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  • The Dredge Disposal Sediment Index (D2SI): A new specific multicriteria index to assess the impact of harbour sediment dumping
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    N. Baux; B. Chouquet; M. Martinez; J.P. Pezy; A. Raoux; P. Balay; C. Dancie; A. Baffreau; J.C. Dauvin
    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Measuring the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation net primary productivity in Inner Mongolia using spatial autocorrelation
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Hongrui Ren; Yingjie Shang; Shuai Zhang

    Monitoring variations in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) contributes greatly to the evaluation of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function. Current research has focused on the trend changes of vegetation productivity but has largely ignored spatial correlation. This study selected MOD17A3 NPP data in Inner Mongolia to explore the spatiotemporal variations of NPP using spatial autocorrelation indices (Global Moran’s I, Getis-Ord General G, Getis-Ord Gi*, and Anselin Local Moran’s I). This is helpful to examine whether NPP in Inner Mongolia has exhibited significant spatial cluster based on temporal variations and spatial patterns. NPP in Inner Mongolia has shown significant spatial cluster in high-value areas from 2000 to 2014 and demonstrated a polarized distribution. Although the east part of the study area generally showed a high NPP pattern, the northeast turned to low NPP pattern in 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 and the southeast turned to low NPP pattern in 2009 and 2013. The former variations were primarily affected by precipitation, while the latter variations were affected by both hydrothermal conditions and human activities. These results are useful to analyze spatial correlations and local abnormalities of NPP and provide references for integrated ecosystem management in Inner Mongolia.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Assessing the sustainability of land use management of northern Ethiopian drylands by various indicators for soil health
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Chukwuebuka C. Okolo; Michaela A. Dippold; Girmay Gebresamuel; Amanuel Zenebe; Mitiku Haile; Ezekiel Bore

    Land use change and agricultural intensification in developing countries affect terrestrial carbon (C) stocks, CO2 efflux, microbial communities and overall soil health. This study assesses the effects of four land use types typical for northern Ethiopia (forests, exclosures, grazing lands and intensively cultivated croplands) on various soil health indicators. We quantified and compared microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water extractable organic carbon (WOC), metabolic quotient (qCO2), substrate use efficiency (SUE) and dynamics of 14C-labelled glucose added to soil. Irrespective of the land use, MBC but not SUE decreased 2- to 8-fold with increasing depth, demonstrating the C limitation of subsoil microbial communities under all land use forms. Sandy soils, however, which permit seepage and leaching of WOC into lower layers and promote subsoil microbial communities, adapted to frequent input of easily accessible C substrates. Significantly higher qCO2 were recorded in subsoils compared to topsoils, especially in croplands with low MBC. In croplands, high glucose-14C incorporation (≈20%) into their low microbial biomass indicates a high SUE and reflects a better nutrient supply of these microbial communities. Mineralization of up to 95% of 14C-labeled glucose in topsoils of forest and grazing lands was higher than in croplands, and exclosures never reached the level of natural ecosystems. This demonstrates that 6–10 years of exclosure establishment does not result in soil microbial communities and soil C dynamics resembling those of natural forests. Our study demonstrates that land use can negatively affect the ecological performance of microbial communities and that these impacts are more severe in sandy than in clayey soils. Mitigation strategies such as minimum tillage or residue retention in intensively cultivated croplands can increase microbial abundance and activity and help ensure environmental sustainability and mitigation of climate change. Nonetheless, such measures need to be carefully accompanied by monitoring indicators of soil health to confirm the sustainability of the chosen mitigation strategies.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Prediction of habitat suitability of Morina persica L. species using artificial intelligence techniques
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Fateme Ghareghan; Gholamabbas Ghanbarian; Hamid Reza Pourghasemi; Roja Safaeian
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Determining the impact of key climatic factors on geographic distribution of wild Akebia trifoliate
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Li Wang; Huanguang Deng; Xinfa Qiu; Peifa Wang; Fei Yang

    Based on the first-hand data of field investigation, existing literature, books and plant specimens database resources, the complete and available spatial database of wild Akebia trifoliate in China was established firstly. After analyzing the geographical distribution of Akebia trifoliate and its ecological factors, such as climate, soil and topographic characteristics, based on the existing literature, we selected 16 climatic indicators and used statistical analysis to study key climatic variables affecting its growth from a macro perspective. The results show that: (1) According to the characteristic roots and contribution rate obtained by principal component method, three principal factors are determined. Their corresponding value of three principal factors were 6.0538 and 37.84%, 4.7487 and 29.68%, 3.3822 and 21.14% respectively. All the characteristic roots indicate that the three principal factors are playing a dominant role in climate variables of influencing the distribution of Akebia trifoliate. (2) The first principal factor is called “heat factor”, the most important role determining geographical distribution of Akebia trifoliate, including the variables with larger factor load such as active accumulated temperature (≥10℃), warm index, biological temperature and annual average temperature. It shows that Akebia trifoliate tends to grow in areas with higher heat conditions. The second principal factor is called “humidity factor”, the second role for Akebia trifoliate, including the variables with larger factor load such as evapotranspiration rate, humidity index, annual precipitation, growing season precipitation and relative humidity. So it shows that Akebia trifoliate tends to be in areas with sufficient precipitation and high humidity. The third principal factor is called “illumination factor”, including the variables with larger load such as annual sunshine hours, growing season sunshine hours and extreme low temperature. So Akebia trifoliate likes the areas with relatively short sunshine hours. (3) Heat factor and humidity factor are the main limiting factors for its growth. The significant climatic variables offer a basis for the selection of ecological factors and the determination of weight in the suitability analysis of Akebia trifoliate. These results could provide a theoretical basis for the artificial cultivation of Akebia trifoliate. The ideas and methods for wild Akebia trifoliate in this paper could give a reference for the study of other valuable wild plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Assessing tree species diversity and structure of mixed dipterocarp forest remnants in a fragmented landscape of north-western Borneo, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Elias Ganivet; Joanes Unggang; Vilma Bodos; Malcom Demies; Chea Yiing Ling; Julia Sang; Mark Bloomberg

    As forest fragmentation continues in many parts of the tropics, the conservation value of forest remnants remains controversial. Our study aimed to assess the structure and tree species diversity of mixed dipterocarp forest remnants from the Planted Forest Zone (PFZ) located in the Bintulu Division, Sarawak, compared with a forest considered relatively undisturbed (i.e. that has experienced no recent logging activities). We also compared three plot methods (50 × 50 m, 20 × 50 m and 10 × 50 m plots) in order to evaluate which could be used for time- and cost-effective inventories of structure and tree species diversity in fragmented forests. No significant differences were found between the fragmented forests and the relatively undisturbed forest for stem density, species richness and diversity indices (Shannon and Simpson). Dissimilarities in species, genus and family composition were observed between fragmented and relatively undisturbed forest, as well as between forest remnants themselves. These dissimilarities were likely to be related to intrinsic variation in these highly diverse tropical forests. However, an unusually high abundance of pioneer species (i.e. Macaranga) was found in plots from forest remnants. The forest remnants also had significantly lower basal areas due to a lack of trees in large diameter classes, which is likely a result of impacts from past logging activities. Otherwise, our results highlight the current high conservation value of the forest remnants—although the studied communities are likely to experience time-delayed shifts in species composition and/or extinctions in the future, with the effect of fragmentation on biodiversity being currently underestimated. Finally, for further studies of fragmented forests we recommend the use of 10 × 50 m plots which are faster and easier to implement in the field while providing estimates of structure and tree species diversity that are consistent with those from larger plots.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Linking environmental regulation and economic growth through technological innovation and resource consumption: Analysis of spatial interaction patterns of urban agglomerations
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yu Cao; Ningna Wan; Haiyong Zhang; Xiaoling Zhang; Qian Zhou

    The Yangtze River Delta region is a representative region for the development of China's urban agglomerations. This study explores the inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental regulation and economic growth in the Yangtze River Delta region during 2002–2010 using the spatial panel data model. After the introduction of instrumental variables, the U-shaped curve is still robust, which is the theoretical value of this paper. The research verifies that technological innovation and resource consumption are important mechanisms for environmental regulation to influence economic growth. Cities in the Yangtze River Delta region have good interaction patterns in environmental regulation, economic development, technological innovation and resource consumption. Economic integration development is at a good level and can provide valuable experience for the development of other urban agglomerations.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Ecological quality status of the Turkish coastal waters by using marine macrophytes (macroalgae and angiosperms)
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ergün Taşkın; İbrahim Tan; Ersin Minareci; Orkide Minareci; Murat Çakır; Çolpan Polat-Beken

    Marine macrophytes (macroalgae and angiosperms) were defined as one of the biological quality elements to assess the ecological quality status of transitional and coastal waters by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). In the present study, the Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI-c) was tested to assess the anthropogenic impact by using marine benthic macrophytes (macroalgae and angiosperms) and pressures by using MA-LUSI in the Turkish marine waters. Macrophyte samples were collected from 56 stations on the coasts of Turkey (at 17 Black Sea, 15 Marmara Sea, 13 Aegean Sea and 11 Mediterranean coastal water bodies) in the summer period between 2014 and 2016. In total, 209 marine macrophytes (macroalgae and angiosperms) taxa were found in all stations. The study revealed high ecological status class for 15 sites, good for 21 sites, moderate for 6 sites, poor for 10 sites, and bad for 4 sites. The MA-LUSI index was tested from the Corine land cover map which affects 1.5 km buffer zone around the sampling sites. The relationship between the pressure index MA-LUSI and EEI-ceqr (eqr: ecological quality ratio) was also tested, and a negative linear relationship was found between MA-LUSI and EEI-ceqr in the Turkish sites. The present study supports the use of the EEI-c index for ecological quality state classification in a wide area of Turkish coastal waters.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Evaluating the effects of urban expansion on natural habitat quality by coupling localized shared socioeconomic pathways and the land use scenario dynamics-urban model
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Shixiong Song; Zhifeng Liu; Chunyang He; Wenlu Lu

