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  • Intraspecific Genetic Variation and Species Interactions Contribute to Community Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Thomas G. Whitham; Gerard J. Allan; Hillary F. Cooper; Stephen M. Shuster

    Evolution has been viewed as occurring primarily through selection among individuals. We present a framework based on multilevel selection for evaluating evolutionary change from individuals to communities, with supporting empirical evidence. Essential to this evaluation is the role that interspecific indirect genetic effects play in shaping community organization, in generating variation among community

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Climate Disruption of Plant-Microbe Interactions
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Jennifer A. Rudgers; Michelle E. Afkhami; Lukas Bell-Dereske; Y. Anny Chung; Kerri M. Crawford; Stephanie N. Kivlin; Michael A. Mann; Martin A. Nuñez

    Interactions between plants and microbes have important influences on evolutionary processes, population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem function. We review the literature to document how climate change may disrupt these ecological interactions and develop a conceptual framework to integrate the pathways of plant-microbe responses to climate over different scales in space and time. We

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Avian Diversity: Speciation, Macroevolution, and Ecological Function
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Joseph A. Tobias; Jente Ottenburghs; Alex L. Pigot

    The origin, distribution, and function of biological diversity are fundamental themes of ecology and evolutionary biology. Research on birds has played a major role in the history and development of these ideas, yet progress was for many decades limited by a focus on patterns of current diversity, often restricted to particular clades or regions. Deeper insight is now emerging from a recent wave of

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Gene Drive Dynamics in Natural Populations: The Importance of Density Dependence, Space, and Sex
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Sumit Dhole; Alun L. Lloyd; Fred Gould

    The spread of synthetic gene drives is often discussed in the context of panmictic populations connected by gene flow and described with simple deterministic models. Under such assumptions, an entire species could be altered by releasing a single individual carrying an invasive gene drive, such as a standard homing drive. While this remains a theoretical possibility, gene drive spread in natural populations

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The Rules of Attraction: The Necessary Role of Animal Cognition in Explaining Conservation Failures and Successes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Alison L. Greggor; Oded Berger-Tal; Daniel T. Blumstein

    Integrating knowledge and principles of animal behavior into wildlife conservation and management has led to some concrete successes but has failed to improve conservation outcomes in other cases. Many conservation interventions involve attempts to either attract or repel animals, which we refer to as approach/avoidance issues. These attempts can be reframed as issues of manipulating the decisions

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The Evolution of Annual and Perennial Plant Life Histories: Ecological Correlates and Genetic Mechanisms
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Jannice Friedman

    Flowering plants exhibit two principal life-history strategies: annuality (living and reproducing in one year) and perenniality (living more than one year). The advantages of either strategy depend on the relative benefits of immediate reproduction balanced against survivorship and future reproduction. This trade-off means that life-history strategies are associated with particular environments, with

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The Structure of Ecological Networks Across Levels of Organization
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Paulo R. Guimarães Jr.

    Interactions connect the units of ecological systems, forming networks. Individual-based networks characterize variation in niches among individuals within populations. These individual-based networks merge with each other, forming species-based networks and food webs that describe the architecture of ecological communities. Networks at broader spatiotemporal scales portray the structure of ecological

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The Evolution of Mutualistic Dependence
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Guillaume Chomicki; E. Toby Kiers; Susanne S. Renner

    While the importance of mutualisms across the tree of life is recognized, it is not understood why some organisms evolve high levels of dependence on mutualistic partnerships, while other species remain autonomous or retain or regain minimal dependence on partners. We identify four main pathways leading to the evolution of mutualistic dependence. Then, we evaluate current evidence for three predictions:

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Parallelism in Flower Evolution and Development
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Carolyn A. Wessinger; Lena C. Hileman

    Flower evolution is characterized by widespread repetition, with adaptations to pollinator environment evolving in parallel. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the developmental basis of adaptive floral novelties—petal fusion, bilateral symmetry, heterostyly, and floral dimensions. In this article, we describe patterns of trait evolution and review developmental genetic mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The Floral Microbiome: Plant, Pollinator, and Microbial Perspectives
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Rachel L. Vannette

    Flowers at times host abundant and specialized communities of bacteria and fungi that influence floral phenotypes and interactions with pollinators. Ecological processes drive variation in microbial abundance and composition at multiple scales, including among plant species, among flower tissues, and among flowers on the same plant. Variation in microbial effects on floral phenotype suggests that microbial

