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  • Evolutionary dynamics of abundant 7 bp satellites in the genome of Drosophila virilis
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Flynn J, Long M, Wing R, et al.

    The factors that drive the rapid changes in abundance of tandem arrays of highly repetitive sequences, known as satellite DNA, are not well understood. Drosophila virilis has one of the highest relative amounts of simple satellites of any organism that has been studied, with an estimated >40% of its genome composed of a few related 7 bp satellites. Here we use D. virilis as a model to understand technical biases affecting satellite sequencing and the evolutionary processes that drive satellite composition. By analyzing sequencing data from Illumina, PacBio, and Nanopore platforms, we identify platform-specific biases and suggest best practices for accurate characterization of satellites by sequencing. We use comparative genomics and cytogenetics to demonstrate that the highly abundant AAACTAC satellite family arose from a related satellite in the branch leading to the virilis phylad 4.5 - 11 million years ago before exploding in abundance in some species of the clade. The most abundant satellite is conserved in sequence and location in the pericentromeric region but has diverged widely in abundance among species, whereas the satellites nearest the centromere are rapidly turning over in sequence composition. By analyzing multiple strains of D. virilis, we saw that the abundances of two centromere-proximal satellites are anticorrelated along a geographical gradient, which we suggest could be caused by ongoing conflicts at the centromere. In conclusion, we illuminate several key attributes of satellite evolutionary dynamics that we hypothesize to be driven by processes including selection, meiotic drive, and constraints on satellite sequence and abundance.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Evolution of transcriptional repressors impacts Caenorhabditis vulval development
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Chamberlin H, Jain I, Corchado-Sonera M, et al.

    Comparative genomic sequence analysis has found that the genes for many chromatin-associated proteins are poorly conserved, but the biological consequences of these sequence changes are not understood. Here we show that four genes identified for an Inappropriate Vulval cell Proliferation (ivp) phenotype in the nematode C. briggsae exhibit distinct functions and genetic interactions when compared to their orthologs in C. elegans. Specifically, we show that the four C. briggsae ivp genes encode the non-canonical histone HTZ-1/H2A.z and three nematode-specific proteins predicted to function in the nucleus. The mutants exhibit ectopic vulval precursor cell proliferation (the multivulva (Muv) phenotype) due to inappropriate expression of the lin-3/EGF gene, and RNA-seq analysis suggests a broad role for these ivp genes in transcriptional repression. Importantly, although the C. briggsae phenotypes have parallels with those seen in the C. elegans synMuv system, except for the highly-conserved HTZ-1/H2A.z, comparable mutations in C. elegans ivp orthologs do not exhibit synMuv gene interactions or phenotypes. These results demonstrate the evolutionary changes that can underlie conserved biological outputs, and argue that proteins critical to repress inappropriate expression from the genome participate in a rapidly evolving functional landscape.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The genomes of the livebearing fish species Poeciliopsis retropinna and Poeciliopsis turrubarensis reflect their different reproductive strategies
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    van Kruistum H, Guernsey M, Baker J, et al.

    The evolution of a placenta is predicted to be accompanied by rapid evolution of genes involved in processes that regulate mother-offspring interactions during pregnancy, such as placenta formation, embryonic development and nutrient transfer to offspring. However, these predictions have only been tested in mammalian species, where only a single instance of placenta evolution has occurred. In this light, the genus Poeciliopsis is a particularly interesting model for placenta evolution, because in this genus a placenta has evolved independently from the mammalian placenta. Here, we present and compare genome assemblies of two species of the livebearing fish genus Poeciliopsis (family Poeciliidae) that differ in their reproductive strategy: Poeciliopsis retropinna which has a well-developed complex placenta and Poeciliopsis turrubarensis which lacks a placenta. We applied different assembly strategies for each species: PacBio sequencing for P. retropinna (622Mbp assembly, contig N50 of 21.6 Mbp) and 10X Genomics Chromium technology for P. turrubarensis (597Mbp assembly, contig N50 of 4.2Mbp). Using the high contiguity of these genome assemblies and near-completeness of gene annotations to our advantage, we searched for gene duplications and performed a genome-wide scan for genes evolving under positive selection. We find rapid evolution in major parts of several molecular pathways involved in parent-offspring interaction in P. retropinna, both in the form of gene duplications as well as positive selection. We conclude that the evolution of the placenta in the genus Poeciliopsis is accompanied by rapid evolution of genes involved in similar genomic pathways as found in mammals.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Genome-wide natural selection signatures are linked to genetic risk of modern phenotypes in the Japanese population
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yasumizu Y, Sakaue S, Konuma T, et al.

    Elucidation of natural selection signatures and relationships with phenotype spectra is important to understand adaptive evolution of modern humans. Here, we conducted a genome-wide scan of selection signatures of the Japanese population by estimating locus-specific time to the most recent common ancestor using the ascertained sequentially Markovian coalescent (ASMC), from the biobank-based large-scale genome-wide association study data of 170,882 subjects. We identified 29 genetic loci with selection signatures satisfying the genome-wide significance. The signatures were most evident at the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene cluster locus at 4q23 (PASMC = 2.2 × 10−36), followed by relatively strong selection at the FAM96A (15q22), MYOF (10q23), 13q21, GRIA2 (4q32), and ASAP2 (2p25) loci (PASMC < 1.0 × 10−10). The additional analysis interrogating extended haplotypes (iHS) showed robust concordance of the detected signatures, contributing to fine-mapping of the genes, and provided allelic directional insights into selection pressure (e.g., positive selection for ADH1B-Arg48His and HLA-DPB1*04:01). The phenome-wide selection enrichment analysis with the trait-associated variants identified a variety of the modern human phenotypes involved in the adaptation of Japanese. We observed population-specific evidence of enrichment with the alcohol related phenotypes, anthropometric and biochemical clinical measurements, and immune-related diseases, differently from the findings in Europeans using the UK Biobank resource. Our study demonstrated population-specific features of the selection signatures in Japanese, highlighting a value of the natural selection study using the nation-wide biobank-scale genome and phenotype data.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Evolution of a new function by fusion between phage DNA and a bacterial gene
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Warsi O, Knopp M, Surkov S, et al.

    Mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, phages and transposons, are important sources for evolution of novel functions. In this study, we performed a large-scale screening of metagenomic phage libraries for their ability to suppress temperature-sensitive S. Typhimurium mutants to examine how phage DNA could confer evolutionary novelty to bacteria. We identified an insert encoding 23 amino acids from a phage, that when fused with a bacterial DNA-binding repressor protein (LacI) resulted in the formation of a chimeric protein that localized to the outer membrane. This relocalization of the chimeric protein resulted in increased membrane vesicle formation and an associated suppression of the temperature-sensitivity of the bacterium. Both the host LacI protein and the extracellular 23 amino acids stretch are necessary for the generation of the novel phenotype. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the chimeric protein showed that although the native repressor function of the LacI protein is maintained in this chimeric structure, it is not necessary for the new function. Thus, our study demonstrates how a gene fusion between foreign DNA and bacterial DNA can generate novelty without compromising the native function of a given gene.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Polygenic patterns of adaptive introgression in modern humans are mainly shaped by response to pathogens
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Gouy A, Excoffier L, Nielsen R.

    Anatomically modern humans carry many introgressed variants from other hominins in their genomes. Some of them affect their phenotype and can thus be negatively or positively selected. Several individual genes have been proposed to be the subject of adaptive introgression, but the possibility of polygenic adaptive introgression has not been extensively investigated yet. In this study, we analyze archaic introgression maps with refined functional enrichment methods to find signals of polygenic adaptation of introgressed variants. We first apply a method to detect sets of connected genes (subnetworks) within biological pathways that present higher-than-expected levels of archaic introgression. We then introduce and apply a new statistical test to distinguish between epistatic and independent selection in gene sets of present-day humans. We identify several known targets of adaptive introgression, and we show that they belong to larger networks of introgressed genes. After correction for genetic linkage, we find that signals of polygenic adaptation are mostly explained by independent and potentially sequential selection episodes. However, we also find some gene sets where introgressed variants present significant signals of epistatic selection. Our results confirm that archaic introgression has facilitated local adaptation, especially in immunity-related and metabolic functions and highlight its involvement in a coordinated response to pathogens out of Africa.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Snake recombination landscapes are concentrated in functional regions despite PRDM9
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Schield D, Pasquesi G, Perry B, et al.

    Meiotic recombination in vertebrates is concentrated in hotspots throughout the genome. The location and stability of hotspots have been linked to the presence or absence of PRDM9, leading to two primary models for hotspot evolution derived from mammals and birds. Species with PRDM9-directed recombination have rapid turnover of hotspots concentrated in intergenic regions (i.e., mammals), while hotspots in species lacking PRDM9 are concentrated in functional regions and have greater stability over time (i.e., birds). Snakes possess PRDM9, yet virtually nothing is known about snake recombination. Here we examine the recombination landscape and test hypotheses about the roles of PRDM9 in rattlesnakes. We find substantial variation in recombination rate within and among snake chromosomes, and positive correlations between recombination rate and gene density, GC content, and genetic diversity. Like mammals, snakes appear to have a functional and active PRDM9, but rather than being directed away from genes, snake hotspots are concentrated in promoters and functional regions – a pattern previously associated only with species that lack a functional PRDM9. Snakes therefore provide a unique example of recombination landscapes in which PRDM9 is functional, yet recombination hotspots are associated with functional genic regions – a combination of features that defy existing paradigms for recombination landscapes in vertebrates. Our findings also provide evidence that high recombination rates are a shared feature of vertebrate microchromosomes. Our results challenge previous assumptions about the adaptive role of PRDM9 and highlight the diversity of recombination landscape features among vertebrate lineages.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • GENETIC BASIS OF DE NOVO APPEARANCE OF CAROTENOID ORNAMENTATION IN BARE-PARTS OF CANARIES
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Gazda M, Toomey M, Araújo P, et al.