    Effectively evaluating the effects of future urban expansion on natural habitat quality (NHQ) is critical for improving the sustainability of regional and even global cities. However, because of the difficulties in simulating spatiotemporal distribution of future urban expansion and the uncertainties in future socioeconomic development, effectively evaluating the effects of future urban expansion on NHQ is still challenging. Using the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin (HBOY) urban agglomeration in China as an example, this study simulated future urban expansion and evaluated its effects on NHQ. We first quantified the NHQ spatial patterns in HBOY using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. Second, we simulated urban expansion in HBOY from 2017 to 2050 by coupling localized Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and the Land Use Scenario Dynamics-urban (LUSD-urban) model. Finally, we evaluated the effects of future urban expansion on NHQ by calculating the degradation rate of NHQ in the entire region and in different types of cities. We found that coupling localized SSPs and the LUSD-urban model can effectively evaluate the effects of future urban expansion on NHQ. Compared with coupling original SSPs and the LUSD-urban model, in HBOY case study, our method reduced the absolute of the evaluation error from 5.17 to 11.43% to 2.86–5.17%. The results showed that under all localized SSPs, the urban expansion from 2017 to 2050 in large cities will lead to the most obvious decrease in regional NHQ of 4.85–7.32%, while that in medium cities and small cities will be 1.23–2.37% and 0.19–0.35%, respectively. Therefore, we suggest that SSPs should be localized when used to simulate the effects of future urban expansion on NHQ. In addition, in order to achieve the sustainable development goals, the HBOY urban agglomeration should control the urban size and optimize the urban spatial pattern, especially for large cities, in the future to reduce the impacts of urban expansion on NHQ.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • MAGIC library – A tool to assess surface water acidification
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Filip Moldan; Johanna Stadmark; Sara Jutterström; Veronika Kronnäs; Håkan Blomgren; Bernard J. Cosby

    We have developed a tool, the MAGIC library, which provides an acidification assessment for any given lake or stream in Sweden based on ten parameters describing lake geographical position, surface area, annual discharge and observed lake water chemistry. The MAGIC library consists of two key components: a library of the existing MAGIC model simulations for 2438 lakes and an analogue matching routine that selects the library lake which is most similar to the evaluation lake described by the ten parameters. The acidification assessment modelled by MAGIC for the library lake is then assumed valid for the evaluation lake. For more than 90% of the library lakes tested, the MAGIC library provided the same acidification assessment as the site-specific MAGIC model simulation. Labour and data requirements for assessment by the MAGIC library are very modest relative to the needs of site-specific MAGIC (or other similar) model simulations. The relative ease of use is essential for a country like Sweden, with a population of 100 000 lakes. The MAGIC library has a web interface (http://magicbiblioteket.ivl.se) to provide single assessments interactively or multiple assessments by uploading the ten required parameters for multiple sites. Conceptually the library has built-in flexibility and could be adapted for other types of ecosystems or assessments. In this paper we describe the MAGIC library concept and evaluate the performance of the MAGIC library in comparison to site-specific MAGIC modelling.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Phytoplankton in an urban river replenished by reclaimed water: Features, influential factors and simulation
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Xuemin Lv; Jiao Zhang; Peng Liang; Xiaoyuan Zhang; Kai Yang; Xia Huang
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Frog body condition: Basic assumptions, comparison of methods and characterization of natural variability with field data from Leptodactylus latrans
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Julie Céline Brodeur; Maria Jimena Damonte; Josefina Vera Candioti; Maria Belen Poliserpi; Maria Florencia D'Andrea; Maria Florencia Bahl

    Body weight and snout-vent length (SVL) data of 3006 individual Leptodactylus latrans frogs collected over ten years in the Pampa Region of Argentina were analyzed to evaluate the best approach for expressing body condition and to characterize the natural variability of this parameter. Two different methods for expressing body condition were compared: the scaled mass index (SMI) and the residuals methods. Body weight of L. latrans was related to SVL through an allometric relationship described by the power function: Y = 0.00006 X3.11. The shape of the weight-length relationship was not affected by neither the sex of the animal nor its date or site of capture. A truly size-independent SMI value was more easily obtained when defining the scaling exponent through a non-linear regression of mass on length rather than when performing a standardized major axis regression of lnweight on lnlength. Overall, it was proved optimal to use a single scaling factor equal to 3.11 to compute SMI of all L. Latrans from the Pampa Region, irrespective of their gender and month or site of capture. Altogether, obtained results showed that SMI is a more performant indicator of body condition than residuals because it is less variable and it allows a better detection of effects. SMI and residuals condition factors deviated from each other in the extremities of L. latrans size range because scaling is not considered when calculating residuals. Body condition of females, males and juveniles was significantly lower in December/January compared to October/November and February/March. Moreover, juveniles consistently exhibited a lower body condition compared to both males and females. Based on the natural inter- and intra-annual variability observed for L. latrans SMI values, it should be possible to detect a 10% difference in SMI in an intra-annual study by sampling 14 to 17 frogs per group, whereas a 15% difference in SMI could be detected in an inter-annual study by sampling 23–29 animals per site. These numbers show that alterations of body condition should be straightforwardly identifiable in field studies with L. latrans when using SMI. The determination of SMI body condition factor during amphibian monitoring programs could be of great value, as it would provide information on amphibian health together with population abundance numbers.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • A critical review of studies related to construction and computation of Sustainable Development Indices
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Swati Kwatra; Archna Kumar; Prateek Sharma

    Sustainable development is a multi-dimensional concept, which emphasizes integration and striking a dynamic balance between economic, social and environmental aspects in a region, to ensure inter-generational and intra-generational equity. One of the major tools to address sustainability concerns is to have indices, which can measure the performance of a region on various dimensions of sustainable development. The review suggests there are various indices that are available at the global scale that compare different countries on different aspects of sustainability; however, a limited number of studies have been reported at regional scale. Further, the paper appraises about the various approaches and frameworks used to develop these Sustainable Development Indices (SDIs). The merits and demerits of these approaches and frameworks have been discussed. The review finds that top-down approaches have been generally employed for construction of SDIs. However, bottom-up approaches which are rarely used, also need to be developed in order to construct robust, contextual and consensus based SDIs. The review shows that composite SDIs are the most common form of framework used across the globe. Most studies have been found to use 30–60 indicators for development of SDIs. The key steps to be followed for construction of Composite Sustainable Development Indices (CSDIs) have been reviewed in detail. The review finds variable processes and steps followed by different studies for development of SDIs. Based on the review, research gaps have been identified and recommendations on steps to be followed in construction of new CSDI have been provided. The review also reveals that most studies have focused on assessment of current state of sustainable development, a limited number where the trends have been studies; no study related to the future projections/predictions of the SDI has been reported in the literature.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • An improved evaluation framework for industrial green development: Considering the underlying conditions
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Wei Li; Yongqin Xi; Shi Qiang Liu; Meijuan Li; Lei Chen; Xueping Wu; Songping Zhu; Mahmoud Masoud

    Industrial green development (IGD) is fundamental for curbing serious pollution and over-consumption of natural resources caused by industrial growth, while quantification of the IGD level has become instrumental in guiding further progress. However, three existing research gaps prevent a comprehensive and accurate evaluation of the IGD level. These gaps include the ignorance of the underlying conditions, lack of spatio-temporal comparability in the IGD indicator system, and absence of more reasonable assumptions within the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) and slack-based measure (SBM) methods. The main goals of this study are to propose an improved evaluation framework to fill these gaps and to provide new knowledge by analyzing the IGD status, weaknesses, and spatio-temporal differences. With the collected panel data across 30 provinces in China from 2006 to 2015, the following findings were revealed based on the proposed evaluation framework: 1) both the performance and quality of IGD increased but their growth rates had significantly declined in the later years; 2) pollution abatement had the maximum improvement, followed by low-carbon production, resource reduction, and economic operation; 3) coastal provinces had higher performance and quality of IGD than inland provinces, especially for low-carbon production and pure technical efficiency; 4) provinces with higher IGD performance usually had higher pure technical efficiency, but not scale efficiency; 5) the traditional evaluation framework either significantly overestimated or underestimated the IGD efforts in some provinces. Our findings highlight the importance of differentiated policies between coastal provinces and inland provinces or between high-IGD-performance/quality provinces and low-IGD-performance/quality provinces, as well as call for effective measures in response to slowing growth. Moreover, our methodology can comprehensively and accurately evaluate the IGD level by applying an extensive process considering underlying conditions/inputs, a spatio-temporal indicator system, and new integrated methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Comparison of the SWAT and InVEST models to determine hydrological ecosystem service spatial patterns, priorities and trade-offs in a complex basin
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Wencui Cong; Xiaoyin Sun; Hongwei Guo; Ruifeng Shan

