC class II gene, DRB, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of genital gland secretions to investigate if functional genetic diversity is signaled by the chemical diversity of lemur scent secretions. We also assessed if the chemical similarity between individuals correlated with their MHC-DRB similarity. Next, we assessed if lemurs discriminated this chemically encoded, genetic information in opposite-sex conspecifics. We found that both sexes signaled overall MHC-DRB diversity and pairwise MHC-DRB similarity via genital secretions, but in a sex- and season-dependent manner. Additionally, the sexes discriminated absolute and relative MHC-DRB diversity in the genital odors of opposite-sex conspecifics, suggesting that lemur genital odors function to advertise genetic quality. In summary, genital odors of ring-tailed lemurs provide honest information about an individual’s absolute and relative MHC quality. Complementing evidence in humans and Old World monkeys, we suggest that reliance on scent signals to communicate MHC quality may be important across the primate lineage.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Somatic maintenance impacts the evolution of mutation rate
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Andrii Rozhok; James DeGregori

    The evolution of multi-cellular animals has produced a conspicuous trend toward increased body size. This trend has introduced at least two novel problems: an expected elevated risk of somatic disorders, such as cancer, and declining evolvability due to generally reduced population size, lower reproduction rate and extended generation time. Low population size is widely recognized to explain the high mutation rates in animals by limiting the presumed universally negative selection acting on mutation rates. Here, we present evidence from stochastic modeling that the direction and strength of selection acting on mutation rates is highly dependent on the evolution of somatic maintenance, and thus longevity, which modulates the cost of somatic mutations. We argue that the impact of the evolution of longevity on mutation rates may have been critical in facilitating animal evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The anatomy and development of the nervous system in Magelonidae (Annelida) – insights into the evolution of the annelid brain
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Patrick Beckers; Conrad Helm; Thomas Bartolomaeus

    The annelid anterior central nervous system is often described to consist of a dorsal prostomial brain, consisting of several commissures and connected to the ventral ganglionic nerve cord via circumesophageal connectives. In the light of current molecular phylogenies, our assumptions on the primary design of the nervous system in Annelida has to be reconsidered. For that purpose we provide a detailed investigation of the adult nervous system of Magelonidae – a putatively basally branching annelid family - and studied early stages of the development of the latter. Our comparative investigation using an integrative morphological approach shows that the nervous system of Magelonidae is located inside the epidermis. The brain is composed of an anterior compact neuropil and posteriorly encircles the prostomial coelomic cavities. From the brain two lateral medullary cords branch off which fuse caudally. Prominent brain structures such as nuchal organs, ganglia or mushroom bodies are absent and the entire nervous system is medullary. Our investigations also contradict previous investigations and present an updated view on established assumptions and descriptions. The comprehensive dataset presented herein enables a detailed investigation of the magelonid anterior central nervous system for the first time. The data reveal that early in annelid evolution complexity of brains and anterior sensory structures rises. Polymorphic neurons in clusters and distinct brain parts, as well as lateral organs - all of which are not present in outgroup taxa and in the putative magelonid sister group Oweniidae - already evolved in Magelonidae. Commissures inside the brain, ganglia and nuchal organs, however, most likely evolved in the stem lineage of Amphinomidae + Sipuncula and Pleistoannelida (Errantia+ Sedentaria). The investigation demonstrates the necessity to continuously question established descriptions and interpretations of earlier publications and the need for transparent datasets. Our results also hint towards a stronger inclusion of larval morphology and developmental investigations in order to understand adult morphological features, not only in Annelida.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Characterization of the melanopsin gene (Opn4x) of diurnal and nocturnal snakes
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Einat Hauzman; Venkatasushma Kalava; Daniela Maria Oliveira Bonci; Dora Fix Ventura

    A number of non-visual responses to light in vertebrates, such as circadian rhythm control and pupillary light reflex, are mediated by melanopsins, G-protein coupled membrane receptors, conjugated to a retinal chromophore. In non-mammalian vertebrates, melanopsin expression is variable within the retina and extra-ocular tissues. Two paralog melanopsin genes were classified in vertebrates, Opn4x and Opn4m. Snakes are highly diversified vertebrates with a wide range of daily activity patterns, which raises questions about differences in structure, function and expression pattern of their melanopsin genes. In this study, we analyzed the melanopsin genes expressed in the retinas of 18 snake species from three families (Viperidae, Elapidae, and Colubridae), and also investigated extra-retinal tissue expression. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the amplified gene belongs to the Opn4x group, and no expression of the Opn4m was found. The same paralog is expressed in the iris, but no extra-ocular expression was detected. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that melanopsins are evolving primarily under strong purifying selection, although lower evolutionary constraint was detected in snake lineages (ω = 0.2), compared to non-snake Opn4x and Opn4m (ω = 0.1). Statistical analysis of selective constraint suggests that snake phylogenetic relationships have driven stronger effects on melanopsin evolution, than the species activity pattern. In situ hybridization revealed the presence of melanopsin within cells in the outer and inner nuclear layers, in the ganglion cell layer, and intense labeling in the optic nerve. The loss of the Opn4m gene and extra-ocular photosensitive tissues in snakes may be associated with a prolonged nocturnal/mesopic bottleneck in the early history of snake evolution. The presence of melanopsin-containing cells in all retinal nuclear layers indicates a globally photosensitive retina, and the expression in classic photoreceptor cells suggest a regionalized co-expression of melanopsin and visual opsins.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Elevated mutation rates are unlikely to evolve in sexual species, not even under rapid environmental change
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Daniel Romero-Mujalli; Florian Jeltsch; Ralph Tiedemann

