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  • Connecting air quality regulating ecosystem services with beneficiaries through quantitative serviceshed analysis
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Michael Charles; Guy Ziv; Gil Bohrer; Bhavik R. Bakshi

    In response to the growth of ecosystem services research, many concepts have emerged to understand how we connect ecosystem services with the human populations whom receive the benefits. Servicesheds are one of these emerging concepts and can be qualitatively described as the areas which provide ecosystem services to specific beneficiaries. Previous research lacks the use of mathematical, spatially-explicit models to connect beneficiaries with the ecosystem services that are provided to them by neighboring ecosystems. Working with an atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF, this research focuses on air quality regulating ecosystem services and specifically, dry deposition of gaseous pollutants. Multiple quantitative, reproducible, and spatially-explicit definitions of the serviceshed concept are proposed. The various definitions are dependent on the model’s results for concentration and dry deposition values. To discuss the application of these quantitative serviceshed definitions, a case study is conducted for a biodiesel manufacturing site in Cincinnati, OH. The results of the proposed serviceshed definitions yield different and complimentary information for the air quality regulation services. The results of these spatially-explicit definitions yield maps with serviceshed boundaries, which can inform ecosystem restoration and management decisions.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Determining economically viable forest management option with consideration of ecosystem services in Korea: A strategy after successful national forestation
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Jongyeol Lee; Hyungsub Kim; Cholho Song; Gang Sun Kim; Woo-Kyun Lee; Yowhan Son

    Economic assessment of forest management, including tending, thinning, and clear-cut, is essential to maximize social benefits. This study investigated the economic viability of forest management in the Republic of Korea at national scale (2017–2100) by quantitative approaches. The changes in benefits of four ecosystem services (timber production, CO2 sequestration, water yield enhancement, and disaster risk reduction) and management cost were quantified by a combination of ecosystem models and national data. The forest management scenarios, varying interval of clear-cut (40–80 years) and area of management (0.9–3.0 million ha), were applied. Net present value (NPV) was estimated as an indicator of economic viability of forest management. The NPV increased with decreasing clear-cut interval and increasing management area (7.7–50.8 billion $). Even the benefit-cost ratio (BCR), the ratio of total benefit to total cost in terms of present value, was 1.9 under the most intensive forest management scenario. This result implied that intensive forest management is economically viable in the long-term. The sensitive analysis showed that economic viability would be maintained in spite of change in macroeconomic factor. These methodological approach and result would contribute to implementing effective forest management, which can maximize social benefits.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Associations between local land use/land cover and place-based landscape service patterns in rural Tanzania
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Vesa Arki; Joni Koskikala; Nora Fagerholm; Danielson Kisanga; Niina Käyhkö

    Securing reliable flows of landscape services is a vital prerequisite for sustaining well-being, especially in the rural Global South, where livelihoods of local communities are dependent on the surrounding village landscapes. To support sustainable landscape development strategies, increased understanding is needed on how landscape services are associated with physical landscapes. In this paper, we studied how place-based landscape services are spatially associated with local land use/land cover (LULC) patterns in three rural villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. We mapped the spatial distribution of eight provisioning and one cultural landscape service indicators through participatory mapping and identified their associations with the local LULC patterns using chi-square residual and correlation analysis. Based on our results, LULC patterns are significantly associated with landscape service patterns. Although local realities and interactions have created unique association patterns, some commonalities were found in all villages. This suggests that spatial information on LULC patterns could be used as a proxy for landscape service patterns at broader scales.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Valuation of ecosystem services of rice–fish coculture systems in Ruyuan County, China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Duan Liu; Runcheng Tang; Jun Xie; Jingjing Tian; Rui Shi; Kai Zhang

    Rice–fish coculture ecosystems have been designated a “globally important agricultural heritage system.” However, existing studies mainly focus on the provisioning services from these systems while ignoring the other valuable roles they play, such as in regulating and supporting services. To remedy this gap, this study constructs a new framework for classifying ecosystem services (ES) based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and our analysis of rice–fish coculture ecosystem functions. Using our revised model, we found the ES value of rice–fish coculture ecosystems in the study area was 255,529 RMB/hm2/year and was 37.9% higher than that in rice monoculture, while the ES value increased by at least 6.74 times than direct economic value in rice monoculture. In addition, the ES value of rice–fish coculture increased by 2.31 times, as compared direct economic value with rice–fish coculture. These findings demonstrate the vitality of traditional ecological agriculture, which is not only conducive to enhancing the awareness of managers and the public regarding the protection of agricultural cultural heritage, but also provides data that will allow the government to formulate better compensation standards for rice–fish ecosystems.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • The impact of invasive species on social-ecological systems: Relating supply and use of selected provisioning ecosystem services
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Theo EW Linders; Ketema Bekele; Urs Schaffner; Eric Allan; Tena Alamirew; Simon K. Choge; Sandra Eckert; Jema Haji; Gabriel Muturi; Purity Rima Mbaabu; Hailu Shiferaw; René Eschen

    Understanding the sustainability of social-ecological systems requires quantifying the relationships between ecosystem service supply and use. However, these relationships, and the influence of environmental change on supply and use, are poorly known. Here we apply a nested sampling design to analyse supply-use relationships in ten administrative units in each of two Eastern African regions undergoing invasion by an alien tree, Prosopis juliflora. Ecological data on supply of two key provisioning services, woody and herbaceous biomass, were collected in field plots and the use, defined here as income and livestock numbers, was assessed using household surveys. Supply and use were then up-scaled to the level of the smallest administrative unit. High Prosopis cover affected the supply of both services, with increased woody biomass but reduced herbaceous biomass. We found that supply of woody biomass was positively associated with income from wood sales. Prosopis invasion reduced income from livestock and slightly decreased cattle numbers over the past ten years. We propose that biophysical and socio-economic data collected at the same scale can help to determine supply-use relationships for ecosystem services and we discuss how integration of supply-use data can inform sustainable management of social-ecological systems in the context of environmental change.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Cultural ecosystem services valuation and its multilevel drivers: A case study of Gaoqu Township in Shaanxi Province, China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Qinqin Shi; Hai Chen; Xiaoying Liang; Hang Zhang; Di Liu

    Understanding residents’ preferences for cultural ecosystem services (CES) will provide reference for targeted ecological management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preferences for CES and to determine their multilevel drivers in Gaoqu Township in Mizhi County, China. A social preference method (questionnaire) was used to quantitatively assess the CES preferences. The respondents in Gaoqu Township perceived the importance of all eight types of CES, and aesthetic and sense of place services were the two most prevalent CES categories in the study area. Woodlands and grasslands, cave dwellings, terraces, temples and theaters played a significant role in providing diverse CES, and each type of environmental space was important for at least four types of CES. We also used multilevel models to detect the individual and environmental variables that affect the CES preferences. The results showed that gender, age, health, and annual per capita income did not have a significant effect on preferences for any of the eight types of CES. Community safety was identified as an important environmental variable that explained the preferences for educational, social relations, therapeutic and recreation services. The preferences for sense of place services were driven by per capita living space, population density and road network density, and migrant works had higher preferences for sense of place services than did farmers in the study area. This study verified the validity of multilevel model to quantitatively identify the nested drivers of CES. These outcomes can contribute to improving our understanding of the importance of CES and may assist in developing relevant policy for the transformation from traditional living functions to cultural and ecological functions in Gaoqu Township.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • A note in defense of the concept of natural capital
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Herman Daly

    Natural capital in its real dimensions, independently of monetization, is a critical concept for defense of nature by a steady-state economy.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • The socioeconomic value of multiple ecosystem types at a biosphere reserve as a baseline for one holistic conservation plan
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Orna Raviv, Shiri Zemah Shamir, Ido Izhaki, Hila Sagie, Maya Negev, Maya Mazor-Tregerman, Noga Collins-Kreiner, Yoel Mansfeld, Alon Lotan

    The value estimates and conservation plan of ecosystem services (ES) may have multiple interpretations in a site consisting of a mixture of ecosystems (e.g., maquis, conifer forest, seashore and agroecosystems) and overlapping management practices (e.g., national parks and nature reserves as part of a biosphere reserve). This study examines the relative socioeconomic value of the revealed and stated preferences for distinct seasons, types of ecosystem, and management practices within the Carmel biosphere reserve (BR), Israel. The results show that the highest annual consumer-surplus (CS) per household was measured in springtime at a mixed maquis-forest ecosystem (USD 35.11). The springtime value mainly represented the preferences of local visitors, whereas the lower autumn CS (USD 11.2) value arose mainly from non-local visitors. Analysis of the reasons underlying willingness to pay (WTP) reveals that heritage is a strong positive predictor of WTP in all ecosystem types. The higher predicted WTP to preserve the ecosystems was estimated at the forest and the seashore locations (USD 59.5 and 49.6 respectively). This method highlights the preservation preferences for other areas besides the protected BR core-zone and nature-reserves and is recommended as a support-tool for decision-makers aiming to plan preservation for complex sites while maintaining social welfare.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Utilizing ecosystem service classifications in multi-criteria decision analysis – Experiences of peat extraction case in Finland
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jyri Mustajoki, Heli Saarikoski, Valerie Belton, Turo Hjerppe, Mika Marttunen