    Models for the assessment of ecosystem services are important tools for policy-makers and researchers. However, the simulation results of different models vary greatly, and it is difficult for policy-maker to select a suitable model for specific areas. As a result, we compared the results of three hydrological ecosystem services (HESs) in a basin with diverse topography, Nansihu Lake basin, China, including the water supply, soil conservation and water purification services estimated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. Further comparisons of the HES results were conducted in the application of spatial pattern, priority and trade-off analyses through spatial statistics, hot spot and correlation analyses. Firstly, the results showed that the HES values in whole basin simulated by SWAT model were a little higher than those in InVEST model. Secondly, the spatial patterns of soil conservation service simulated by the two models were approximately similar in whole basin because of proximate simulation algorithm and input data, but the spatial distribution of the other two HESs varied greatly. In particular, the spatial patterns of water supply service simulated by the two models were more similar in hill areas than those in plain areas, while the spatial patterns of water purification service displayed opposite result. Furthermore, the distributions of hot and cold spots of HESs simulated by the two models were approximately consistent. Thirdly, the results of relation analysis to HESs were similar to SWAT and InVEST model roughly. The study suggested that the results of the two models could provide similar frames of reference for management and policy-making although different simulation results between the two models. This research can provide the theoretical basis for model selection, policy decision-making and regional ecosystem management.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Sanionia uncinata, Racomitrium lanuginosum and Salix herbacea as ecological indicators of metals in Iceland
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Maria Kolon; Marcin Kopeć; Bronisław Wojtuń; Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman; Lucyna Mróz; Paweł Wąsowicz; Adam Rajsz; Alexander. J. Kempers

    Iceland is an area practically free from pollution but threatened by long-range transported anthropogenic contaminants from mid- and low-latitudes. Therefore the load of trace elements in the environment of this island should be controlled. Accordingly in this investigation we evaluated the level of metals in rocks and soil as well as in two moss species: Sanionia uncinata, Racomitrium lanuginosum and in stems and leaves of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea. The tested hypotheses were: 1) S. uncinata and R. lanuginosum may be used as bioindicators of contaminating metals in Iceland, 2) S. uncinata is a better phytoaccumulator of these metals than R. lanuginosum because of pleated leaves, which increases their surface. No concentration of metals in the examined mosses exceeded the toxicity thresholds for plants. S. uncinata was a better accumulator of Cd, Co and Ni than R. lanuginosum, while R. lanuginosum was a better accumulator of Pb than the other moss growing together in the same sites. Both species accumulated Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in a similar way. R. lanuginosum and S. uncinata collected in the vicinity of various local industries were correlated with the highest levels of all established concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Both species from sites influenced by sea spray were correlated with the highest concentration of Hg. S. uncinata and R. lanuginosum may be qualified as suitable bioindicators of metal pollution in Iceland. S. herbacea contained elevated concentrations of Cd and Zn without harming effects. Both elements in this plant also had the highest bioaccumulation factors from soil. This species was therefore a more suitable bioindicator of Cd and Zn as well as Co, Cu, Ni and Pb in Iceland than S. uncinata and R. lanuginosum.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Is resilience capacity index of Chinese region performing well? Evidence from 26 provinces
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Yi Wu; Wei Que; Yun-guo Liu; Li Cao; Shao-bo Liu; Jing Zhang

    With the aggravation of global climate change, the frequency of global natural disasters is increasing year by year. How to actively respond to natural disasters has become the key to ensure the sustainable development of the region. Since urbanization in developing countries is much lower than that in developed countries, most scholars in the past focused on the regional resilience of developed countries rather than developing countries. China is the largest developing country in the world, choosing China as the research area has practical guiding significance. To assess the current state of China's regional resilience capacity, this paper establishes an evaluation system of resilience capacity index of 28 indicators based on China's actual situation. The comprehensive emergy and factor analysis method are used to evaluate the resilience capacity index of 26 regions (provinces) in China from four aspects: ecology, economy, engineering, and society. The results show that economy and ecology are the critical factors affecting regional resilience capacity index. China's regional resilience index has apparent characteristics of agglomeration, distribution, and imbalance in space. China's coastal resilience index is generally higher than China's inland region, showing gradient differentiation in spatial change. These characteristics are influenced by China's policy, which is consistent with the expected early effect of China's reform and opening-up policy.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Does economic growth influence forestry trends? An environmental Kuznets curve approach based on a composite Forest Recovery Index
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Zsófia Benedek; Imre Fertő

    Compared to the solid understanding of the role of deforestation drivers, related knowledge about transitions in global forests is less developed, although numerous nations and sub-national regions are experiencing ongoing forest recovery. In this paper, the focus is on countries in which forest cover increased between 1990 and 2015. We analyze whether a level of initial economic development can be identified that might explain this positive trend. By combining qualitative and quantitative techniques (ecological modelling and an expert survey), a Forest Recovery Index is introduced that accounts for the fact that dissimilar forest management regimes have different impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. The link between the Forest Recovery Index and the 1990 level of GDP per capita is analyzed with instrumental variable regression. The results of our integrated ecological-economic models support the existence of an N-shaped curve in the context of forest recovery, implying that the quality and quantity of new forests in middle-income countries has increased to the least extent. In other words, although the outcomes suggest optimism in the long term, caution is needed as the first turning point (a decrease in forest recovery), unlike the second, may fairly easy to be reached. In spite of overall increases in the extent of forests, negative trends – rearrangements that favor less valuable types of forest – appear to be persistent. While transitions are important in terms of the need to sequester carbon, governments should (in line with the Aichi Targets) place greater emphasis on forest biodiversity during transition management to ensure the provision of a wider array of ecosystem services.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Effects of time-since-fire on ant-plant interactions in southern Brazilian grasslands
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Carolina Veronese Corrêa da Silva; Camila da Silva Goldas; Wesley Dáttilo; William Dröse; Milton de Souza Mendonça; Luciana Regina Podgaiski

    Grasslands and savannas are dynamic ecosystems, strongly regulated by environmental disturbances such as fire. Maintaining disturbance regimes in these ecosystems are of great conservation concern, and require studies with the use of ecological indicators. Biotic interactions are a major component of biodiversity that are particularly sensitive to environmental changes, and therefore should be considered in ecosystem assessment and monitoring. One of the most common interactions between insects and plants is mediated by extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), where ants use food resources from plants in exchange for protection against herbivores. Here, we explored variations on this ant-plant interaction across a post-fire successional gradient (i.e., few months to more than two years since the last fire) in eleven grassland patches in South Brazil. We evaluated time-since-fire effects on (i) the grassland habitat structure, (ii) an EFN-bearing plant population: Chamaecrista repens, (iii) the EFN-visiting ant communities, and (iv) the ant-plant ecological networks. We expected fire-induced habitat changes to benefit this plant population, and to produce positive cascading effects on interacting ants, thus influencing the structure of ant-plant networks. Freshly-burnt sites presented increased C. repens abundance, and larger individuals with more reproductive structures and EFNs in comparison with sites longer without disturbances. Plant abundance and size were inversely related to the cover of dominant grasses along the habitat gradient. The density of EFN-visiting ants, but not their species richness, increased in freshly-burnt sites, stimulated by the greater resource offer and the habitat openness, which probably facilitated ant activity. Moreover, with increasing time-since-fire, ants interacted with fewer plants, and few species formed the network generalist core. These results could further suggest that the defense service against herbivory provided by ants is also diminished in grasslands longer without disturbances. Overall, by using a series of indicators of habitat change from multiple ecological levels, this study highlights the importance of disturbance for grassland biodiversity and their ecological interactions, helping to improve management decisions.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Seasonal change in trace element concentrations of Paracentrotus lividus: Its use as a bioindicator
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    O. El Idrissi; M. Marengo; A. Aiello; S. Gobert; V. Pasqualini; S. Ternengo

    An assessment of classical and emerging trace element contamination was conducted on gonads of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1819), in Corsica (Western Mediterranean). The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels at different sites by following the seasonal variation of 22 trace elements. The sea urchins analyzed were taken in 2017 from reference and more impacted sites in four Corsican areas. The results obtained shown the importance of biotic factors such as gender, reproduction and the way of life. Variations have been highlighted with lower trace element concentrations during the summer season. This is mainly due to a dilution phenomenon resulting from gametogenesis. The pollution index (TEPI) was determined and highlighted differences in contamination levels at the various sites. This work could provide additional support for other tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of coastal water quality. It provides useful new data to enable managers to act at the source and reduce degradation in order to improve the ecological quality of marine waters.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Identification and optimization strategy of county ecological security pattern: A case study in the Loess Plateau, China
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Yangjun Fu; Xueyi Shi; Juan He; Ye Yuan; Lulu Qu

    The construction of an ecological security pattern (ESP) is an effective measure to improve the structure and function of ecosystems, maintain ecosystem services, and ensure ecological security. Our focus is the hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau in China, a typical county area where the extensive use of land has put tremendous pressure on the ecosystem and caused a series of ecological problems. Therefore, considering different targets for decision makers, we introduced hot spot analysis method to construct two plans of ESP based on local conditions and the proposed long-term optimization strategy of ESP. The results showed that the ecological source areas of plans A and B accounted for 31.47% and 43.26% of the ecological land, respectively, covering the core areas of most nature reserves, effectively validating the accuracy and feasibility of our method. Additionally, the total area of the optimized ecological source was 8.91% higher than that of the existing area, which expands the radiation range of ecological sources and enhances the internal connectivity. In order to form a regional functionalized and structured spatial structure layout system, the ecological framework of “two axes, four cores, six belts, and eight zones” was proposed according to the spatial distribution of the river corridors and important ecological landscape components. Overall, this study adds new insight into the methodology of ESP construction that can provide important references for regional development planning and ecological protection.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • What drives the vegetation dynamics in the Hengduan Mountain region, southwest China: Climate change or human activity?
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Le Yin; Erfu Dai; Du Zheng; Yahui Wang; Liang Ma; Miao Tong

