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  • The potential function of endometrial‐secreted factors for endometrium remodeling during the estrous cycle
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Dody Houston Billhaq; Sang‐Hee Lee; Seunghyung Lee

    Uterine has a pivotal role in implantation and conceptus development. To prepare a conducive uterine condition for possibly new gestation during the estrous cycle, uterine endometrium undergoes dramatic remodeling. In addition, angiogenesis is an indispensable biological process of endometrium remodeling. Furthermore, essential protein expressions related to important biological processes of endometrium remodeling, which are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myoglobin (MYG), collagen type IV (COL4), fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4), and cysteine‐rich protein 2 (CRP2), were detected in the endometrial tissue reported in many previous studies and recently discovered in histotroph substrates during the estrous cycle. Those proteins, which are liable for provoking new vessel development, cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and cell migration, were expressed higher in the histotroph during the luteal phase than follicular phase. Histotroph proteins considerably contribute to endometrium remodeling during the estrous cycle. To that end, the following review will discuss and highlight the relevant information and evidence of the uterine fluid proteins as endometrial‐secreted factors that adequately indicate the potential role of the uterine secretions to be involved in the endometrial remodeling process.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The effect of artificial insemination prior to transfer of a limited number of vitrified and warmed porcine embryos by open pulled straw (OPS) method on their survival ability for farrowing
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Shigeyuki Tajima; Kenzo Uchikura; Takayuki Kurita; Kazuhiro Kikuchi

    Embryo transfer (ET) of 20 porcine expanded blastocysts (ExBs) vitrified and warmed (VW) by open pulled straw (OPS) to a recipient allows stable piglet production. The efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) prior to ET of 10 VW ExBs for piglet production was investigated. For one trial, 10–15 VW ExBs from single donor were assigned, 10 were used for ET and the remains were assessed for their in vitro viability. In the non‐AI/ET group, 10 were transferred to each of five recipients. As AI/ET group, 10 were transferred to each of five recipients after AI. In AI/non‐ET group, only AI was performed to seven gilts. In the non‐AI/ET group, the pregnancy rate was 40%, but none of them farrowed. In the AI/ET group, all recipients produced piglets. Four (80.0%) delivered piglets from transferred VW ExBs. The survival rate of VW ExBs to term was 20.0% (10/50). In the AI/non‐ET group, six of the seven gilts farrowed. There was no difference in in vitro viability between the non‐AI/ET and AI/ ET groups (62.5% and 68.3%, respectively). AI prior to ET can be an appropriate way to maintain pregnancy and assist the development of a low number of VW ExBs to term.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Gene expression profiles in bovine granulocytes reflect the aberration of liver functions
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Keiichiro Kizaki; Tomomi Kageyama; Noriyuki Toji; Katsuo Koshi; Kouya Sasaki; Norio Yamagishi; Toshina Ishiguro‐Oonuma; Toru Takahashi; Kazuyoshi Hashizume

    Liver performs several important functions; however, predicting its functions is difficult. Methods of analyzing gene expression profiles, for example, microarray, provide functional information of tissues. Liver and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) were collected from Holstein cows subjected to two different physiological conditions (non‐pregnant and pregnant), and PBLs were fractionated by gradient cell separation. RNA from PBLs and liver were applied to oligo‐DNA microarray and reverse transcription‐quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‐qPCR). It revealed a group of stable bovine liver genes under constant physiological conditions. When they applied to physiological conditions including non‐pregnant and pregnant, the profiles of some genes in liver were consistent with those in PBLs. Microarray data subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles were more consistent with those of granulocytes than mononuclear cells. The relationship of gene profiles in liver with granulocytes was confirmed by RT‐qPCR and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gene profiles of granulocytes were more reliable than those of mononuclear cells, which reflected liver functions. These results suggest that the genes expressed in PBLs, particularly granulocytes, may be convenient bioindicators for the diagnosis of clinical disorder and/or detecting aberration of liver functions in cows subjected to different physiological conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Effects of photoperiod on circadian clock genes in skin contribute to the regulation of hair follicle cycling of Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Chong Zhi Zhang; Hai Zhou Sun; Chun Hua Zhang; Lu Jin; Dan Sang; Sheng Li Li

    This study investigated how the effects of photoperiod on circadian clock genes in the skin contribute to the regulation of hair follicle cycling of Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats. Twenty‐four female (non‐pregnant) Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats aged 1 − 1.5 years old with similar live weights (mean, 20.36 ± 2.63 kg) were randomly allocated into two groups: a natural daily photoperiod group (NDPP group:10 − 16 hr Light, n = 12) and a short daily photoperiod group (SDPP group: 7 hr Light:17 hr Dark, n = 12). All goats were housed in individual pens from May 15 to October 15, 2015 and were fed the same diets. We detected the mRNA expression of brain and muscle arnt‐like protein‐1 (Bmal1), circadian locomotor output control kaput (Clock), cryptochrome‐1 (Cry1), period homolog‐1 (Per1) and Rev‐erbα genes in the goat skin. ANOVA revealed a significant 24 hr (10:00 hr, 14:00 hr, 18:00 hr, 22:00 hr, 02:00 hr, 06:00 hr, 10:00 hr) variation between the SDPP and NDPP groups for three months (July, September, and October). In summary, the current results confirm that an intrinsic oscillating molecular clock exists in goat skin, and that the clock is important for potential timing mechanisms at the anagen phase of hair follicles, which would contribute to the regulation mechanisms of hair follicle cell proliferation.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Genome‐wide re‐sequencing and transcriptome analysis reveal candidate genes associated with the pendulous comb phenotype in domestic chickens
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Xing Guo, Jiangxian Wang, Chendong Ma, Zhicheng Wang, Hong Chen, Hu Su, Yi Wan, Runshen Jiang

    To determine the causative variations associated with two chicken comb phenotypes, pendulous comb (PC) or upright comb (UC), two pooled genomic DNA samples from PC and UC chickens were re‐sequenced by Next‐Generation Sequencer, and genome‐wide Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Using three selective sweep approaches, FST, θπ, and Tajima's D, with top 5% window values serving as the threshold, a total of 84 positively selective genes (PSGs) were identified. There were no SNPs in exons of the PSGs with significant differences in allele frequencies between the two comb phenotype groups. Then, 515 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the PC and UC were identified by RNA‐seq. Three genes including CD36 (CD36 molecule), ADAMTSL3 (ADAMTS‐like 3), and AOX1 (aldehyde oxidases 1) are overlapped between PSGs and DEGs. After genotyping seven candidate SNPs in the regulatory regions of the three overlapping genes in 120 chickens from two other breeds, two variants (rs14607046 and rs731818051) in the regulatory regions of AOX1 and ADAMTSL3 were found to have significant differences in allele frequency between the PC and UC, suggesting that the two variants may be causative mutations for PC. Overall, our study shed light on the genetic basis underlying the PC phenotype in chickens.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Collection of ear corn residue and its utilization as a bulking agent for cow manure composting
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Dai Hanajima

    This study examined the collection, storage, and utilization of ear corn residue as a bulking agent for composting. Ear corn residue left in fields was collected by a sequence of windrowing and round baling operations, which showed a collection efficiency of 53%−56%. More than 70% of the corn stalks had lengths shorter than 15 cm. The moisture content of corn residue collected in late October was approximately 58%; it decreased to 23% during storage. Dried corn residue was mixed with raw manure in two different ways, namely using complete mixing (CM) treatment or creating a bottom layer of residue, and a total of 3.4 t of the manure and ear corn residue mixture were composted using a pilot‐scale composting apparatus. The results showed that the CM treatment resulted in higher temperature generation and produced less odorous and well‐degraded compost after 2 months of composting, while the odorous compounds in the compost with corn residue as the bottom layer remained similar to those of the initial compost. To sufficiently utilize the advantages of the ear corn residue, thorough mixing of the corn residue with raw manure is preferable; this procedure produced well‐degraded and safety compost in a shorter time period.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Crystalline amino acids supplementation improves the performance and carcass traits in late‐finishing gilts fed low‐protein diets
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Wenfeng Ma, Pei Mao, Liang Guo, Shiyan Qiao

    This study investigated the effects of amino acids (AA) supplementation in low‐crude protein (CP) diets on the growth performance and carcass characteristics in late‐finishing gilts. Ninety gilts (93.8 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to one of the five diets which consisted of a normal‐CP (137 g/kg) or four low‐CP (105 g/kg) diets for 28 days. The low‐CP diets were supplemented with lysine + threonine + methionine (LCM), LCM + tryptophan (LCT), LCT + valine (LCV) or LCV + isoleucine (LCI), respectively. Non‐significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) was obtained in gilts receiving the control and LCV diet, which was higher than that of gilts fed the LCM diet (p < .05). The additions of crystalline AA in the low‐CP diet resulted in the improvements in ADG (linear and quadratic effect, p < .05) and fat‐free lean gain (quadratic effect, p < .05) and influenced the valine concentration (linear and quadratic effect, p < .05) and proportion of saturated fatty acid (linear effect, p < .05) in longissimus muscle. The results indicated that the valine supplementation could further improve the performance in 94 to 118 kg gilts fed the 105 g/kg CP diet.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Comparative analysis of ensiling characteristics and protein degradation of alfalfa silage prepared with corn or sweet sorghum in semiarid region of Inner Mongolia
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Ya Tao, Qizhong Sun, Feng Li, Chuncheng Xu, Yimin Cai