    Unlike wild and domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), or any of the three dozen species of finches in genus Serinus, the domestic urucum breed of canaries exhibits bright red bills and legs. This novel trait offers a unique opportunity to understand the mechanisms of bare-part coloration in birds. To identify the mutation producing the colorful phenotype, we resequenced the genome of urucum canaries and performed a range of analyses to search for genotype-to-phenotype associations across the genome. We identified a nonsynonymous mutation in the gene BCO2 (beta-carotene oxygenase 2, also known as BCDO2), an enzyme involved in the cleavage and breakdown of full-length carotenoids into short apocarotenoids. Protein structural models and in vitro functional assays indicate that the urucum mutation abrogates the carotenoid cleavage activity of BCO2. Consistent with the predicted loss of carotenoid cleavage activity, urucum canaries tended to have increased levels of full-length carotenoid pigments in bill tissue and reduced levels of carotenoid cleavage products (apocarotenoids) in retinal tissue compared to other breeds of canaries. We hypothesize that carotenoid-based bare-part coloration might be readily gained, modified, or lost through simple switches in the enzymatic activity or regulation of BCO2 and this gene may be an important mediator in the evolution of bare-part coloration among bird species.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Disentangling population history and character evolution among hybridizing lineages
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Mullen S, VanKuren N, Zhang W, et al.

    Understanding the origin and maintenance of adaptive phenotypic novelty is a central goal of evolutionary biology. However, both hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting can lead to genealogical discordance between the regions of the genome underlying adaptive traits and the remainder of the genome, decoupling inferences about character evolution from population history. Here, to disentangle these effects, we investigated the evolutionary origins and maintenance of Batesian mimicry between North American admiral butterflies (Limenitis arthemis) and their chemically-defended model (Battus philenor) using a combination of de novo genome sequencing, whole genome resequencing, and statistical introgression mapping. Our results suggest that balancing selection, arising from geographic variation in the presence or absence of the unpalatable model, has maintained two deeply divergent color patterning haplotypes that have been repeatedly sieved among distinct mimetic and non-mimetic lineages of Limenitis via introgressive hybridization.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Recent out-of-Africa migration of human herpes simplex viruses
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Forni D, Pontremoli C, Clerici M, et al.

    Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are ubiquitous human pathogens. Both viruses evolved from simplexviruses infecting African primates and they are thus thought to have left Africa during early human migrations. We analyzed the population structure of HSV-1 and HSV-2 circulating strains. Results indicated that HSV-1 populations have limited geographic structure and the most evident clustering by geography is likely due to recent bottlenecks. For HSV-2, the only level of population structure is accounted for by the so-called “worldwide” and “African” lineages. Analysis of ancestry components and nucleotide diversity, however, did not support the view that the worldwide lineage followed early humans during out-of-Africa dispersal. Although phylogeographic analysis confirmed an African origin for both viruses, molecular dating with a method that corrects for the time-dependent rate phenomenon indicated that HSV-1 and HSV-2 migrated from Africa in relatively recent times. In particular, we estimated that the HSV-2 worldwide lineage left the continent in the 18th Century, which corresponds to the height of the transatlantic slave trade, possibly explaining the high prevalence of HSV-2 in the Americas (second highest after Africa). The limited geographic clustering of HSV-1 makes it difficult to date its exit from Africa. The split between the basal clade, containing mostly African sequences, and all other strains was dated at ∼5,000 years ago. Our data do not imply that herpes simplex viruses did not infect early humans, but show that the worldwide distribution of circulating strains is the result of relatively recent events.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Genomic Evidence for Complex Domestication History of the Cultivated Tomato in Latin America
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Razifard H, Ramos A, Della Valle A, et al.

    The process of plant domestication is often protracted, involving under-explored intermediate stages with important implications for the evolutionary trajectories of domestication traits. Previously, tomato domestication history has been thought to involve two major transitions: one from wild Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (SP) to a semi-domesticated intermediate, S. lycoperiscum L. var. cerasiforme (SLC) in South America, and a second transition from SLC to fully domesticated S. lycopersicum L. var. lycopersicum (SLL) in Mesoamerica. In this study, we employ population genomic methods to reconstruct tomato domestication history, focusing on the evolutionary changes occurring in the intermediate stages. Our results suggest that the origin of SLC may predate domestication, and that many traits considered typical of cultivated tomatoes arose in South American SLC, but were lost or diminished once these partially domesticated forms spread northward. These traits were then likely reselected in a convergent fashion in the common cultivated tomato, prior to its expansion around the world. Based on these findings, we reveal complexities in the intermediate stage of tomato domestication and provide insight on trajectories of genes and phenotypes involved in tomato domestication syndrome. Our results also allow us to identify underexplored germplasm that harbors useful alleles for crop improvement.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Ancient DNA evidence from China reveals the expansion of Pacific dogs
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Zhang M, Sun G, Ren L, et al.

    The ancestral homeland of Australian dingoes and Pacific dogs is proposed to be in South China. However, the location and timing of their dispersal and relationship to dog domestication is unclear. Here, we sequenced 7,000 to 2,000-year-old complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of 27 ancient canids (one gray wolf and 26 domestic dogs) from the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins (YYRB). These are the first complete ancient mtDNA of Chinese dogs from the cradle of early Chinese civilization. We found that most ancient dogs (18/26) belong to the haplogroup A1b lineage that is found in high frequency in present-day Australian dingoes and pre-colonial Pacific Island dogs, but low frequency in present-day China. Particularly, a 7,000-year-old dog from the Tianluoshan site in Zhejiang province possesses a haplotype basal to the entire haplogroup A1b lineage. We propose that A1b lineage dogs were once widely distributed in the YYRB area. Following their dispersal to South China, and then into Southeast Asia, New Guinea and remote Oceania, they were largely replaced by dogs belonging to other lineages in the last 2,000 years in present-day China, especially North China.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Reduced translational efficiency of eukaryotic genes after duplication events
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Chang A, Liao B, Xia X.

    Control of gene expression has been found to be predominantly determined at the level of protein translation. However, to date, reduced expression from duplicated genes in eukaryotes for dosage maintenance has only been linked to transcriptional control involving epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we hypothesize that dosage maintenance following gene duplication also involves regulation at the protein level. To test this hypothesis, we compared transcriptome and proteome data of yeast models, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and worm models, Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, to investigate lineage-specifically duplicated genes. Duplicated genes in both eukaryotic models exhibited a reduced protein-to-mRNA abundance ratio. Moreover, dosage sensitive genes, represented by genes encoding protein complex subunits, reduced their protein-to-mRNA abundance ratios more significantly than the other genes after duplication events. An analysis of ribosome profiling (Ribo-Seq) data further showed that reduced translational efficiency was more prominent for dosage sensitive genes than for the other genes. Meanwhile, no difference in protein degradation rate was associated with duplication events. Translationally repressed duplicated genes were also more likely to be inhibited at the level of transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that translation-mediated dosage control is partially contributed by natural selection and it enhances transcriptional control in maintaining gene dosage after gene duplication events during eukaryotic genome evolution

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) for macOS
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Stecher G, Tamura K, Kumar S, et al.

    The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software enables comparative analysis of molecular sequences in phylogenetics and evolutionary medicine. Here, we introduce the macOS version of the MEGA software. This new version eliminates the need for virtualization and emulation programs previously required to use MEGA on Apple computers. MEGA for macOS utilizes memory and computing resources efficiently for conducting evolutionary analyses on Apple computers. It has a native Cocoa graphical user interface that is programmed to provide a consistent user experience across macOS, Windows, and Linux. MEGA for macOS is available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Origin and Evolution of Carboxysome Positioning Systems in Cyanobacteria
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    MacCready J, Basalla J, Vecchiarelli A, et al.