    Quantitatively identifying the relative contributions of climate change and human activity to net primary productivity (NPP) is critical for understanding vegetation dynamics and maintaining regional carbon balances. This study focuses on the driving mechanisms of NPP changes and proposes a research framework for evaluating the relative impacts of climate change and human activity. Based on the Thornthwaite Memorial and CASA models, this study first determined the relative contributions of climate change and human activity to actual net primary productivity (ANPP) changes in the Hengduan Mountain region, and then analyzed the response of ANPP to major climate factors at the pixel scale. We found that the contribution of human activities (66.11%) to ANPP change was about twice that of climate change (33.89%) in the Hengduan Mountain region. The ANPP in the north and south region was mainly affected by temperature and precipitation respectively, while although implementing ecological restoration projects had been important for improving vegetation conditions across the Hengduan Mountain region, several human activities, such as overgrazing, sloping cropland reclamation, and urban expansion, were the main reasons for ANPP’s decrease, especially in dry-hot valley areas. There was a significant gradient difference between in how climate change and human activities influence the ANPP, human activity impacted ANPP more in high relief areas along the horizontal gradient, while climate change impacts on ANPP first decreased then increased with rising elevation along the vertical gradient. This study provides a theoretical basis and methodological reference for quantitatively evaluating ecosystems.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Connecting people to biodiversity in cities of tomorrow: Is urban foraging a powerful tool?
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Leonie K. Fischer; Ingo Kowarik

    As global population becomes increasingly urban, opportunities for people to experience nature have decreased. Counteracting this trend is a key challenge for future urban development as interactions of urban people with biodiversity support human health and wellbeing, and may also result in positive attitudes towards biodiversity conservation. Collecting edible plants in urban surroundings, especially outside of gardens (“urban foraging”) is a traditional interaction with nature, based on knowledge about multiple uses of plants. Although some studies exist from different cities around the world, urban foraging has been revealed as a critically understudied phenomenon. We now analyze (i) the relevance of this human-nature interaction in Berlin, one of Europe’s metropolises, (ii) how people’s sociocultural background matters in attitudes of urban foragers vs. non-foragers towards this activity, and (iii) whether urban foraging may lead to conflicts with biodiversity conservation. Our survey revealed urban foraging as a relevant human-nature interaction with a high potential to grow: 33% of 535 respondents already collected edible plants outside of gardens and another 38% would be doing so given certain conditions, e.g. when contamination risks can be excluded. Many sociocultural groups (differing, e.g. on gender, age, childhood experience) shared attitudes towards foraging and existing barriers. Risks to biodiversity seem to be manageable as neither native species nor rare species were over-foraged in relation to species’ abundance in the local flora, with more abundant species being collected more frequently. We conclude that urban foraging can be a powerful tool for connecting urban people to nature without putting native biodiversity at risk. We make a claim for integrated approaches towards environmental policy, environmental education and greenspace management: these should aim on keeping potential health risks at a minimum, and should support urban foraging as a biodiversity-friendly and sustainable human-nature interaction in the cities of tomorrow.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Integrating climate, water chemistry and propagule pressure indicators into aquatic species distribution models
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Belinda Gallardo; Pilar Castro-Díez; Asunción Saldaña-López; Álvaro Alonso

    Species distribution models are frequently used to anticipate the expansion of invasive species under the assumption that climate affects habitat conditions. Here, we investigated the influence of two additional factors that determine the spread, establishment, and impact of aquatic organisms: propagule pressure and water chemistry. Our case study species is the New Zealand Mud Snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Tateidae, Mollusca), one of the 100 worst invasive species in Europe. We calibrated species distribution models combining three types of indicators (climate, water chemistry, and propagule pressure), and two scales (Iberian Peninsula vs. Ebro River catchment) using the Maxent algorithm. Propagule pressure improved the accuracy of models and enlarged the area susceptible to invasion by 16% at the Iberian Peninsula scale, and by 36% at the catchment scale. Among propagule pressure indicators, accessibility was the single most important indicator of the species distribution (33–35% contribution), illustrating the role of human-mediated dispersal for aquatic invaders. The catchment model integrating climate, propagule pressure and water chemistry indicators was the best option to prioritize river segments most vulnerable to colonization, characterized by high temperature, human influence and water pollution (nitrate concentration). High risk areas according to our models include the Mediterranean and North Atlantic coasts, central Spain, and the lowlands of the Ebro River catchment. Based on this study, we recommend including indicators of propagule pressure such as accessibility to reflect the opportunity to invade, and using water chemistry to further prioritize the river stretches most suitable to invasion. We conclude that distribution models integrating indicators at multiple scales are feasible, consistent in their predictions across scales, and show great potential to optimize management resources towards the prevention and early eradication of aquatic invasive species.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Integrating urban metabolism and life cycle assessment to analyse urban sustainability
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Simone Maranghi; Maria Laura Parisi; Angelo Facchini; Alessandro Rubino; Olga Kordas; Riccardo Basosi

    In recent decades, the close correlation between urban development and the concept of sustainability has become increasingly evident and important. This is demonstrated by European Union policies concerning EU cities and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including sustainable development goal (SDG) 11: Sustainable cities and communities. In the context of increasing urbanization, it is essential to find innovative methods to manage urban living systems and to establish a standard method for assessing the environmental performance of cities and their infrastructures. A unified and complete methodology for assessing policies for urban sustainability that takes into consideration urban complexity is currently lacking. In this paper, we integrate the Urban Metabolism and Lice Cycle Assessment approach to assess urban sustainability by developing a multi-dimensional measure framework applied to cities. Our aim is to provide a holistic view of the city and unveiling the interconnections among a set of urban dimensions identified by means of an approach based on complex systems science and complex networks. We also propose a specific survey to investigate the city in a multi-dimensional perspective and suggest key indicators based on network centrality measures for investigating and comparing the interconnections among a set of urban dimensions specifically identified (e.g. energy, material, transport). Finally, a case study based on Beijing is considered to show potential applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Thermal response to patch characteristics and configurations of industrial and mining land in a Chinese mining city
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Chengcheng Mao; Miaomiao Xie; Meichen Fu

    Industrial and mining land is an important heat source in mining cities, however this heat has not been separated from that of built-up land in most studies of the thermal environment. This study measures the response of land surface temperature (LST) to patch characteristics and the configurations of four sub-classified industrial and mining land parcels in Wu’an, a mining city in China. We use Landsat-8 and ZY03 satellite imagery to obtain the LST and land use type. A heating rate index (Tm) is defined as the increase in LST per 1 ha increase in patch area. Multivariate regression analyses is used to analyse the relationship between thermal indicators and landscape metrics, both at the patch and village scales. Our results indicate that, at the patch scale, the mean LST (LSTm) can be described well by nonlinear binary functions of the area and landscape shape index (LSI), with different forms for each type of industrial and mining land patch. When the LSI does not vary, LSTm increases with increasing area, within area thresholds (0–50 ha for smelter or processing lands, and 5–30 ha for mining lands), while for a constant area, the LSTm decreased with increasing LSI. Below the critical LSI (~2.2), more complex patch shape had lower Tm values. Above the critical LSI, Tm do not increase or decrease as LSI increased. At the village scale, patch configuration of industrial and mining land has an effect on (LSTv). The landscape percentage and aggregation index are both directly correlated with the LST of villages that contained industrial and mining land. Our findings show that the degree of LSTv response to a land patch configuration metrics change is, in order, iron and smelter land > coal processing land > coal mining land > iron ore mining land. This study provides an improved understanding of the thermal environmental response to mining activities, and can serve as a reference for future industrial layouts and land use planning in mining cities.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Geostatistical mapping and quantitative source apportionment of potentially toxic elements in top- and sub-soils: A case of suburban area in Beijing, China
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Xu-Chuan Duan; Hong-Hui Yu; Tian-Rui Ye; Yong Huang; Jun Li; Guo-Li Yuan; Stefano Albanese
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Establishment of agricultural drought loss models: A comparison of statistical methods
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Xiufang Zhu; Chenyao Hou; Kun Xu; Ying Liu

    Agricultural drought loss models provide services for the rapid risk assessment of agricultural disasters, and regional disaster prevention and mitigation efforts. This paper takes wheat as an example, and chooses counties dominated by rain-fed farmland in Henan Province as the study area. Counties dominated by rain-fed farmland are determined by setting a rain-fed threshold that is related to the proportion of the effective irrigation area to the cultivated land area. Modeling samples are screened by considering both drought occurrence time and wheat yield reductions. Under different thresholds (30%, 40%, 50% and 60%), we use the yield loss ratio as the dependent variable and 24 standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index parameters as independent variables to build drought loss models using both a multivariate stepwise regression model and a random forest model. Yield loss ratio from 1990 to 2015 is calculated by decomposing historical wheat yield time series. 24 standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index variables are 1–3 months’ time scale standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index during the growth period (from October to May of the following year) of winter wheat in Henan Province. The results show that the random forest-derived model outperforms the stepwise regression model in all tests. The accuracy of all the models increases with an increase of the proportion of the rain-fed threshold. When the rain-fed threshold is 60%, the R2 values of the random forest model and the multivariate stepwise regression equation are 0.720 and 0.523, respectively. The validation results show that the mean absolute error and the root mean square error of the multivariate stepwise regression are 1.38 times and 1.31 times larger than the mean absolute error and the root mean square error from the random forests model. Moreover, both models identify that standardized precipitation evapotranspiration indices in October (sowing/planting stage) and February (overwintering stage) are important variables. However, the multivariate stepwise regression model fails to recognize the importance of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration indices during April–May (filling stage).