    The Ecosystem Service concept is a widely used framework to examine the links between the functioning of ecosystems and human well-being. There is a broad range of ecosystem services, which are often classified hierarchically as provisioning, regulating and cultural services. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), an approach for analyzing complex problems that involve trade-offs between multiple objectives, has increasingly been applied in the ecosystem service context. In MCDA, a problem is typically represented hierarchically as a value tree, which resembles the hierarchical structure of the ecosystem service classifications. However, in practice, there are several potential pitfalls that could distort the analysis, if some commonly used ecosystems service classification was directly used as the basis of an MCDA value tree. In this paper, we discuss these potential pitfalls and how to avoid them. Our discussion is illustrated with experience from a case study focusing on the ecosystem services provided by the peatlands in Finland.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Ecosystem services of Earth’s largest freshwater lakes
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Robert W. Sterner, Bonnie Keeler, Stephen Polasky, Rajendra Poudel, Kirsten Rhude, Maggie Rogers
    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • The role of legal aspects of Ecosystem Service in Brazil to achieve the sustainable development
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2016-03-02
    Beatriz Souza Costa

    This paper aims to discuss how Brazilian politics has broadened the legal aspects of Ecosystem Services to achieve sustainable development.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Assessment of multi-level legal mechanisms for the protection of ecosystem services in China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2016-02-28
    Mingqing You

    The Chinese environmental law recognizes the value of ecosystem services and provides a multi-level system of legal mechanisms. Differentiation of land use, the accountability of local government and their political leaders for the environment, including the ecosystem services capacity, the payment for ecosystem services through transfer payments or market mechanism, the tort liability for the disruption of ecosystem, and criminal liability for disruption of the ecosystem are the main legal mechanisms for the protection of ecosystem services in China. These mechanisms can be grouped into more centralized or decentralized mechanisms. The criminal and civil liabilities for disrupting ecosystems are decentralized mechanisms while others are more centralized. The recent development of public interest litigation helps to remedy ecological disruptions. The enforcement of criminal liability primarily relies on the police and public prosecutors. The more centralized mechanisms primarily rely on the command and control of the higher government over lower government but the incentives of lower government is also essential. Considering environmental protection is just one of the responsibilities of local governments, it is essential to incentivize political leaders of local governments to put more weight on environmental protection and the conservation and improvement of ecosystems. The central government categorizes four type of function zones (optimized development zone, intensive development zone, restricted development, and prohibited development zone) and set differentiated economic and environmental requirement on each category of land. The purpose is to differentiate the incentives of local governments. The local governments are responsible to meet the environmental protection goals. The central government incentivize the local governments through a top-down hierarchical performance evaluation system of local political leaders whose promotion largely depends on the governmental official performance evaluation system. The economic compensation for the conservation of ecosystem services is accomplished through transfer payments or market mechanisms. The local government of regions that benefit from the ecosystems of other regions may need to make payment to the government of the latter either directly or via the higher government. The success of the more centralized mechanisms depends on the authority of the central government over local governments, the authority of the higher local governments over lower local governments. The interests of local residents and local governments may be ignored. The high transaction costs may make these mechanisms inefficient.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Capability of the Polish Legal System to introduce the ecosystem services approach into the Environmental Management System
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2016-02-28
    Małgorzata Stępniewska, Iwona Zwierzchowska, Andrzej Mizgajski

    Following the example of strategic papers in the EU, Polish strategic papers have started to postulate the implementation of the ecosystem services (ES) approach. Until now, the term “ecosystem services” has not been presented in Polish legal acts. However, current regulations allow for this approach (although not in a direct way) to be taken into consideration to a significant extent. The aim of this paper is to show the challenges of implementing the ES approach into the Polish legal system. The paper attempts to review Polish legal regulations concerning protection of ecosystems, their functions and benefits for people. Our objective is to point out the possibilities of applying the ES approach within the scope of actions referred to in legal regulations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Marine protected areas and human well-being – A systematic review and recommendations
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    A. Rifaee Rasheed

    This paper reviews literature relating to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and human well-being. It finds that explicit studies on human well-being from MPAs are limited and empirical studies quantifying these relationships are rare. Most MPA papers, including those examining MPA effectiveness, focus on just a few aspects of well-being in the context of a sub-set of stakeholders, and consider only a single type of MPA. They mostly focus on conventional objective measures that are not comprehensive or systematically selected. This review argues for a systematic and integrative framework to ensure future MPA assessments are equipped to capture MPAs’ contributions to human well-being more adequately and comprehensively. Such a framework can also allow for cross-MPA comparisons that can capture differences in well-being across different types of MPAs, and information gained can be useful for MPA practitioners and policy makers, particularly in reaching current global targets, such as the CBD, Aichi Target 11.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • 7 questions for energy concept in ecosystems science
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    John E. Coulter

    Seven questions that fall in the gap between economics and the science of physics and chemistry are posed in a search for eventual improved insight into the processes providing ecosystem services. Economics and science are like two different cultures that both began in an era of awe at Newtonian physics. Economics has continued with models based on that while science has made giant steps into new levels of discovery. The paths of scientific revolution have been bumpy and ad hoc, pragmatically resolving technical questions in ways that “work”, sometimes oblivious of the need for elegance that would explain the macroscopic view of ecosystems. Economic analysis of ecosystem services needs to reverse engineer some scientific discoveries, especially the concept behind the term “energy”, and rebuild in logical blocks that embrace a wider boundary with a clearer focus of workings in space and time.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Non-monetary valuation using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Sensitivity of additive aggregation methods to scaling and compensation assumptions.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2018-06-26
    D M Martin,M Mazzotta

    Analytical methods for Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) support the non-monetary valuation of ecosystem services for environmental decision making. Many published case studies transform ecosystem service outcomes into a common metric and aggregate the outcomes to set land use planning and environmental management priorities. Analysts and their stakeholder constituents should be cautioned that results may be sensitive to the methods that are chosen to perform the analysis. In this article, we investigate four common additive aggregation methods: global and local multi-attribute scaling, the analytic hierarchy process, and compromise programming. Using a hypothetical example, we explain scaling and compensation assumptions that distinguish the methods. We perform a case study application of the four methods to re-analyze a data set that was recently published in Ecosystem Services and demonstrate how results are sensitive to the methods.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Future impacts of changing land-use and climate on ecosystem services of mountain grassland and their resilience.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Uta Schirpke,Marina Kohler,Georg Leitinger,Veronika Fontana,Erich Tasser,Ulrike Tappeiner

    Although the ecosystem services provided by mountain grasslands have been demonstrated to be highly vulnerable to environmental and management changes in the past, it remains unclear how they will be affected in the face of a combination of further land-use/cover changes and accelerating climate change. Moreover, the resilience of ecosystem services has not been sufficiently analysed under future scenarios. This study aimed to assess future impacts on multiple mountain grassland ecosystem services and their resilience. For a study area in the Central Alps (Stubai Valley, Austria), six ecosystem services were quantified using plant trait-based models for current and future conditions (in 2050 and 2100) considering three socio-economic scenarios. Under all scenarios, the greatest changes in ecosystem services were related to the natural reforestation of abandoned grassland, causing a shift from grassland to forest services. Although the high resilience potential of most ecosystem services will be maintained in the future, climate change seems to have negative impacts, especially on the resilience of forage production. Thus, decision makers and farmers will be faced with the higher vulnerability of ecosystem services of mountain grassland. Future policies should consider both socio-economic and environmental dynamics to manage valuable ecosystem services.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Beyond the economic boundaries to account for ecosystem services.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-02-12
    Alessandra La Notte,Sara Vallecillo,Alexandra Marques,Joachim Maes