    Organisms are expected to respond to changing environmental conditions through local adaptation, range shift or local extinction. The process of local adaptation can occur by genetic changes or phenotypic plasticity, and becomes especially relevant when dispersal abilities or possibilities are somehow constrained. For genetic changes to occur, mutations are the ultimate source of variation and the mutation rate in terms of a mutator locus can be subject to evolutionary change. Recent findings suggest that the evolution of the mutation rate in a sexual species can advance invasion speed and promote adaptation to novel environmental conditions. Following this idea, this work uses an individual-based model approach to investigate if the mutation rate can also evolve in a sexual species experiencing different conditions of directional climate change, under different scenarios of colored stochastic environmental noise, probability of recombination and of beneficial mutations. The color of the noise mimicked investigating the evolutionary dynamics of the mutation rate in different habitats. The results suggest that the mutation rate in a sexual species experiencing directional climate change scenarios can evolve and reach relatively high values mainly under conditions of complete linkage of the mutator locus and the adaptation locus. In contrast, when they are unlinked, the mutation rate can slightly increase only under scenarios where at least 50% of arising mutations are beneficial and the rate of environmental change is relatively fast. This result is robust under different scenarios of stochastic environmental noise, which supports the observation of no systematic variation in the mutation rate among organisms experiencing different habitats. Given that 50% beneficial mutations may be an unrealistic assumption, and that recombination is ubiquitous in sexual species, the evolution of an elevated mutation rate in a sexual species experiencing directional climate change might be rather unlikely. Furthermore, when the percentage of beneficial mutations and the population size are small, sexual species (especially multicellular ones) producing few offspring may be expected to react to changing environments not by adaptive genetic change, but mainly through plasticity. Without the ability for a plastic response, such species may become – at least locally – extinct.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Convergent reduction of V1R genes in subterranean rodents
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Hengwu Jiao; Wei Hong; Eviatar Nevo; Kexin Li; Huabin Zhao

    Vomeronasal type 1 receptor genes (V1Rs) are expected to detect intraspecific pheromones. It is believed that rodents rely heavily on pheromonal communication mediated by V1Rs, but pheromonal signals are thought to be confined in subterranean rodents that live in underground burrows. Thus, subterranean rodents may show a contrasting mode of V1R evolution compared with their superterranean relatives. We examined the V1R evolution in subterranean rodents by analyzing currently available genomes of 24 rodents, including 19 superterranean and 5 subterranean species from three independent lineages. We identified a lower number of putatively functional V1R genes in each subterranean rodent (a range of 22–40) compared with superterranean species (a range of 63–221). After correcting phylogenetic inertia, the positive correlation remains significant between the small V1R repertoire size and the subterranean lifestyle. To test whether V1Rs have been relaxed from functional constraints in subterranean rodents, we sequenced 22 intact V1Rs in 29 individuals of one subterranean rodent (Spalax galili) from two soil populations, which have been proposed to undergo incipient speciation. We found 12 of the 22 V1Rs to show significant genetic differentiations between the two natural populations, indicative of diversifying selection. Our study demonstrates convergent reduction of V1Rs in subterranean rodents from three independent lineages. Meanwhile, it is noteworthy that most V1Rs in the two Spalax populations are under diversifying selection rather than relaxed selection, suggesting that functional constraints on these genes may have retained in some subterranean species.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Multiple convergent events created a nominal widespread species: Triplophysa stoliczkae (Steindachner, 1866) (Cobitoidea: Nemacheilidae)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Chenguang Feng; Yongtao Tang; Sijia Liu; Fei Tian; Cunfang Zhang; Kai Zhao