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • What Do We Really Know About Adaptation at Range Edges?
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Amy L. Angert; Megan G. Bontrager; Jon Ågren

    Recent theory and empirical evidence have provided new insights regarding how evolutionary forces interact to shape adaptation at stable and transient range margins. Predictions regarding trait divergence at leading edges are frequently supported. However, declines in fitness at and beyond edges show that trait divergence has sometimes been insufficient to maintain high fitness, so identifying constraints

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Predator Effects on Plant-Pollinator Interactions, Plant Reproduction, Mating Systems, and Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Amanda D. Benoit; Susan Kalisz

    Plants are the foundation of the food web and therefore interact directly and indirectly with myriad organisms at higher trophic levels. They directly provide nourishment to mutualistic and antagonistic primary consumers (e.g., pollinators and herbivores), which in turn are consumed by predators. These interactions produce cascading indirect effects on plants (either trait-mediated or density-mediated)

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Ecology and Neurobiology of Fear in Free-Living Wildlife
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Liana Y. Zanette; Michael Clinchy

    The ecology of fear concerns the population-, community-, and ecosystem-level consequences of the behavioral interactions between predators and prey, i.e., the aggregate impacts of individual responses to life-threatening events. We review new experiments demonstrating that fear itself is powerful enough to affect the population growth rate in free-living wild birds and mammals, and fear of large carnivores—or

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Food Webs and Ecosystems: Linking Species Interactions to the Carbon Cycle
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Oswald J. Schmitz; Shawn J. Leroux

    All species within ecosystems contribute to regulating carbon cycling because of their functional integration into food webs. Yet carbon modeling and accounting still assumes that only plants, microbes, and invertebrate decomposer species are relevant to the carbon cycle. Our multifaceted review develops a case for considering a wider range of species, especially herbivorous and carnivorous wild animals

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Genomic Prediction of (Mal)Adaptation Across Current and Future Climatic Landscapes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Thibaut Capblancq; Matthew C. Fitzpatrick; Rachael A. Bay; Moises Exposito-Alonso; Stephen R. Keller

    Signals of local adaptation have been found in many plants and animals, highlighting the heterogeneity in the distribution of adaptive genetic variation throughout species ranges. In the coming decades, global climate change is expected to induce shifts in the selective pressures that shape this adaptive variation. These changes in selective pressures will likely result in varying degrees of local

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Ecological Interactions and Macroevolution: A New Field with Old Roots
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    David H. Hembry; Marjorie G. Weber

    Linking interspecific interactions (e.g., mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism) to macroevolution (evolutionary change on deep timescales) is a key goal in biology. The role of species interactions in shaping macroevolutionary trajectories has been studied for centuries and remains a cutting-edge topic of current research. However, despite its deep historical roots, classic and current approaches

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Evolutionary Dynamics and Consequences of Parthenogenesis in Vertebrates
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Matthew K. Fujita; Sonal Singhal; Tuliana O. Brunes; Jose A. Maldonado

    Parthenogenesis is asexual reproduction without any required participation from males and, as such, is a null model for sexual reproduction. In a comparative context, we can expand our understanding of the evolution and ecology of sex by investigating the consequences of parthenogenesis. In this review, we examine the theoretical predictions of and empirical results on the evolution of asexual reproduction

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Origin and Evolution of the Turtle Body Plan
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Tyler R. Lyson; Gabriel S. Bever

    The origin of turtles and their uniquely shelled body plan is one of the longest standing problems in vertebrate biology. The unfulfilled need for a hypothesis that both explains the derived nature of turtle anatomy and resolves their unclear phylogenetic position among reptiles largely reflects the absence of a transitional fossil record. Recent discoveries have dramatically improved this situation

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Extending Plant Defense Theory to Seeds
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    James W. Dalling; Adam S. Davis; A. Elizabeth Arnold; Carolina Sarmiento; Paul-Camilo Zalamea

    Plant defense theory explores how plants invest in defenses against natural enemies but has focused primarily on the traits expressed by juvenile and mature plants. Here we describe the diverse ways in which seeds are chemically and physically defended. We suggest that through associations with other traits, seeds are likely to exhibit defense syndromes that reflect constraints or trade-offs imposed