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Approach to assess agroecosystem anthropic disturbance: Statistical monitoring based on earthworm populations and edaphic properties
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    C. Masin; A.R. Rodríguez; C. Zalazar; J.L. Godoy

    Land degradation due to anthropic factors is the reduction of its actual or potential productivity. Nowadays, this topic is a major concern, as it affects more than one third of the soil in the world. This work presents an empirical assessment of the anthropic disturbance level (ADL) for agricultural and livestock production systems. This assessment is obtained by mapping the characteristics of land use and management practices by using five specific indicators and integrating them into a global indicator (ADL score). Earthworm populations (good indicators of soil quality) in soils under different production systems are studied to determine if the population changes are attributable to the intensity of land use and management practices. A correlation model between ADL, edaphic properties, and earthworm population characteristics is developed by using samples of 20 sites in Santa Fe province, Argentina. The inclusion of ADL allowed finding a consistent correlation structure. The results also showed that earthworm density, species diversity, and activity change at the different sites were highly sensitive to anthropic disturbance. Based on this data-driven model, the ADL can be estimated by measuring edaphic and biological data on a soil sample to monitor soil conditions for different production systems. Thus, ADL monitoring would allow deciding how to continue using and managing the land to improve its sustainability.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Dominant landscape indicators and their dominant areas influencing urban thermal environment based on structural equation model
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Miaomiao Xie; Jie Chen; Qinya Zhang; Hanting Li; Meichen Fu; Jürgen Breuste
    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Spatialized composite indices to evaluate environmental health inequalities: Meeting the challenge of selecting relevant variables
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Delphine Brousmiche; Florent Occelli; Michaël Genin; Damien Cuny; Annabelle Deram; Caroline Lanier

    The wide range of factors involved in environmental health and the complexity of interactions between all environmental determinants require the validation of multidimensional approaches. While the development of composite indices is receiving growing attention by scientists and public authorities, the concept continues to lack transposability and robustness partly due to varying conceptualizations and/or methodologies. This review aims to promote harmonizing practices governing the first step of development of composite index, namely identification and characterization of the dimensions and variables that are included in environmental health indices. A review of available literature (more than 1500 studies) was conducted to identify the composite indices developed to assess territorial determinants from an environmental health perspective. This process made it possible to identify 23 spatialized composite indices and to assess a total of 329 variables. This diversity highlights that the absence of a common framework can lead to a strong subjectivity and limit comparisons between different environmental health indices. The specificity and the availability of certain variables would limit the transposability of indices. In light of current knowledge, this review proposes a consolidated methodological framework based on a categorization of variables into dimensions and sub-dimensions related to heath, environment, social, economics, services and policy. To characterize the sub-dimensions, several variables are possible and can be chosen according to the availability and/or accessibility of the data. The adaptation of a composite index to a specific territory or to a specific issue would then be effective through the included variables. This also aims to be transposable to any spatial unit (country, region, census tract). This work is a first step towards a proposal of guidelines designed to provide a consensual framework that could facilitate the exploitation of environmental health indices. This transparency could also increase the understanding and adoption of these tools by public authorities and general public.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Extended belief rule based system with joint learning for environmental governance cost prediction
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ying-Ming Wang; Fei-Fei Ye; Long-Hao Yang

    Predicting the cost of environmental governance is an essential process in environmental protection. However, the existing cost prediction methods face several challenges, including the necessity of considering the causality of environmental governance, the importance of distinguishing environmental indicators, and the difficulty of collecting environmental data. In order to address these challenges, a novel rule-based system, called the extended belief rule-based (EBRB) system, is first introduced to establish the basic framework of cost prediction. Then, a combination of structure learning and parameter learning, or joint learning, is developed to improve the performance of the EBRB system. Finally, a new cost prediction method based on the improved EBRB system is proposed for environmental governance. To verify the effectiveness of the new cost prediction method, an experimental study is carried out to compare the predicted cost of environmental governance in 29 provinces of China. The comparative analyses demonstrate that the new cost prediction method can not only provide a desired level of accuracy, but also exhibit excellent robustness that makes it better than some existing cost prediction methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Did improvements of ecosystem services supply-demand imbalance change environmental spatial injustices?
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Tianlin Zhai; Jing Wang; Zhifeng Jin; Yuan Qi; Ying Fang; Jingjing Liu

    Objective measurement of the supply-demand of ecosystem services and sustainable ecosystem management has received increasing attention from the scientific community and the general public. This study explored changes in the supply-demand of ecosystem services and their natural and social driving mechanisms using spatial analysis methodologies as well as the relationship between the supply-demand of ecosystem services and environmental justice in coastal regions in China. In this study, the ecosystem service supply-demand index (ESSDI) was proposed based on the ecosystem services provision index and the land development index. Results indicated that although the imbalance in the supply-demand pattern of ecosystem services was serious, the spatial imbalance in the supply-demand pattern of ecosystem services improved from 2000 to 2015. Notwithstanding that the correlation coefficient between natural factors and ESSDI was higher, the development of the economy and the improvement of the quality of the population also had a substantial effect on ESSDI and the improvement of environmental quality. The spatial imbalance in ESSDI also caused serious environmental injustice as a result of differences in natural background, national policies, development gaps, trade, and industrial shifts. However, the implementation of some ecological compensation projects changed the spatial imbalance in ESSDI and relieved the environmental injustice. This research supports auxiliary decision-making for the sustainable management of regional ecosystems.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Quantitative assessment of floodplain functionality using an index of integrity
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Marissa N. Karpack; Ryan R. Morrison; Ryan A. McManamay
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • 更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Sea urchin grazing preferences on native and non-native macroalgae
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    André C. Cardoso; Francisco Arenas; Isabel Sousa-Pinto; Aldo Barreiro; João N. Franco

    Herbivory plays a major role in shaping community dynamics across freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats, by controlling patterns of abundance and distribution of primary producers, including seaweeds. In the context of biological invasions, the proliferation of non-native seaweeds has been often attributed to limited grazing by native herbivores on introduced species (“Enemy Release Hypothesis”, ERH). In our study, we aimed to explore the potential of an abundant generalist herbivore (the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus) to graze on non-native in comparison to native macroalgae species. For this purpose, we used manipulative experiments to assess sea urchin preference on native and non-native seaweed species present in the northwest coast of Portugal. Specifically, we determined the preferences of P. lividus on brown seaweeds i.e. Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccorhiza polyschides and the non-native Undaria pinnatifida, and red seaweeds i.e. Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus and the non-native Grateloupia turuturu. For each group of seaweed species, sea urchin preference and biomass consumption were examined. The nutritional (organic carbon and nitrogen) and chemical (phenolic content) features were also analysed, in order to assess their effect on sea urchin feeding. According to the results, P. lividus did not show a specific preference for any of the different seaweeds of each phylum. These results suggest that P. lividus is a generalist herbivore, not exerting a differential grazing pressure on non-native seaweeds when compared to native ones.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • 更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Intra-annual variation and correlations of functional traits in Microcystis and Dolichospermum in Lake Chaohu
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yue Guan; Min Zhang; Zhen Yang; Xiaoli Shi; Xingqing Zhao

    Microcystis and Dolichospermum are two major genera of bloom-forming cyanobacteria in Lake Chaohu. However, it is little known the way in which the two cyanobacteria adjust their own morphological and physiological characteristics to maintain their biomass. In the study, the phytoplankton community in Lake Chaohu was investigated monthly from June 2017 to May 2018, and the morphological and physiological characteristics of dominant species were also determined. The results showed that Microcystis aeruginosa and Dolichospermum flos-aquae were the two dominant cyanobacteria species in Lake Chaohu. The ranges of the cell diameter and colony size of M. aeruginosa were small throughout the whole year, but those of D. flos-aquae changed significantly over time and in different regions of the lake. There were significant negative relationship between cell diameter and colony size of D. flos-aquae, which indicated that D. flos-aquae was more dependent on morphological adjustment to adapt environmental changes than M. aeruginosa. The biomass of the two algae increased with increasing cell diameter and colony size, indicating that the two algae might maintain their biomass by regulating their morphology. The photosynthetic activity in the cyanobacteria peaked in summer, late winter and early spring. The consistency of the trends in the photochemical activity and biomass of the two algae indicated that the two algae can adapt to environmental changes by changing their photosynthetic characteristics. These findings will be helpful in improving our understanding of the population dynamics of M. aeruginosa and D. flos-aquae and their environmental adaptation mechanisms in Lake Chaohu.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Stream health assessment using chemical and biological multi-metric models and their relationships with fish trophic and tolerance indicators
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Md Mamun; Kwang-Guk An