    Ecosystem services (ES) accounts are essential to quantify and monitor the contribution of ecosystems to human well-being. The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting - Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EEA) is the first attempt to provide a set of standards to compile ecosystem accounts. We argue for the inclusion of an ecological perspective in the SEEA EEA that considers ecosystems to be more than input providers to the economy. Ecosystems can act as accounting units capable of producing, consuming and recording changes in regeneration and absorption rates. To account for that we propose (i) to identify ES typologies according to the way in which energy, biomass and information is released to generate services; (ii) to use these typologies to define the concepts of ES potential, ES potential flows, ES demand and ES actual flows; and (iii) to build the ES capacity accounts in monetary terms based on these concepts. These arguments are illustrated with case studies for water purification and crop pollination accounts in European countries. Extending the production boundary would allow the measurement of the sustainable use of ES and the establishment of causality between the use of ES and the value accrued by the economic actors and households.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dynamics of ecosystem services provided by subtropical forests in Southeast China during succession as measured by donor and receiver value.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2017-02-01
    Hongfang Lu,Elliott T Campbell,Daniel E Campbell,Changwei Wang,Hai Ren

    The trends in the provision of ecosystem services during restoration and succession of subtropical forests and plantations were quantified, in terms of both receiver and donor values, based on a case study of a 3-step secondary succession series that included a 400-year-old subtropical forest and a 23-year history of growth on 3 subtropical forest plantations in Southeastern China. The 'People's Republic of China Forestry Standard: Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation Norms' was revised and applied to quantify the receiver values of ecosystem services, which were then compared with emergy-based, donor values of the services. The results revealed that the efficiencies of subtropical forests and plantations in providing ecosystem services were 2 orders of magnitude higher than similar services provided by the current China economic system, and these efficiencies kept increasing over the course of succession. As a result, we conclude that afforestation is an efficient way to accelerate both the ability and efficiency of subtropical forests to provide ecosystem services. The ability of different ecosystems to provide services depends on the concentration of available natural resources in the system at a large scale, but also on the ability of the ecosystems to capture natural resources in the same or similar environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quantifying the visual-sensory landscape qualities that contribute to cultural ecosystem services using social media and LiDAR.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Derek B Van Berkel,Payam Tabrizian,Monica A Dorning,Lindsey Smart,Doug Newcomb,Megan Mehaffey,Anne Neale,Ross K Meentemeyer

    Landscapes are increasingly recognized for providing valuable cultural ecosystem services with numerous non-material benefits by serving as places of rest, relaxation, and inspiration that ultimately improve overall mental health and physical well-being. Maintaining and enhancing these valuable benefits through targeted management and conservation measures requires understanding the spatial and temporal determinants of perceived landscape values. Content contributed through mobile technologies and the web are emerging globally, providing a promising data source for localizing and assessing these landscape benefits. These georeferenced data offer rich in situ qualitative information through photos and comments that capture valued and special locations across large geographic areas. We present a novel method for mapping and modeling landscape values and perceptions that leverages viewshed analysis of georeferenced social media data. Using a high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) derived digital surface model, we are able to evaluate landscape characteristics associated with the visual-sensory qualities of outdoor recreationalists. Our results show the importance of historical monuments and attractions in addition to specific environmental features which are appreciated by the public. Evaluation of photo-image content highlights the opportunity of including temporally and spatially variable visual-sensory qualities in cultural ecosystem services (CES) evaluation like the sights, sounds and smells of wildlife and weather phenomena.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Going green? Ex-post valuation of a multipurpose water infrastructure in Northern Italy.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Arnaud Reynaud,Denis Lanzanova,Camino Liquete,Bruna Grizzetti

    A contingent valuation approach is used to estimate how households value different multipurpose infrastructures (conventional or green) for managing flood risk and water pollution. As a case study we consider the Gorla Maggiore water park located in the Lombardy Region, in Northern Italy. The park is a neo-ecosystem including an infrastructure to treat waste water and store excess rain water, built in 2011 on the shore of the Olona River in an area previously used for poplar plantation. This park is the first one of this type built in Italy. A novel aspect of our research is that it not only considers the values people hold for different water ecosystem services (pollution removal, recreative use, wildlife support, flood risk reduction), but also their preferences for how those outcomes are achieved (through conventional or green infrastructures). The results indicate that the type of infrastructure delivering the ecosystem services does have an impact on individuals' preferences for freshwater ecosystem services. Households are willing to pay from 6.3 to 7.1 euros per year for a green infrastructure (compared to a conventional one), with a premium up to 16.5 euros for a surrounding made of a park. By considering the type of infrastructure within the choice model, we gain a richer understanding of the relationship between social welfare and freshwater ecosystem services.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Testing socio-cultural valuation methods of ecosystem services to explain land use preferences.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2017-08-15
    Katja Schmidt,Ariane Walz,Berta Martín-López,René Sachse

    Socio-cultural valuation still emerges as a methodological field in ecosystem service (ES) research and until now lacks consistent formalisation and balanced application in ES assessments. In this study, we examine the explanatory value of ES values for land use preferences. We use 563 responses to a survey about the Pentland Hills regional park in Scotland. Specifically, we aim to (1) identify clusters of land use preferences by using a novel visualisation tool, (2) test if socio-cultural values of ESs or (3) user characteristics are linked with land use preferences, and (4) determine whether both socio-cultural values of ESs and user characteristics can predict land use preferences. Our results suggest that there are five groups of people with different land use preferences, ranging from forest and nature enthusiasts to traditionalists, multi-functionalists and recreation seekers. Rating and weighting of ESs and user characteristics were associated with different clusters. Neither socio-cultural values nor user characteristics were suitable predictors for land use preferences. While several studies have explored land use preferences by identifying socio-cultural values in the past, our findings imply that in this case study ES values inform about general perceptions but do not replace the assessment of land use preferences.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physical and monetary ecosystem service accounts for Europe: A case study for in-stream nitrogen retention.
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2017-03-28
    Alessandra La Notte,Joachim Maes,Silvana Dalmazzone,Neville D Crossman,Bruna Grizzetti,Giovanni Bidoglio

    In this paper we present a case study of integrated ecosystem and economic accounting based on the System of Environmental Economic Accounting - Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA-EEA). We develop accounts, in physical and monetary terms, for the water purification ecosystem service in Europe over a 20-year time period (1985-2005). The estimation of nitrogen retention is based on the GREEN biophysical model, within which we impose a sustainability threshold to obtain the physical indicators of capacity - the ability of an ecosystem to sustainably supply ecosystem services. Key messages of our paper pertain the notion of capacity, operationalized in accounting terms with reference to individual ecosystem services rather than to the ecosystem as a whole, and intended as the stock that provides the sustainable flow of the service. The study clarifies the difference between sustainable flow and actual flow of the service, which should be calculated jointly so as to enable an assessment of the sustainability of current use of ecosystem services. Finally, by distinguishing the notion of 'process' (referred to the ecosystem) from that of 'capacity' (pertaining specific services) and proposing a methodology to calculate capacity and flow, we suggest an implementable way to operationalize the SEEA-EEA accounts.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Risk assessment concerning urban ecosystem disservices: The example of street trees in Berlin, Germany
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Peer von Döhren, Dagmar Haase

    Urban green infrastructure, including street trees, is thought to play an important role in providing urban ecosystem services (UES) such as carbon sequestration and air quality improvement. The concept of urban ecosystem disservices (UEDS) is comparably new in landscape ecology. Research into UEDS assessment is low compared to that of UES. This paper demonstrates an approach to assess the distribution of UEDS risks caused by street trees within the city of Berlin. The approach adapts concepts from urban ecosystem service and natural hazard and risk research to demonstrate the importance of including context-specific vulnerability indicators as additional information in the assessment of UEDS risks. A cluster analysis is carried out to recognize patterns in UEDS risk distribution throughout the city. The paper demonstrates, that using context indicators in addition to biophysical indicators supports the assessment of UEDS as part of the relationship between humans and the environment.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • 更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Changing use of ecosystem services along a rural-urban continuum in the Indian Trans-Himalayas
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Ranjini Murali, Kulbushansingh Suryawanshi, Stephen Redpath, Harini Nagendra, Charudutt Mishra

    Urbanization is changing the use of ecosystem services, especially in previously remote mountain areas in Asia, Africa, and South America that are now more accessible. Change in ES use is not uniform across society, but is impacted by socio-economic factors like income. We sought to understand changes in ES use along a gradient of urbanization, and as related to income differences along this gradient. Our study was conducted in Spiti Valley, a formerly remote region in the Indian trans-Himalayas that is undergoing urbanization. We employed household surveys and monetary valuation to assess use of local (wild plants, dung, wood, forage, water, fertilizer, barley) and imported (firewood and fertilizers) provisioning services. We used ANOVAs and ANCOVAs to test for differences in ES use with urbanization and income. We found that the use of local provisioning services decreased with urbanization, while that of imported provisioning services increased. In rural spaces, the use of local provisioning services did not change with income, while in small urban centres it increased with income. Across settlement types, imported ES use increased with income. Our findings highlight how ES use can change with relatively small amounts of urbanization. They also indicate that local provisioning services need to be made accessible not only to rural populations but also to those in relatively more urban areas.