    Carboxysomes are protein-based organelles that are essential for allowing cyanobacteria to fix CO2. Previously we identified a two-component system, McdAB, responsible for equidistantly positioning carboxysomes in the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (MacCready et al., 2018). McdA, a ParA-type ATPase, non-specifically binds the nucleoid in the presence of ATP. McdB, a novel factor that directly binds carboxysomes, displaces McdA from the nucleoid. Removal of McdA from the nucleoid in the vicinity of carboxysomes by McdB causes a global break in McdA symmetry, and carboxysome motion occurs via a Brownian-ratchet based mechanism towards the highest concentration of McdA. Despite the importance for cyanobacteria to properly position their carboxysomes, whether the McdAB system is widespread among cyanobacteria remains an open question. Here, we show that the McdAB system is widespread among β-cyanobacteria, often clustering with carboxysome-related components, and is absent in α-cyanobacteria. Moreover, we show that two distinct McdAB systems exist in β-cyanobacteria, with Type 2 systems being the most ancestral and abundant, and Type 1 systems, like that of S. elongatus, possibly being acquired more recently. Lastly, all McdB proteins share the sequence signatures of a protein capable of undergoing Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation (LLPS). Indeed, we find that representatives of both McdB types undergo LLPS in vitro, the first example of a ParA-type ATPase partner protein to exhibit this behavior. Our results have broader implications for understanding carboxysome evolution, biogenesis, homeostasis, and positioning in cyanobacteria.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Insights from empirical analyses and simulations on using multiple fossil calibrations with relaxed clocks to estimate divergence times
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Carruthers T, Scotland R, Tamura K.

    Relaxed clock methods account for among-branch-rate-variation when estimating divergence times by inferring different rates for individual branches. In order to infer different rates for individual branches, important assumptions are required. This is because molecular sequence data does not provide direct information about rates, but instead provides direct information about the total number of substitutions along any branch, which is a product of the rate and time for that branch. Often, the assumptions required for estimating rates for individual branches depend heavily on the implementation of multiple fossil calibrations in a single phylogeny. Here, we show that the basis of these assumptions is often critically undermined. First, we highlight that the temporal distribution of the fossil record often violates key assumptions of methods that use multiple fossil calibrations with relaxed clocks. With respect to “node calibration” methods, this conclusion is based on our inference that different fossil calibrations are unlikely to reflect the relative ages of different clades. With respect to the fossilised-birth-death-process, this conclusion is based on our inference that the fossil recovery rate is often highly heterogeneous. We then demonstrate that methods of divergence time estimation that use multiple fossil calibrations are highly sensitive to assumptions about the fossil record and among-branch-rate-variation. Given the problems associated with these assumptions, our results highlight that using multiple fossil calibrations with relaxed clocks often does little to improve the accuracy of divergence time estimates.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Genomic Fluke: Whole-Genome Comparative Analyses of Liver and Intestinal Parasites Reveal Evolutionary History and Shift in Organs, Animals of Choice
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Caspermeyer J.

    Parasitic flukes have been a leading source of food-borne infections, sparking fear and wreaking havoc on human public health, and contributed to more than three billion in animal agricultural losses per year in United States alone.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Improved Mapping of Swedish Genes
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Caspermeyer J.

    People—or more specifically just Swedes—are more like chimpanzees than previously known. This is indicated in a genetic mapping of 1,000 Swedish individuals, where new DNA sequences that should be included in the reference genome have been identified. The study is published today in the scientific journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Scientists Identify Rare Evolutionary Intermediates That Help to Understand the Origin of Eukaryotes
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Caspermeyer J.

    A new study by Yale scientists provides a key insight into a milestone event in the early evolution of life on the Earth—the origin of the cell nucleus and complex cells called eukaryotes.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Enzyme neo- versus re-functionalization – an epistatic ratchet versus a smooth reversible transition
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Ben-David M, Soskine M, Dubovetskyi A, et al.

    Evolutionary trajectories are deemed largely irreversible. In a newly diverged protein, reversion of mutations that led to the functional switch typically results in loss of both the new and ancestral functions. Nonetheless, evolutionary transitions where reversions are viable have also been described. The structural and mechanistic causes of reversion compatibility versus incompatibility therefore remain unclear. We examined two laboratory evolution trajectories of mammalian paraoxonase-1 (PON1), a lactonase with promiscuous organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) activity. Both trajectories began with the same active-site mutant, His115Trp, which lost the native lactonase activity and acquired higher OPH activity. A neo-functionalization trajectory amplified the promiscuous OPH activity, while the re-functionalization trajectory restored the native activity, thus generating a new lactonase that lacks His115. The His115 revertants of these trajectories indicated opposite trends. Revertants of the neo-functionalization trajectory lost both the evolved OPH and the original lactonase activity. Revertants of the trajectory that restored the original lactonase function were, however, fully active. Crystal structures and molecular simulations show that in the newly diverged OPH, the reverted His115 and other catalytic residues are displaced, thus causing loss of both the original and new activity. In contrast, in the re-functionalization trajectory, reversion compatibility of the original lactonase activity derives from mechanistic versatility whereby multiple residues can fulfill the same task. This versatility enables unique sequence-reversible compositions that are inaccessible when the active site was repurposed toward a new function.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Deep residual neural networks resolve quartet molecular phylogenies
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Zou Z, Zhang H, Guan Y, et al.

    Phylogenetic inference is of fundamental importance to evolutionary as well as other fields of biology, and molecular sequences have emerged as the primary data for this task. Although many phylogenetic methods have been developed to explicitly take into account substitution models of sequence evolution, such methods could fail due to model misspecification or insufficiency, especially in the face of heterogeneities in substitution processes across sites and among lineages. In this study, we propose to infer topologies of four-taxon trees using deep residual neural networks, a machine learning approach needing no explicit modeling of the subject system and having a record of success in solving complex non-linear inference problems. We train residual networks on simulated protein sequence data with extensive amino acid substitution heterogeneities. We show that the well-trained residual network predictors can outperform existing state-of-the-art inference methods such as the maximum likelihood method on diverse simulated test data, especially under extensive substitution heterogeneities. Reassuringly, residual network predictors generally agree with existing methods in the trees inferred from real phylogenetic data with known or widely believed topologies. Furthermore, when combined with the quartet puzzling algorithm, residual network predictors can be used to reconstruct trees with more than four taxa. We conclude that deep learning represents a powerful new approach to phylogenetic reconstruction, especially when sequences evolve via heterogeneous substitution processes. We present our best trained predictor in a freely available program named Phylogenetics by Deep Learning (PhyDL, https://gitlab.com/ztzou/phydl).

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Probabilities of unranked and ranked anomaly zones under birth-death models
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Kim A, Rosenberg N, Degnan J, et al.

    A labeled gene tree topology that is more probable than the labeled gene tree topology matching a species tree is called anomalous. Species trees that can generate such anomalous gene trees are said to be in the anomaly zone. Here, probabilities of unranked and ranked gene tree topologies under the multispecies coalescent are considered. A ranked tree depicts not only the topological relationship among gene lineages, as an unranked tree does, but also the sequence in which the lineages coalesce. In this article, we study how the parameters of a species tree simulated under a constant rate birth-death process can affect the probability that the species tree lies in the anomaly zone. We find that with more than five taxa, it is possible for species trees to have both anomalous unranked (AGTs) and ranked (ARGTs) gene trees. The probability of being in either type of anomaly zone increases with more taxa. The probability of AGTs also increases with higher speciation rates. We observe that the probabilities of unranked anomaly zones are higher and grow much faster than those of ranked anomaly zones as the speciation rate increases. Our simulation shows that the most probable ranked gene tree is likely to have the same unranked topology as the species tree. We design the software PRANC, which computes probabilities of ranked gene tree topologies given a species tree under the coalescent model.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Parallel seed color adaptation during multiple domestication attempts of an ancient new world grain
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Stetter M, Vidal-Villarejo M, Schmid K, et al.

    Thousands of plants have been selected as crops, yet, only a few are fully domesticated. The lack of adaptation to agro-ecological environments of many crop plants with few characteristic domestication traits potentially has genetic causes. Here, we investigate the incomplete domestication of an ancient grain from the Americas, amaranth. Although three grain amaranth species have been cultivated as crop for millennia, all three lack key domestication traits. We sequenced 121 crop and wild individuals to investigate the genomic signature of repeated incomplete adaptation. Our analysis shows that grain amaranth has been domesticated three times from a single wild ancestor. One trait that has been selected during domestication in all three grain species is the seed color, which changed from dark seeds to white seeds. We were able to map the genetic control of the seed color adaptation to two genomic regions on chromosome 3 and 9, employing three independent mapping populations. Within the locus on chromosome 9, we identify a MYB-like transcription factor gene, a known regulator for seed color variation in other plant species. We identify a soft selective sweep in this genomic region in one of the crops species but not in the other two species. The demographic analysis of wild and domesticated amaranths revealed a population bottleneck predating the domestication of grain amaranth. Our results indicate that a reduced level of ancestral genetic variation did not prevent the selection of traits with a simple genetic architecture but may have limited the adaptation of complex domestication traits.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Estimating PanGenomes with Roary
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Sitto F, Battistuzzi F.

    A description of the genetic make-up of a species based on a single genome is often insufficient because it ignores the variability in gene repertoire among multiple strains. The estimation of the pangenome of a species is a solution to this issue as it provides an overview of genes that are shared by all strains and genes that are present in only some of the genomes. These different sets of genes can then be analyzed functionally to explore correlations with unique phenotypes and adaptations. This protocol presents the usage of Roary, a Linux-native pangenome application. Roary is a straightforward software that provides (i) an overview about core and accessory genes for those interested in general trends and, also, (ii) detailed information on gene presence/absence in each genome for in-depth analyses. Results are provided both in text and graphic format.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Population history and gene divergence in Native Mexicans inferred from 76 human exomes
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Ávila-Arcos M, McManus K, Sandoval K, et al.