    Triplophysa stoliczkae is the most widespread species in the genus Triplophysa and may have originated from morphological convergence. To understand the evolutionary history of T. stoliczkae, we employed a multilocus approach to investigate the phylogenetics and the morphological evolution of T. stoliczkae on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. All phylogenetic analyses (two mitochondrial and five nuclear loci), a genealogical sorting index and species tree inferences suggested that T. stoliczkae consists of distinct lineages that were not closest relatives. The time estimation indicated that the divergence events between “T. stoliczkae” and other Triplophysa species occurred from approximately 0.10 to 4.51 Ma. The ancestral state analyses supported the independent evolution of T. stoliczkae morphology in distinct lineages. The morphometric analysis and convergence estimates demonstrated significant phenotypic convergence among “T. stoliczkae” lineages. Triplophysa stoliczkae includes 4 different lineages with similar morphologies. The increasingly harsh environments that have occurred since the Pliocene have driven the occurrences of scrape-feeding fish in the genus Triplophysa. Morphological adaptations associated with scrape-feeding behavior resulted in convergences and the artificial lumping of four different species in the nominal taxon T. stoliczkae. A taxonomic revision for T. stoliczkae is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The first known fossil Uma: ecological evolution and the origins of North American fringe-toed lizards
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Simon G. Scarpetta

    Fossil evidence suggests that extant North American lizard genera (north of Mexico) evolved during the Miocene. Although fossils of the clade Phrynosomatidae (spiny lizards and sand lizards) have been reported, there have been no previously described fossils of the fringe-toed sand lizards (Uma). In the extant biota, Uma inhabit arid deserts, and members of the western clade of Uma are restricted to sand dunes or other habitats containing fine-grained sand. I describe the first known fossil of Uma and refer the fossil to the total clade of Uma with an apomorphy-based diagnosis. The fossil is a partial premaxilla that was found in the Miocene strata of the Dove Spring Formation of southern California, dating to 8.77 Ma. The paleoenvironment of the Dove Spring Formation was semiarid and contained ephemeral streams that facilitated deposition, and there is no evidence of sand dune deposits in the strata containing the locality from which the Uma fossil was found. Divergence time analyses of a concatenated molecular dataset with four fossil calibrations support a Neogene origin of the total clade of Uma and of the crown clade of Uma. Those analyses also estimated a Neogene divergence between Uma scoparia and the Uma notata complex. Multispecies coalescent analyses with one fossil calibration inferred a Paleogene origin for the total clade of Uma and a Pliocene or Pleistocene divergence between Uma scoparia and the Uma notata complex. The fossil and the total and crown clades of Uma precede the evolution of modern desert ecosystems in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico by millions of years. The total clade and the crown clade of Uma were not restricted to arid deserts throughout their evolutionary histories. I demonstrate that an apomorphy-based diagnosis can be used to identify fossils of isolated skeletal elements for at least one clade of phrynosomatid lizard, and suggest exercising caution when using environmental tolerances of extant taxa to hypothesize paleoecological reconstructions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of transition to a subterranean lifestyle on morphological disparity and integration in talpid moles (Mammalia, Talpidae)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Gabriele Sansalone; Paolo Colangelo; Anna Loy; Pasquale Raia; Stephen Wroe; Paolo Piras

    Understanding the mechanisms promoting or constraining morphological diversification within clades is a central topic in evolutionary biology. Ecological transitions are of particular interest because of their influence upon the selective forces and factors involved in phenotypic evolution. Here we focused on the humerus and mandibles of talpid moles to test whether the transition to the subterranean lifestyle impacted morphological disparity and phenotypic traits covariation between these two structures. Our results indicate non-subterranean species occupy a significantly larger portion of the talpid moles morphospace. However, there is no difference between subterranean and non-subterranean moles in terms of the strength and direction of phenotypic integration. Our study shows that the transition to a subterranean lifestyle significantly reduced morphological variability in talpid moles. However, this reduced disparity was not accompanied by changes in the pattern of traits covariation between the humerus and the mandible, suggesting the presence of strong phylogenetic conservatism within this pattern.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A newly discovered radiation of endoparasitic gastropods and their coevolution with asteroid hosts in Antarctica
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Kara K. S. Layton; Greg W. Rouse; Nerida G. Wilson

    Marine invertebrates are abundant and diverse on the continental shelf in Antarctica, but little is known about their parasitic counterparts. Endoparasites are especially understudied because they often possess highly modified body plans that pose problems for their identification. Asterophila, a genus of endoparasitic gastropod in the family Eulimidae, forms cysts in the arms and central discs of asteroid sea stars. There are currently four known species in this genus, one of which has been described from the Antarctic Peninsula (A. perknasteri). This study employs molecular and morphological data to investigate the diversity of Asterophila in Antarctica and explore cophylogenetic patterns between host and parasite. A maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Asterophila and subsequent species-delimitation analysis uncovered nine well-supported putative species, eight of which are new to science. Most Asterophila species were found on a single host species, but four species were found on multiple hosts from one or two closely related genera, showing phylogenetic conservatism of host use. Both distance-based and event-based cophylogenetic analyses uncovered a strong signal of coevolution in this system, but most associations were explained by non-cospeciation events. The prevalence of duplication and host-switching events in Asterophila and its asteroid hosts suggests that synchronous evolution may be rare even in obligate endoparasitic systems. The apparent restricted distribution of Asterophila from around the Scotia Arc may be an artefact of concentrated sampling in the area and a low obvious prevalence of infection. Given the richness of parasites on a global scale, their role in promoting host diversification, and the threat of their loss through coextinction, future work should continue to investigate parasite diversity and coevolution in vulnerable ecosystems.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Satellites in the prokaryote world
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Juan A. Subirana; Xavier Messeguer