    This study was conducted to evaluate silage fermentation and protein degradation of alfalfa prepared with corn or sweet sorghum (SS) at different mixing ratios. The chemical composition, ensiling characteristics, and protein degradation of alfalfa prepared with and without corn or SS at mixing ratios of 7:3, 1:1, and 3:7 on a fresh matter (FM) basis were studied. The alfalfa had the highest crude protein (CP) content and lactate buffering capacity (LBC), but lower water‐soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content than corn and SS. After 60 days of ensiling, the corn and SS silages had good quality, with lower pH and ammonia‐N content, and higher dry matter (DM) content than the alfalfa silages. In the alfalfa and corn mixture silages, the DM contents linearly increased with an increase in the proportion of corn, while the pH, non‐protein N (NPN), ammonia‐N, and peptide‐N contents linearly decreased. In the alfalfa and SS mixture silages, the DM and NPN contents linearly increased with an increase in the proportion of SS, while the pH, lactic acid, and ammonia‐N contents linearly decreased. This study suggests that alfalfa silage prepared with corn has more positive effect on fermentation quality and inhibiting protein degradation than addition of SS.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Genome‐wide association study and genomic evaluation of feed efficiency traits in Japanese Black cattle using single‐step genomic best linear unbiased prediction method
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Masayuki Takeda, Yoshinobu Uemoto, Keiichi Inoue, Atushi Ogino, Takayoshi Nozaki, Kazuhito Kurogi, Takanori Yasumori, Masahiro Satoh

    The objectives of this study were to better understand the genetic architecture and the possibility of genomic evaluation for feed efficiency traits by (i) performing genome‐wide association studies (GWAS), and (ii) assessing the accuracy of genomic evaluation for feed efficiency traits, using single‐step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP)‐based methods. The analyses were performed in residual feed intake (RFI), residual body weight gain (RG), and residual intake and body weight gain (RIG) during three different fattening periods. The phenotypes from 4,578 Japanese Black steers, which were progenies of 362 progeny‐tested bulls and the genotypes from the bulls were used in this study. The results of GWAS showed that a total of 16, 8, and 12 gene ontology terms were related to RFI, RG, and RIG, respectively, and the candidate genes identified in RFI and RG were involved in olfactory transduction and the phosphatidylinositol signaling system, respectively. The realized reliabilities of genomic estimated breeding values were low to moderate in the feed efficiency traits. In conclusion, ssGBLUP‐based method can lead to understand some biological functions related to feed efficiency traits, even with small population with genotypes, however, an alternative strategy will be needed to enhance the reliability of genomic evaluation.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Effect of parity number on the dry matter intake of dairy cows during the first week after calving
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Maimaiti Reshalaitihan, Syaw Wynn, Makoto Teramura, Tadashi Sato, Masaaki Hanada

    We investigated the effect of parity number on the dry matter intake (DMI) of cows during the first week after calving. Eighty‐three cows were evaluated from 14 days before to 7 days after calving. DMI and milk yield were measured for 7 days after calving, and the calving score was measured. Blood samples were collected throughout the experiment. The average DMI during the first week after calving was reduced in the first‐lactation heifers and high‐parity number cows. A quadratic relationship between the parity number and the DMI was observed. The first‐lactation heifers had lower prepartum serum total protein (TP) concentration and milk yield, higher prepartum serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration and calving score than the multiparous cows. The recovery rate of serum calcium (Ca) after calving was slow in the cows in the parity 6. The DMI was positively affected by the serum Ca concentration after calving, milk yield, and prepartum serum TP concentration and was negatively affected by the calving score and prepartum serum NEFA concentration. We conclude that the DMI immediately after calving tends to be lower in first‐lactation heifers and high‐parity number cows, but factors that reduce the DMI differ according to parity number.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Effects of thiosulfate addition on ammonia and nitrogen removal in biofilters packed with Oyaishi (pumice tuff)
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Tomoko Yasuda, Yasuyuki Fukumoto, Miyoko Waki, Toshimi Matsumoto, Hirohide Uenishi

    Ammonia removal is achieved partly by absorption and nitrification in biofilters, resulting in the accumulation of nitrogen and the necessity of treating the effluent water. We investigated the effects of thiosulfate addition to a biofilter containing pumice tuff for ammonia and nitrogen removal in a laboratory‐scale experiment. The addition of thiosulfate to the circulating water led to a decreased nitrate and nitrite along with an increase of sulfate. The inorganic nitrogen in the circulating water decreased by up to 44% with thiosulfate addition compared to without thiosulfate. Batch experiments revealed that denitrification activity decreased exponentially along with increases in dissolved oxygen; however, approximately 30% of denitrification activity was maintained at dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.3 mg/L. Metabarcoding of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the genus Thiobacillus had a relative abundance of 0.002%–0.016% of total bacteria in the biofilter packing material. The circulating water pH was decreased below 5 with sulfur oxidation, and ammonium was accumulated without pH control resulting in a decrease in the relative abundance of the family Nitrosomonadaceae. Its relative abundance increased with control of pH to near neutral, indicating that ammonia‐oxidizing activity could be maintained by adjusting pH. Thiosulfate addition could stimulate nitrogen removal by sulfur‐dependent denitrification in biofiltration systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Changes of sires in a breeding farm enables maintenance of DNA‐level genetic variation in a produced herd of Hokkaido Native Horses
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Tomoko Amano, Teruaki Tozaki, Masaki Takasu, Akio Onogi, Fumihiro Yamada, Masahito Kawai, Junji Ueda

    We investigated whether regular changes of the sire in a breeding farm of Hokkaido Native Horses (HKDs) enables the DNA‐level genetic variation of the produced animals to be maintained. The genotypes of 31 microsatellite markers were identified and analyzed in 207 animals produced in a breeding farm in which the sire was replaced every 3 to 5 years. The mean allele number indicating the degree of genetic variation was 5.97 and was similar to those reported previously. The mean observed heterozygosity was 0.74 and was higher than the expected heterozygosity, 0.69; FIS was −0.07, indicating that the analyzed animals reflected frequent outbreeding and had maintained genetic variation. Based on genetic structural analysis, the number of genetic subpopulations of the animals was estimated to be as 6, and the majority (more than 50%) of each subpopulation corresponded to the progeny of one of the sires used in the breeding farm; these observations suggested that genetic variation in the analyzed animals reflected the genetic differences among sires. Pedigree records indicated that the average co‐ancestry coefficient between sires used in the breeding farm was 0.015 corresponding to second cousin. This level of kinship among sires is acceptable for producing HKDs that maintain genetic variation.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Analysis of results from 21 years of milking system inspections in Japanese dairy farms
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Masafumi Enokidani, Yasunori Shinozuka, Kazuhiro Kawai

    To prevent mastitis caused by inappropriate milking systems, inspection of the system, and maintenance of optimal function are crucial. This study aimed to clarify the problems with milking systems in Japan by analyzing the results of milking system inspections over the past 21 years. A total of 190 dairy farms (358 systems; 153 high‐line systems, 205 low‐line systems) were inspected for the checkpoints of problems originating from installation (PI) or problems originating from insufficient maintenance (PIM). Results were divided into initial and periodic inspections, then analyzed by year of inspection or years elapsed since equipment installation. With increasing years, inadequacy of milk piping and regulator maintenance tended to increase for high‐line systems. On the other hand, defects in milking units tended to increase for low‐line systems. This difference was attributed to the structures of these milking systems. The present study revealed potential problem areas in high‐ and low‐line milking systems from recent years. To maintain normal functioning in milking systems, the frequency and content of inspections as currently being conducted need to be reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Magnolol additive improves carcass and meat quality of Linwu ducks by modulating antioxidative status
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Qian Lin, Simin Peng, Yinghui Li, Guitao Jiang, Zhenzhang Liao, Zhiyong Fan, Xi He, Qiuzhong Dai

    Magnolol rich in Magnolia officinalis is a bioactive polyphenolic compound. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of magnolol additive (MA) on carcass and meat quality, biochemical characteristics and antioxidative capacity of Linwu ducks, by comparing it to that of antibiotic additive (colistin sulphate, CS). A total of 275 49‐d‐old ducks were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 5 cages of 11 ducks each and fed by the diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg of MA/kg and 30 mg of CS/kg for 3 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that MA administration not only increased dressed percentage (calculated as a percentage of live weight), percentage of breast muscle, leg muscle and lean meat (calculated as a percentage of eviscerated weight), but also remarkably increased a*45 min and pH45 min of leg muscle. Moreover, MA administration decreased the percentage of abdominal fat (calculated as a percentage of eviscerated weight), 45‐min cooking loss, water loss rate of leg muscle, 45‐min cooking loss and drip loss of breast muscle at 24 hr and 48 hr. Furthermore, MA administration enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in serum or liver, serum total antioxidant capacity and hepatic reduced glutathione concentration significantly, compared with the basal diet or CS group (p < .05). On the other hand, triglyceride, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8‐hydroxy‐2'‐deoxyguanosine contents in serum and liver were significantly increased in Linwu ducks fed with CS, compared with MA groups (p < .05). Taken together, these data demonstrated that magnolol could effectively improve the carcass and meat quality of Linwu ducks by regulating the in vivo antioxidant status and would be a potential candidate to replace antibiotic.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Influence of sucrose level and inoculation of Lactobacillus plantarum on the physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of Isan sausage (Thai fermented pork sausage)
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Nuttawadee Hongthong, Wanwisa Chumngoen, Fa‐Jui Tan

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sucrose levels (0.3% and 1.2%) and inoculation of Lactobacillus plantarum on the quality of Isan sausage. The results show that the inoculation accelerated the pH reduction in fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly (p < .05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values. The total microbial counts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased rapidly during fermentation and then decreased during storage. The inoculated samples had significantly higher total microflora and LAB counts. The inoculated samples had a higher hardness texture profile as well as more intense flavor and darker color in sensorial evaluation. Less influence on the quality parameters of the samples due to the different sucrose levels was observed. In conclusion, a combination of 0.3% sucrose and inoculation of L. plantarum (7 log cfu/g) is recommended for producing Isan sausages.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Genetic parameters for total lactation yields of milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell score in New Zealand dairy goats
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Megan R. Scholtens, Nicolas Lopez‐Villalobos, Dorian Garrick, Hugh Blair, Klaus Lehnert, Russell Snell