    Native American genetic variation remains underrepresented in most catalogs of human genome sequencing data. Previous genotyping efforts have revealed that Mexico’s indigenous population is highly differentiated and substructured, thus potentially harboring higher proportions of private genetic variants of functional and biomedical relevance. Here we have targeted the coding fraction of the genome and characterized its full site frequency spectrum by sequencing 76 exomes from five indigenous populations across Mexico. Using diffusion approximations, we modeled the demographic history of indigenous populations from Mexico with northern and southern ethnic groups splitting 7.2 kya and subsequently diverging locally 6.5 kya and 5.7 kya, respectively. Selection scans for positive selection revealed BCL2L13 and KBTBD8 genes as potential candidates for adaptive evolution in Rarámuris and Triquis, respectively. BCL2L13 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and could be related to physical endurance, a well-known phenotype of the northern Mexico Rarámuri. The KBTBD8 gene has been associated with idiopathic short stature and we found it to be highly differentiated in Triqui, a southern indigenous group from Oaxaca whose height is extremely low compared to other Native populations.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer Phylogenetics: A Random Walk Approach
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Sevillya G, Doerr D, Lerner Y, et al.

    The dramatic decrease in time and cost for generating genetic sequence data has opened up vast opportunities in molecular systematics, one of which is the ability to decipher the evolutionary history of strains of a species. Under this fine systematic resolution, the standard markers are too crude to provide a phylogenetic signal. Nevertheless, among prokaryotes, genome dynamics in the form of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between organisms and gene loss seem to provide far richer information by affecting both gene order and gene content. The synteny index (SI) between a pair of genomes combines these latter two factors, allowing comparison of genomes with unequal gene content, together with order considerations of their common genes. Although this approach is useful for classifying close relatives, no rigorous statistical modelling for it has been suggested. Such modelling is valuable, as it allows observed measures to be transformed into estimates of time periods during evolution, yielding the additivity of the measure. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other additivity proof for other gene order/content measures under HGT. Here we provide a first statistical model and analysis for the synteny index measure. We model the gene neighbourhood as a birth–death–immigration process affected by the HGT activity over the genome, and analytically relate the HGT rate and time to the expected SI. This model is asymptotic and thus provides accurate results, assuming infinite size genomes. Therefore, we also developed a heuristic model following an exponential decay function, accounting for biologically realistic values, which performed well in simulations. Applying this model to 1133 prokaryotes partitioned to 39 clusters by the rank of genus, yields that the average number of genome dynamics events per gene in the phylogenetic depth of genus, is around half with significant variability between genera. This result extends and confirms similar results obtained for individual genera in different manners.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Erratum to: Epimutations in Developmental Genes Underlie the Onset of Domestication in Farmed European Sea Bass
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Anastasiadi D, Piferrer F.

    Mol. Biol. Evol. 36(10):2252–2264; doi:10.1093/molbev/msz153

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Using selection by non-antibiotic stressors to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Maltas J, Krasnick B, Wood K, et al.

    Evolutionary adaptation of bacteria to non-antibiotic selective forces, such as osmotic stress, has been previously associated with increased antibiotic resistance, but much less is known about potentially sensitizing effects of non-antibiotic stressors. In this study, we use laboratory evolution to investigate adaptation of E. faecalis, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, to a broad collection of environmental agents, ranging from antibiotics and biocides to extreme pH and osmotic stress. We find that non-antibiotic selection frequently leads to increased sensitivity to other conditions, including multiple antibiotics. Using population sequencing and whole genome sequencing of single isolates from the evolved populations, we identify multiple mutations in genes previously linked with resistance to the selecting conditions, including genes corresponding to known drug targets or multi-drug efflux systems previously tied to collateral sensitivity. Finally, we hypothesized based on the measured sensitivity profiles that sequential rounds of antibiotic and non-antibiotic selection may lead to hypersensitive populations by harnessing the orthogonal collateral effects of particular pairs of selective forces. To test this hypothesis, we show experimentally that populations evolved to a sequence of linezolid (an oxazolidinone antibiotic) and sodium benzoate (a common preservative) exhibit increased sensitivity to more stressors than adaptation to either condition alone. The results demonstrate how sequential adaptation to drug and non-drug environments can be used to sensitize bacterial to antibiotics and highlight new potential strategies for exploiting shared constraints governing adaptation to diverse environmental challenges.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Genomic mechanisms of physiological and morphological adaptations of limestone langurs to karst habitats
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Liu Z, Zhang L, Yan Z, et al.

    Knowledge of the physiological and morphological evolution and adaptation of non-human primates is critical to understand hominin origins, physiological ecology, morphological evolution and applications in biomedicine. Particularly, limestone langurs represent a direct example of adaptations to the challenges of exploiting a high calcium and harsh environment. Here, we report a de novo genome assembly (Tfra_2.0) of a male François’s langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) with contig N50 of 16.3 Mb, and re-sequencing data of 23 individuals representing five limestone and four forest langur species. Comparative genomics reveals evidence for functional evolution in genes and gene families related to calcium signaling in the limestone langur genome, probably as an adaptation to naturally occurring high calcium levels present in water and plant resources in karst habitats. The genomic and functional analyses suggest that a single point mutation (Lys1905Arg) in the α1c subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 (CACNA1C) attenuates the inward calcium current into the cells in vitro. Population genomic analyses and RNA-sequencing indicate that EDNRB is less expressed in white tail hair follicles of the white-headed langur (T. leucocephalus) compared to the black colored François’s langur and hence might be responsible for species-specific differences in body coloration. Our findings contribute to a new understanding of gene-environment interactions and physio-morphological adaptative mechanisms in ecologically specialized primate taxa.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Enhancers facilitate the birth of de novo genes and gene integration into regulatory networks
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Majic P, Payne J, Rogers R.

    Regulatory networks control the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns that give rise to and define the individual cell types of multicellular organisms. In eumetazoa, distal regulatory elements called enhancers play a key role in determining the structure of such networks, particularly the wiring diagram of “who regulates whom.” Mutations that affect enhancer activity can therefore rewire regulatory networks, potentially causing adaptive changes in gene expression. Here, we use whole-tissue and single-cell transcriptomic and chromatin accessibility data from mouse to show that enhancers play an additional role in the evolution of regulatory networks: They facilitate network growth by creating transcriptionally active regions of open chromatin that are conducive to de novo gene evolution. Specifically, our comparative transcriptomic analysis with three other mammalian species shows that young, mouse-specific intergenic open reading frames are preferentially located near enhancers, whereas older open reading frames are not. Mouse-specific intergenic open reading frames that are proximal to enhancers are more highly and stably transcribed than those that are not proximal to enhancers or promoters, and they are transcribed in a limited diversity of cellular contexts. Furthermore, we report several instances of mouse-specific intergenic open reading frames proximal to promoters showing evidence of being repurposed enhancers. We also show that open reading frames gradually acquire interactions with enhancers over macro-evolutionary timescales, helping integrate genes – those that have arisen de novo or by other means – into existing regulatory networks. Taken together, our results highlight a dual role of enhancers in expanding and rewiring gene regulatory networks.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • A depletion of stop codons in lincRNA is owing to transfer of selective constraint from coding sequences
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Abrahams L, Hurst L, Singh N.

    While the constraints on a gene’s sequence are often assumed to reflect the functioning of that gene, here we propose transfer selection, a constraint operating on one class of genes transferred to another, mediated by shared binding factors. We show that such transfer can explain an otherwise paradoxical depletion of stop codons in long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs). Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins direct the splicing machinery by binding exonic splice enhancers (ESEs) in immature mRNA. As coding exons cannot contain stop codons in one reading frame, stop codons should be rare within ESEs. We confirm that the stop codon density (SCD) in ESE motifs is low, even accounting for nucleotide biases. Given that SR proteins binding ESEs also facilitate lincRNA splicing, a low SCD could transfer to lincRNAs. As predicted, multi-exon lincRNA exons are depleted in stop codons, a result not explained by open reading frame (ORF) contamination. Consistent with transfer selection, stop codon depletion in lincRNAs is most acute in exonic regions with the highest ESE density, disappears when ESEs are masked, is consistent with stop codon usage skews in ESEs and is diminished in both single-exon lincRNAs and introns. Owing to low SCD, the maximum lengths of pseudo-ORFs (pORFs) frequently exceed null expectations. This has implications for ORF annotation and the evolution of de novo protein-coding genes from lincRNAs. We conclude that not all constraints operating on genes need be explained by the functioning of the gene but may instead be transferred owing to shared binding factors.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Convergent evolution of cysteine-rich keratins in hard skin appendages of terrestrial vertebrates
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Ehrlich F, Lachner J, Hermann M, et al.