    Satellites or tandem repeats are very abundant in many eukaryotic genomes. Occasionally they have been reported to be present in some prokaryotes, but to our knowledge there is no general comparative study on their occurrence. For this reason we present here an overview of the distribution and properties of satellites in a set of representative species. Our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary relationship between eukaryotes, Archaea and Bacteria. We have searched all possible satellites present in the NCBI reference group of genomes in Archaea (142 species) and in Bacteria (119 species), detecting 2735 satellites in Archaea and 1067 in Bacteria. We have found that the distribution of satellites is very variable in different organisms. The archaeal Methanosarcina class stands out for the large amount of satellites in their genomes. Satellites from a few species have similar characteristics to those in eukaryotes, but most species have very few satellites: only 21 species in Archaea and 18 in Bacteria have more than 4 satellites/Mb. The distribution of satellites in these species is reminiscent of what is found in eukaryotes, but we find two significant differences: most satellites have a short length and many of them correspond to segments of genes coding for amino acid repeats. Transposition of non-coding satellites throughout the genome occurs rarely: only in the bacteria Leptospira interrogans and the archaea Methanocella conradii we have detected satellite families of transposed satellites with long repeats. Our results demonstrate that the presence of satellites in the genome is not an exclusive feature of eukaryotes. We have described a few prokaryotes which do contain satellites. We present a discussion on their eventual evolutionary significance.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phylogenomics resolves major relationships and reveals significant diversification rate shifts in the evolution of silk moths and relatives
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    C. A. Hamilton; R. A. St Laurent; K. Dexter; I. J. Kitching; J. W. Breinholt; A. Zwick; M. J. T. N. Timmermans; J. R. Barber; A. Y. Kawahara

    Silkmoths and their relatives constitute the ecologically and taxonomically diverse superfamily Bombycoidea, which includes some of the most charismatic species of Lepidoptera. Despite displaying spectacular forms and diverse ecological traits, relatively little attention has been given to understanding their evolution and drivers of their diversity. To begin to address this problem, we created a new Bombycoidea-specific Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE) probe set and sampled up to 571 loci for 117 taxa across all major lineages of the Bombycoidea, with a newly developed DNA extraction protocol that allows Lepidoptera specimens to be readily sequenced from pinned natural history collections. The well-supported tree was overall consistent with prior morphological and molecular studies, although some taxa were misplaced. The bombycid Arotros Schaus was formally transferred to Apatelodidae. We identified important evolutionary patterns (e.g., morphology, biogeography, and differences in speciation and extinction), and our analysis of diversification rates highlights the stark increases that exist within the Sphingidae (hawkmoths) and Saturniidae (wild silkmoths). Our study establishes a backbone for future evolutionary, comparative, and taxonomic studies of Bombycoidea. We postulate that the rate shifts identified are due to the well-documented bat-moth “arms race”. Our research highlights the flexibility of AHE to generate genomic data from a wide range of museum specimens, both age and preservation method, and will allow researchers to tap into the wealth of biological data residing in natural history collections around the globe.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Virulence structure and its genetic diversity analyses of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates in China
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Xian Xin Wu; Xiao Feng Xu; De Xin Ma; Rong Zhen Chen; Tian Ya Li; Yuan Yin Cao

    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew severely affects yield security wheat production in China. Understanding the virulence structure and genetic variations of this pathogen is important for breeding wheat lines resistant to wheat powdery mildew. However, information related to genes controlling resistance remains elusive. This study analyzes the virulence structure and the genetic diversity of pathogenic Bgt populations isolated from northeastern (Liaoning, Heilongjiang) and northwestern (Gansu) China, two representative wheat producing areas, on 37 wheat cultivars each carrying a known powdery mildew resistance (Pm) gene. Bgt isolates from northeastern China show higher frequencies of virulence genes than populations from Gansu Province. Many of the known Pm genes failed to provide resistance in this study. However, Pm21 provided 100% resistance to all isolates from all three provinces, obtained during two consecutive years, while Pm13 provided 100% resistance in Gansu. Pm13, Pm16, Pm18, and Pm22 also showed partial resistance in northeastern China, while Pm16, Pm18, Pm22, Pm5 + 6 and Pm2 + 6 +? maintained some resistance in Gansu. Genetic diversity among populations in different regions was detected by cluster analyses using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR). When the genetic similarity coefficient is relatively high, populations from the same regional origin are mostly clustered into one group while populations from different regions exhibit large genetic differences. Pm21 remains the best choice for breeding programs to maintain resistance to Bgt. Only 58% of the isolates tested show a clear correlation between EST-SSR genetic polymorphisms and frequency of virulence gene data.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Chromosomal phylogeny and comparative chromosome painting among Neacomys species (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from eastern Amazonia
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Willam Oliveira da Silva; Julio Cesar Pieczarka; Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues da Costa; Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith; Patricia Caroline Mary O’Brien; Ana Cristina Mendes-Oliveira; Rogério Vieira Rossi; Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi

    The Neacomys genus is predominantly found in the Amazon region, and belongs to the most diverse tribe of the Sigmodontinae subfamily (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Oryzomyini). The systematics of this genus and questions about its diversity and range have been investigated by morphological, molecular (Cytb and COI sequences) and karyotype analysis (classic cytogenetics and chromosome painting), which have revealed candidate species and new distribution areas. Here we analyzed four species of Neacomys by chromosome painting with Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME) whole-chromosome probes, and compared the results with two previously studied Neacomys species and with other taxa from Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes that have been hybridized with HME probes. Maximum Parsimony (MP) analyses were performed with the PAUP and T.N.T. software packages, using a non-additive (unordered) multi-state character matrix, based on chromosomal morphology, number and syntenic blocks. We also compared the chromosomal phylogeny obtained in this study with molecular topologies (Cytb and COI) that included eastern Amazonian species of Neacomys, to define the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa. The comparative chromosome painting analysis of the seven karyotypes of the six species of Neacomys shows that their diversity is due to 17 fusion/fission events and one translocation, pericentric inversions in four syntenic blocks, and constitutive heterochromatin (CH) amplification/deletion of six syntenic autosomal blocks plus the X chromosome. The chromosomal phylogeny is consistent with the molecular relationships of species of Neacomys. We describe new karyotypes and expand the distribution area for species from eastern Amazonia and detect complex rearrangements by chromosome painting among the karyotypes. Our phylogeny reflects the molecular relationships of the Akodontini and Oryzomyini taxa and supports the monophyly of Neacomys. This work presents new insights about the chromosomal evolution of this group, and we conclude that the karyotypic divergence is in accord with phylogenetic relationships.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of low sperm competition on male reproductive trait allometries in a bush-cricket
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Lennart Winkler; Leon M. Kirch; Klaus Reinhold; Steven A. Ramm

    Studying reproductive trait allometries can help to understand optimal male investment strategies under sexual selection. In promiscuous mating systems, studies across several taxa suggest that testes allometry is usually positive, presumably due to strong selection on sperm numbers through intense sperm competition. Here, we investigated testes allometry in a bush-cricket species, Metaplastes ornatus, in which females mate promiscuously, but where sperm removal behaviour by males likely drastically reduces realised sperm competition level. As hypothesised, we found evidence for negative testes allometry and hence a fundamentally different male investment strategy compared to species under intense sperm competition. In addition, the mean relative testes size of M. ornatus was small compared to other species of bush-crickets. Surprisingly, the spermatophore gland, a potential alternative trait that males could invest in instead of testes, also did not show positive allometry, but was approximately isometric. We further observed the expected pattern of negative allometry for the male morphological structure responsible for sperm removal in this species, the subgenital plate, supporting the one-size-fits-all hypothesis for intromittent genitalia. Our findings suggest that the evolution of sperm removal behaviour in M. ornatus was a key adaptation for avoiding sperm competition, with important consequences for reproductive trait allometries. Nevertheless, they also imply that it does not pay for larger males to invest disproportionately in nuptial gift production in this species.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • ChromaClade: combined visualisation of phylogenetic and sequence data
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Christopher Monit; Richard A. Goldstein; Greg J. Towers

    Studying site-specific amino acid frequencies by eye can reveal biologically significant variability and lineage-specific adaptation. This so-called ‘sequence gazing’ often informs bioinformatics and experimental research. But it is important to also account for the underlying phylogeny, since similarities may be due to common descent rather than selection pressure, and because it is important to distinguish between founder effects and convergent evolution. We set out to combine phylogenetic and sequence data to produce evolutionarily insightful visualisations. We present ChromaClade, a convenient tool with a graphical user-interface that works in concert with popular tree viewers to produce colour-annotated phylogenies highlighting residues found in each taxon and at each site in a sequence alignment. Colouring branches according to residues found at descendent tips also quickly identifies lineage-specific residues and those internal branches where key substitutions have occurred. We demonstrate applications of ChromaClade to human immunodeficiency virus and influenza A virus datasets, illustrating cases of conservative, adaptive and convergent evolution. We find this to be a powerful approach for visualising site-wise residue distributions and detecting evolutionary patterns, especially in large datasets. ChromaClade is available for Windows, macOS and Unix or Linux; program executables and source code are available at github.com/chrismonit/chroma_clade .