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • What We Don't Know About Diet-Breadth Evolution in Herbivorous Insects
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Nate B. Hardy; Chloe Kaczvinsky; Gwendolyn Bird; Benjamin B. Normark

    Half a million species of herbivorous insects have been described. Most of them are diet specialists, using only a few plant species as hosts. Biologists suspect that their specificity is key to their diversity. But why do herbivorous insects tend to be diet specialists? In this review, we catalog a broad range of explanations. We review the evidence for each and suggest lines of research to obtain

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Hedgerows as Ecosystems: Service Delivery, Management, and Restoration
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Ian Montgomery; Tancredi Caruso; Neil Reid

    Hedge density, structure, and function vary with primary production and slope gradient and are subject to other diverse factors. Hedgerows are emerging ecosystems with both above- and belowground components. Functions of hedges can be categorized as provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting ecosystem services; these functions include food production, noncrop food and wood production, firewood

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Resolving Food-Web Structure
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Robert M. Pringle; Matthew C. Hutchinson

    Food webs are a major focus and organizing theme of ecology, but the data used to assemble them are deficient. Early debates over food-web data focused on taxonomic resolution and completeness, lack of which had produced spurious inferences. Recent data are widely believed to be much better and are used extensively in theoretical and meta-analytic research on network ecology. Confidence in these data

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Diversification of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    James S. Albert; Victor A. Tagliacollo; Fernando Dagosta

    Neotropical freshwater fishes (NFFs) constitute the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 6,200 named species compressed into an aquatic footprint <0.5% of the total regional land-surface area and representing the greatest phenotypic disparity and functional diversity of any continental ichthyofauna. Data from the fossil record and time-calibrated molecular phylogenies

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Arthropod Origins: Integrating Paleontological and Molecular Evidence
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Gregory D. Edgecombe

    Phylogenomics underpins a stable and mostly well-resolved hypothesis for the interrelationships of extant arthropods. Exceptionally preserved fossils are integrated into this framework by coding their morphological characters, as exemplified by total-evidence dating approaches that treat fossils as dated tips in analyses numerically dominated by molecular data. Cambrian fossils inform on the sequence

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The Paradox Behind the Pattern of Rapid Adaptive Radiation: How Can the Speciation Process Sustain Itself Through an Early Burst?
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Christopher H. Martin; Emilie J. Richards

    Rapid adaptive radiation poses two distinct questions apart from speciation and adaptation: What happens after one speciation event and how do some lineages continue speciating through a rapid burst? We review major features of rapid radiations and their mismatch with theoretical models and speciation mechanisms. The paradox is that the hallmark rapid burst pattern of adaptive radiation is contradicted

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Revisiting the Fates of Dead Leaves That Fall into Streams
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Jane C. Marks

    As terrestrial leaf litter decomposes in rivers, its constituent elements follow multiple pathways. Carbon leached as dissolved organic matter can be quickly taken up by microbes, then respired before it can be transferred to the macroscopic food web. Alternatively, this detrital carbon can be ingested and assimilated by aquatic invertebrates, so it is retained longer in the stream and transferred

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Evolution in the Anthropocene: Informing Governance and Policy
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Peter Søgaard Jørgensen; Carl Folke; Scott P. Carroll

    The Anthropocene biosphere constitutes an unprecedented phase in the evolution of life on Earth with one species, humans, exerting extensive control. The increasing intensity of anthropogenic forces in the twenty-first century has widespread implications for attempts to govern both human-dominated ecosystems and the last remaining wild ecosystems. Here, we review how evolutionary biology can inform

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Life Ascending: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Adaptation to High-Altitude Hypoxia
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Jay F. Storz; Graham R. Scott

    To cope with the reduced availability of O2 at high altitude, air-breathing vertebrates have evolved myriad adjustments in the cardiorespiratory system to match tissue O2 delivery with metabolic O2 demand. We explain how changes at interacting steps of the O2 transport pathway contribute to plastic and evolved changes in whole-animal aerobic performance under hypoxia. In vertebrates native to high

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • A Bird's-Eye View of Pollination: Biotic Interactions as Drivers of Adaptation and Community Change
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Anton Pauw

    Nectarivorous birds and bird-pollinated plants are linked by a network of interactions. Here I ask how these interactions influence evolution and community composition. I find near complete evidence for the effect of birds on plant evolution. Experiments show the process in action—birds select among floral phenotypes in a population—and comparative studies find the resulting pattern—bird-pollinated