    更新日期:2019-09-28
  • The importance of livelihood strategy and ethnicity in forest ecosystem services’ perceptions by local communities in north-western Cameroon
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Alain Senghor K. Ngute, Bonaventure Sonké, Moses Nsanyi Sainge, Neil D. Burgess, Julia A. Klein, Rob Marchant

    Human culture has an important influence on how forests are utilised, yet its influence on ecosystem service (ES) use and valuation remains underexplored. We address this gap by investigating how livelihood strategy and ethnicity affect local peoples’ perceptions of forest ES in Cameroon. Data were collected through 20 focus-group discussions in villages of farmers (Oku and Banso) and pastoralists (Fulani) in two mountains. Pastoralists identified fewer ES than farmers, and used some ES differently (e.g. wildlife was only valued for aesthetics instead of as food). Some differences were also observed between farmer groups (e.g. identity link with the forest unique to Oku farmers). While water availability was perceived as the most important forest ES for all groups, the second most important was fodder for pastoralists and medicine resources for farmers. Pastoralists also identified fewer useful forest species, most likely related to their origin in the lowlands. Our findings help highlight trade-offs in important ES for different groups (fodder vs. medicine resources), and in access to certain ES (e.g. Fulani pastoralists’ unequitable access to tourism and forest income). We show that locals dependent on provisioning ES are not a homogenous group and that the wider socio-cultural context has to be taken into account for conservation and development projects to be successful.

    更新日期:2019-09-27
  • Perceiving the invisible: Formal education affects the perception of ecosystem services provided by native areas
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Flávia Pereira Lima, Rogério Pereira Bastos

    Landowners' decisions reshape landscapes, affecting the distribution and maintenance of ecosystem services (ESs). In Brazil, 53% of all remaining native vegetation is on private farms, reinforcing the importance of these stakeholders. The aim of this study was to identify landowners’ perceptions of the native areas on their properties as sources of ESs, to support future conservationist management strategies. We tested whether personal variables (gender, age and years of formal education), and farm characteristics (type and size) were determinant in their perceptions. We interviewed 75 landowners in the Brazilian savanna region, using a questionnaire and paired images strategy (e.g., pictures of soybean cultivation with and without native forest vegetation). Our analyses revealed that landowners perceive native areas as providing ESs. Gender, age and size of farm did not affect the landowners’ perceptions of ESs. However, we observed that years of formal education increased the chance of perceiving ESs which are more difficult to observe (pollination and pest regulation). Those services may require more scientific background to be understood. These results highlight with regard to perception of some ESs, education is a stronger factor than experience based on land-use activities.

    更新日期:2019-09-27
  • Servicescape of the Greater Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem: Visualizing the linkages between land use, biodiversity and the delivery of wildlife-related ecosystem services
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    R. May, C. Jackson, K. Bevanger, E. Røskaft

    Understanding how anthropogenic activities and management actions influence the delivery of ecosystem services is complicated by the interrelated nature of diverse factors. We present a Bayesian Belief Network to highlight the likely consequences of a set of interventions on four wildlife-related ecosystem (dis)services and for supporting biodiversity and human welfare in the Greater Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem. According to the model, core protected areas are important for biodiversity and safari tourism provision. In adjacent game reserves safari tourism opportunities may be hampered by trophy and bushmeat hunting causing fear in wildlife. Most multiple-use areas strike a good balance between the costs and benefits derived from wildlife. Loliondo, however, requires drastic changes in management to either maximize green value creation or sustainable welfare. Although further globalization is expected to render highest levels of welfare, this will be at the expense of biodiversity and related ecosystem services. An online version of the model is available (https://africanbioservices.shinyapps.io/servicescape) to interactively explore five future scenarios with alternative management strategies, and visualization of the resultant consequences thereof. Identifying areas of conflicts and potential trade-offs between ecosystem (dis)services are crucial to find pathways to nature-based tourism strategies that simultaneously maintain biodiversity and promote the socioeconomic viability of local communities.

    更新日期:2019-09-26
  • Assessing and mapping recreationists’ perceived social values for ecosystem services in the Qinling Mountains, China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Hongjuan Zhang, Yan Gao, Yawei Hua, Yue Zhang, Kang Liu
    更新日期:2019-09-06
  • Ecosystem service trade-offs for adaptive forest management
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Fabian Schwaiger, Werner Poschenrieder, Peter Biber, Hans Pretzsch

    Quantifying ecosystem services as dependent on forest management and analyzing tradeoffs between them can help to make decisions on management more effective, efficient, sustainable, and stable. We use a forest management model (SILVA) to predict changes in ecosystem service provisions. Three stakeholder specific forest management scenarios (multifunctional, wood production, set-aside) for each of two different case study areas in Germany (a more and a less productive one) were simulated. We want to therewith answer how ecosystem service and biodiversity indicators (groundwater recharge, carbon sequestration, wood production, structural diversity of forest stands) depend on forest management and site. Forest management had significant influence on ecosystem service provisions in both case study areas. However, the results strongly depend on the site and on the initial situation in each location. In both case study areas, the production oriented forest management pays for productivity with structural diversity. In contrast, multifunctional oriented forest management pays for groundwater recharge with productivity losses. In the set-aside scenario, current carbon sequestration is high due to increasing forest carbon stocks, however sustainable carbon sequestration is low due to the lack of emission savings.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Exploring social preferences for ecosystem services of multifunctional agriculture across policy scenarios
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Alberto Bernués, Frode Alfnes, Morten Clemetsen, Lars Olav Eik, Georgia Faccioni, Maurizio Ramanzin, Raimon Ripoll-Bosch, Tamara Rodríguez-Ortega, Enrico Sturaro

    Multifunctional agroecosystems are the result of complex adaptive interactions between humans and nature where trade-offs between food production and other ecosystem services are key. Our objective is to explore the social preferences for ecosystem services, and the associated willingness to pay, in three multifunctional agroecosystem in Europe (Mediterranean, Atlantic, Alpine) under alternative agrienvironmental policy scenarios. We use the same methodology (a choice experiment including equivalent attributes and levels) to rank and estimate the economic value of provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ecosystem services. We define the scenarios (current situation, abandonment and enhanced management) in biophysical terms to elucidate changing relations between social perception and level of delivery of ecosystem services. We derive some lessons. i) Value of ES: biodiversity and regulating ecosystem services always produce welfare gains; people, however, perceive trade-offs between delivery of agricultural landscapes and quality food products. Nevertheless, preferences are heterogeneous and vary across regions, scenarios and ES. ii) Policymaking: society’s willingness to pay for the delivery of ecosystem service exceeds largely the current level of public support. Moreover, further abandonment and intensification of agriculture is clearly rejected by the public. iii) Methodological: monetary valuation is context dependent and extrapolation of economic values can be misleading.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Benefits of forest conservation on riverine sediment and hydropower in the Tonle Sap Basin, Cambodia
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Mohit Kaura, Mauricio E. Arias, Joshua A. Benjamin, Chantha Oeurng, Thomas A. Cochrane

    Recent deforestation rates in Cambodia are among the world’s largest, while hydropower development has accelerated in the Mekong region. Deforestation accelerates erosion, increasing river sediments heading to reservoirs and decreasing hydropower production. Forest protection could be seen as a service to hydropower, which the FOR-POWER model quantifies. Using recent deforestation estimates, annual sediment accumulation is calculated, followed by associated power generation loss, and annualized and present monetary value associated with benefits of forest conservation to hydropower. We evaluated four proposed medium-size hydropower dams (20–24 MW; 6–145 m3/s design discharge), and found that extensive deforestation could result in annual sediment accumulation of 360–930 million tons (reservoir dependent), but only 140–750 million tons in a forest conservation scenario. Overall, these reservoirs could lose 60–100% of storage capacity over 120 years at current deforestation rates, resulting in power loss net present values for Pursat-I, Battambang I and II dams of US $2.58, $44.8 and $28.8 million, respectively. A global sensitivity analysis showed that FOR-POWER was particularly sensitive to discount rates and electricity prices. The modeling tool developed for this study is transferable to other dams globally where hydropower development is accelerating and in need for better quantifying ecosystem services from surrounding watersheds.