    Nonsan Stream is a tributary of the Geum River that is strongly affected by urbanization and agricultural activities in the watershed. The present study was performed to diagnose the chemical and biological health of the stream from 2010 to 2016 using the multi-metric water pollution index (WPI) and index of biotic integrity (IBI) models. Monthly and annual variations in stream water chemistry were directly influenced by the monsoon season. Inputs of total phosphorus, suspended solids, and ionic substances, as well as dilution of total nitrogen, occurred during July and August. Chlorophyll increase was largely influenced by total phosphorus (R2 = 0.43, p < 0.01), total nitrogen: total phosphorus ratio (R2 = 0.54, p < 0.01), and electrical conductivity (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.01). Principal component analysis showed that the abundances of omnivorous and tolerant species were higher than those of insectivorous and sensitive species due to nutrient and organic matter pollution in the stream. Fish composition analysis showed that Zacco platypus (pale chub, Cyprinidae) was the most dominant fish species in the stream, while sensitive fish species disappeared over time. Analysis of the Pearson correlation network revealed that water quality parameters were negatively correlated with trophic and tolerance indicators. Average multi-metric values of water pollution index from 2010 to 2016 ranged from 15 to 19 in the stream, indicating fair to poor chemical health. The modeled values of the multi-metric index based on biological integrity matched those of the chemical model. Moreover, the results of trophic and tolerance indicator analyses matched the chemical results. This outcome suggested that biological ecosystem health is directly influenced by chemical pollution.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A viable indicator approach for assessing sustainable forest management in terms of carbon emissions and removals
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Michael Köhl; Hans-Peter Ehrhart; Marcus Knauf; Prem R. Neupane

    In forest management, the sustainability of a multitude of economic, ecological and socio-economic impacts and services is assessed. The role of forests in the global carbon (C) cycle is almost exclusively assessed through an ecosystem approach that relates emissions from timber harvesting and removals through biomass growth and C sequestration. While harvested wood leads to a reduction in the C-stock in forest C-pools, the use of wood for energy and production of wood-based materials results in significant emission reductions by substituting in place of greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive fuels and energy-intensive non-wood materials respectively. We present a new indicator approach for the assessment of sustainable forest management that includes the entire emissions and removals associated with the harvested wood along the wood product value chain and thus represents represents C-sustainability with respect to emissions and removals. The indicator is implemented in two variants. If information available on wood use and the carbon offsets associated with it is sufficient, the indicator can be derived by presenting emissions from wood harvesting and removals from wood use in the form of a carbon balance (C-balance indicator). If the balance is even or if removals predominate, forest management fulfills the requirement of C-sustainability. If the information is insufficient, the emissions from the wood harvest and possible wood processing losses are summed up, and the necessary displacement factor (DF) is calculated, which is necessary to compensate the corresponding emissions by carbon offsets of the wood use (DF-indicator). A comparison of the necessary displacement factor with common carbon offsets of typical wood uses allows an assessment of C-sustainability. The effectiveness of the C-indicator for assessing sustainable forest management is illustrated by two case studies. We found that in order to achieve carbon neutrality, substitution factors between 1.9 (lignite) and 2.5 (gas) are necessary, depending on the fossil fuel substituted. If no energetic substitution is assumed, the DF increases to a value of 3.3. In situations with high harvest losses, the necessary DFs well exceed values that can be achieved even under very positive assumptions; C-sustainability is therefore not met. Both approaches allow an assessment of C-sustainability beyond forest boundaries by giving appropriate weight to the importance of wood use in the carbon cycle. In addition to the implication of the indicator to evaluate SFM, we claim that this indicator is responsive to the emerging global forest related international processes and their reporting requirements such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) as well as nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NDCs, Low Emission Development Strategy).

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Threshold of sub-watersheds for SWAT to simulate hillslope sediment generation and its spatial variations
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Bingqing Lin; Xingwei Chen; Huaxia Yao

    Exploring the watershed subdivision threshold in Soil and Water Assessment Tool model is crucial for accurate hillslope soil erosion estimation, which has been rarely explored. This study investigated impacts of watershed partitioning on simulation of hillslope sediment generation and its spatial variations, and determined a partition threshold using three newly proposed evaluation indicators (coefficient of spatial variations for hillslope sediment generation, change rate of hillslope sediment generation, and change rate of coefficient of spatial variations for hillslope sediment generation). The Xixi basin in the south-eastern coastal region of China was taken as an example, and was partitioned into eleven different watershed delineations. Effects of watershed subdivision on model parameter aggregation and areal distribution of hydrological response units were analyzed. The results indicated that (1) the previous method revealing the effects of watershed subdivision on hillslope sediment generation, which was only based on watershed outlet data, and the partition threshold determined by the method, were unreliable. (2) Hillslope sediment generation was seriously affected by watershed subdivision levels, increasing the number of sub-watersheds would decrease the modelled amount of hillslope sediment generation and increase its spatial variations. The partition threshold for the average sub-watershed area was 1.6% of the total watershed area and the number of sub-watersheds was 61 as determined from our new indicators, which resulted in stable amount of hillslope sediment generation and its spatial distribution, thus, the hillslope sediment generation could be adequately simulated by this method. (3) The hydrological response unit area, which was strongly related to the change in hillslope sediment generation, was very sensitive to watershed subdivision until the level of watershed subdivision approached the threshold.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • 更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Higher taxa are sufficient to represent biodiversity patterns
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Sandro Souza de Oliveira; Jean C.G. Ortega; Luiz Guilherme dos Santos Ribas; Vanessa Guimarães Lopes; Luis Mauricio Bini

    The scarcity of knowledge about both biodiversity (Linnean shortfall) and the geographic distributions of species (Wallacean shortfall) makes it hard to conduct biomonitoring programs and studies that seek to explain biodiversity patterns. One way to overcome this difficulty consists in the utilization of data with a lower taxonomic resolution, an approach called taxonomic sufficiency or Higher Taxon Approach (HTA). The main aim of this study was to evaluate, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, whether the HTA is reliable. We also evaluated whether the strength of the HTA (i.e., the relationship between datasets at high and low taxonomic resolutions) depended on different factors such as taxonomic level (genus, family, order and class), ecosystem type (aquatic and terrestrial), biological group (e.g., invertebrates, vertebrates and plants), spatial extent and higher taxa to species richness ratio (φ). We found that the HTA was a reliable approach in revealing species richness and compositional patterns independently of biological groups and ecosystem types. As expected, the strength of the HTA in describing biodiversity patterns decreased as the taxonomic resolution decreased. The strength of the HTA increased with the spatial scale of the studies. The φ was the main predictor of the HTA. Therefore, the use of higher taxonomic level (e.g., genera) is a reliable approach to save time and resources in biomonitoring programs and differs in this regard from other approaches that have already been tested in other studies (e.g., biological surrogacy). While the high HTA efficacy do not replace refined species level information which is crucial for basic and applied ecological studies, we advocate the use of the HTA especially for biological groups with high φ and for biomonitoring programs targeting large spatial extents.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Urbanization effects on sandy beach macrofauna along an estuarine gradient
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    L. Orlando; L. Ortega; O. Defeo
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Determining diagnostic indicators for fine-scale short vegetation aboveground biomass inversion using a HVRU-based analysis approach
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jing Wang; Yingkun Du; Zhengjun Liu; Hang Cheng

    Quantification of aboveground biomass (AGB) from local and regional to global scales is significant for sustainable ecosystem management, and object-based analysis technique is attractive in AGB studies. This study extended the AGB inversion researches on short vegetation species at a relatively fine scale using a homogenous vegetation response unit (HVRU)-oriented analysis approach, and explored a convenient scheme to determine diagnostic indicators. In the meantime, spectral, structural and geographic indicators related to AGB were derived from multisource data to generate HVRUs using multiresolution segmentation technology; the utilities of different variable types, regression algorithms and research scales were further evaluated in HVRU-based AGB modeling to determine the diagnostic indicators. Results showed that, inversion accuracies based on mean variables were much higher than those based on texture variables. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) provided similar accuracies, in general, SVR performed better in digesting texture variables and time consumption, while PLSR was more suitable for mean variables. Compared to spectral indicators alone, the introduction of non-spectral indicators weakened accuracies at the scale of 50; at the scale of 100, 150 and 200, integrating spectral and structural indicators significantly improved accuracies on the whole; additional geographic indicators showed adverse impacts in most cases. The optimal inversion accuracy with R2cv of 0.83, RMSEcv of 0.20, RPD of 2.34 was realized based on the mean variables of spectral and structural indicators at the scale of 150 using PLSR, furthermore, FVC, OSAVI and (1/R742nm)'' contributed much more than other indicators in modeling. Effective indicators excavated in this study could be directly applied for AGB survey in Yancheng National Nature Reserve and similar areas in China’s coastal mudflat. The HVRU-based analysis approach fusing the advantages of multisource data and multiresolution segmentation technology has broad application prospects especially for research objects which are hard to quantify.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Emergy-based ecological footprint analysis of a wind farm in China
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xiaoqin Zhang; Ling Xu; Yu Chen; Tingting Liu