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • RADseq population genomics confirms divergence across closely related species in blue coral (Heliopora coerulea)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Akira Iguchi; Yuki Yoshioka; Zac H. Forsman; Ingrid S.S. Knapp; Robert J. Toonen; Yuki Hongo; Satoshi Nagai; Nina Yasuda

    Heliopora coerulea, the blue coral, is the octocoral characterized by its blue skeleton. Recently, two Heliopora species were delimited by DNA markers: HC-A and HC-B. To clarify the genomic divergence of these Heliopora species (HC-A and HC-B) from sympatric and allopatric populations in Okinawa, Japan, we used a high throughput reduced representation genomic DNA sequencing approach (ezRAD). We found 6742 biallelic SNPs shared among all target populations, which successfully distinguished the HC-A and HC-B species in both the sympatric and allopatric populations, with no evidence of hybridization between the two. In addition, we detected 410 fixed SNPs linking functional gene differences, including heat resilience and reproductive timing, between HC-A and HC-B. We confirmed clear genomic divergence between Heliopora species and found possible genes related to stress-responses and reproduction, which may shed light on the speciation process and ecological divergence of coral species.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Unravelling the hybrid vigor in domestic equids: the effect of hybridization on bone shape variation and covariation
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Pauline Hanot; Anthony Herrel; Claude Guintard; Raphaël Cornette

    Hybridization has been widely practiced in plant and animal breeding as a means to enhance the quality and fitness of the organisms. In domestic equids, this hybrid vigor takes the form of improved physical and physiological characteristics, notably for strength or endurance. Because the offspring of horse and donkey is generally sterile, this widely recognized vigor is expressed in the first generation (F1). However, in the absence of recombination between the two parental genomes, F1 hybrids can be expected to be phenotypically intermediate between their parents which could potentially restrict the possibilities of an increase in overall fitness. In this study, we examine the morphology of the main limb bones of domestic horses, donkeys and their hybrids to investigate the phenotypic impact of hybridization on the locomotor system. We explore bone shape variation and covariation to gain insights into the morphological and functional expressions of the hybrid vigor commonly described in domestic equids. Our data reveal the occurrence of transgressive effects on several bones in the F1 generation. The patterns of morphological integration further demonstrate that the developmental processes producing covariation are not disrupted by hybridization, contrary to functional ones. These results suggest that an increase in overall fitness could be related to more flexibility in shape change in hybrids, except for the main forelimb long bones of which the morphology is strongly driven by muscle interactions. More broadly, this study illustrates the interest of investigating not only bone shape variation but also underlying processes, in order to contribute to better understanding how developmental and functional mechanisms are affected by hybridization.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Widespread nocturnality of living birds stemming from their common ancestor
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Yonghua Wu

    Many living birds exhibit some nocturnal activity, but the genetic basis and evolutionary origins of their nocturnality remain unknown. Here, we used a molecular phyloecological approach to analyze the adaptive evolution of 33 phototransduction genes in diverse bird lineages. Our results suggest that functional enhancement of two night-vision genes, namely, GRK1 and SLC24A1, underlies the nocturnal adaption of living birds. Further analyses showed that the diel activity patterns of birds have remained relatively unchanged since their common ancestor, suggesting that the widespread nocturnal activity of many living birds may largely stem from their common ancestor rather than independent evolution. Despite this evolutionary conservation of diel activity patterns in birds, photoresponse recovery genes were found to be frequently subjected to positive selection in diverse bird lineages, suggesting that birds generally have evolved an increased capacity for motion detection. Moreover, we detected positive selection on both dim-light vision genes and bright-light vision genes in the class Aves, suggesting divergent evolution of the vision of birds from that of reptiles and that different bird lineages have evolved certain visual adaptions to their specific light conditions. This study suggests that the widespread nocturnality of extant birds has a deep evolutionary origin tracing back to their common ancestor.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Geographic isolation and climatic variability contribute to genetic differentiation in fragmented populations of the long-lived subalpine conifer Pinus cembra L. in the western Alps
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Endre Gy Tóth; Francine Tremblay; Johann M. Housset; Yves Bergeron; Christopher Carcaillet

    Genetic processes shape the modern-day distribution of genetic variation within and between populations and can provide important insights into the underlying mechanisms of evolution. The resulting genetic variation is often unequally partitioned within species’ distribution range and especially large differences can manifest at the range limit, where population fragmentation and isolation play a crucial role in species survival. Despite several molecular studies investigating the genetic diversity and differentiation of European Alpine mountain forests, the climatic and demographic constrains which influence the genetic processes are often unknown. Here, we apply non-coding microsatellite markers to evaluate the sporadic peripheral and continuous populations of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.), a long-lived conifer species that inhabits the subalpine treeline ecotone in the western Alps to investigate how the genetic processes contribute to the modern-day spatial distribution. Moreover, we corroborate our findings with paleoecological records, micro and macro-remains, to infer the species’ possible glacial refugia and expansion scenarios. Four genetically distinct groups were identified, with Bayesian and FST based approaches, across the range of the species, situated in the northern, inner and south-western Alps. We found that genetic differentiation is substantially higher in marginal populations than at the center of the range, and marginal stands are characterized by geographic and genetic isolation due to spatial segregation and restricted gene flow. Moreover, multiple matrix regression approaches revealed effects of climatic heterogeneity in species’ spatial genetic pattern. Also, population stability tests indicated that all populations had experienced a severe historical bottleneck, no heterozygosity excess was detected, suggesting that more recently population sizes have remained relatively stable. Our study demonstrated that cembra pine might have survived in multiple glacial refugia and subsequently recolonized the Alps by different routes. Modern-day marginal populations, at the edge of the species’ range, could maintain stable sizes over long periods without inbreeding depression and preserve high amounts of genetic variation. Moreover, our analyses indicate that climatic variability has played a major role in shaping differentiation, in addition to past historical events such as migration and demographic changes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Adapting the engine to the fuel: mutator populations can reduce the mutational load by reorganizing their genome structure
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Jacob Pieter Rutten; Paulien Hogeweg; Guillaume Beslon