    更新日期:2019-09-04
  • Simulating the impact of Grain-for-Green Programme on ecosystem services trade-offs in Northwestern Yunnan, China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-09-01
    Jian Peng, Xiaoxu Hu, Xiaoyu Wang, Jeroen Meersmans, Yanxu Liu, Sijing Qiu

    One of the main manifestations of the Grain-for-Green Programme (GFGP) is land use change, which will affect the trade-off of ecosystem services. Since the implementation of the GFGP in Dali Autonomous Prefecture in 2000, land use/cover has undergone dramatic changes. This study used the CLUE-S model to simulate land use change in 2030, and explored the spatial pattern and relationship of different ecosystem services under the four scenarios of GFGP. The results show that, GFGP can help to improve indirect services of ecosystems, such as carbon storage and soil conservation. However, direct services of the ecosystem will decline, such as food production and water yield. Compared with 2010, the overall supply level of the four ecosystem services is the most balanced in the moderate GFGP scenario. In this scenario, total food production decreased by 179,000 tons and water yield decreased by 57 million cubic meters. Carbon storage and soil conservation continued to grow, increasing by 21.86 million tons and 17.87 million tons, respectively. The changes of ecosystem services in the strong GFGP scenario are extreme. The increases in carbon storage and soil conservation are at the expense of a significant reduction in food production and water yield. It can be concluded that GFGP may lead to intensifying ecosystem services trade-offs. Through comparing the changes of ecosystem services under different GFGP scenarios, it is found that the implementation intensity of GFGP should be deeply concerned in policy making.

    更新日期:2019-09-03
  • Pathways from payments for ecosystem services program to socioeconomic outcomes
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Xutong Wu, Shuai Wang, Bojie Fu, Yan Zhao, Yongping Wei

    Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is a widely accepted policy tool for achieving environmental conservation and socioeconomic development goals. However, the mechanisms through which PES programs affect socioeconomic outcomes remain elusive. Here, we use a framework which integrates links between PES programs, livelihood activities, and socioeconomic outcomes, to determine how China’s Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) has affected the incomes of participating households in the Yanhe watershed of the Loess Plateau. The results show that although the total effect of the GTGP on household income is not statistically significant, there are still two significant pathways. Through the analysis we found that implementation of the GTGP significantly increased the participations in local non-farm jobs, which leads to increased household incomes. Based on our findings, we suggest several ways of improving the socioeconomic outcomes of the GTGP through increasing non-farm work benefit of participating households, maximizing the positive effect of economic forest, and reducing the reliance of households on income from crop production. Our study provides a template for revealing the underlying pathways to socioeconomic outcomes of PES programs – crucial knowledge if we are to design and implement better PES programs and achieve the desired environmental conservation and poverty reduction goals.

    更新日期:2019-08-31
  • The role of non-commercial intermediate services in the valuations of ecosystem services: Application to cork oak farms in Andalusia, Spain
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Pablo Campos, José L. Oviedo, Alejandro Álvarez, Bruno Mesa, Alejandro Caparrós

    This research applies and compares the Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) and the lightly revised System of National Accounts (SNA) in five cork oak farms in Andalusia, Spain, in 2010. We value eighteen economic activities, eleven of which are managed by individual farmers and seven of which are overseen by government. Our objectives are to measure and compare ecosystem services (ES), gross value added (GVA) and environmental income (EI). The comparison takes into account the valuation of products at producer, basic and social prices. Our most noteworthy novelty is that the AAS proposal incorporates the environmental income as a variable which serves as a reference value for the condition of economic sustainability of ecosystem service consumption. Our results show that ES and GVA estimates vary depending on the omission/measurement of auto-consumed/donated non-commercial intermediate services and nature based activity with zero ES value represents nature’s free physical service contribution to the farms net value added. Farms AAS ecosystem services at social prices contribute to 64% of final product consumption, and ES at basic prices represent 1.2 times the ES at social prices. Farm revised SNA ecosystem services at basic prices are 0.5 times the AAS ecosystem services at social prices.

    更新日期:2019-08-30
  • Engaging absentee landholders in ecosystem service delivery in south-eastern Australia
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Hermann Kam, Graciela Metternicht, Alex Baumber, Rebecca Cross

    As absentee landownership continues to increase in many regions of Oceania and the world, there is a growing need to better understand the behaviours and values of this landholder group. The increase in absentee landholdership can impact the provision of ecosystem services, as well as alter the rural socio-cultural fabric; the values, beliefs, knowledge types and social connections amongst landholders in rural communities. Consequently, this presents challenges to natural resource management (NRM) practitioners seeking to implement better resource management strategies across property boundaries. This case study research on the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, aims to better understand the characteristics of absentee landholders, including their motivations for holding land, their existing levels of knowledge concerning land management practices, and their views and preferences for cross-property collaborations and, in turn, explore the role they could have in the delivery of ecosystem services. Our results show that recreation and amenity relating to private cultural services are the main drivers of land acquisition and motivation for land use by absentee landholders in the region. Cross-property collaborations that absentee landholders are most interested in are related to the maintenance of supporting and regulating services, particularly through weed management and pest animal control. An important implication of these findings is that the facilitation of cross-property collaboration, by accommodating for the growing heterogeneity in values and beliefs, can become a mechanism for enhancing the delivery of public-benefit ecosystem services from absentee-held land.

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • A fulfilled human life: Eliciting sense of place and cultural identity in two UK marine environments through the Community Voice Method
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Gillian B. Ainsworth, Jasper O. Kenter, Sebastian O'Connor, Francis Daunt, Juliette C. Young

    Human impacts on the marine environment threaten the wellbeing of hundreds of millions of people. Marine environments are a common-pool resource (CPR) and one of their major management challenges is how to incorporate the value of ecosystem services to society in decision-making. Cultural ecosystem services (CES) relate to the often intangible benefits people receive from their interactions with the natural environment and contribute to individual and collective human wellbeing. Priority knowledge gaps include the need to better understand shared values regarding CES, and how to effectively integrate these values into decision-making. We filmed 40 Community Voice Method interviews with marine stakeholders in two areas of the UK to improve on the valuation of coastal and marine CES. Results show that cultural benefits including sense of place, aesthetic pleasure and cultural identity were bi-directional, contributed directly to a ‘fulfilled human life’ and were associated with charismatic marine life and biodiversity. Other-regarding self-transcendence values were salient underscoring a desire for sustainable marine management. We critically reflect on our analytical framework that integrates aspects of the UK National Ecosystem Assessment and IPBES conceptual frameworks. The thematic codebook developed for this study could prove useful for future comparative studies in other marine CES contexts. We propose that values-led management could increase the efficacy of marine planning strategies.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Accounting for ecosystem services – Lessons from Australia for its application and use in Oceania to achieve sustainable development
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Michael Vardon, Steve May, Heather Keith, Peter Burnett, David Lindenmayer

    This paper aims to illustrate the conceptual and practical issues that need to be considered if ecosystem service accounting is to be used to achieve sustainable development in Oceania. Recent international activity has focused on setting international standards for accounting for ecosystem services via the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). This includes defining the assets from which ecosystem services are generated. We examine how ecosystem services are incorporated into accounting and the benefits of doing this. This is done using Australia examples from the Great Barrier Reef region and elsewhere. Key lessons relate to: (1) the practical issues facing the producers of ecosystem accounts, including data availability and quality; (2) the need to account for both ecosystem services and ecosystem assets to assess sustainability, and; (3) explaining how ecosystem accounting can assist with sustainable development via policy as well as the management of specific ecosystem assets.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Nature’s clean-up crew: Quantifying ecosystem services offered by a migratory avian scavenger on a continental scale
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Maricel Graña Grilli, Keith L. Bildstein, Sergio A. Lambertucci

    Despite its importance for ecosystem and human health, the cleaning service provided by scavenging birds is frequently disregarded. We evaluated this ecosystem service provided by a migratory species at a continental scale, estimating the amount of annual organic material removal, and the cost of artificially replacing the service. Road surveys conducted between 2005 and 2011, indicated an abundance of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) of nearly 9,000 birds along 27,658 km (22,127 km2), suggesting that the total global population could approximate 13 million birds. The calculated individual food intake (252 g/day) suggests that the surveyed population remove 1,000 tons of organic material per year –a monetized service of more than 500,000 USD, that could reach 700 million USD per year for the global population. Movement data from 22 tagged birds showed that the ecosystem service is maximized at the breeding and wintering areas, where Turkey Vultures spend most of the year (74–92% of time). The huge amount of organic material removed by Turkey Vultures at a continental scale, and the economic relevance of their service, highlight the importance of widespread and abundant populations of scavenging birds and their significant role in protecting the health of the environment and human wellbeing.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Addressing knowledge gaps between stakeholders in payments for watershed services: Case of Koto Panjang hydropower plant catchment area, Sumatra, Indonesia
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Yonariza, Bevi Astika Andini, Mahdi, Simone Maynard