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Evolutionary and ecological consequences of gut microbial communities.
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Nancy A Moran,Howard Ochman,Tobin J Hammer

    Animals are distinguished by having guts—organs that must extract nutrients from food yet also bar invasion by pathogens. Most guts are colonized by nonpathogenic microorganisms, but the functions of these microbes, or even the reasons why they occur in the gut, vary widely among animals. Sometimes these microorganisms have codiversified with hosts; sometimes they live mostly elsewhere in the environment

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Spatial Population Genetics: It's About Time
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Gideon S. Bradburd; Peter L. Ralph

    Many important questions about the history and dynamics of organisms have a geographical component: How many are there, and where do they live? How do they move and interbreed across the landscape? How were they moving a thousand years ago, and where were the ancestors of a particular individual alive today? Answers to these questions can have profound consequences for our understanding of history

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Phylogenetic Comparative Methods and the Evolution of Multivariate Phenotypes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Dean C. Adams; Michael L. Collyer

    Evolutionary biology is multivariate, and advances in phylogenetic comparative methods for multivariate phenotypes have surged to accommodate this fact. Evolutionary trends in multivariate phenotypes are derived from distances and directions between species in a multivariate phenotype space. For these patterns to be interpretable, phenotypes should be characterized by traits in commensurate units and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Interacting Effects of Global Change on Forest Pest and Pathogen Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Allison B. Simler-Williamson; David M. Rizzo; Richard C. Cobb

    Pathogens and insect pests are important drivers of tree mortality and forest dynamics, but global change has rapidly altered or intensified their impacts. Predictive understanding of changing disease and outbreak occurrence has been limited by two factors: (a) tree mortality and morbidity are emergent phenomena determined by interactions between plant hosts, biotic agents (insects or pathogens), and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Invasion Hierarchy: Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Invasions in the Fossil Record
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Alycia L. Stigall

    Species invasions are pervasive in Earth history, yet the ecological and evolutionary consequences vary greatly. Ancient invasion events can be organized in a hierarchy of increasing invasion intensity from ephemeral invasions to globally pervasive invasive regimes. Each level exhibits emergent properties exceeding the sum of interactions at lower levels. Hierarchy levels correspond to, but do not

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Experimental Studies of Evolution and Eco-Evo Dynamics in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    David N. Reznick; Joseph Travis

    Guppies in Trinidad range across aquatic environments with fish communities that vary in risk of predation. These communities are often discrete, separated by waterfalls, with high-predation communities downstream and low-predation communities upstream. This gradient is repeated in many rivers; in each one, we see the same divergence between guppy populations in life history, behavior, morphology,

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Climate Change in the Tropics: Ecological and Evolutionary Responses at Low Latitudes
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Kimberly S. Sheldon

    Climate change is affecting every ecosystem on Earth. Though climate change is global in scope, literature reviews on the biotic impacts of climate change have focused on temperate and polar regions. Tropical species have distinct life histories and physiologies, and ecological communities are assembled differently across latitude. Thus, tropical species and communities may exhibit different responses

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • History and Geography of Neotropical Tree Diversity
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Christopher W. Dick; R. Toby Pennington

    Early botanical explorers invoked biogeographic history to explain the remarkable tree diversity of Neotropical forests. In this context, we review the history of Neotropical tree diversity over the past 100 million years, focusing on biomes with significant tree diversity. We evaluate hypotheses for rain forest origins, intercontinental disjunctions, and models of Neotropical tree diversification

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Beth A. Reinke; David A.W. Miller; Fredric J. Janzen

    Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Mycorrhizal Fungi as Mediators of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Serita D. Frey

    Inhabiting the interface between plant roots and soil, mycorrhizal fungi play a unique but underappreciated role in soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. Their hyphae provide an efficient mechanism for distributing plant carbon throughout the soil, facilitating its deposition into soil pores and onto mineral surfaces, where it can be protected from microbial attack. Mycorrhizal exudates and dead tissues

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Haploid Selection in “Diploid” Organisms
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Simone Immler

    Evolutionary rates and strength of selection differ markedly between haploid and diploid genomes. Any genes expressed in a haploid state will be directly exposed to selection, whereas alleles in a diploid state may be partially or fully masked by a homologous allele. This difference may shape key evolutionary processes, including rates of adaptation and inbreeding depression, but also the evolution