    Terrestrial vertebrates have evolved hard skin appendages, such as scales, claws, feathers and hair that play crucial roles in defense, predation, locomotion, and thermal insulation. The mechanical properties of these skin appendages are largely determined by cornified epithelial components. So-called “hair keratins”, cysteine-rich intermediate filament proteins that undergo covalent cross-linking via disulfide bonds, are the crucial structural proteins of hair and claws in mammals and hair keratin orthologs are also present in lizard claws, indicating an evolutionary origin in a hairless common ancestor of amniotes. Here, we show that reptiles and birds have also other cysteine-rich keratins which lack cysteine-rich orthologs in mammals. In addition to hard acidic (type I) sauropsid-specific (HAS) keratins, we identified hard basic (type II) sauropsid-specific (HBS) keratins which are conserved in lepidosaurs, turtles, crocodilians and birds. Immunohistochemical analysis with a newly made antibody revealed expression of chicken HBS1 keratin in the cornifying epithelial cells of feathers. Molecular phylogenetics suggested that the high cysteine contents of HAS and HBS keratins evolved independently from the cysteine-rich sequences of hair keratin orthologs, thus representing products of convergent evolution. In conclusion, we propose an evolutionary model in which HAS and HBS keratins evolved as structural proteins in epithelial cornification of reptiles and at least one HBS keratin was co-opted as a component of feathers after the evolutionary divergence of birds from reptiles. Thus, cytoskeletal proteins of hair and feathers are products of convergent evolution and evolutionary co-option to similar biomechanical functions in clade-specific hard skin appendages.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Linking Branch Lengths Across Sets of Loci Provides the Highest Statistical Support for Phylogenetic Inference
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Duchêne D, Tong K, Foster C, et al.

    Evolution leaves heterogeneous patterns of nucleotide variation across the genome, with different loci subject to varying degrees of mutation, selection, and drift. In phylogenetics, the potential impacts of partitioning sequence data for the assignment of substitution models are well appreciated. In contrast, the treatment of branch lengths has received far less attention. In this study, we examined the effects of linking and unlinking branch-length parameters across loci or subsets of loci. By analysing a range of empirical data sets, we find consistent support for a model in which branch lengths are proportionate between subsets of loci: gene trees share the same pattern of branch lengths, but form subsets that vary in their overall tree lengths. These models had substantially better statistical support than models that assume identical branch lengths across gene trees, or those in which genes form subsets with distinct branch-length patterns. We show using simulations and empirical data that the complexity of the branch-length model with the highest support depends on the length of the sequence alignment and on the numbers of taxa and loci in the data set. Our findings suggest that models in which branch lengths are proportionate between subsets have the highest statistical support under the conditions that are most commonly seen in practice. The results of our study have implications for model selection, computational efficiency, and experimental design in phylogenomics.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A Bayesian implementation of the multispecies coalescent model with introgression for phylogenomic analysis
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Flouris T, Jiao X, Rannala B, et al.

    Recent analyses suggest that cross-species gene flow or introgression is common in nature, especially during species divergences. Genomic sequence data can be used to infer introgression events and to estimate the timing and intensity of introgression, providing an important means to advance our understanding of the role of gene flow in speciation. Here we implement the multispecies-coalescent-with-introgression (MSci) model, an extension of the multispecies-coalescent (MSC) model to incorporate introgression, in our Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) program BPP. The MSci model accommodates deep coalescence (or incomplete lineage sorting) and introgression and provides a natural framework for inference using genomic sequence data. Computer simulation confirms the good statistical properties of the method, although hundreds or thousands of loci are typically needed to estimate introgression probabilities reliably. Re-analysis of datasets from the purple cone spruce confirms the hypothesis of homoploid hybrid speciation. We estimated the introgression probability using the genomic sequence data from six mosquito species in the Anopheles gambiae species complex, which varies considerably across the genome, likely driven by differential selection against introgressed alleles.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Distinct evolutionary trajectories of neuronal and hair cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Marcovich I, Moglie M, Freixas A, et al.

    The expansion and pruning of ion channel families has played a crucial role in the evolution of nervous systems. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels with distinct roles in synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction, the central and peripheral nervous system and the inner ear. Remarkably, the complement of nAChR subunits has been highly conserved along vertebrate phylogeny. To ask whether the different subtypes of receptors underwent different evolutionary trajectories, we performed a comprehensive analysis of vertebrate nAChRs coding sequences, mouse single-cell expression patterns and comparative functional properties of receptors from three representative tetrapod species. We found significant differences between hair cell and neuronal receptors that were most likely shaped by the differences in co-expression patterns and co-assembly rules of component subunits. Thus, neuronal nAChRs showed high degree of coding sequence conservation, coupled to greater co-expression variance and conservation of functional properties across tetrapod clades. In contrast, hair cell α9α10 nAChRs exhibited greater sequence divergence, narrow co-expression pattern and great variability of functional properties across species. These results point to differential substrates for random change within the family of gene paralogs that relate to the segregated roles of nAChRs in synaptic transmission.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Ancestral hybridisation facilitated species diversification in the Lake Malawi cichlid fish adaptive radiation
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Svardal H, Quah F, Malinsky M, et al.

    The adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East Afrian Lake Malawi encompasses over 500 species that are believed to have evolved within the last 800 thousand years from a common founder population. It has been proposed that hybridisation between ancestral lineages can provide the genetic raw material to fuel such exceptionally high diversification rates, and evidence for this has recently been presented for the Lake Victoria Region cichlid superflock. Here we report that Lake Malawi cichlid genomes also show evidence of hybridisation between two lineages that split 3-4 million years ago, today represented by Lake Victoria cichlids and the riverine Astatotilapia sp. ′ruaha blue′. The two ancestries in Malawi cichlid genomes are present in large blocks of several kilobases, but there is little variation in this pattern between Malawi cichlid species, suggesting that the large-scale mosaic structure of the genomes was largely established prior to the radiation. Nevertheless, tens of thousands of polymorphic variants apparently derived from the hybridisation are interspersed in the genomes. These loci show a striking excess of differentiation across ecological subgroups in the Lake Malawi cichlid assemblage, and parental alleles sort differentially into benthic and pelagic Malawi cichlid lineages, consistent with strong differential selection on these loci during species divergence. Furthermore, these loci are enriched for genes involved in immune response and vision, including opsin genes previously identified as important for speciation. Our results reinforce the role of ancestral hybridisation in explosive diversification by demonstrating its significance in one of the largest recent vertebrate adaptive radiations.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Sexual Selection Shapes Seminal Vesicle Secretion Gene Expression in House Mice
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Simmons L, Sloan N, Firman R, et al.

    Reproductive proteins typically have high rates of molecular evolution, and are assumed to be under positive selection from sperm competition and cryptic female choice. However, ascribing evolutionary divergence in the genome to these processes of sexual selection from patterns of association alone is problematic. Here we use an experimental manipulation of post-mating sexual selection acting on populations of house mice and explore its consequences for the expression of seminal vesicle secreted (SVS) proteins. Following 25 generations of selection, males from populations subjected to post-mating sexual selection had evolved increased expression of at least two SVS genes that exhibit the signature of positive selection at the molecular level, SVS1 and SVS2. These proteins contribute to mating plug formation and sperm survival in the female reproductive tract. Our data thereby support the view that sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of these seminal fluid proteins.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Human genomic diversity where the Mediterranean joins the Atlantic
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Hernández C, Pita G, Cavadas B, et al.

    Throughout the past few years, a lively debate emerged about the timing and magnitude of the human migrations between the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb. Several pieces of evidence, including archaeological, anthropological, historical and genetic data, have pointed to a complex and intermingled evolutionary history in the western Mediterranean area. To study to what extent connections across the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding areas have shaped the present-day genomic diversity of its populations, we have performed a screening of 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 142 samples from southern Spain, southern Portugal and Morocco. We built comprehensive datasets of the studied area and we implemented multistep bioinformatic approaches to assess population structure, demographic histories and admixture dynamics. Both local and global ancestry inference showed an internal substructure in the Iberian Peninsula, mainly linked to a differential African ancestry. Western Iberia, from southern Portugal to Galicia, constituted an independent cluster within Iberia characterized by an enriched African genomic input. Migration time modelling showed recent historic dates for the admixture events occurring both in Iberia and in the North of Africa. However, an integrative vision of both paleogenomic and modern DNA data allowed us to detect chronological transitions and population turnovers that could be the result of trans-continental migrations dating back from Neolithic times. The present contribution aimed to fill the gaps in the modern human genomic record of a key geographic area, where the Mediterranean and the Atlantic come together.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • The laboratory domestication of zebrafish: from diverse populations to inbred substrains
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Suurväli J, Whiteley A, Zheng Y, et al.

    We know from human genetic studies that practically all aspects of biology are strongly influenced by the genetic background, as reflected in the advent of ‘personalized medicine’. Yet, with few exceptions, this is not taken into account when using laboratory populations as animal model systems for research in these fields. Laboratory strains of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used for research in vertebrate developmental biology, behaviour and physiology, for modelling diseases, and for testing pharmaceutic compounds in vivo. However, all of these strains are derived from artificial bottleneck events and therefore are likely to represent only a fraction of the genetic diversity present within the species.Here we use Restriction site-Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to genetically characterize wild populations of zebrafish from India, Nepal and Bangladesh, and to compare them to previously published data on four common laboratory strains. We measured nucleotide diversity, heterozygosity and allele frequency spectra, and find that wild zebrafish are much more diverse than laboratory strains. Further, in wild zebrafish there is a clear signal of GC-biased gene conversion that is missing in laboratory strains. We also find that zebrafish populations in Nepal and Bangladesh are most distinct from all other strains studied, making them an attractive subject for future studies of zebrafish population genetics and molecular ecology. Finally, isolates of the same strains kept in different laboratories show a pattern of ongoing differentiation into genetically distinct substrains. Together, our findings broaden the basis for future genetic, physiological, pharmaceutic and evolutionary studies in Danio rerio.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Paralogization and New Protein Architectures in Planctomycetes Bacteria with Complex Cell Structures
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Mahajan M, Yee B, Hägglund E, et al.

    Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes have a unique cell plan with an elaborate intracellular membrane system, thereby resembling eukaryotic cells. The origin and evolution of these remarkable features is debated. To study the evolutionary genomics of bacteria with complex cell architectures, we have re-sequenced the 9.2 Mb genome of the model organism Gemmata obscuriglobus and sequenced the 10 Mb genome of Gemmata massiliana Soil9, the 7.9 Mb genome of Cjuql4 and the 6.7 Mb genome of Tuwongella immobilis, all of which belong to the family Gemmataceae. A gene flux analysis of the Planctomycetes revealed a massive emergence of novel protein families at multiple nodes within the Gemmataceae. The expanded protein families have unique multi-domain architectures composed of domains that are characteristic of prokaryotes, such as the sigma factor domain of extracytoplasmic sigma factors, and domains that have proliferated in eukaryotes, such as the WD40, LRR, TPR and Ser/Thr kinase domains. Proteins with identifiable domains in the Gemmataceae have longer lengths and linkers than proteins in most other bacteria, and the analyses suggest that these traits were ancestrally present in the Planctomycetales. A broad comparison of protein length distribution profiles revealed an overlap between the longest proteins in prokaryotes and the shortest proteins in eukaryotes. We conclude that the many similarities between proteins in the Planctomycetales and the eukaryotes are due to convergent evolution and that there is no strict boundary between prokaryotes and eukaryotes with regard to features such as gene paralogy, protein length and protein domain composition patterns.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Evolution of a novel and adaptive floral scent in wild tobacco
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Guo H, Lackus N, Köllner T, et al.

    Many plants emit diverse floral scents that mediate plant-environment interactions and attain reproductive success. However, how plants evolve biosynthesis of novel and adaptive floral volatiles remains unclear. Here, we show that in the wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, a dominant species-specific floral volatile (benzyl acetone, BA) that attracts pollinators and deters florivore is synthesized by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 4 (NaPAL4), isoflavone reductase 3 (NaIFR3), and chalcone synthase 3 (NaCHAL3). Transient expression of NaFIR3 alone in N. attenuata leaves is sufficient and necessary for ectopic foliar BA emissions, and co-expressing NaIFR3 with NaPAL4 and NaCHAL3 increased the BA emission levels. Independent changes in transcription of NaPAL4 and NaCHAL3 contributed to intraspecific variations of floral BA emission. However, among species, the gain of expression in NaIFR3 resulted in the biosynthesis of BA that was only found in N. attenuata. This study suggests that novel metabolic pathways associated with adaptation can arise via re-configurations of gene expression.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Early stage adaptation of a mesophilic green alga to Antarctica: systematic increases in abundance of enzymes and LEA proteins
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Wang Y, Liu X, Gao H, et al.

    It is known that adaptive evolution in permanently cold environments drives cold adaptation in enzymes. However, how the relatively high enzyme activities were achieved in cold environments prior to cold adaptation of enzymes is unclear. Here we report that an Antarctic strain of Chlorella vulgaris, called NJ-7, acquired the capability to grow at near 0 °C temperatures and greatly enhanced freezing tolerance after systematic increases in abundance of enzymes/proteins and positive selection of certain genes. Having diverged from the temperate strain UTEX259 of the same species 2.5 (1.1-4.1) to 2.6 (1.0-4.5) million years ago, NJ-7 retained the basic mesophilic characteristics and genome structures. Nitrate reductases in the two strains are highly similar in amino acid sequence and optimal temperature, but the NJ-7 one showed significantly higher abundance and activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses indicated that several cryoprotective proteins (LEA), many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism and a large number of other enzymes/proteins, were more abundant in NJ-7 than in UTEX259. Like nitrate reductase, most of these enzymes were not upregulated in response to cold stress. Thus, compensation of low specific activities by increased enzyme abundance appears to be an important strategy for early stage cold adaptation to Antarctica, but such enzymes are mostly not involved in cold acclimation upon transfer from favorable temperatures to near 0 °C temperatures.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Mutations beget more mutations – Rapid evolution of mutation rate in response to the risk of runaway accumulation
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Ruan Y, Wang H, Chen B, et al.

    The rapidity with which the mutation rate evolves could greatly impact evolutionary patterns. Nevertheless, most studies simply assume a constant rate in the time scale of interest (Kimura 1983; Drake 1991; Kumar 2005; Li 2007; Lynch 2010). In contrast, recent studies of somatic mutations suggest that the mutation rate may vary by several orders of magnitude within a lifetime (Kandoth, et al. 2013; Lawrence, et al. 2013). To resolve the discrepancy, we now propose a runaway model, applicable to both the germline and soma, whereby mutator mutations form a positive-feedback loop. In this loop, any mutator mutation would increase the rate of acquiring the next mutator, thus triggering a runaway escalation in mutation rate. The process can be initiated more readily if there are many weak mutators than a few strong ones. Interestingly, even a small increase in the mutation rate at birth could trigger the runaway process, resulting in unfit progeny. In slowly reproducing species, the need to minimize the risk of this uncontrolled accumulation would thus favor setting the mutation rate low. In comparison, species that starts and ends reproduction sooner do not face the risk and may set the baseline mutation rate higher. The mutation rate would evolve in response to the risk of runaway mutation, in particular, when the generation time changes. A rapidly-evolving mutation rate may shed new lights on many evolutionary phenomena. (Elango, et al. 2006; Thomas, et al. 2010; Langergraber, et al. 2012; Thomas, et al. 2018; Besenbacher, et al. 2019).

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Genetic landscapes reveal how human genetic diversity aligns with geography
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Peter B, Petkova D, Novembre J, et al.

    Geographic patterns in human genetic diversity carry footprints of population history and provide insights for genetic medicine and its application across human populations. Summarizing and visually representing these patterns of diversity has been a persistent goal for human geneticists, and has revealed that genetic differentiation is frequently correlated with geographic distance. However, most analytical methods to represent population structure do not incorporate geography directly, and it must be considered post hoc alongside a visual summary of the genetic structure. Here, we estimate “effective migration” surfaces to visualize how human genetic diversity is geographically structured. The results reveal local patterns of differentiation in detail and emphasize that while genetic similarity generally decays with geographic distance, the relationship is often subtly distorted. Overall, the visualizations provide a new perspective on genetics and geography in humans and insight to the geographic distribution of human genetic variation.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Visual opsin diversity in sharks and rays
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Hart N, Lamb T, Patel H, et al.

    The diversity of colour vision systems found in extant vertebrates suggests that different evolutionary selection pressures have driven specialisations in photoreceptor complement and visual pigment spectral tuning appropriate for an animal's behaviour, habitat and life history. Aquatic vertebrates in particular show high variability in chromatic vision and have become important models for understanding the role of colour vision in prey detection, predator avoidance and social interactions. In this study, we examined the capacity for chromatic vision in elasmobranch fishes, a group that have received relatively little attention to date. We used microspectrophotometry to measure the spectral absorbance of the visual pigments in the outer segments of individual photoreceptors from several ray and shark species, and we sequenced the opsin mRNAs obtained from the retinas of the same species, as well as from additional elasmobranch species. We reveal the phylogenetically widespread occurrence of dichromatic colour vision in rays based on two cone opsins, RH2 and LWS. We also confirm that all shark species studied to date appear to be cone monochromats, but report that in different species the single cone opsin may be of either the LWS or the RH2 class. From this, we infer that cone monochromacy in sharks has evolved independently on multiple occasions. Together with earlier discoveries in secondarily aquatic marine mammals, this suggests that cone-based colour vision may be of little use for large marine predators such as sharks, pinnipeds and cetaceans.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The loci of behavioral evolution: evidence that Fas2 and tilB underlie differences in pupation site choice behavior between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Pischedda A, Shahandeh M, Turner T, et al.

    The behaviors of closely related species can be remarkably different, and these differences have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. While the recent boom in genotype-phenotype studies has led to a greater understanding of the genetic architecture and evolution of a variety of traits, studies identifying the genetic basis of behaviors are, comparatively, still lacking. This is likely because they are complex and environmentally sensitive phenotypes, making them difficult to measure reliably for association studies. The Drosophila species complex holds promise for addressing these challenges, as the behaviors of closely related species can be readily assayed in a common environment. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of an evolved behavioral difference, pupation site choice, between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. In this study, we demonstrate a significant contribution of the X chromosome to the difference in pupation site choice behavior between these species. Using a panel of X-chromosome deficiencies, we screened the majority of the X chromosome for causal loci, and identified two regions associated with this X-effect. We then collect gene disruption and RNAi data supporting a single gene that affects pupation behavior within each region: Fas2 and tilB. Finally, we show that differences in tilB expression correlate with the differences in pupation site choice behavior between species. This evidence associating two genes with differences in a complex, environmentally sensitive behavior represents the first step towards a functional and evolutionary understanding of this behavioral divergence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sex-Ratio Meiotic Drive Shapes the Evolution of the Y Chromosome in Drosophila simulans
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Helleu Q, Courret C, Ogereau D, et al.