    This study assesses the knowledge and perceptions of potential participants in a payment for watershed services (PWS) scheme in a watershed containing a reservoir and hydropower plant in Indonesia. Information was collected by interviewing watershed service providers such as upland farmers and downstream beneficiaries of services i.e. fishers, rest area operators, tourists, and the power plant manager. The study found some challenges if relying on stated preference values as a basis for a workable PWS scheme, specifically asymmetric information among stakeholders. Upland farmers did not realize their location within the upland of a watershed whose activities affect the quality of watershed services. Watershed users similarly do not know what activities their counterparts do in the upland. The study reveals market forces are a driver of livelihoods in the watershed. It concludes that prior to introducing a PWS scheme it is: 1/important to address any asymmetric information across stakeholders (e.g. through farmer extension services); and 2/consideration should be given to fluctuating commodity price subsidies so to sustain farmers’ livelihoods and ensure they maintain sustainable management practices for the uninterrupted and long term supply of watershed services. This study provides important lessons for other regions struggling with the same issues.

    更新日期:2019-08-20
  • Ecosystem services under future oil palm expansion scenarios in West Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-17
    Sunil K. Sharma, Himlal Baral, Yves Laumonier, Beni Okarda, Herry Purnomo, Pablo Pacheco

    This study analyzes the five primary ecosystem services and their trade-offs and synergies associated with future scenarios of oil palm plantations in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three plausible future scenarios were assessed: 1) business as usual, 2) conservation and, 3) sustainable intensification, based on current land-use policy and spatial planning and projected oil palm expansion. The spatial analysis tool in ArcGIS and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs Tool (InVEST Tool) were used to analyze historical and future land-use change, valuation and trade-offs of ecosystem services. The sustainable intensification scenario generates a positive impact on carbon storages and water yield, although habitat quality nominally declines. In terms of total economic value of ecosystem services, the conservation scenario generates the highest value of ecosystem services, while the sustainable intensification scenario offers a compromise solution for future expansion of oil palm by ensuring the supply of ecosystem services comparable to conservation scenario but without significantly affecting palm oil yield in comparison to the business-as-usual scenario. A detailed study with better information on the economic values of ecosystem services can provide a better understanding of the social and environmental impacts of oil palm expansion.

    更新日期:2019-08-18
  • Insights into the importance of ecosystem services to human well-being in reservoir landscapes
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Sarah K. Jones, Mansour Boundaogo, Fabrice A. DeClerck, Natalia Estrada-Carmona, Naho Mirumachi, Mark Mulligan

    Smallholder famers in West Africa use multiple ecosystem services (ES) in their day-to-day lives. The contribution that these services make to human well-being (HWB), and therefore to development outcomes, is not well understood. We analyse smallholder farmer perceptions of ES, ecosystem disservices (ED), and their HWB importance around community-managed reservoirs in four semi-arid landscapes in West Africa, using participatory mapping, focus groups and face-to-face surveys. Farmers identified what nature-based benefits (ES) and problems (ED) they perceived across each landscape and rated the importance of each service and disservice for their HWB. Our results indicate that ES make an important contribution to HWB in our study sites. More than 80% of farmers rated benefits from plant-based foods, domestic and agricultural water supplies, biofuel, medicinal plants, and fertile soil, and problems associated with human disease vectors, as of high or very high importance for HWB. Multiple ES were identified as contributing to each dimension of HWB, and ED as detracting from health and material well-being. Perceptions of the importance of several ES and ED varied significantly with socio-economic group, highlighting the need for careful consideration of trade-offs between HWB outcomes and stakeholders in ecosystem management decisions to support sustainable development.

    更新日期:2019-08-15
  • The islands of Oceania – Political geography, biogeography, and terrestrial ecosystems
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Roger Sayre, Madeline Martin, Deniz Karagulle, Charlie Frye, Sean Breyer, Dawn Wright, Kevin Butler, Keith Van Graafeiland, Simone Maynard

    Humans are dependent upon ecosystems for the production of goods and services necessary for their well-being (Daily, 1997). As the service provider units (SPUs) for these benefits of nature (Anderson et al., 2015), ecosystems need to be managed in a way that maximizes their persistence on the planet. Part of that management effort includes knowing a) what the ecosystem types are, b) where they are located on the landscape and in the seascape, and c) what condition they are in. Mapping of ecosystem occurrences as the SPUs for ecosystems goods and services is therefore an important element of ecosystem accounting, an inherently spatial activity. Maps are also needed of the ecosystem accounting areas within which the accounting is conducted. Standardized maps of ecosystem accounting areas and terrestrial ecosystem SPUs have not previously been available for many islands of the Oceania region. We describe the availability of new island shorelines and ecosystems data for Oceania herein, and encourage consideration and evaluation of the data for ecosystem accounting and other applications.

    更新日期:2019-08-14
  • Forest ecological compensation standard based on spatial flowing of water services in the upper reaches of Miyun Reservoir, China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Sha Pei, Chunxiao Zhang, Chunlan Liu, Xiaona Liu, Gaodi Xie

    An ecological compensation standard should reflect the value of ecosystem services that their beneficiaries derive from providers. However, as there is no uniform method for the establishment of such standards, we researched the flow of water services in the upper reaches of Miyun Reservoir located in Beijing and Hebei provinces (China) based on the InVEST model and integrated water storage capacity method. The proposed ecological compensation standard can reflect the value of water services flowing from upstream to downstream areas. The results show that the total value of water services in the study area was $62,778.71 × 104/year. The water regulation value accounted for 73.64% of the water service value. Further, the downstream areas in Beijing should pay $57,444 × 104 to the upper reaches. The ecological compensation standards for different supply areas varied based on forest composition. In Chengde, Zhangjiakou, and Beijing, the ecological compensation standards were $759.51/hm2/year, $479.65/hm2/year, and $938.26/hm2/year, respectively. The developed compensation standard reflects the value of the ecosystem services, and is also affordable. The results of this study could thus provide a basis to establish a compensation standard based on continuous consultation and discussion.

    更新日期:2019-08-14
  • Recognising the role of local and Indigenous communities in managing natural resources for the greater public benefit: Case studies from Asia and Oceania region
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Kamaljit K. Sangha, Simone Maynard, Jasmine Pearson, Pariva Dobriyal, Ruchi Badola, Syed Ainul Hussain

    Many local and Indigenous communities across the globe afford ecosystem services to the wider global public through maintaining natural resources because of their duteous usage and astute management. However there is barely any recognition or financial support for them to continue maintaining or enhancing the flow of ecosystem services from their finely managed Indigenous and local lands. This paper offers insights using three case studies from the Oceania-Asia region—i.e. Australia, India and Fiji—that supports the highest Indigenous and local communities population. It describes the main cultural values and traditions, and land rights of Indigenous and local communities in relation to their natural systems, and the key issues and challenges that people experience in their respective regions. Lack of recognition of peoples’ land rights, unregulated and exploitative use of resources, and inequitable distribution of benefits that accrue to private (often corporate) enterprises from using natural resources were the common issues among all case studies. To support conservative use and management of Indigenous and local lands, this paper argues to establish monetary mechanisms i.e. Payments for Ecosystem Services, Green Funds, Common Trusts, etc. to enable Indigenous and local communities to continue managing natural resources for the greater public benefit.

    更新日期:2019-08-14
  • Integrating ecosystem services supply and demand into optimized management at different scales: A case study in Hulunbuir, China
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Fengqi Cui, Haiping Tang, Qin Zhang, Bojie Wang, Luwei Dai

    Identifying relationships that exist between ecosystem service (ES) supply and demand at different scales is considered crucial to the sustainable management of ecosystem services. Five ecosystem services at three scales (local, township, and county) were evaluated based on spatial data and statistical data in Hulunbuir, which is a significant ecological function zone in Northeast China. Our results showed that (1) ES spatial patterns have more similarities between the local scale and the township scale than between the local scale and the county scale. The distribution of ESDR (ecological supply-demand ratio) values of carbon sequestration and landscape aesthetic (LA) services at the three scales is highly heterogeneous. (2) There are a higher number of significantly correlated ES supply and demand pairs at the local and township scales than at the county scale, but the ES pairs at the county scale are more highly correlated. The positive or negative correlation of different ESs sometimes changes as scales change. (3) Different factors affect ecosystem services at different scales. The built-up ratio has a dominant negative effect on GP (grain production), MP (meat production), NPP (net primary productivity), and LA at the township scale. Arable land and grassland have significant effects on NPP, WY, and LA at the county scale (4) For ecosystem service management, a combination of township and county scale assessments should be used. Considering the overall situation of supply of and demand for ecosystem services at a larger scale while implementing more precise management measures at a smaller scale can make the management of ecosystem services more effective. Natural forests and grasslands in the study area should be protected appropriately, and developing water-saving agricultural measures and appropriately raising the price of domestic water can help alleviate the lack of water resources.