    Wind power generation has always been considered as clean energy, according with national ecological civilization construction and responding to climate change. However, from the perspective of resource conservation, wind farms directly or indirectly occupy a large amount of land resources along the entire life cycle. Based on the emergy analysis, this paper estimates the ecological footprint of a wind farm in Dalian, evaluates its sustainability, and analyzes the ecological footprint of the four phases which include wind turbines production and transportation, construction, operation and maintenance, and demolition during the life cycle of the wind farm. It was concluded that the emergy carrying capacity of the wind farm was 3879.57 hm2/a, and the emergy ecological footprint was 5117.59 hm2/a. The wind farm was in an ecological deficit. Among the four phases, the ecological footprint of construction was the largest (60.93%), wind turbines production and transportation phase (33.77%) took the second, followed by operation and maintenance (4.59%) and demolition (0.71%). The main contribution of the materials was steel, followed by concrete, ecological protection investment, fiber glass, land occupation and epoxy resin. Finally, in order to illustrate the way to achieve sustainable development of the wind farm, uncertainty analysis and scenario analysis were carried out. It was found that when 62% of the recycled materials were used for wind turbines production, the wind farm realized ecological balance. Reducing the solar transformity (UEV) of steel and concrete can also decrease the ecological footprint of the wind farm.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Linking ecological efficiency and the economic agglomeration of China based on the ecological footprint and nighttime light data
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Xueru Jin; Xiaoxian Li; Zhe Feng; Jiansheng Wu; Kening Wu

    As natural resources are becoming one of the factors hindering economic development, the utilization efficiency of natural resources should be improved and ecological stress should be reduced to ensure sustainable economic development. In this study, the ecological stress index and ecological efficiency were quantified using the ecological footprint model to describe the current status of sustainability and utilization efficiency of natural resources. The economic agglomeration was determined by conducting global spatial autocorrelation analysis using Defense Meteorological Program/Operational Line-Scan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data. The relationship between economic agglomeration and ecological efficiency of China was then illustrated in a four-partite graph, and the results show that (1) the per-capita ecological footprints vary between the different provinces; however, the composition of the ecological footprint is similar between the provinces, and demonstrates the demand for fossil energy land is highest, while that for fishing ground is lowest. (2) All provinces are facing ecological overload, excluding Qinghai, and Shanghai, Tianjin, and Beijing are enduring the most severe ecological overload. (3) The ecological efficiency differs greatly between the different provinces of China, and the ecological efficiency values tend to decrease from the eastern coast to the inland region. (4) The economic activities in every province of China are spatially agglomerated, and the degree of agglomeration differs significantly. (5) There is a positive correlation between economic agglomeration and ecological efficiency, indicating that promoting economic agglomeration is an effective method of improving the utilization efficiency of natural resources. The relationship between economic agglomeration and ecological efficiency observed in this paper will provide a reference for optimizing the spatial distribution of economic activities and a theoretical basis for synchronizing environmental protection with economic development in China.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Biomass and soil carbon along altitudinal gradients in temperate Cedrus deodara forests in Central Himalaya, India: Implications for climate change mitigation
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mehraj A. Sheikh; Munesh Kumar; N.P. Todaria; Rajiv Pandey

    Carbon inventories are urgently needed for understanding climate dynamics and implementing climate mitigation strategies, but such data is scarce in for forest ecosystem of Himalaya. Therefore, the present study focuses to supplement the existing information by estimating carbon stocks in temperate forests dominated by Cedrus deodara along the altitudinal gradients in the Central Himalaya. Three altitudes i.e., lower (1750 m), middle (1900 m) and upper (2050 m) of the stand was considered to understand and estimate biomass and soil carbon storage potential of the forests based on the standard protocol. The results showed that the soil carbon stock (SOC) decreased significantly with increasing soil depths and altitudes. Litterfall production in the forests varied adversely with altitude. Above and below-ground biomass carbon stock also decreased along with altitude. The study observed that the total carbon stock (soil, trees and forest floor) of the Cedrus deodara forest in different altitudes was 395.4 t ha−1 (lower altitude), 321.6 t ha−1 (middle altitude) and 282.5 t ha−1 (upper altitude). The estimates of the Cedrus forests would provide guidelines for estimating carbon for forest-based mitigation activities in the Himalayan region.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Sub-national regionalisation of the AWARE indicator for water scarcity footprint calculations
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Anne-Marie Boulay; Leo Lenoir

    In order to perform a Water Scarcity Footprint (WSF), as per the ISO standard 14,046 (2014), it is necessary to multiply a volume of water consumed in a specific region, with the corresponding local water scarcity indicator. The use of these factors is recommended in priority at the native scale at which these factors were developed, which is the watershed scale. Alternatively, country-scale factors are provided to accommodate practitioners who may not have access to the exact watershed from which the water consumption they are assessing is located. However, such factors come with very large uncertainty. In several cases the practitioner may have access to a higher spatial resolution information, such as a state, province or department within one country. For this reason, the present work proposes sub-national AWARE factors for the entire globe, using sub-national borders, as an in-between resolution of watersheds and countries. Factors are provided for 3428 administrative regions, per month as well as annually, based on the three original weighted averages provided by AWARE: agri, non-agri and unknown. This scale is often more practical than the watershed scale, which may be more challenging to identify, and should lead to the use of a more-spatially resolved water footprint metric.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Shifts in biofilms’ composition induced by flow stagnation, sewage contamination and grazing
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Ana R. Calapez; Carmen L. Elias; Artur Alves; Salomé F.P. Almeida; António G. Brito; Maria João Feio

    Freshwaters are constantly facing ecosystem functioning alterations and loss of biodiversity driven by multiple anthropogenic and natural stressors, that by acting simultaneously create complex interactions, affecting the quantity and quality of water resources. Stream biofilms are complex communities, which are exposed to these alterations and, in addition, are naturally stressed by invertebrate grazing. Therefore, they are expected to reflect these impacts through shifts in community structure, composition and function. Here we used a mesocosm system to assess the single and interacting effect of major anthropogenic stressors acting in Mediterranean streams (i.e. flow stagnation and sewage contamination) in combination with a biological natural stressor (i.e. grazing) on the main assemblages composing biofilm (i.e. bacteria, fungi and algae) by assessing communities’ relative abundance through Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Biofilm was submitted to the three stressors, in a full-factorial design (2 flow conditions × 2 contamination conditions × 2 grazing settings) in a 5-week experiment. Molecular data showed that the combined effect of anthropogenic stressors (flow stagnation and sewage contamination) induced unequal OTUs responses on biofilm assemblages, with antagonistic effects for bacteria, synergistic for fungi and additive for algae. Sewage and grazing interaction were significant for all groups revealing a negative effect (antagonistic) on bacteria and algae diversity but positive on fungi diversity (synergistic). The same overall response pattern was also found for the triple co-occurring stressors, which increased fungi diversity while decreasing algae and bacteria. In stream ecosystems in which low flow conditions and sewage contamination prevail in the presence of natural herbivory, algae and bacterial diversity may be severely affected, while fungal diversity may be surprisingly enhanced. Consequently, shifts in the relative proportions could led to the unbalancing of ecosystem processes (e.g., photosynthesis, nutrient mineralization) defined by the microbial communities.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Response to Letter to the Editor: ‘Predicting total phosphorus levels as indicators for shallow lake management’
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Kelsey Vitense

    Mohammadi (2019) claimed that Vitense et al. (2019) did not adequately report random forest parameter values, listing several parameters from the Python library scikit-learn as examples. Here, I explain that these parameters either were reported in the original paper or are not relevant for the software (RF++) and approach we employed. I further emphasize that the scikit-learn library should not be used to replicate the analysis in Vitense et al. (2019).

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Multivariate-statistics based selection of a benthic macroinvertebrate index for assessing water quality in the Paute River basin (Ecuador)
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Gonzalo Sotomayor; Henrietta Hampel; Raúl F. Vázquez; Peter L.M. Goethals
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Mercury concentration in six fish guilds from a floodplain lake in western Amazonia: Interaction between seasonality and feeding habits
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Lucas Silva Azevedo; Inácio Abreu Pestana; Adriely Ferreira da Costa Nery; Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos; Cristina Maria Magalhães Souza

    Floodplain systems are widespread in the Amazon and several studies have evaluated mercury biogeochemistry in these systems. The Amazon region can be considered a “hotspot” for the study of mercury (Hg), due to the naturally high concentration of the pollutant in its old soils and the anthropogenic emissions from small-scale gold mining activities. The periodic flooding influences the availability and distribution of Hg contamination. Therefore, it is possible that flooding can influence accumulation of Hg in fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (THg) concentration in four seasons (rising water, high water, falling water and low water) in six fish guilds in a lentic part of a floodplain system (Puruzinho Lake). We hypothesized that fish guilds would show different seasonal patterns of THg concentration variation. A total of 2016 fish specimens were sampled over the four seasons. Two-way ANOVA indicated an interaction between guilds and seasonality (F = 7.3; p < 0.001), suggesting different seasonal patterns of THg concentration variation among the guilds. Two major patterns were identified. Herbivorous, detritivorous, carnivorous and piscivorous fish guilds showed higher concentrations during the rising and low water seasons, while planktivorous and omnivorous guilds showed lower THg levels during the low water season. There were no significant differences in THg levels between the early and late periods of each season.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Exploring the impacts of urban growth on carbon storage under integrated spatial regulation: A case study of Wuhan, China
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Lu Li; Yan Song; Xuhua Wei; Jie Dong