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for lactation yields of milk (MY), fat (FY), protein (PY), and somatic cell score (SCS) of New Zealand dairy goats. The analysis used 64,604 lactation records from 23,583 does, kidding between 2004 and 2017, distributed in 21 flocks and representing 915 bucks. Estimates of genetic and residual (co) variances, heritabilities, and repeatabilities were obtained using a multiple‐trait repeatability animal model. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (does kidding in the same flock and year), age of the doe (in years), and as covariates, kidding day, proportion of Alpine, Nubian, Toggenburg, and “unknown” breeds (Saanen was used as the base breed), and heterosis. Random effects included additive animal genetic and doe permanent environmental effects. Estimates of heritabilities were 0.25 for MY, 0.24 for FY, 0.24 for PY, and 0.21 for SCS. The phenotypic correlations between MY, FY, and PY ranged from 0.90 to 0.96, and the genetic correlations ranged from 0.81 to 0.93. These results indicate lactation yield traits exhibit useful heritable variation and that multiple trait selection for these traits could improve milk revenue produced from successive generations of New Zealand dairy goats.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Selected leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and uterine washings in cows before and after intrauterine administration of cefapirin and methisoprinol
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Piotr Brodzki, Urszula Lisiecka, Adam Brodzki, Leszek Krakowski, Marek Szczubiał, Roman Dąbrowski, Andrzej Junkuszew, Mariola Bochniarz

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the selected lymphocyte subpopulations TCD4, TCD8, BCD21, BCD25, CD18, CD11b, and MHC II in blood and uterine flush of cows with endometritis, before and after intrauterine (i.u.) administration of cefapirin and methisoprinol. The research was carried out on 28 cows with clinical endometritis. Animals were divided into four groups, each composed of seven cows, depending on the i.u. preparation used: Group A, cefapirin; Group B, methisoprinol; Group C, cefapirin and methisoprinol simultaneously; and a control group—without medication. The study was performed using flow cytometry method. Summarizing the results of the research, i.u. infusion of cefapirin caused a weakening of the effector phase of the local uterine immune response; however, it enhanced leukocyte chemotaxis and antigen presentation. After i.u. administration of methisoprinol, the stimulation of specific uterine immunity mechanisms was mainly observed. The use of both mentioned preparations showed the strengthening of specific uterine immunological mechanisms presumably caused by methisoprinol, despite the inhibitory effect of the antibiotic. Intrauterine use of immunostimulatory substances can improve the effectiveness of the endometritis treatment in cows by improving specific local mechanisms of uterine immunity. As a consequence, it may enhance the effector function of immune competent cells and finally eliminate inflammation.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Effects of immunocastration performed at two live weights on the growth physiology, temperament and testicular development of feral beef bulls
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Agustí Noya, Guillermo Ripoll, Isabel Casasús, Albina Sanz

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of administering an anti‐gonadotropin‐releasing hormone vaccine (Improvac®, developed for pigs) on the performance, temperament, testicular development, and hormone and metabolite profiles of feral bulls (Bos taurus) vaccinated at two different live weights (LW). In all, 16 Serrana de Teruel animals were involved in this 2 x 2 factorial design using the factors LW (LIGHT vs. HEAVY) and vaccine treatment (control, C vs. vaccinated, VA). All animals received the same diet (ad libitum concentrate plus straw) over a 164‐day fattening period. Temperament was assessed using chute and flight speed tests. Testicular diameter and subcutaneous fat thickness were recorded. Testosterone, IGF‐1, urea, NEFA, and creatinine profiles were analyzed. Bull weight gain was reduced in VA compared to C animals, regardless of the initial LW. The vaccine did not affect the temperament tests, subcutaneous fat thickness or NEFA and creatinine concentrations and had minor effects on linear body measures. The vaccine inhibited testicular growth, reduced plasma testosterone to residual levels, and increased urea concentrations. LIGHT‐C animals exhibited increased mean plasma IGF‐1 concentrations compared to LIGHT‐VA animals. In conclusion, vaccination reduced bull growth and sexual development irrespective of LW at immunization.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Effect of varying fermentation conditions with ensiling period and inoculum on photosynthetic pigments and phytol content in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Renlong Lv, Mabrouk Elsabagh, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino, Yuzo Kurokawa, Kensuke Kawamura

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of an ensiling period (Experiment 1) and adding lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Experiment 2) on the changes in carotenoid, chlorophyll, and phytol in ensiled Italian ryegrass (IR, Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In Experiment 1, the IR herbage ensiled into plastic bags was analyzed for the contents of photosynthetic pigments and phytol over a 5‐week period. During the ensiling process, the β‐carotene content decreased (p < .05), whereas the lutein content did not change. Although the chlorophyll content decreased (p < .05) after ensiling, the phytol content barely changed until week 5. In Experiment 2, IR herbage was ensiled without additive, as a Control, or with LAB for 60 days. The pH was lower (p < .05) and lactic acid content was higher (p < .05) for the LAB silage than for the Control. The chlorophyll content in silage was not affected by the LAB; however, the β‐carotene content was higher (p < .05) for the LAB silage than for the Control. Phytol and lutein contents in the herbage did not change after ensiling. These results indicate that phytol and lutein in IR herbage can be preserved well in silage, irrespective of their fermentation condition.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Effects of rice feeding on growth performance and protein (amino acids) metabolism in weanling piglets
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Yusuke Tasaka, Kanako Tachihara, Ryutaro Kagawa, Ryozo Takada

    We investigated the effects of rice feeding on growth performance and protein (amino acids) metabolism of weanling piglets. In all, 16 weanling piglets with an average initial weight of 7.5 kg were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn‐soybean meal‐based diet, and the other was fed a rice‐soybean meal diet, containing around 46% of corn or rice, respectively. A two‐week growth trial was conducted. The average daily gain (p = .025) and feed efficiency (p = .011) in rice‐fed piglets were significantly higher than those in corn‐fed piglets. Liver lysine‐ketoglutarate reductase activity tended to be lower (p = .073) in rice‐fed piglets than in corn‐fed piglets. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration in rice‐fed piglets was significantly lower than that in corn‐fed piglets. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in rice‐fed piglets than in corn‐fed piglets. Plasma‐free valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan concentrations were significantly higher in rice‐fed piglets than in corn‐fed piglets. In contrast, plasma histidine concentration was significantly lower in rice‐fed piglets than in corn‐fed piglets. Overall, these results show that rice feeding improves the growth performance and affects the protein (amino acids) metabolism in weanling piglets.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Microalgae Schizochytrium sp. as a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects on diet digestibility, oxidation and palatability and on immunity and inflammatory indices in dogs
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Camilla Mariane Menezes Souza, Daniele Cristina de Lima, Taís Silvino Bastos, Simone Gisele de Oliveira, Breno Castello Branco Beirão, Ananda Portella Félix

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the microalgae Schizochytrium sp., as a dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on diet palatability, coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients and metabolizable energy (ME), blood variables and indicators of immunity in dogs. We also evaluated oxidative stability. Two diets containing 0 and 0.4% of microalgae Schizochytrium sp. were evaluated in three experiments. On Experiment I the palatability of diets containing 0% versus 0.4% microalgae was compared. In Experiment II test diets were offered for 30 days to determine digestibility, fecal characteristics, and blood parameters. In Experiment III, the oxidative stability of diets containing microalgae versus anchovy oil was evaluated. There was a higher intake ratio of the diet containing microalgae (p < .05). The ME and CTTAD of nutrients increased (p < .05), except for ether extract after acid hydrolysis, with the inclusion of the microalgae in diet. The amount of monocytes and phagocytic granulocytes was higher (p < .05) in dogs fed 0.4% microalgae. There was greater oxidative stability for the sample containing microalgae. The addition of 0.4% microalgae presented high palatability, increased phagocytic cell numbers, and demonstrated oxidative stability superior to anchovy oil.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Presence of chlorogenic acid during in vitro maturation protects porcine oocytes from the negative effects of heat stress
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Thanh‐Van Nguyen, Lanh Thi Kim Do, Tamas Somfai, Takeshige Otoi, Masayasu Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Kikuchi

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is known to protect oocytes from oxidative stress. Here we investigated the effects of CGA on porcine oocyte maturation under heat stress and subsequent embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation. For in vitro maturation (IVM) at 41.0°C (hyperthermic condition), supplementation of the maturation medium with 50 μM CGA significantly improved the percentage of matured oocytes and reduced the rate of apoptosis relative to oocytes matured without CGA (p < .05). CGA treatment of oocytes during IVM under hyperthermia tended to increase (p < .1) percentage of blastocyst formation after parthenogenesis and significantly increased (p < .05) the total cell number per blastocyst relative to oocytes matured without CGA. For IVM at 38.5°C (isothermic condition), CGA significantly improved the rate of blastocyst development compared with oocytes matured without CGA (p < .05), but did not affect oocyte maturation, apoptosis rate or the number of cells per embryo. Omission of all antioxidants from the IVM medium significantly reduced the rate of oocyte maturation, but the rate was restored upon addition of CGA. These results demonstrate that CGA is a potent antioxidant that protects porcine oocytes from the negative effects of heat stress, thus reducing the frequency of apoptosis and improving the quality of embryos.