    Mutators are common in bacterial populations, both in natural isolates and in the lab. The fate of these lineages, which mutation rate is increased up to 100 ×, has long been studied using population genetics models, showing that they can spread in a population following an environmental change. However in stable conditions, they suffer from the increased mutational load, hence being overcome by non-mutators. However, these results don’t take into account the fact that an elevated mutation rate can impact the genetic structure, hence changing the sensitivity of the population to mutations. Here we used Aevol, an in silico experimental evolution platform in which genomic structures are free to evolve, in order to study the fate of mutator populations evolving for a long time in constant conditions. Starting from wild-types that were pre-evolved for 300,000 generations, we let 100 mutator populations (point mutation rate ×100) evolve for 100,000 further generations in constant conditions. As expected all populations initially undergo a fitness loss. However, after that the mutator populations started to recover. Most populations ultimately recovered their ancestors fitness, and a significant fraction became even fitter than the non-mutator control clones that evolved in parallel. By analyzing the genomes of the mutators, we show that the fitness recovery is due to two mechanisms: i. an increase in robustness through compaction of the coding part of the mutator genomes, ii. an increase of the selection coefficient that decreases the mean-fitness of the population. Strikingly the latter is due to the accumulation of non-coding sequences in the mutators genomes. Our results show that the mutational burden that is classically thought to be associated with mutator phenotype is escapable. On the long run mutators adapted their genomes and reshaped the distribution of mutation effects. Therewith the lineage is able to recover fitness even though the population still suffers the elevated mutation rate. Overall these results change our view of mutator dynamics: by being able to reduce the deleterious effect of the elevated mutation rate, mutator populations may be able to last for a very long time; A situation commonly observed in nature.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Exceptionally high rates of positive selection on the rbcL gene in the genus Ilex (Aquifoliaceae)
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Xin Yao; Yun-hong Tan; Jun-bo Yang; Yan Wang; Richard T. Corlett; Jean-François Manen

    The genus Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) has a near-cosmopolitan distribution in mesic habitats from tropical to temperate lowlands and in alpine forests. It has a high rate of hybridization and plastid capture, and comprises four geographically structured plastid groups. A previous study showed that the plastid rbcL gene, coding for the large subunit of Rubisco, has a particularly high rate of non-synonymous substitutions in Ilex, when compared with other plant lineages. This suggests a strong positive selection on rbcL, involved in yet unknown adaptations. We therefore investigated positive selection on rbcL in 240 Ilex sequences from across the global range. The rbcL gene shows a much higher rate of positive selection in Ilex than in any other plant lineage studied so far (> 3000 species) by tests in both PAML and SLR. Most positively selected residues are on the surface of the folded large subunit, suggesting interaction with other subunits and associated chaperones, and coevolution between positively selected residues is prevalent, indicating compensatory mutations to recover molecular stability. Coevolution between positively selected sites to restore global stability is common. This study has confirmed the predicted high incidence of positively selected residues in rbcL in Ilex, and shown that this is higher than in any other plant lineage studied so far. The causes and consequences of this high incidence are unclear, but it is probably associated with the similarly high incidence of hybridization and introgression in Ilex, even between distantly related lineages, resulting in large cytonuclear discordance in the phylogenies.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Asian elephants exhibit post-reproductive lifespans
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Simon N. Chapman; John Jackson; Win Htut; Virpi Lummaa; Mirkka Lahdenperä