    The recent emergence and spread of X-linked segregation distorters—called “Paris” system—in the worldwide species Drosophila simulans has elicited the selection of drive-resistant Y chromosomes. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of 386 Y chromosomes originating from 29 population samples collected over a period of 20 years, showing a wide continuum of phenotypes when tested against the Paris distorters, from high sensitivity to complete resistance (males sire ∼95% to ∼40% female progeny). Analyzing around 13 kb of Y-linked gene sequences in a representative subset of nine Y chromosomes, we identified only three polymorphic sites resulting in three haplotypes. Remarkably, one of the haplotypes is associated with resistance. This haplotype is fixed in all samples from Sub-Saharan Africa, the region of origin of the drivers. Exceptionally, with the spread of the drivers in Egypt and Morocco, we were able to record the replacement of the sensitive lineage by the resistant haplotype in real time, within only a few years. In addition, we performed in situ hybridization, using satellite DNA probes, on a subset of 21 Y chromosomes from six locations. In contrast to the low molecular polymorphism, this revealed extensive structural variation suggestive of rapid evolution, either neutral or adaptive. Moreover, our results show that intragenomic conflicts can drive astonishingly rapid replacement of Y chromosomes and suggest that the emergence of Paris segregation distorters in East Africa occurred less than half a century ago.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Aquatic Adaptation and Depleted Diversity: A Deep Dive into the Genomes of the Sea Otter and Giant Otter
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Beichman A, Koepfli K, Li G, et al.

    Despite its recent invasion into the marine realm, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) has evolved a suite of adaptations for life in cold coastal waters, including limb modifications and dense insulating fur. This uniquely dense coat led to the near-extinction of sea otters during the 18th–20th century fur trade and an extreme population bottleneck. We used the de novo genome of the southern sea otter (E. l. nereis) to reconstruct its evolutionary history, identify genes influencing aquatic adaptation, and detect signals of population bottlenecks. We compared the genome of the southern sea otter with the tropical freshwater-living giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) to assess common and divergent genomic trends between otter species, and with the closely related northern sea otter (E. l. kenyoni) to uncover population-level trends. We found signals of positive selection in genes related to aquatic adaptations, particularly limb development and polygenic selection on genes related to hair follicle development. We found extensive pseudogenization of olfactory receptor genes in both the sea otter and giant otter lineages, consistent with patterns of sensory gene loss in other aquatic mammals. At the population level, the southern sea otter and the northern sea otter showed extremely low genomic diversity, signals of recent inbreeding, and demographic histories marked by population declines. These declines may predate the fur trade and appear to have resulted in an increase in putatively deleterious variants that could impact the future recovery of the sea otter.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Parallel Evolution of Complex Centipede Venoms Revealed by Comparative Proteotranscriptomic Analyses
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Jenner R, von Reumont B, Campbell L, et al.

    Centipedes are among the most ancient groups of venomous predatory arthropods. Extant species belong to five orders, but our understanding of the composition and evolution of centipede venoms is based almost exclusively on one order, Scolopendromorpha. To gain a broader and less biased understanding we performed a comparative proteotranscriptomic analysis of centipede venoms from all five orders, including the first venom profiles for the orders Lithobiomorpha, Craterostigmomorpha, and Geophilomorpha. Our results reveal an astonishing structural diversity of venom components, with 93 phylogenetically distinct protein and peptide families. Proteomically-annotated gene trees of these putative toxin families show that centipede venom composition is highly dynamic across macroevolutionary timescales, with numerous gene duplications as well as functional recruitments and losses of toxin gene families. Strikingly, not a single family is found in the venoms of representatives of all five orders, with 67 families being unique for single orders. Ancestral state reconstructions reveal that centipede venom originated as a simple cocktail comprising just four toxin families, with very little compositional evolution happening during the approximately 50 My before the living orders had diverged. Venom complexity then increased in parallel within the orders, with scolopendromorphs evolving particularly complex venoms. Our results show that even venoms composed of toxins evolving under the strong constraint of negative selection can have striking evolutionary plasticity on the compositional level. We show that the functional recruitments and losses of toxin families that shape centipede venom arsenals are not concentrated early in their evolutionary history, but happen frequently throughout.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Accurate Tracking of the Mutational Landscape of Diploid Hybrid Genomes
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Tattini L, Tellini N, Mozzachiodi S, et al.

    Mutations, recombinations, and genome duplications may promote genetic diversity and trigger evolutionary processes. However, quantifying these events in diploid hybrid genomes is challenging. Here, we present an integrated experimental and computational workflow to accurately track the mutational landscape of yeast diploid hybrids (MuLoYDH) in terms of single-nucleotide variants, small insertions/deletions, copy-number variants, aneuploidies, and loss-of-heterozygosity. Pairs of haploid Saccharomyces parents were combined to generate ancestor hybrids with phased genomes and varying levels of heterozygosity. These diploids were evolved under different laboratory protocols, in particular mutation accumulation experiments. Variant simulations enabled the efficient integration of competitive and standard mapping of short reads, depending on local levels of heterozygosity. Experimental validations proved the high accuracy and resolution of our computational approach. Finally, applying MuLoYDH to four different diploids revealed striking genetic background effects. Homozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed a ∼4-fold higher mutation rate compared with its closely related species S. paradoxus. Intraspecies hybrids unveiled that a substantial fraction of the genome (∼250 bp per generation) was shaped by loss-of-heterozygosity, a process strongly inhibited in interspecies hybrids by high levels of sequence divergence between homologous chromosomes. In contrast, interspecies hybrids exhibited higher single-nucleotide mutation rates compared with intraspecies hybrids. MuLoYDH provided an unprecedented quantitative insight into the evolutionary processes that mold diploid yeast genomes and can be generalized to other genetic systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A Three-Sample Test for Introgression
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Hahn M, Hibbins M.

    Many methods exist for detecting introgression between nonsister species, but the most commonly used require either a single sequence from four or more taxa or multiple sequences from each of three taxa. Here, we present a test for introgression that uses only a single sequence from three taxa. This test, denoted D3, uses similar logic as the standard D-test for introgression, but by using pairwise distances instead of site patterns it is able to detect the same signal of introgression with fewer species. We use simulations to show that D3 has statistical power almost equal to D, demonstrating its use on a data set of wild bananas (Musa). The new test is easy to apply and easy to interpret, and should find wide use among currently available data sets.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Current Genomic Landscape of Western South America: Andes, Amazonia, and Pacific Coast
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-07-27
    Barbieri C, Barquera R, Arias L, et al.

    Studies of Native South American genetic diversity have helped to shed light on the peopling and differentiation of the continent, but available data are sparse for the major ecogeographic domains. These include the Pacific Coast, a potential early migration route; the Andes, home to the most expansive complex societies and to one of the most widely spoken indigenous language families of the continent (Quechua); and Amazonia, with its understudied population structure and rich cultural diversity. Here, we explore the genetic structure of 176 individuals from these three domains, genotyped with the Affymetrix Human Origins array. We infer multiple sources of ancestry within the Native American ancestry component; one with clear predominance on the Coast and in the Andes, and at least two distinct substrates in neighboring Amazonia, including a previously undetected ancestry characteristic of northern Ecuador and Colombia. Amazonian populations are also involved in recent gene-flow with each other and across ecogeographic domains, which does not accord with the traditional view of small, isolated groups. Long-distance genetic connections between speakers of the same language family suggest that indigenous languages here were spread not by cultural contact alone. Finally, Native American populations admixed with post-Columbian European and African sources at different times, with few cases of prolonged isolation. With our results we emphasize the importance of including understudied regions of the continent in high-resolution genetic studies, and we illustrate the potential of SNP chip arrays for informative regional-scale analysis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • From Root to Tips: Sporulation Evolution and Specialization in Bacillus subtilis and the Intestinal Pathogen Clostridioides difficile
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Ramos-Silva P, Serrano M, Henriques A.

    Bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum are able to enter a developmental pathway that culminates with the formation of highly resistant, dormant endospores. Endospores allow environmental persistence, dissemination and for pathogens, are also infection vehicles. In both the model Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic organism, and in the intestinal pathogen Clostridioides difficile, an obligate anaerobe, sporulation mobilizes hundreds of genes. Their expression is coordinated between the forespore and the mother cell, the two cells that participate in the process, and is kept in close register with the course of morphogenesis. The evolutionary mechanisms by which sporulation emerged and evolved in these two species, and more broadly across Firmicutes, remain largely unknown. Here, we trace the origin and evolution of sporulation using the genes known to be involved in the process in B. subtilis and C. difficile, and estimating their gain-loss dynamics in a comprehensive bacterial macroevolutionary framework. We show that sporulation evolution was driven by two major gene gain events, the first at the base of the Firmicutes and the second at the base of the B. subtilis group and within the Peptostreptococcaceae family, which includes C. difficile. We also show that early and late sporulation regulons have been coevolving and that sporulation genes entail greater innovation in B. subtilis with many Bacilli lineage-restricted genes. In contrast, C. difficile more often recruits new sporulation genes by horizontal gene transfer, which reflects both its highly mobile genome, the complexity of the gut microbiota, and an adjustment of sporulation to the gut ecosystem.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Speciation in Howea Palms Occurred in Sympatry, Was Preceded by Ancestral Admixture, and Was Associated with Edaphic and Phenological Adaptation
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Osborne O, Ciezarek A, Wilson T, et al.