    更新日期:2019-10-30
  • Theoretical turnover rate of the rumen liquid fraction in dairy cows and its relationship to feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Makoto Mitsumori, Toshiya Hasunuma, Tomoko Okimura, Takumi Shinkai, Yosuke Kobayashi, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki

    Ruminant animals are able to convert plant materials (grain and the human‐indigestible portion of carbohydrates) to milk and meat. In this conversion, most of the plant materials are digested by rumen fermentation and are changed to short‐chain fatty acids, microbial cells, and methane, which is released into the atmosphere. The relationships among feed, rumen fermentation, and milk production are poorly understood. Here we report a novel indicator of characteristics of rumen fermentation, theoretical turnover rate (TTOR) of the rumen liquid fraction. The TTOR was calculated from the presumed rumen volume (PRV) which is estimated by dividing the methane yield by the methane concentration of rumen fluid. The formula for the TTOR is: TTOR = PRV/body weight0.75. Our present analyses confirm that the TTOR as an indicator is capable of connecting feed, rumen fermentation, and milk production, because dry matter intake/TTOR showed a strong correlation with milk yield/TTOR. In addition, the TTOR may be related to ruminal pH, as we observed that the ruminal pH decreased as the TTOR increased. We propose that the TTOR is a factor characterizing rumen fermentation and a good indicator of the productivity of ruminants and dysbiosis of the rumen microbiome.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Embryo collection from pigs post‐pseudopregnancy induced by estradiol dipropionate
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Yuri Hirayama, Koji Yoshioka, Michiko Noguchi, Koji Misumi

    We aimed to define whether embryo collection carried out after pseudopregnancy was of similar outcome and quality as after artificial abortion. To induce pseudopregnancy, 30 gilts or sows were given 20 mg intramuscular estradiol dipropionate (EDP) 10–11 days after the onset of estrus. Ten additional pigs were inseminated artificially at natural estrus as a control group. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was administered twice with a 24 hr interval beginning 15, 20, or 25 days after EDP‐treatment (n = 10 per group) or between 23 and 39 days after artificial insemination in control pigs. Following this, all pigs were given 1,000 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin and 500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and then inseminated. Embryos were recovered 6 or 7 days after hCG treatment and outcome was recorded. There was no significant difference in the number of normal embryos collected from the pigs with PGF2α initiated at different time points or from the control group. Embryonic developmental stages 7 days after hCG treatment also did not differ among groups. These results indicate that the use of EDP to induce pseudopregnancy, followed by PGF2α administration to synchronize estrus for subsequent embryo harvest, is a suitable alternative to the artificial abortion method.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Insulin resistance: Relationship between indices during late gestation in dairy cows and effects on newborn metabolism
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Rui Hasegawa, Izumi Iwase, Tomohiro Takagi, Moeri Kondo, Motozumi Matsui, Chiho Kawashima

    To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance indices [“Revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index” (RQUICKI; RQ), “Revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index ‐ β‐hydroxybutyrate” (RQUICKIBHB; RQBHB), and “Homeostasis model assessment‐insulin resistance” (HOMA‐IR; HR)], and metabolic parameters in dams during late gestation, and their newborn calves. Blood was sampled twice weekly during the experimental period in 30 dry Holstein cows. In calves, blood sampling and body weight measurements were performed immediately after birth, and in 1‐week‐old male calves, liver and muscle biopsy samples were obtained for determining metabolic factor mRNA levels. RQ and RQBHB were negatively correlated with insulin, nonesterified fatty acid, BHB, and albumin and were positively correlated with leptin levels in blood during late gestation (p < .05). RQ, rather than RQBHB, reflected metabolism of dams, while stronger positive correlations were present between HR and blood insulin concentrations than other parameters, and calves of dams with high HR had low body weight, and high liver and muscle expression of growth hormone and insulin receptor mRNA (p < .05). RQ and HR of dams during late gestation could serve as indicators of dam metabolism and predictors of metabolism in newborn calves respectively.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Extraction and characterization of collagens from yak rumen smooth muscle
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Shengsheng Li, Qunli Yu

    This study reports an effective method using enzymatic methods to extract collagen from yak rumen smooth muscle. The enzymatic extraction methods were optimized by response surface methodology. Additionally, the properties of the extracted collagen were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT‐IR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: the pepsin addition was 0.95%, the enzymatic hydrolysis time was 21 hr, and the solid‐to‐solvent ratio was 1:11. Under these conditions, the collagen extraction rate could reach 3.62/100 g. The results of FT‐IR revealed that the amide A, amide B, amide I, amide II, and amide III bands of the collagen appeared at 3,293.18, 3,068.18, 1654.94, 1,540.58, and 1,236.58 cm−1, respectively. The MS identified seven types of collagen, which were type I, type III, type IV, type V, type VI, type VIII, and type XII. The results demonstrated that the enzymatic method can extract collagen from yak rumen smooth muscle with a considerably high yield and can preserve the intact structure of the collagen.

    更新日期:2019-10-23
  • Genetic relationship of litter traits between farrowing and weaning in Landrace and Large White pigs
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Shinichiro Ogawa, Ayane Konta, Makoto Kimata, Kazuo Ishii, Yoshinobu Uemoto, Masahiro Satoh

    We estimated genetic parameters in Landrace and Large White pig populations for litter traits at farrowing (total number born, number born alive, number stillborn, total litter weight at birth (LWB), and mean litter weight at birth) and those at weaning (litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at weaning (LWW), mean litter weight at weaning (MWW), and survival rate from farrowing to weaning). We analyzed 65,579 records at farrowing and 6,306 at weaning for Landrace, and 52,557 and 5,360, respectively, for Large White. Single‐trait and two‐trait repeatability animal models were exploited to estimate heritability and genetic correlation respectively. Heritability estimates of LSW were 0.09 for Landrace and 0.08 for Large White. Genetic correlations of LSW with MWW were –0.43 for Landrace and –0.24 for Large White. Genetic correlations of LSW with LWW and LWB ranged from 0.5 to 0.6. The genetic correlation of MWW with LWW was positive, but that with LWB was negligible. The results indicate that utilizing LWW or LWB could improve LSW efficiently, despite the antagonistic genetic correlation between LSW and MWW.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Genetic parameters for litter traits at different parities in purebred Landrace and Yorkshire pigs
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Bryan I. M. Lopez, Kangseok Seo

    Comparison of the multi‐trait animal model and the traditional repeatability model was carried out using data obtained from 6,424 Landrace and 20,835 Yorkshire sows farrowed from January 2000 to April 2018 in order to estimate genetic parameters for litter traits at different parities. Specifically, records of the total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), total number of mortality (MORT), number of stillborn (NSB) and number of mummified pigs (MUM) were used. Although results showed the heterogeneity of heritability for litter traits at different parities, the mean heritability estimates from the multi‐trait model were found to be higher than those of the repeatability model for all traits in both pig breeds. In terms of genetic correlation between parities, a slight difference in genetic control in the first parity was noted for TNB and NBA in Landrace and Yorkshire pigs. The correlation between the first parity and later parities ranged from 0.48 to 0.74 for TNB and NBA in both breeds. Moreover, genetic correlation between parities for MORT and NSB was observed to be high for parities higher than 2 in Yorkshire pigs. For MUM, genetic correlation between the first and other parities was generally low in both breeds, indicating that culling pigs on the basis of MUM at the first parity could probably be unreasonable. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the multi‐trait approach for litter size traits is useful for the accurate estimation of genetic parameters.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Genotypes and allele frequencies of buried SNPs in a bovine single‐nucleotide polymorphism array in Japanese Black cattle
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Shinji Sasaki, Eiji Muraki, Yoshinobu Inoue, Ryouhei Suezawa, Hideki Nikadori, Yuuichi Yoshida, Shouta Nariai, Ryoya Hideshima, Shiyunsuke Moriwaki, Ryotaro Nakashima, Katsuo Uchiyama, Kanako Yoshinari, Masayuki Takeda, Takatoshi Kojima

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are widely used for genetic and genomic analyses in cattle breeding; thus, data derived from SNP arrays have accumulated on a large scale nationwide. Commercial SNP arrays contain a considerable number of unassigned SNPs on the chromosome/position on the genome; these SNPs are excluded in subsequent analyses. Notably, the position‐unassigned SNPs, or “buried SNPs” include some of the markers associated with genetic disease. In this study, we identified the position of buried SNPs using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool against the surrounding sequences and characterized the relationship between SNPs and genetic diseases in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals based on the genomic position. We determined the position of 285 buried SNPs on the genome and surveyed the genotype and allele frequencies of these SNPs in 5,955 individual Japanese Black cattle. Eleven SNPs associated with genetic disease, which contained five buried SNPs, were found in the population with the risk allele frequency ranging from 0.00008396 to 0.46. These results indicate that buried SNPs in the bovine SNP array can be utilized to identify associations with genetic disorders from large scale accumulated SNP genotype data in Japanese Black cattle.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Provision of beta‐glucan prebiotics (cellooligosaccharides and kraft pulp) to calves from pre‐ to post‐weaning period on pasture
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Kyoko Kido, Shigeki Tejima, Miyuu Haramiishi, Yutaka Uyeno, Yasuyuki Ide, Kazuhiro Kurosu, Shiro Kushibiki

    We conducted two feeding experiments to evaluate the effects of supplementation with either cellooligosaccharide or kraft pulp on growth performance in grazing beef calves (Japanese Black) from 4 weeks pre‐weaning to 12 to 16 weeks post‐weaning. In Experiment 1 (20‐week duration), nine calves (2.9‐month‐old females) were assigned to either a control group (CON) or an experimental group (CEL) fed cellooligosaccharide at a rate of 10 g/day mixed with concentrate. Average daily weight gain tended to be greater in CEL than in CON, especially after 1 month of weaning. In Experiment 2 (16‐week duration), 10 calves (2.0‐month‐old females) were assigned to either a control group or an experimental group (KRA) fed kraft pulp at a rate of 10% replacement of total digestible nutrients with concentrate. The proportion of fibrolytic bacteria increased and that of methanogenic Archaea decreased in the rumen microbial community composition of KRA calves in Experiment 2, whereas the decrease in Fibrobacter and Archaea was observed in CEL calves at first 4 weeks in Experiment 1. We conclude that beta‐glucan prebiotic supplementation to grazing calves at pre‐weaning would affect rumen microbial composition and modified rumen fermentation characteristics, leading to a better rumen environment via different means.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Semen quality improvement in boars fed with supplemental wolfberry (Lycium barbarum)
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Qiang Yang, Yuyun Xing, Chuanmin Qiao, Weiwei Liu, Haoyun Jiang, Qiang Fu, Yu Zhou, Bin Yang, Zhiyan Zhang, Rongrong Chen