    更新日期:2019-08-12
  • Promoting co-benefits of carbon farming in Oceania: Applying and adapting approaches and metrics from existing market-based schemes
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-10
    Alex Baumber, Graciela Metternicht, Rebecca Cross, Laure-Elise Ruoso, Annette L. Cowie, Cathleen Waters

    Carbon farming in its various forms has the potential to deliver a range of ecosystem services in addition to climate regulation. In Australia, the main public ‘co-benefits’ that could result from carbon farming are conservation of biodiversity, increases in soil and water quality, productivity increases, and economic and cultural services for Indigenous communities. While there is a lack of empirical evidence that carbon farming is delivering these ecosystem services to date, various metrics have been developed by researchers and through other payment for ecosystem services schemes that may enable effective targeting of these co-benefits. In this article, we review previous studies and schemes and identify four main approaches for metrics that could be applied to carbon farming in Australia: (1) spatial modelling, (2) benchmarks; (3) environmental benefit indices; and (4) indicators. The relative value of each of these approaches varies, depending on the objectives of policy-makers. Spatial modelling and benchmarks can play a key role in decision support systems for landholders who may be interested in carbon farming. Indices are valuable for the development of new or modified market-based schemes that weigh up different co-benefits. Indicators are critical for outcome-based payment schemes and for verifying the effectiveness of co-benefit policies overall.

    更新日期:2019-08-11
  • Assessing Biophilic Design Elements for ecosystem service attributes – A sub-tropical Australian case
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Amrita Kambo, Robin Drogemuller, Prasad K.D.V. Yarlagadda

    Urban areas are conceptualised as aggregates of discrete elements designed and operating at building, neighbourhood or city scale. Collectively referring to these aggregates as ‘Biophilic Design Elements (BDE)’, the link between ecosystem services and designable urban elements is investigated. An existing ecosystem service assessment framework is adapted to an urban context, showing ecosystem service provision potential of BDE. By attributing ecosystem service potential to multiple BDE, discrete comparisons, inform choice-making in urban design and development. Specific initiatives which may sustain the availability of basic ecosystem services in urban contexts and their implication on urban design guidelines and policies that support mainstreaming of Biophilic Design are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-08-07
  • Spiritual enrichment or ecological protection?: A multi-scale analysis of cultural ecosystem services at the Mai Pokhari, a Ramsar site of Nepal
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-03
    Sunita Chaudhary, Andrew McGregor, Donna Houston, Nakul Chettri

    Ecosystem services, a globalizing discourse referring to benefits humans gain from ecosystems, has been rapidly mainstreamed into scientific and political thinking of environmental management. However, non-material benefits, also known as cultural services, have been rather subsumed within the dominant ecosystem services discourse. This paper explores local cultural services in the Mai Pokhari, a Ramsar site of Nepal, and adopts a multi-scalar analysis to explore the implications of global policy making at the local scale.The research, informed by political ecology, applies mixed methods. At the local scale, spirituality, sense of place and traditional practices were identified as important local cultural values within ecosystem management. But such local values were found to be marginalized in conservation policy making at national and global levels. The Ramsar listing at the case study site resulted in restrictions on community activities and opened the possibility of resettlement, creating disenchantment among the local community whose access to cultural services was curtailed. The study emphasizes the need to recognise and value local cultural services in policy-making at all levels. This is important not only for refining and improving global conservation policy initiatives based on ecosystem services, but also for securing just and sustainable conservation and development goals.

    更新日期:2019-08-04
  • Community-Based Payments for Ecosystem Services (CB-PES): Implications of community involvement for program outcomes
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Katherine Brownson, Elizabeth Guinessey, Marcia Carranza, Manrique Esquivel, Hilda Hesselbach, Lucia Madrid Ramirez, Luis Villa

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs have become increasingly common throughout Latin America as a mechanism for incentivizing conservation and restoration of degraded lands. By directly engaging with communities, Community-Based PES (CB-PES) initiatives may be uniquely suited to overcome the challenges encountered by larger, national programs in terms of improving local outcomes and maintaining community support. Here, we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the contextual factors influencing community participation in PES and the outcomes of community participation. We apply the framework to analyze the published CB-PES literature. The literature demonstrates how a range of participatory mechanisms can improve social capital, community assets and the legitimacy of PES, which may feedback to improve community support over time. However, there is limited evidence that CB-PES improves environmental outcomes and mixed evidence for equity and economic efficiency outcomes. There is also wide variation in the level of community engagement in CB-PES. In some contexts, additional efforts may be needed to strengthen property rights and institutional capacity to increase community engagement in CB-PES.

    更新日期:2019-08-02
  • Symbolic entities in the European Alps: Perception and use of a cultural ecosystem service
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Johannes Rüdisser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner

    The Alps are a biodiversity hotspot in Europe and are home to many endemic species. Some of these species have a symbolic meaning for people and are an integral part of the Alpine culture. The characteristics and relevance of these symbolic uses are rarely explored from an ecosystem service perspective. As the perception of symbols is prone to individuality and subjectivity, this ecosystem service is difficult to assess. Therefore, we assessed which Alpine species are perceived as symbolic through a multilingual questionnaire, and then spatially mapped their actual use as symbols. We focused on two complementary indicators: (1) the cultural identity of the local population as represented in emblems/coats of arms and (2) the importance of symbols for the tourism sector represented in hotel names. The most commonly mentioned species were the Alpine ibex (42% of the respondents), chamois (17%), marmot (12%), golden eagle (10%), edelweiss (40%), gentian (15%), pine tree (10%) and alpenrose (10%). These species occurred in 12% of the investigated municipality emblems and in hotel names in 470 municipalities (2.8%) throughout the Alps. Our results illustrate the relevance of this currently neglected ecosystem service and delineate a feasible methodology to assess this service in other regions.

    更新日期:2019-08-02
  • Global trend of forest ecosystem services valuation – An analysis of publications
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-27
    Ram Prasad Acharya, Tek Maraseni, Geoff Cockfield

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are critically important to human well-being, and sustaining economic growth and livelihoods. Globally, valuation research has increased markedly over the past two decades, partly due to the influence of environmentalism and the notable depletion of ES. Using meta-analysis of 1156 peer-reviewed journal articles from 1994 to 2017, this study assesses forest ES valuation, focusing on temporal trends, methodological approaches, the types of services most frequently evaluated, and the origin of ES valuation research, especially biomes, economy, and management modalities. Findings suggest that western European countries, including the UK, had the highest number of publications (33%) followed by the United States (15%) and China (13%). Countries with lower middle and low income collectively share only about 14% of the total publications, indicating a large gap in ES research in these countries. In terms of valuation methods, monetary valuation was initially popular, while non-monetary valuation using modelling and mapping methods is gaining popularity. The study revealed that more than 80% of studies have consistently assessed multiple functions of forests but largely focus on regulating services (carbon storage/sequestration/climate regulation). Similarly, about 57% of total ES research was carried out on public land, government managed forests and protected areas, whereas less than 3% was on community-based forestry (CBF), which shares more than 15% and 31% of the forests in developed and developing countries, respectively. Whilst ES publications on forestry have seen significant increases, valuation studies in countries with high biodiversity are conspicuously unrepresented; particularly on forests in mountain regions in low to lower-middle income countries. Some reasons for this disparity in ES research under four themes are discussed, in connection with the global climate change, biodiversity policies, and national, bilateral and multilateral initiatives.