    The existence of extended post-reproductive lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle, and its taxonomic prevalence is debated. One way of measuring post-reproductive life is with post-reproductive representation, the proportion of adult years lived by females after cessation of reproduction. Analyses of post-reproductive representation in mammals have claimed that only humans and some toothed whale species exhibit extended post-reproductive life, but there are suggestions of a post-reproductive stage for false killer whales and Asian elephants. Here, we investigate the presence of post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants using an extended demographic dataset collected from semi-captive timber elephants in Myanmar. Furthermore, we investigate the sensitivity of post-reproductive representation values to availability of long-term data over 50 years. We find support for the presence of an extended post-reproductive stage in Asian elephants, and that post-reproductive representation and its underlying demographic rates depend on the length of study period in a long-lived animal. The extended post-reproductive lifespan is unlikely due to physiological reproductive cessation, and may instead be driven by mating preferences or condition-dependent fertility. Our results also show that it is crucial to revisit such population measures in long-lived species as more data is collected, and if the typical lifespan of the species exceeds the initial study period.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Accelerated evolution and diversifying selection drove the adaptation of cetacean bone microstructure
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Di Sun; Xuming Zhou; Zhenpeng Yu; Shixia Xu; Inge Seim; Guang Yang

    The transition from land to sea by the ancestor of cetaceans approximately 50 million years ago was an incredible evolutionary event that led to a series of morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. During this transition, bone microstructure evolved from the typical terrestrial form to the specialized structure found in modern cetaceans. While the bone microstructure of mammals has been documented before, investigations of its genetic basis lag behind. The increasing number of cetaceans with whole-genome sequences available may shed light on the mechanism underlying bone microstructure evolution as a result of land to water transitions. Cetacean bone microstructure is consistent with their diverse ecological behaviors. Molecular evolution was assessed by correlating bone microstructure and gene substitution rates in terrestrial and aquatic species, and by detecting genes under positive selection along ancestral branches of cetaceans. We found that: 1) Genes involved in osteoclast function are under accelerated evolution in cetaceans, suggestive of important roles in bone remodeling during the adaptation to an aquatic environment; 2) Genes in the Wnt pathway critical for bone development and homeostasis show evidence of divergent evolution in cetaceans; 3) Several genes encoding bone collagens are under selective pressure in cetaceans. Our results suggest that evolutionary pressures have shaped the bone microstructure of cetaceans, to facilitate life in diverse aquatic environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Convergent evolution in toothed whale cochleae
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Travis Park; Bastien Mennecart; Loïc Costeur; Camille Grohé; Natalie Cooper

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) are the most species-rich marine mammal lineage. The catalyst for their evolutionary success is echolocation - a form of biological sonar that uses high-frequency sound, produced in the forehead and ultimately detected by the cochlea. The ubiquity of echolocation in odontocetes across a wide range of physical and acoustic environments suggests that convergent evolution of cochlear shape is likely to have occurred. To test this, we used SURFACE; a method that fits Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models with stepwise AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) to identify convergent regimes on the odontocete phylogeny, and then tested whether convergence in these regimes was significantly greater than expected by chance. We identified three convergent regimes: (1) True’s (Mesoplodon mirus) and Cuvier’s (Ziphius cavirostris) beaked whales; (2) sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and all other beaked whales sampled; and (3) pygmy (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf (Kogia sima) sperm whales and Dall’s porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli). Interestingly the ‘river dolphins’, a group notorious for their convergent morphologies and riverine ecologies, do not have convergent cochlear shapes. The first two regimes were significantly convergent, with habitat type and dive type significantly correlated with membership of the sperm whale + beaked whale regime. The extreme acoustic environment of the deep ocean likely constrains cochlear shape, causing the cochlear morphology of sperm and beaked whales to converge. This study adds support for cochlear morphology being used to predict the ecology of extinct cetaceans.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Cooperative evolution of two different TEs results in lineage-specific novel transcripts in the BLOC1S2 gene
    BMC Evol. Biol. (IF 3.045) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Hyeon-Mu Cho; Sang-Je Park; Se-Hee Choe; Ja-Rang Lee; Sun-Uk Kim; Yeung-Bae Jin; Ji-Su Kim; Sang-Rae Lee; Young-Hyun Kim; Jae-Won Huh

    The BLOC1S2 gene encodes the multifunctional protein BLOS2, a shared subunit of two lysosomal trafficking complexes: i) biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 and i) BLOC-1-related complex. In our previous study, we identified an intriguing unreported transcript of the BLOC1S2 gene that has a novel exon derived from two transposable elements (TEs), MIR and AluSp. To investigate the evolutionary footprint and molecular mechanism of action of this transcript, we performed PCR and RT-PCR experiments and sequencing analyses using genomic DNA and RNA samples from humans and various non-human primates. The results showed that the MIR element had integrated into the genome of our common ancestor, specifically in the BLOC1S2 gene region, before the radiation of all primate lineages and that the AluSp element had integrated into the genome of our common ancestor, fortunately in the middle of the MIR sequences, after the divergence of Old World monkeys and New World monkeys. The combined MIR and AluSp sequences provide a 3′ splice site (AG) and 5′ splice site (GT), respectively, and generate the Old World monkey-specific transcripts. Moreover, branch point sequences for the intron removal process are provided by the MIR and AluSp combination. We show for the first time that sequential integration into the same location and sequence divergence events of two different TEs generated lineage-specific transcripts through sequence collaboration during primate evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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