    Wolfberry is well known for its health benefits in Asian countries. This study consisted of two experiments. In Experiment 1, nine boars were provided 40 g dried wolfberry per 100 kg body weight per day in addition to regular feed for 160 days (divided into 40 days phases: I, II, III, and IV) under step‐down air temperature conditions. Controls (n = 9) were fed regular feed only. Significant (p < .05 or p < .01) or slight improvements in sperm progressive motility, total abnormality rate, sperm concentration, and total sperm per ejaculate were observed in the wolfberry group during phases II and III. No differences were observed in semen volume. After combining the data from phases II ~ IV, significant improvements were detected in all aforementioned traits (p < .05 or p < .01), except semen volume. In Experiment 2, the wolfberry group (n = 5) was fed wolfberry for 90 days and exhibited significantly reduced head, tail, and total abnormality rates (p < .05 or p < .01) in both fresh semen and semen stored for 72 hr at 17°C compared to the control group (n = 5). SOD activity also significantly increased in this group of boars. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest that wolfberry has a positive effect on boar semen quality.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Relation between cell‐bound exopolysaccharide production via plasmid‐encoded genes and rugose colony morphology in the probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Masanori Fukao, Takeshi Zendo, Takuro Inoue, Nobuo Fuke, Tomoo Moriuchi, Yasuhiro Yamane, Jiro Nakayama, Kenji Sonomoto, Tetsuya Fukaya

    The probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 is a natural producer of cell‐bound exopolysaccharide (EPS), and the plasmid‐encoded glycosyltransferase genes are responsible for this EPS production. KB290 forms unique rugose colonies inside an agar medium; this characteristic is useful for detecting and enumerating KB290 in the gut or feces. However, the genetic elements associated with this morphology remain unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the relation between the plasmid eps genes and rugose colony morphology in KB290. The plasmid‐cured mutants formed smooth colonies, and the rugose colony morphology was restored after complementation with the eps genes. The eps genes were successfully cloned and expressed in other L. brevis and L. plantarum strains. In these transformant strains, the presence of the EPS, consisting of glucose and N‐acetylglucosamine, correlated with rugose colonies, indicating that EPS is responsible for rugose colony formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report identifying the genetic factors influencing rugose colonies in Lactobacillus strains. This rugose colony formation may serve as a useful selective marker for KB290 in routine laboratory and research settings and can be used to detect the spontaneous loss of plasmids in this strain.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Slaughterline records of various postmortem pathological lesions and their influence on carcass and meat quality in slaughtered pigs
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Nikola Čobanović, Ljiljana Janković, Dragan Vasilev, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Vlado Teodorović, Branislav Kureljušić, Nedjeljko Karabasil

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of pathological lesions in pigs from small‐scale farms and to determine associations between pathological lesions and hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality in slaughtered pigs. The study was conducted on 625 pigs (~115 kg) originating from 20 small‐scale farms. Any signs of pneumonia, pleurisy, pericarditis, and liver milk spots were recorded as present or absent. Complete blood count was investigated. The following carcass quality parameters were measured: live, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and meatiness. Meat pH and temperature were measured 45 min postmortem. Of the 625 examined pigs, 41.8% had pneumonia, 23.5% pleurisy, 2.7% pericarditis, and 29.9% liver milk spots. The presence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs adversely affected hematological parameters, reduced live, hot and cold carcass weights, and meatiness and had deleterious effects on meat quality (higher pH45min and higher prevalence of dark, firm and dry meat). In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs, indicating serious health problems in smallholder pig production systems. The presence of single and, especially, multiple pathological lesions in slaughtered pigs negatively affected hematological parameters, and carcass and meat quality.

    更新日期:2019-09-14
  • Evaluation of effects of the dry‐heat‐processed sweet potato waste as broiler feed
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Xiaoxiao Zhang, Yukun Zhang, Daichi Ijiri, Akira Ohtsuka

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of feeding dry‐processed sweet potato waste on the growth of broilers. Sweet potato waste was air‐dried (A‐SPW) or heat‐dried (D‐SPW). Twenty‐four 14‐d‐old chicks were assigned to the following groups (14–28 days): control, fed a corn‐soybean meal‐based diet; A‐SPW, fed the basal diet with 55% of the corn replaced with A‐SPW meal; D‐SPW, fed the basal diet with 50% of the corn replaced with D‐SPW meal. The feed conversion ratio (feed/gain) of the D‐SPW group was greater than that of the A‐SPW group. The relative weight of abdominal fat and the muscle lipid content of the D‐SPW group were increased compared with those of the A‐SPW group. The metabolizabilities of crude protein and gross energy of the D‐SPW group were increased compared with those of the A‐SPW group. The plasma α‐tocopherol concentrations of the A‐SPW and D‐SPW groups were greater than that of the control group. Plasma malondialdehyde was decreased in the A‐SPW and D‐SPW groups, and muscle malondialdehyde was decreased in the D‐SPW group, compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that dry‐heat processing improves the nutrient metabolizability of sweet potato waste and makes it into available feed for broilers.

    更新日期:2019-09-10
  • Shiga toxin 2eB‐transgenic lettuce vaccine is effective in protecting weaned piglets from edema disease caused by Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli infection
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Takashi Hamabata, Toshio Sato, Eiji Takita, Takeshi Matsui, Taishi Imaoka, Nobuo Nakanishi, Keizo Nakayama, Takamitsu Tsukahara, Kazutoshi Sawada

    Porcine edema disease (ED) is a toxemia that is caused by enteric infection with Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e)‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and is associated with high mortality. Since ED occurs most frequently during the weaning period, preweaning vaccination of newborn piglets is required. We developed stx2eB‐transgenic lettuce as an oral vaccine candidate against ED and examined its protective efficacy using a piglet STEC infection model. Two serially developed Stx2eB‐lettuce strains, 2BN containing ingredient Stx2eB constituting a concentration level of 0.53 mg Stx2eB/g of powdered lettuce dry weight (DW) and 2BH containing ingredient Stx2eB constituting a concentration level of 2.3 mg of Stx2eB/g of powdered lettuce DW, were evaluated in three sequential experiments. Taken the results together, oral administration of Stx2eB‐lettuce vaccine was suggested to relieve the pathogenic symptoms of ED in piglets challenged with virulent STEC strain. Our data suggested that Stx2eB‐lettuce is a promising first oral vaccine candidate against ED.

    更新日期:2019-09-10
  • Effect of chronic administration of a gonadotropin‐releasing agonist on luteal function and pregnancy rates in dairy cattle
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Alan Willmore, Tracy L. Davis

    Increased embryonic losses may be associated with inadequate progesterone (P4) concentrations in high‐producing lactating dairy cattle. The objectives of the present studies were to determine if chronic administration of a gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, Deslorelin, would increase circulating P4 concentrations and subsequently increase pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. Administration of Deslorelin for 12 days increased (p < .05) luteal volume and circulating P4 concentrations in primiparous lactating dairy cows, but increased only luteal volumes in multiparous cows. Treatment with Deslorelin increased Day 45 pregnancy rates in cows as compared to untreated controls. Chronic treatment with Deslorelin in dairy cattle; (a) increased luteal volume of the primary CL, (b) induced accessory CL, (c) increased circulating P4 concentration in primiparous cows only, (d) did not lengthen the estrous cycle upon removal of treatment, and (e) increased pregnancy rates. Although luteal volume was increased in multiparous cows and circulating P4 concentrations were not with Deslorelin treatment, there was an apparent effect on pregnancy rates. This hormonal strategy may represent a suitable model to address local effects of P4 and GnRH/luteinizing hormone on uterine environment and subsequent embryonic survival.

    更新日期:2019-09-10
  • Diet change from a system combining total mixed ration and pasture to confinement system (total mixed ration) on milk production and composition, blood biochemistry and behavior of dairy cows
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Lucía Grille, Maria L. Adrien, Mara Olmos, Pablo Chilibroste, Juan P. Damián

    This study aimed to determine if a diet change from a mixed system to a confinement system affects the milk production and composition, behavior and blood biochemistry of dairy cows. Cows were assigned randomly to one of the two treatments: cows fed with TMR (total‐mixed‐ration) (confined) throughout the period group fed TMR (GTMR, n = 15) and cows that changed their diet from pasture plus TMR to exclusive TMR at 70 ± 14 DIM (GCHD, n = 15). GTMR cows produced more milk and greater lactose and protein yield before the change of diet than GCHD cows (p ≤ .01), but these differences disappeared after the change. GCHD cows decreased the frequency of rumination and lying from before to after the change (p ≤ .03), but in GTMR cows no changes were observed. After diet change, GCHD cows had lower frequency of rumination and lying than GTMR cows (p ≤ .02). Before the change, GCHD cows had greater NEFA (non esterified fatty acids) concentrations than GTMR cows (p = .002). Abrupt change from a mixed system to a confined system was favorable on blood biochemical and milk variables of dairy cows. However, in relation to behavior, the cows expressed difficulties to adapt quickly to the abrupt change of system.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • In situ ruminal degradation and in vitro fermentation characteristics, and antioxidative activities of the lotus rhizome
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Sanae Asano, Kohei Aoki, Yuna Kaizuka, Yuhi Kobayashi, Kenta Watanabe, Chizuko Kato, Chihiro Saito, Syuichi Nishimura, Toshiaki Kato, Motonori Takagi, Hiroshi Kajikawa

    We evaluated the lotus rhizome as a potential ruminant feed by investigating its compositional properties, in situ degradation profile and in vitro fermentation characteristics with ruminal microbes, in comparison with cereal grains (corn, barley and wheat). The antioxidative activities in the lotus rhizome were also estimated. The soluble fraction of dry matter in lotus tuber was >70%, which was higher than those in the grains. The insoluble fraction in lotus tuber was not degraded by ruminal microbes in accord with a first‐order reaction. In an in vitro experiment, lotus tuber showed lower fermentation at 8 hr compared to the grains, but exhibited higher productions of gas and VFA at 48 hr along with a lower lactate and higher pH. The lower value of final lactate production in lotus tuber, indicating the metabolic capacity for lactate utilization retained, suggests a lower risk of ruminal acidosis compared to grains. Lotus rhizome had high antioxidant activities, with the foliar bud showing the strongest ferric reducing antioxidant power, followed in order by the apical bud, node, residual tuber, edible tuber, and nodal root. For ruminants, the lotus rhizome could thus be not only an energy feed but also the source of natural antioxidants.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Kaempferol alleviates the reduction of developmental competence during aging of porcine oocytes
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Xuerui Yao, Hao Jiang, Ying‐Hua Li, Qingshan Gao, Yong Nan Xu, Nam‐Hyung Kim