    The increasing demand for natural resources due to urban growth has led to sharp conflicts between urban land demand and environmental protection, causing problems such as decrease in the carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems. To achieve sustainable urban development, China has implemented spatial regulation to restrict urban growth, but there have been various conflicts among multiple spatial regulation plans. In this study, we explored the impact of urban growth on carbon storage under integrated spatial regulation in Wuhan, China by combining the SLEUTH and InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) models. Firstly, the SLEUTH model was adopted to simulate the urban growth under different scenarios from 2015 to 2030. Then, the InVEST model was employed to explore the impacts of urban growth on regional carbon storage. The results showed that the integrated spatial regulation can reduce the growth rate of urban areas, decrease the use of natural resources by urban land, and alleviate the conflicts between the construction needs of urban development and environmental protection. Besides, under integrated spatial regulation, the encroachment rate of high carbon density land by urban growth is gradually slowed down, effectively reducing the loss of regional carbon storage. These findings indicate that the implementation of urban development strategies under integrated spatial regulation will better facilitate regional sustainable development than traditional urban planning.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • The toxic factor of copper should be adjusted during the ecological risk assessment for soil bacterial community
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Jianwen Chen; Hong Zhang; Junjian Li; Yong Liu; Wei Shi; Hangwei Hu

    The toxic factor (TF) is a key parameter commonly used to evaluate the potential ecological risk index (RI) of heavy metals. However, it remains largely unknown whether this traditional TF is applicable to the ecological risk assessment of heavy metal to soil microorganisms, which are essential to ecological functions and ecosystem sustainability. Here, based on the TF values of 5 and 30 for copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), respectively, we constructed soil microcosms to establish a gradient of ecological risk levels, and different combinations of Cu and Cd concentrations were used at each ecological risk level. We found that bacterial abundance and functional diversity significantly decreased and the metal resistance gene (MRG) abundances increased with the increasing RI level. At the same RI level, the bacterial abundance and functional diversity decreased while MRG abundances increased with increasing Cu concentrations, suggesting that the ecological risk to soil bacterial community was more relevant to Cu, rather than Cd. The traditional TF of Cu used to calculate the RI might be underestimated if it is used for evaluation of the risk to soil bacteria. Our calibration analysis revealed that the TF of Cu should be adjusted to 6 during the assessment of the RI for soil bacterial community in heavy-metal contaminated area.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Litter dynamics, leaf area index and forest floor respiration as indicators for understanding the role of Nepalese alder in white oak forests in central Himalaya, India
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Rajendra Kr. Joshi; Satish Chandra Garkoti

    The present study is an attempt to understand the role of Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis D. Don) in litter production, leaf litter decomposition, leaf area index (LAI) and rate of forest floor respiration as indicators of carbon flux in white oak (Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus) forests. Five forest stands of oak mixed alder (OMA) and five oak without alder (OWA) were selected along a basal area gradient under similar ecological conditions in Indian central Himalaya. We estimated monthly variations in litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and leaf area index (LAI) in Q. leucotrichophora and A. nepalensis in OMA and OWA stands. Soil and litter CO2 effluxes were estimated seasonally using the soda-lime absorption method. The seasonal pattern of litterfall showed a bimodal trend in OMA and unimodal trend in OWA forest stands. Forest floor biomass (leaf, twig, reproductive parts, herbaceous and miscellaneous litter) was highest in summer (707–1080 g/m2) followed by winter (414–678 g/m2) and rainy (281–541 g/m2) seasons in OMA stands. In OWA stands, forest floor biomass was highest in summer (463–646 g/m2) followed by rainy (321–411 g/m2) and winter (149–279 g/m2) seasons. Total litter production, leaf litter decomposition rates, change in LAI and soil respiration were significantly higher (p < 0.01) for OMA stands than OWA stands. The maximum annual LAI max ranged from 4.10 to 6.78 m2 m−2 in OMA stands and from 1.9 to 3.06 m2 m−2 in OWA stands. Total soil respiration (TSR), litter-free soil respiration (LFSR) and litter respiration (LR) were also higher (p < 0.01) in OMA compared to OWA stands. Mean rate of TSR, LFSR, and LR was 280.18 mg m−2h−1, 180.45 mg m−2h−1, and 46.40 mg m−2h−1 in OMA and 188.46 mg m−2h−1, 150.1 mg m−2h−1, 38.35 mg m−2h−1, respectively, in OWA stands and for both recorded highest in monsoon season. The results indicate that A. nepalensis enhances litter production, LAI, leaf litter decomposition, and forest floor respiration in the oak forests, which in turn would result in increased carbon flux.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Alcaligenaceae and Chromatiaceae as pollution bacterial bioindicators in palm oil mill effluent (POME) final discharge polluted rivers
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Nurhasliza Zolkefli; Norhayati Ramli; Noor Shaidatul Lyana Mohamad-Zainal; Nurul Asyifah Mustapha; Mohd Zulkhairi Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Ali Hassan; Toshinari Maeda
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • The effect of heavy metal contamination pre-conditioning in the heat stress tolerance of native and invasive Mediterranean halophytes
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    João Carreiras; Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero; Enrique Mateos-Naranjo; Susana Redondo-Gómez; Ana Rita Matos; Isabel Caçador; Bernardo Duarte

    Salt marshes are worldwide recognized for their unique and important ecological role. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC), the frequency and intensity of warming events will rise due to global changes. Halophyte plants, inhabiting salt marshes are known for being highly tolerant to various abiotic stresses, nonetheless, although it has been acknowledged that the tolerance response is species specific there could also be differences at the population level. The present work aims to determine if the life history of two halophytes (Halimione portulacoides and Spartina patens), namely in terms of contaminant exposure, influences inter-populational heat tolerance. For this purpose, individuals from both species collected at pristine and contaminated sites were exposed to normal and increased temperature conditions, and its physiological fitness evaluated throughout biochemical and biophysical analysis. The photobiological traits, pigment and fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress biomarkers analyses of warming treated individuals, indicate that chronic heavy metal pre-conditioning significantly influences the heat stress tolerance of the native halophyte plants. Halimione portulacoides individuals collected at heavy metal contaminated salt marsh appeared more tolerant to heat stress. On the other hand, the invasive S. patens from the pristine site showed higher tolerance to heat stress. Thus, the pre-conditioning influences the tolerance mechanisms can affect the way in which salt marsh communities will evolve in the future, possibly being different through salt marshes. The contaminated marsh can be more resilient to invasion than the non-contaminated marsh, since the native species has benefited from this pre-conditioning. Moreover, and from the ecophysiological point the set of biophysical and biochemical indicators were tested, show a high efficiency in describing the ecophysiological traits, both between species and populations, facing different pre-conditioning histories.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effects of forest conversion on the aquatic Coleoptera assemblage in Mediterranean-climate streams
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Pablo Fierro; Marcos Ferrú; Carlos Lara

    The aquatic Coleoptera in a Mediterranean climate region were studied in order to assess the main factors affecting the assemblage structure. We tested the effects of different land use types (native forest, agriculture and urban) on environmental features and water beetles in Chilean streams. Eighteen stream sites were sampled in the austral summer of 2016. Physical variables including water temperature, dry width of channel, altitude, proportion of fine sediment, gravel/pebbles and boulders were significantly different among land uses. Eight Coleoptera taxa were collected across all sites; five were recorded in native forest and agriculture streams and three in urban streams. The riffle beetles Stethelmis chilensis, Austrelmis sp., Austrolimnius sp. and Tychepsephenus felix were found in native forest and in low density in agriculture streams. Hydraenidae appear to be the most tolerant taxon, dominant in agriculture and urban streams. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates based on environmental features and Coleoptera density data showed a clear separation of native forest streams from agriculture and urban area streams. Using distance-based linear models, cobble proportion was the most important variable structuring the water beetle assemblage. Our findings suggest that aquatic beetles are good ecological indicators of anthropogenic land use types in aquatic ecosystems in Mediterranean streams. This is the first study using aquatic coleopteran species for Chilean Mediterranean streams. Our study highlights the importance of the native forest for the conservation of stream insects.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Spectral responses to labile organic carbon fractions as useful soil quality indicators across a climatic gradient
    Ecol. Indic. (IF 4.490) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Paulina B. Ramírez; Francisco J. Calderón; Steven J. Fonte; Fernando Santibáñez; Carlos A. Bonilla

    Light fraction (LF) and permanganate-oxidizable C (POXC) demonstrate high reliability as indicators for monitoring soil functioning in response to changes in soil organic carbon (SOC). However, mechanisms affecting the amount and composition of labile fractions and their relationship with SOC content at regional scales have not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to examine the spectral features associated with these labile organic matter fractions in samples collected from 75 sites under different soil types, land use and climatic conditions in Chile. Topsoil was analyzed for total C and N content, aggregate stability, and texture. Additionally, the spectral properties of LF material and whole soils were analyzed using diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (MidIR). Our results show that LF shared a similar spectral composition but with different band intensities across climatic regimes. LF spectra were associated with O-alkyl C in cool and rainy areas, whereas a relative accumulation of aromatic structures was found in warmer areas. Whole soils spectra showed that SOC, POXC and aggregability were related to the prevalence of aliphatic and polysaccharides compounds in colder areas. While in warm arid areas, the stabilization of aliphatic compounds was found to be related to clay minerals. Furthermore, we found that POXC and SOC content were closely related and changes in POXC were affected by variations in climate conditions. The understanding of spectral features linked to labile SOC fractions on at larger geographical scale will contribute to the development of sustainable land management options for the prevention of land degradation in the context of adaptation to climate change.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
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