    更新日期:2019-07-27
  • Farmers’ willingness to accept payments for ecosystem services on agricultural land: The case of climate-smart agroforestry in Ethiopia
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
    Kaleab K. Haile, Nyasha Tirivayi, Wondimagegn Tesfaye

    This study examines smallholder farmers’ preferences for the uptake of contractual climate-smart agroforestry, which yields economic and ecosystem benefits. A discrete choice experiment was conducted with smallholder farmers in Ethiopia to elicit their willingness to participate in a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme that incentivizes integrating faidherbia albida (a fertilizer tree) in their mono-cropping farming system. Attributes evaluated are “number of planted trees”, “payment amount”, “payment type”, and “contract period”. The presence of heterogeneity in the choice behavior of farmers warrants the use of the generalized multinomial logit and latent class conditional logit models to allow for farmer- and class-specific preferences, respectively. The results show that farmers derive higher utility from up-front payments. Farmers also strongly prefer food as the mode of payment than cash. Moreover, low numbers of mandatory planted trees and short-term contracts are found to be essential attributes that positively affect farmers’ decisions to take-up a contractual arrangement to grow trees on their agricultural land. Our analysis also shows the presence of heterogeneity in preferences across segments of farmers in conjunction with differences in household characteristics. These findings shed light on the considerations that must be accounted for when designing and implementing environmental policies such as PES schemes that promote large-scale adoption of climate-smart agroforestry, which would transform smallholder agriculture into a sustainable farming system.

    更新日期:2019-07-26
  • Changes in ecosystem services from wetland loss and restoration: An ecosystem assessment of the Danube Delta (1960–2010)
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Marian Tudor, Mihai Doroftei, Silviu Covaliov, Aurel Năstase, Dalia-Florentina Onără, Marian Mierlă, Mihai Marinov, Alexandru-Cătălin Doroșencu, Gabriel Lupu, Liliana Teodorof, Iuliana-Mihaela Tudor, Berit Köhler, Jon Museth, Eivind Aronsen, Stein Ivar Johnsen, Orhan Ibram, Eugenia Marin, Eugenia Cioacă

    Deltaic flood plains provide critically important ecosystem services, including food production, fresh water, flood control, nutrient cycling, spiritual values and opportunities for recreation. Despite growing recognition of their societal and ecological importance, deltaic flood plains are declining worldwide at alarming rates. Loss of wetland ecosystem services bears socio-environmental costs overlooked in land-use planning. Conversely, wetland restoration can deliver important long-term benefits. This paper examines effects of different land use policies on ecosystem services provided by the Danube Delta, one of Europe’s largest and most outstanding wetlands. First, we identify, characterize and measure the most important ecosystem services provided by the Danube Delta. Second, we assess trends between 1960 and 2010, contrasting periods of economic development (1960–1989) and ecological restoration (1990–2010). Our results indicate that i) the Danube Delta provides important services with benefits accrue from local communities to humanity at large, ii) that two thirds of the Delta’s ecosystem services have declined over the studied period and iii) that ongoing restoration efforts have so far been unable to reverse trends in ecosystem service decline. Benefits from ecological restoration policies are already becoming apparent, but at a scale not yet comparable to the costs from ecosystem decline incurred over previous decades.

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Environmental change, urbanisation, and socio-ecological resilience in the Pacific: Community narratives from Port Vila, Vanuatu
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Aimée F. Komugabe-Dixson, Naomi S.E. de Ville, Alexei Trundle, Darryn McEvoy

    Ecosystem services play a key role in maintaining community resilience and wellbeing; a function increasingly profiled following the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, there is limited understanding of the value of, and threats to, ‘urban’ ecosystem services, especially in relation to Small Island Developing States (SIDS). This study uses a bottom-up approach to investigate the provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural benefits of local ecosystems to urban communities in Port Vila, Vanuatu. The project was based on participatory action research carried out for the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) as part of the Pacific Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change Project. Based on a survey of 821 households, and 10 community workshops, this paper provides a narrative of the terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystem services salient to the livelihoods of vulnerable urban communities. This narrative is set in the context of rapid urbanisation and climate change, which are increasingly undermining community resilience. These findings stress the urgent need to better understand, and account for, complex socio-ecological relationships when developing adaptation policies and urban development plans, not only in Vanuatu but across Oceania’s cities and towns.

    更新日期:2019-07-23
  • A demand-driven approach to ecosystem services economic valuation: Lessons from Pacific island countries and territories
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Jean-Baptiste Marre, Raphaël Billé

    Ecosystem services economic valuation (ESV) is often presented as an effective tool for decision-makers to achieve sustainable development objectives. Yet social processes leading to decisions call for a pragmatic, demand-driven — as opposed to supply-driven – approach to ensure ESV are actually used and make a difference. Based on an overview of ESV conducted in the Pacific island region and beyond, this paper builds on a two-fold diagnosis: (i) Experience from the Pacific and elsewhere shows both growing interest for ESV in support of island conservation and climate change resilience, and growing concern over the lack of use of such valuations when they are conducted; and (ii) Experience so far has been based on what economists have to offer rather than based on stakeholders’ needs. This paper presents lessons learnt from a five-year coastal resilience project which advocated and put to the test a demand-driven approach to ESV in several Pacific island countries and territories.

    更新日期:2019-07-22
  • Financing biodiversity action plan using state appropriation account analysis: A case study of an Indian state
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Tania Bhattacharya, Anindya Bhattacharya

    Timely implementation of State Biodiversity Action Plan (SBAP) requires adequate financial resources for the corresponding implementing agencies. In India, the existing SBAPs have attempted to measure the required budget to implement the action plans, but an assessment on public financing, especially budgetary provisions and relevant expenditures is lacking. No attempts were made to estimate the biodiversity-relevant expenditures present in the state that are not tagged as SBAP activities. The study proposes a unique method of analysing the public expenditure related to SBAP activities and subsequently finds the potential gaps to be fulfilled through external funding. The methodology is a combination of top-down and bottom-up analysis of public financing to investigate the Annual Financial Statements and CAG (Comptroller and Auditor General of India) reports on Appropriation Account with schemes implemented in the State, year wise. A gap assessment is done to identify sector-specific funding requirement to implement the SBAP. The findings from Punjab state case study could be utilized by other States to fathom the financial resources required for SBAP implementation and to what extent, States would be able to support the SBAP. The study also recommends the inclusion of PES in the SBAP budget.

    更新日期:2019-07-19
  • Utilising nature-based solutions to increase resilience in Pacific Ocean Cities
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Maibritt Pedersen Zari, Gabriel Luke Kiddle, Paul Blaschke, Steve Gawler, David Loubser

    ‘Ocean Cities’ of the Pacific are where urban landscapes and seascapes meet, where built and natural environments interface, and where human behaviour and urban development have profound impacts on both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Ocean Cities are at the forefront of climate change consequences, urbanisation challenges, and other development pressures. This article discusses the potential for nature-based solutions (NbS), including those focused on ecosystem services, in Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS) as a response to climate change, population growth, and urbanisation. Attention is directed to identifying the benefits of NbS and case-studies from Pacific SIDS, and if not available regionally, further afield. The article provides focus on possible barriers to implementation of NbS in a Pacific SIDS context and potential policy responses to these. Conclusions are threefold: (i) addressing interlinked ecological, climate, and human wellbeing issues in an integrated, ocean-focused and climate-responsive manner is vital for sustainable development in island systems; (ii) NbS can provide significant human wellbeing and biodiversity benefits in this context; and (iii) Pacific Ocean Cities, with a significant body of relevant traditional knowledge and emerging NbS experience, can inform global understanding of how to address converging urbanisation and climate change issues in Ocean Cities.

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Opportunities in community-government cooperation to maintain marine ecosystem services in the Asia-Pacific and Oceania
    Ecosyst. Serv. (IF 5.572) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Helen Ross, Dedi S. Adhuri, Ali Yansyah Abdurrahim, Anna Phelan

    Island nations and islands in Oceania and the Asia Pacific rely heavily on coastal and marine ecosystem services. Systems such as coral reefs, seagrass and mangroves are intrinsically important, vital to many people’s livelihoods, and in many cases intertwined with cultural systems. Some, such as the reefs of the Coral Triangle, are seriously threatened by fishing pressures, including destructive fishing practices, pollution and environmental change. Governments, and concerned coastal communities, each try to work to protect or manage the exploitation of important ecosystems, yet apart from the limited cases with endorsed systems of co-management or community based management, communities and governments can find themselves working separately and not necessarily in harmony. A participatory diagnosis on the island of Selayar, Eastern Indonesia, highlights opportunities for communities and government to improvement alignment of their efforts towards sustainable management of marine ecosystems. The findings from this study can inform strategies in Oceania and elsewhere in the Asia Pacific towards improved management of marine and coastal ecosystems, from the standpoints of communities, government and civil-society actors. We highlight issues of policy alignment between communities and government; aligning customary and science-based knowledge; and navigating inter-community conflict.

    更新日期:2019-07-18
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