    Kaempferol (KAE) is a natural flavonoid present in different plant species and exhibits anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer therapeutic properties. In the present study, we investigated the influence and underlying mechanisms of KAE supplementation on porcine oocytes during in vitro aging. The results show that KAE treatment can alleviate the aging‐related reduction of developmental competence. We observed that the blastocyst production rate in aged oocytes treated with 0.1 μM KAE was significantly higher than in untreated aging oocytes (36.78 ± 0.86% vs. 27.55 ± 2.60%, respectively, p < .05). The KAE‐treated aging oocytes had significantly reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (p < .05). Furthermore, the mRNA levels of the embryonic pluripotency‐related genes Oct4, NANOG, and ITGA5 were significantly increased in blastocysts derived from KAE‐treated oocytes (p < .05). During excessive oocyte culture, KAE treatment maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced apoptosis; however, this was not observed in untreated aging oocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that KAE treatment can alleviate the aging of porcine oocytes by reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Plasma steroid hormone concentrations and their relationships in Suffolk ewes during gestation and parturition
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Hiroshi Miura, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Motohiro Kikuchi, Minoru Sakaguchi

    In this study, we measured plasma concentrations of progesterone, pregnenolone, estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol and analyzed the correlations between these hormones during gestation in 13 Suffolk ewes, the main breed in Japan. Progesterone increased during gestation and decreased a few days before parturition; however, this pattern was different in samples with high progesterone concentrations (P4 spike samples). This P4 spike was associated with a high pregnenolone concentration. Apart from the P4 spike, the progesterone change was similar to that in other sheep breeds. Pregnenolone increased during gestation and decreased after parturition. A significant correlation between progesterone and pregnenolone was observed a few days before parturition. Estrone sulfate and estradiol concentrations increased during gestation, but estrone did not. They increased shortly before parturition, and then decreased immediately after parturition. At parturition, the correlation between estrone and estrone sulfate was significantly stronger. Moreover, a strong correlation between estrone sulfate and estradiol was observed after parturition. Cortisol did not change during gestation and increased shortly before parturition. The results showed steroid hormone dynamics in normal pregnant Suffolk ewes, which were mostly in line with those of other sheep breeds. It should be noted that high progesterone concentrations altered the typical patterns.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Profiles of maternal origin factors during transition from embryonic diapause to implantation in roe deer
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Anna J. Korzekwa, Angelika M. Kotlarczyk, Anna Zadroga

    The aim was to evaluate in female roe deer: (a) PAG mRNA relative abundance in endometrial uterine tissue for determination of the duration of embryonic diapause, (b) mRNA relative abundance of progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin (P4, E2, and PRL) receptors (PGR, ESR, and PRLR) during diapause and after implantation in the endometrium; (c) concentration of P4, E2, and PRL in the blood, and (d) a noninvasive method of hormone detection by measurement of P4 and E2 concentrations in feces. A total of fifteen individuals were obtained post mortem during hunting seasons and divided into three experimental groups (November, December, January). The results did not reveal mRNA relative abundance for PAGs in the endometrium or detectable PAG concentrations in the serum of all examined females. Concentration of PRL and mRNA relative abundance for PRLR long isoform in the endometrium was the highest in January (p < .01). mRNA relative abundance for PGR, P4 concentration in the endometrium, serum, and feces was the highest in January (p < .01). Endometrial origin PRL and P4 may be responsible for the termination of this process and pregnancy development after implantation.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Oxidative homeostasis in oocyte competence for in vitro embryo development
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Fabiana Dakkach de Almeida Barros, Paulo Roberto Adona, Samuel Guemra, Bruno Cesar Michelette Damião

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in oocytes from follicles of different diameters and their relevance in the in vitro production of embryos (IVPE). Bovine ovaries were aspirated according to the diameter of the follicle [2–8 (general), 4–8 (large), and 2 < 4 mm (small)]. The oocytes were evaluated for levels of ROS, GSH, in vitro maturation, and IVPE. Higher levels of ROS and GSH were observed (p < 0.05) in oocytes of the large group (85.6 ± 7.2 and 140.0 ± 9.6) followed by those in the general (81.1 ± 10.5 and 134.3 ± 7.8) and small (73.5 ± 10.1 and 125.0 ± 10.6) groups. However, the proportion of ROS/GSH did not differ (p > 0.05) between the general, large, and small groups. The maturation was higher (p < 0.05) in the large group (87.8 ± 3.0%) than in the small group (72.2 ± 5.8%), but both were similar (p > 0.05) to that in the general group (82.2 ± 2.5%), whereas the IVPE of the large group (57.3 ± 3.0%) was higher (p < 0.05) than those in the general (44.7 ± 4.4%) and small (34.0 ± 4.0%) groups. We report that oocytes from large follicles are more competent for IVPE, whereas higher levels of ROS and GSH appear to be correlated with oocyte competence, as long as oxidative homeostasis is retained.

    更新日期:2019-08-30
  • Impact of restricting feed and probiotic supplementation on growth performance, mortality and carcass traits of meat‐type quails
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Rab N. Soomro, Mohamed E. Abd El‐Hack, Syed S. Shah, Ayman E. Taha, Mahmoud Alagawany, Ayman A. Swelum, Elsayed O.S. Hussein, Hani A. Ba‐Aawdh, Islam Saadeldin, Mohamed A. El‐Edel, Vincenzo Tufarelli

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of quantitative feed restriction, along with dietary supplementation with a probiotic blend (Protexin) as a natural growth promoter, on the performance, water consumption, mortality rate and carcass traits of meat‐type quails. A total of 250 1‐day unsexed quails were randomly allocated to five equal groups in a completely randomized design. The first group (A) fed a basal diet without any restriction (24 hr/day); the second group (B1) fed the basal diet for 20 hr/day; the third group (B2) fed the basal diet enriched with probiotic (0.1 g/kg diet) for 20 hr/day; the fourth group (C1) fed the basal diet for 16 hr/day; and the fifth group (C2) fed the basal diet enriched with probiotic (0.1 g/kg diet) for 16 hr/day. Birds were fed ad‐libitum from 0–14 days of age, and then the feed restriction regimes started from 14 till 28 days of age. Results showed that quails in the control‐group consumed more feed and water than the other treatment groups (p < .01), however their body weights did not differ (p > .05) compared with the other treated groups. The best feed conversion values were achieved in quails supplemented with probiotic blend (B2 and C2) in comparison with the other groups (p < .01). Feeding probiotic had a positive effect on bird health which reduced the mortality rate. Further, mortality rate was significantly reduced (p < .05) by feed restriction, with or without probiotic supplementation. No carcass parameters were significantly affected (p > .05) by treatments. Our results show that quail could be reared under a feed restriction system, for 4–8 hr daily, along with dietary supplementation of probiotic as growth promoter for better growth performance.

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • An application of temperature mapping of horse's back for leisure horse‐rider‐matching
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Malgorzata Masko, Anna Krajewska, Lukasz Zdrojkowski, Malgorzata Domino, Zdzislaw Gajewski

    Leisure riding is a popular way of using horses however, unlike sport or racing horses, those are mostly not associated with one rider with high skills. Constant overload of equine musculoskeletal system causes pathologies, which are affecting horse mobility and decreases the horse‐rider communication. The aim was to propose the new scoring system of thermograph analysis as an aspect of differences in heat distributions on horseback before and after leisure ridings. The study was conducted on sixteen Polish warmblood horses, scanned with a non‐contact thermographic camera. Heat pattern of the thoracolumbar area was evaluated on thermograms taken before and after exercise. The criteria with point values for horse‐rider‐matching were created: heat points on the dorsal midline of saddle‐back contact area and degree of muscle unit overload. The results of thermograph analysis were compared with the results of a questionnaire on horse‐rider communication during riding in order to estimate the relevance of matching. The maximum score was obtained in 38.3% and 39.8% of combinations based on the thermograph analysis and questionnaire, respectively. Results of both scoring systems were strongly positive correlated (r = .937), demonstrating high sensitivity (61.72%) and specificity (90.23%) of the matching. The horse‐rider matching may improve horse comfort during leisure type of work.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Influences of different Fe sources on Fe bioavailability and homeostasis in SD rats
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Yu Lin, Xugang Shu, Zhihuan Fu, Hongchao Hu, Wen-Xiong Wang, Sheng Gong

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the enteric coating process affects growth performance, Fe bioavailability, and gene expression levels that maintain iron balance in the body. The test was divided into the control group, ferrous sulfate group, ferrous fumarate group, ferrous glycine chelate(1:1) (Fe‐Gly(1:1)) group, ferrous glycine chelate(2:1) (Fe‐Gly(2:1)) group, enteric‐coated Fe‐Gly(1:1) group, and enteric‐coated Fe‐Gly(2:1) group. The results showed that the growth performance of the rats in each iron supplement group was no significant difference among them. The results of serum biochemical indicators showed that the antioxidant capacity of the rats in the iron supplement group after enteric coating increased. The iron supplementation effect of Fe‐Gly(1:1) and Fe‐Gly(2:1) was better than that of ferrous sulfate, and the effect of Fe‐Gly(1:1) after enteric coating was enhanced. The expression levels of IRP1 and IRP2 in the genes of enteric‐coated Fe‐Gly(1:1) and enteric‐coated Fe‐Gly(2:1) were significantly higher than those of ferrous sulfate. The expression levels of IRP1 and IRP2 in the protein of enteric‐coated Fe‐Gly(1:1) group were significantly higher than those in the Fe‐Gly(1:1) group. The above results show that Fe‐Gly can improve the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of iron and reduce the iron output of feces after enteric coating.