    Howea palms are viewed as one of the most clear-cut cases of speciation in sympatry. The sister species Howea belmoreana and H. forsteriana are endemic to the oceanic Lord Howe Island, Australia, where they have overlapping distributions and are reproductively isolated mainly by flowering time differences. However, the potential role of introgression from Australian mainland relatives had not previously been investigated, a process that has recently put other examples of sympatric speciation into question. Furthermore, the drivers of flowering time-based reproductive isolation remain unclear. We sequenced an RNA-seq data set that comprehensively sampled Howea and their closest mainland relatives (Linospadix, Laccospadix), and collected detailed soil chemistry data on Lord Howe Island to evaluate whether secondary gene flow had taken place and to examine the role of soil preference in speciation. D-statistics analyses strongly support a scenario whereby ancestral Howea hybridized frequently with its mainland relatives, but this only occurred prior to speciation. Expression analysis, population genetic and phylogenetic tests of selection, identified several flowering time genes with evidence of adaptive divergence between the Howea species. We found expression plasticity in flowering time genes in response to soil chemistry as well as adaptive expression and sequence divergence in genes pleiotropically linked to soil adaptation and flowering time. Ancestral hybridization may have provided the genetic diversity that promoted their subsequent adaptive divergence and speciation, a process that may be common for rapid ecological speciation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Direct Evidence of an Increasing Mutational Load in Humans
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Aris-Brosou S.

    The extent to which selection has shaped present-day human populations has attracted intense scrutiny, and examples of local adaptations abound. However, the evolutionary trajectory of alleles that, today, are deleterious has received much less attention. To address this question, the genomes of 2,062 individuals, including 1,179 ancient humans, were reanalyzed to assess how frequencies of risk alleles and their homozygosity changed through space and time in Europe over the past 45,000 years. Although the overall deleterious homozygosity has consistently decreased, risk alleles have steadily increased in frequency over that period of time. Those that increased most are associated with diseases such as asthma, Crohn disease, diabetes, and obesity, which are highly prevalent in present-day populations. These findings may not run against the existence of local adaptations but highlight the limitations imposed by drift and population dynamics on the strength of selection in purging deleterious mutations from human populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Diversification of Retinoblastoma Protein Function Associated with Cis and Trans Adaptations
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Mouawad R, Prasad J, Thorley D, et al.

    Retinoblastoma proteins are eukaryotic transcriptional corepressors that play central roles in cell cycle control, among other functions. Although most metazoan genomes encode a single retinoblastoma protein, gene duplications have occurred at least twice: in the vertebrate lineage, leading to Rb, p107, and p130, and in Drosophila, an ancestral Rbf1 gene and a derived Rbf2 gene. Structurally, Rbf1 resembles p107 and p130, and mutation of the gene is lethal. Rbf2 is more divergent and mutation does not lead to lethality. However, the retention of Rbf2 >60 My in Drosophila points to essential functions, which prior cell-based assays have been unable to elucidate. Here, using genomic approaches, we provide new insights on the function of Rbf2. Strikingly, we show that Rbf2 regulates a set of cell growth-related genes and can antagonize Rbf1 on specific genes. These unique properties have important implications for the fly; Rbf2 mutants show reduced egg laying, and lifespan is reduced in females and males. Structural alterations in conserved regions of Rbf2 gene suggest that it was sub- or neofunctionalized to develop specific regulatory specificity and activity. We define cis-regulatory features of Rbf2 target genes that allow preferential repression by this protein, indicating that it is not a weaker version of Rbf1 as previously thought. The specialization of retinoblastoma function in Drosophila may reflect a parallel evolution found in vertebrates, and raises the possibility that cell growth control is equally important to cell cycle function for this conserved family of transcriptional corepressors.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sequenceserver: A Modern Graphical User Interface for Custom BLAST Databases
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Priyam A, Woodcroft B, Rai V, et al.

    Comparing newly obtained and previously known nucleotide and amino-acid sequences underpins modern biological research. BLAST is a well-established tool for such comparisons but is challenging to use on new data sets. We combined a user-centric design philosophy with sustainable software development approaches to create Sequenceserver, a tool for running BLAST and visually inspecting BLAST results for biological interpretation. Sequenceserver uses simple algorithms to prevent potential analysis errors and provides flexible text-based and visual outputs to support researcher productivity. Our software can be rapidly installed for use by individuals or on shared servers.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of In Vivo Protein Folding Probability on Local Fitness Landscapes
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-10
    Faber M, Wrenbeck E, Azouz L, et al.

    It is incompletely understood how biophysical properties like protein stability impact molecular evolution and epistasis. Epistasis is defined as specific when a mutation exclusively influences the phenotypic effect of another mutation, often at physically interacting residues. In contrast, nonspecific epistasis results when a mutation is influenced by a large number of nonlocal mutations. As most mutations are pleiotropic, the in vivo folding probability—governed by basal protein stability—is thought to determine activity-enhancing mutational tolerance, implying that nonspecific epistasis is dominant. However, evidence exists for both specific and nonspecific epistasis as the prevalent factor, with limited comprehensive data sets to support either claim. Here, we use deep mutational scanning to probe how in vivo enzyme folding probability impacts local fitness landscapes. We computationally designed two different variants of the amidase AmiE with statistically indistinguishable catalytic efficiencies but lower probabilities of folding in vivo compared with wild-type. Local fitness landscapes show slight alterations among variants, with essentially the same global distribution of fitness effects. However, specific epistasis was predominant for the subset of mutations exhibiting positive sign epistasis. These mutations mapped to spatially distinct locations on AmiE near the initial mutation or proximal to the active site. Intriguingly, the majority of specific epistatic mutations were codon dependent, with different synonymous codons resulting in fitness sign reversals. Together, these results offer a nuanced view of how protein folding probability impacts local fitness landscapes and suggest that transcriptional–translational effects are as important as stability in determining evolutionary outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Optimizing the Power to Identify the Genetic Basis of Complex Traits with Evolve and Resequence Studies
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-10
    Vlachos C, Kofler R.

    Evolve and resequence (E&R) studies are frequently used to dissect the genetic basis of quantitative traits. By subjecting a population to truncating selection for several generations and estimating the allele frequency differences between selected and nonselected populations using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the loci contributing to the selected trait may be identified. The role of different parameters, such as, the population size or the number of replicate populations has been examined in previous works. However, the influence of the selection regime, that is the strength of truncating selection during the experiment, remains little explored. Using whole genome, individual based forward simulations of E&R studies, we found that the power to identify the causative alleles may be maximized by gradually increasing the strength of truncating selection during the experiment. Notably, such an optimal selection regime comes at no or little additional cost in terms of sequencing effort and experimental time. Interestingly, we also found that a selection regime which optimizes the power to identify the causative loci is not necessarily identical to a regime that maximizes the phenotypic response. Finally, our simulations suggest that an E&R study with an optimized selection regime may have a higher power to identify the genetic basis of quantitative traits than a genome-wide association study, highlighting that E&R is a powerful approach for finding the loci underlying complex traits.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Butterfly Mimicry Polymorphisms Highlight Phylogenetic Limits of Gene Reuse in the Evolution of Diverse Adaptations
    Mol. Biol. Evol. (IF 14.797) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    VanKuren N, Massardo D, Nallu S, et al.

    Some genes have repeatedly been found to control diverse adaptations in a wide variety of organisms. Such gene reuse reveals not only the diversity of phenotypes these unique genes control but also the composition of developmental gene networks and the genetic routes available to and taken by organisms during adaptation. However, the causes of gene reuse remain unclear. A small number of large-effect Mendelian loci control a huge diversity of mimetic butterfly wing color patterns, but reasons for their reuse are difficult to identify because the genetic basis of mimicry has primarily been studied in two systems with correlated factors: female-limited Batesian mimicry in Papilio swallowtails (Papilionidae) and non-sex-limited Müllerian mimicry in Heliconius longwings (Nymphalidae). Here, we break the correlation between phylogenetic relationship and sex-limited mimicry by identifying loci controlling female-limited mimicry polymorphism Hypolimnas misippus (Nymphalidae) and non-sex-limited mimicry polymorphism in Papilio clytia (Papilionidae). The Papilio clytia polymorphism is controlled by the genome region containing the gene cortex, the classic P supergene in Heliconius numata, and loci controlling color pattern variation across Lepidoptera. In contrast, female-limited mimicry polymorphism in Hypolimnas misippus is associated with a locus not previously implicated in color patterning. Thus, although many species repeatedly converged on cortex and its neighboring genes over 120 My of evolution of diverse color patterns, female-limited mimicry polymorphisms each evolved using a different gene. Our results support conclusions that gene reuse occurs mainly within ∼10 My and highlight the puzzling diversity of genes controlling seemingly complex female-limited mimicry polymorphisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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