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • Sex, age, or genetic differences related to play behaviors in Japanese Black calves
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Sarengaowa Aierqing, Akiko Nakagawa, Miki Okita, Takashi Bungo

    Play behavior in young animals has been used to evaluate the condition (health) of livestock. We investigated age, sex, and genetic differences of Japanese Black calves in relation to frequency of play behaviors (galloping, leaping, turning, bucking, head butting objects, and head shaking) and examined how these relationships might affect growth during the suckling stage. Locomotor play behaviors (galloping, leaping, turning, and bucking) and head butting objects gradually declined with the age for both sexes. The frequency of head butting was significantly higher in males than females. We found that significant interaction effects (age × MAOA polymorphism) in play behaviors (except head shaking) and the frequencies of locomotor play in calves without the wild‐type allele were significantly higher than those in younger calves (2 and 6 weeks of age). Weight gain was significantly correlated with the frequency of locomotor play in females, but not in males. This study suggests that play in Japanese Black calves gradually declines as they mature and that play may be controlled by variations in the MAOA gene. In addition, the frequency of locomotor play may be an indicator of health in female calves.

    更新日期:2019-08-16
  • Metagenomic profiles of the rumen microbiota during the transition period in low‐yield and high‐yield dairy cows
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Ahmad Sofyan, Yutaka Uyeno, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Satomi Mori, Yuichi Katayose, Makoto Mitsumori

    We investigated potential relationships between rumen microbiota and milk production in dairy cows during the transition period. Twelve dairy cows were divided into a low‐yield (LY) or high‐yield (HY) group based on their milk yield. Rumen samples were taken from dairy cows at 3 weeks before parturition, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after parturition. 16S rDNA‐based metagenomic analysis showed that diversities of rumen microbiota in both groups were similar and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the postpartum than prepartum period in both groups. The abundance of Bacteroidetes and ratio of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes was higher in the HY than the LY group. OTUs assigned to Prevotella bryantii, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Succinivibrio sp. were abundant in the HY group. These OTUs were significantly related to the propionate molar proportion of rumen fluids in the HY group. OTUs assigned to Lachnospiraceae, Bifidobacterium sp. and Saccharofermentans were dominant in the LY group. Predictive functional profiling revealed that abundance of gene families involved in amino acid and vitamin metabolism was higher in the HY than the LY group. These results suggest that the community structure and fermentation products of rumen microbiota could be associated with milk production of dairy cows.

    更新日期:2019-08-13
  • Encapsulated nitrate replacing soybean meal changes in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production in diets differing in concentrate to forage ratio
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Andressa Santanna Natel, Adibe Luiz Abdalla, Rafael Canonenco de Araujo, Concepta McManus, Tiago do Prado Paim, Adibe Luiz de Abdalla Filho, Patrícia Louvandini, Carina Nazato

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of using encapsulated nitrate product (ENP) replacing soybean meal in diets differing in concentrate to forage ratio on ruminal fermentation and methane production in vitro using a semi‐automatic gas production technique. Eight treatments were used in a randomized complete design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement: two diet (20C:80F and 80C:20F concentrate to forage ratio) and four levels of ENP addition (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% of DM) replacing soybean meal. There was a diet × ENP interaction (p = 0.02) for methane production. According to ENP addition, diets with 80C:20F showed more intense reduction on methane production that 20C:80F. A negative linear effect was observed for propionate production with ENP addition in diet with 80C:20F and to the relative abundance of methanogens Archaea, in both diet. The replacement of soybean meal by ENP in levels up to 3% of DM inhibited methane production due to a reduction in the methanogens community without affecting the organic matter degradability. However, ENP at 4.5% of DM level affected fiber degradability, abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, and propionic acid production, indicating that this level of inclusion is not recommended for ruminant production.

    更新日期:2019-08-08
  • Application of the slope‐ratio growth assay technique to estimate tryptophan availability in soybean meal fed to young rats
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Hiroyuki Sato, Makoto Miura, Takeshi Fujieda, Masaaki Toyomizu

    The slope‐ratio assay for rat was used to determine whether tryptophan (Trp) availability in soybean meal (SBM) is affected by the presence of other amino acids (AAs). In a preliminary study, rats were fed graded levels of Trp‐supplemented diets to establish the Trp concentration range over which the weight gain response was linear. This range was found to be from 0.04% to 0.12% Trp. Subsequently, rats were fed basal (0.045% Trp) or Trp‐supplemented diets from three different sources: l‐Trp alone, SBM, or l‐Trp mixed with other AAs to reflect AA levels in the test SBM (AA‐mix). Weight gain in rats increased linearly with supplemental Trp intake (p < .05) for all Trp sources. Compared to the slope achieved with l‐Trp alone, the estimated availability of Trp in SBM was 84.4%, while for the AA‐mix it was 93.4%. It is evident that the 6.6% reduction in l‐Trp availability in AA‐mix is due to metabolic costs derived from excess levels of other AAs beside Trp, given that the absorption of crystalline l‐Trp in the small intestine is 100%. In conclusion, the Trp availability of SBM was estimated to be around 90.4% (i.e., 84.4/93.4 × 100) after correcting for the effects of the other AAs in SBM.

    更新日期:2019-08-05
  • Effects of sulfanilamide on boar sperm quality, bacterial composition, and fertility during liquid storage at 17°C
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Tian‐Yu Feng, Fa Ren, Qian Fang, Gui‐Chao Dai, Yu Li, Qian Li, Hua‐Ming Xi, Hao Li, Yang‐Yi Hao, Jian‐Hong Hu

    Sulfanilamide (SA) is an effective broad‐spectrum antibacterial agent in human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of SA on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C and determine the optimal concentration of SA and its effects on bacterial growth, microbial composition, and maternal fertility. Boar ejaculates were diluted with a basic extender, containing different concentrations of SA, and stored in a 17°C incubator for 6 days. The sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were measured daily. The results showed that when the concentration of SA was 0.02 g/L, the sperm quality parameters were significantly higher than those of all other treatment groups (p < .05). We also monitored the bacterial growth and compared the differences in the microbial species between the 0.02 g/L SA group and the control by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results revealed that some bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas, were considerably lower in the 0.02 g/L SA group than in the control group (p < .05). In addition, preserved semen was used for artificial insemination, and results showed that 0.02 g/L SA group had a higher litter size, and its pregnancy rate was 92.5%.

    更新日期:2019-08-05
  • Adding heat‐treated rapeseed to the diet of yak improves growth performance and tenderness and nutritional quality of the meat
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Lizhuang Hao, Yang Xiang, Allan Degen, Yayu Huang, Jianzhang Niu, Lu Sun, Shatuo Chai, Jianwei Zhou, Luming Ding, Ruijun Long, Shujie Liu

    Heat‐treated rapeseed was supplemented to indoor fed yaks in winter to test the effect on dry matter intake (DMI), body mass change, and meat quality. Sixteen 3‐year‐old yak steers (124 ± 15.3 kg) were divided randomly into two groups and were offered either heat‐treated rapeseed (HTR) or rapeseed meal (CONT). The yaks were allowed 14 days for adjustment and measurements were made over 120 d. There was no difference in DMI between groups (p = 0.67), but average daily gain tended to be higher (p < 0.056) and feed to gain ratio tended to be lower (p = 0.050) in HTR than in CONT yaks. Meat from HTR yaks was more tender (p = 0.006), had higher intramuscular fat (p = 0.013), and had lower cholesterol content (p = 0.009) than from CONT yaks. In addition, the atherogenic index was lower (0.37 vs. 0.43; p = 0.049), the PUFA:SFA ratio was higher (0.55 vs. 0.37; p = 0.049), and the n‐6:n‐3 (n‐6 PUFA to n‐3 PUFA) ratio was lower (2.76 vs. 4.78; p = 0.003) in HTR than in CONT yaks, which all favoured the HTR yaks. Meat from HTR yaks met human health standards of a PUFA:SFA ratio of above 0.4 and n‐6:n‐3 ratio of less than 4, whereas meat from CONT yaks just missed these standards.

    更新日期:2019-07-26
  • Effects of tail docking and/or teeth clipping on behavior, lesions, and physiological indicators of sows and their piglets
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Ling‐ling Fu, Bo Zhou, Hui‐zhi Li, Ting‐ting Liang, Qing‐po Chu, Allan P. Schinckel, Yuan Li, Fei‐long Xu

    To evaluate effects of tail docking and/or teeth clipping on sows and their piglets, a total of 24 sows and their 302 piglets at 3 days of age were randomly allocated to one of four treatments: teeth clipping and tail docking (TCTD), teeth clipping (TC), tail docking (TD), or intact teeth and tail (Intact). Behavior of piglets and sows, lesions on the body and tail of piglets and sows' teats were inspected. Heart rates of processed piglets were increased (p < .01) during the procedures. Teeth clipping decreased body surface temperature (p < .01) of piglets during and after the procedures but tail docking did not (p > .01). Processed piglets spent more (p < .05) time lying alone and playing/fighting than sham‐processed piglets. Tail docked piglets spent less (p < .01) time standing than tail sham‐docked piglets. Intact teeth increased (p < .05) the avoidance behaviors of sows. Teeth clipping decreased (p < .05) the lesion scores on the anterior, middle, and posterior teats. Taken together, piglet teeth clipping had more impact on sows and their piglets than tail docking did in the lactation period based on our findings.

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Induced pluripotent stem cell generation from bovine somatic cells indicates unmet needs for pluripotency sustenance
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Viju V. Pillai, Tiffany G. Kei, Shannon E. Reddy, Moubani Das, Christian Abratte, Soon H. Cheong, Vimal Selvaraj

    Mechanisms that direct reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), albeit incomplete in understanding, are highly conserved across all mammalian species studied. Equally, proof of principle that iPSCs can be derived from domestic cattle has been reported in several publications. In our efforts to derive and study bovine iPSCs, we encountered inadequacy of methods to generate, sustain, and characterize these cells. Our results suggest that iPSC protocols optimized for mouse and human somatic cells do not effectively translate to bovine somatic cells, which show some refractoriness to reprogramming that also affects sustenance. Moreover, methods that enhance reprogramming efficiency in mouse and human cells had no effect on improving bovine cell reprogramming. Although use of retroviral vectors coding for bovine OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, and NANOG appeared to produce consistent iPSC‐like cells from both fibroblasts and cells from the Wharton's jelly, these colonies could not be sustained. Use of bovine genes could successfully reprogram both mouse and human cells. These findings indicated either incomplete reprogramming and/or discordant/inadequate culture conditions for bovine pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, additional studies that advance core knowledge of bovine pluripotency are necessary before any anticipated iPSC‐driven bovine technologies can be realized.

    更新日期:2019-07-19
  • Effects of Lonicera japonica extract supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation, methane emission, and microbial population
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Lee Yejun, Lee Su Kyoung, Lee Shin Ja, Eun Jong‐Su, Lee Sung Sill

    Lonicera japonica (LJ; honeysuckle) is used in traditional folk medicine in Korea and is a rich source of ascorbic acid and phenolic components that are reported to have antioxidant and antibiotic properties. We performed an in vitro experiment to assess the effects of LJ extracts (LJE) on ruminal fermentation. Timothy hay (0.3 g dry matter [DM]) was incubated with buffer, ruminal fluid, and 0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9% LJE. Batch culture fermentation was conducted separately for 12, 24, and 48 hr to determine gas production (GP), ruminal fermentation characteristics, and microbial population characteristics. The effects on GP were generally similar to those on DM degradability, with a linear decrease observed at 9% extract at 24 hr. NH3‐N showed a linear increase with increasing extract concentrations at 12 hr, whereas a decrease was observed at 24 hr. Extract supplementation decreased methane (CH4) production at 12, 24, and 48 hr. In addition, the abundance of fibrolytic bacteria and ciliate‐associated methanogen was reduced at all concentrations of extracts. These results indicate that LJE have the potential to serve as a ruminal fermentation modifier to suppress CH4 production with minimal effects on nutrient digestion in the rumen.

    更新日期:2019-07-19
  • Supplementation of salvianic acid A to boar semen extender to improve seminal quality and antioxidant capacity
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Xuekai Tian, Dong Li, Yulin He, Wenyu Zhang, Hongmei He, Renrang Du, Weijun Pang, Gongshe Yang, Taiyong Yu

    The purpose of this test was to investigate the effect of salvianic acid A (SAA, CAS No. 76822‐21‐4) on the quality of boar semen during liquid storage at 17°C. The effects of different concentrations of SAA on semen quality and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) containing different concentrations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 μM of SAA). During the storage period, sperm activity was measured every 24 hr, and plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidant capacity (T‐AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and catalase (CAT) activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days. The results from our study suggest that different concentrations of SAA have different effects on semen preservation. Semen samples supplemented with SAA showed reduced effects of oxidative stress on sperm compared to the control samples. Supplementation of 30 μM of SAA significantly improved sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and antioxidant capacity. However, the addition of SAA to the extender was scarcely beneficial to the improvement of results of artificial insemination with boar semen after liquid preservation. Further studies are necessary in order to demonstrate that SAA has good effects on the liquid preservation of semen.

    更新日期:2019-07-19
  • Addition of Wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) stalk to animal feed enhances immune response and improves intestinal microflora in pigs
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Tomoyuki Shimazu, Liushiqi Borjigin, Kazuo Katoh, Sang‐gun Roh, Haruki Kitazawa, Keietsu Abe, Yoshihito Suda, Hayato Saito, Hiroshi Kunii, Ken Nihei, Yoshinobu Uemoto, Hisashi Aso, Keiichi Suzuki

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of Wakame seaweed stalks on the immunity and intestinal microflora of pigs. Three separate experiments were performed: Relatively young (start at 20–30 kg; Experiments 1 and 2) and fattening period (70 kg; Experiment 3). All pigs (including the control group) were fed the same commercial feed, free from antibiotic additives, but in the feed for the treatment groups, 1% seaweed powder was added. There were no group differences observed in daily weight gain and feed intake in Experiments 1 and 2 between groups; however, daily weight gain was significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group in Experiment 3. The percentage of peripheral blood natural killer cells of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group in all experiments. Although addition of seaweed changed the gene expression of cytokine and toll‐like receptors of the small intestinal Peyer's patches slightly, seaweed seems to alter intestinal microflora preferentially, for instance, there was an increase in Lactobacillus and a decrease of Escherichia coli observed. These results suggest that Wakame seaweed can be used as supplement for pig feed to improve the gut health and immunity of pigs.

    更新日期:2019-07-19
  • Effect of grazing cows in an intensive silvopastoral system with Leucaena leucocephala on Panela cheese properties: yield, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptability
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Asmaa H. M. Moneeb, Carlos F. Aguilar‐Pérez, Armín J. Ayala‐Burgos, Francisco J. Solorio-Sánchez, Juan C. Ku‐Vera

    Yield, chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and sensory acceptability of Panela cheese produced from cows grazing in an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS) with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon nlemfuensis were evaluated and compared with Panela cheese from cows grazing a monoculture system (MS) of C. nlemfuensis only. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks in a tropical area in Mexico using ten crossbred cows (30–90 days of milking) assigned homogenously as five cows in each experimental group. No significant differences were found between the two systems for milk and cheese gross composition. Panela cheese from ISS showed lower content of the hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, accompanied with higher content of omega‐3, omega‐6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, Panela cheese from ISS showed higher preference for the attributes of appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability. It is concluded that Panela cheese from cows grazing in ISS has better acceptability and nutritional properties than that produced from MS with grass only.

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Effects of maternal protein supplementation and inclusion of rumen‐protected fat in the finishing diet on nutrient digestibility and expression of intestinal genes in Nellore steers
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Wendell F. G. da Cruz, Jon P. Schoonmaker, Flavio D. de Resende, Gustavo R. Siqueira, Liziana M. Rodrigues, Germán D. R. Zamudio, Marcio M. Ladeira

    The study aimed to evaluate nutrient digestibility and intestine gene expression in the progeny from cows supplemented during gestation and fed diets with or without rumen‐protected fat (RPF) in the feedlot. Forty‐eight Nellore steers, averaging 340 kg, were housed in individual pens and allotted in a completely randomized design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (dams nutrition × RPF). Cows’ supplementation started after 124 ± 21 days of gestation. The feedlot lasted 135 days and diets had the inclusion of zero or 6% of RPF. Digestibility was evaluated by total feces collection. Steers were slaughtered using the concussion technique and samples of pancreas and small intestine were collected immediately after the slaughter to analyze α‐amylase activity, and the expression of SLC5A1, CD36, and CCK and villi morphometry. Feeding RPF increased nutrients digestibility (p < 0.01). There was no effect of maternal nutrition on digestibility and α‐amylase activity in steers (p > 0.05). Duodenal expression of SLC5A1, CD36, and CCK increased in the progeny from restricted cows. In conclusion, protein restriction during mid to late gestation of dams has long‐term effects on small‐intestine length and on expression of membrane transporters genes in the duodenum of the progeny. However, maternal nutrition does not affect digestibility in the feedlot.

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Alterations in lycopene concentration and Z‐isomer content in egg yolk of hens fed all‐E‐isomer‐rich and Z‐isomer‐rich lycopene
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Masaki Honda, Hiroto Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Hayashi

    Effects of feeding lycopene isomers to laying hens on egg qualities such as lycopene concentration and color of the yolk were investigated. Firstly, to evaluate the dietary transfer of lycopene to egg yolk, (all‐E)‐lycopene–rich diets (lycopene content, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg diet) were fed to hens for 21 days. Lycopene in egg yolk could be detected after 4 days or more from the start of feeding, and the lycopene concentration increased according to the feed amount and period. Even though most of the dietary lycopene was the all‐E‐isomer, more than 65% of lycopene in egg yolk was present as Z‐isomers. Thus, the effect of lycopene Z‐isomer content in the diet (lycopene content, 200 mg/kg diet; lycopene Z‐isomer content, 35.1% or 61.3%) on egg qualities was investigated. As the Z‐isomer content increased, the lycopene concentration in the egg yolk increased, for example, when fed a diet rich in Z‐isomers (61.3%), the lycopene concentration in the egg yolk was approximately three times higher than when fed the (all‐E)‐lycopene–rich diet for 21 days. The results indicated that Z‐isomers of lycopene had higher bioavailability and/or higher transfer efficiency to the egg yolk than the all‐E‐isomer.

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Pathological characteristics of thyroid glands from Japanese Black Cattle living in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident
    Anim. Sci. J. (IF 1.301) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Jun Sasaki, Megumi Uehara, Itaru Sato, Hiroshi Satoh, Yoshitaka Deguchi, Hiroyuki Chida, Masahiro Natsuhori, Takahisa Murata, Kenji Ochiai, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada, Nobuhiko Ito

    To study the effect of ionizing radiation on thyroid glands, 66 Japanese Black cattle residing in the restricted area of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2013–2017 were pathologically examined. There were no clinical symptoms of thyroid disease in these cattle. Three cases of goiter and seven of atrophy were found in two among the four farms examined. Cases of goiter exhibited normal morphological structure without mass or nodule formation in thyroid glands. Cellular atypia or capsular invasion of the follicular epithelium was absent. The estimated integrated dose of external radiation in goiter cases ranged from maximum 797 mSv to minimum 24 mSv. All lobules in the seven atrophic thyroid glands were affected, but pathological findings, such as inflammatory cell infiltration or stromal fibrosis, were not observed. The estimated integrated dose of external radiation in atrophic thyroids ranged from maximum 589 mSv to minimum 8 mSv. Immunohistochemical analysis of anti‐nitroguanosine and the TUNEL method in goiter and atrophic thyroid glands did not reveal any positive findings. The present study indicates that there was no significant relationship between a radiation effect and pathological findings in any thyroid glands.

    更新日期:2019-07-17
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