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Importance of Pollinator-Mediated Interspecific Pollen Transfer for Angiosperm Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Juan Isaac Moreira-Hernández; Nathan Muchhala

    Understanding how pollen moves between species is critical to understanding speciation, diversification, and evolution of flowering plants. For co-flowering species that share pollinators, competition through interspecific pollen transfer (IPT) can profoundly impact floral evolution, decreasing female fitness via heterospecific pollen deposition on stigmas and male fitness via pollen misplacement during

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Consequences of Multispecies Introductions on Island Ecosystems
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    James C. Russell; Christopher N. Kaiser-Bunbury

    The rate of non-native species introductions continues to increase, with directionality from continents to islands. It is no longer single species but entire networks of coevolved and newly interacting continental species that are establishing on islands. The consequences of multispecies introductions on the population dynamics and interactions of native and introduced species will depend on the form

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • More Than the Sum of Its Parts: Microbiome Biodiversity as a Driver of Plant Growth and Soil Health
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Muhammad Saleem; Jie Hu; Alexandre Jousset

    Microorganisms drive several processes needed for robust plant growth and health. Harnessing microbial functions is thus key to productive and sustainable food production. Molecular methods have led to a greater understanding of the soil microbiome composition. However, translating species or gene composition into microbiome functionality remains a challenge. Community ecology concepts such as the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Origins and Assembly of Malesian Rainforests
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Robert M. Kooyman; Robert J. Morley; Darren M. Crayn; Elizabeth M. Joyce; Maurizio Rossetto; J.W. Ferry Slik; Joeri S. Strijk; Tao Su; Jia-Yee S. Yap; Peter Wilf

    Unraveling the origins of Malesia's once vast, hyperdiverse rainforests is a perennial challenge. Major contributions to rainforest assembly came from floristic elements carried on the Indian Plate and montane elementsfrom the Australian Plate (Sahul). The Sahul component is now understood to include substantial two-way exchanges with Sunda inclusive of lowland taxa. Evidence for the relative contributions

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • An Integrative Framework for Understanding the Mechanisms and Multigenerational Consequences of Transgenerational Plasticity
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Alison M. Bell; Jennifer K. Hellmann

    Transgenerational plasticity (TGP) occurs when the environment experienced by a parent influences the development of their offspring. In this article, we develop a framework for understanding the mechanisms and multigenerational consequences of TGP. First, we conceptualize the mechanisms of TGP in the context of communication between parents (senders) and offspring (receivers) by dissecting the steps

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Beyond Reproductive Isolation: Demographic Controls on the Speciation Process
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Michael G. Harvey; Sonal Singhal; Daniel L. Rabosky

    Studies of speciation typically investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, but several other processes can serve as key steps limiting the formation of species. In particular, the probability of successful speciation can be influenced by factors that affect the frequency with which population isolates form as well as their persistence through time. We suggest that population

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Somatic Mutation and Evolution in Plants
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Daniel J. Schoen; Stewart T. Schultz

    Somatic mutations are common in plants, and they may accumulate and be passed on to gametes. The determinants of somatic mutation accumulation include the intraorganismal selective effect of mutations, the number of cell divisions that separate the zygote from the formation of gametes, and shoot apical meristem structure and branching. Somatic mutations can promote the evolution of diploidy, polyploidy

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cultural Evolution in Animals
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Andrew Whiten

    In recent decades, a burgeoning literature has documented the cultural transmission of behavior through social learning in numerous vertebrate and invertebrate species. One meaning of “cultural evolution in animals” refers to these discoveries, and I present an overview of key findings. I then address the other meaning of the term focused on cultural changes within a lineage. Such changes in humans

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • AREES at 50: A Semicentennial Celebration
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Douglas J. Futuyma

    I survey the 50-year history of the Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, retitled Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics in 2003. An overview of reviews up through 2009 portrays much of the history of the series’ subject areas, revealing both lasting themes and great changes in emphasis, theory, evidence, and understanding. Much of the progress has resulted from conceptual innovation

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Behavioral Isolation and Incipient Speciation in Birds
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    J. Albert C. Uy, Darren E. Irwin, Michael S. Webster

    Behavioral changes, such as those involved in mating, foraging, and migration, can generate reproductive barriers between populations. Birds, in particular, are known for their great diversity in these behaviors, and so behavioral isolation is often proposed to be the major driver of speciation. Here, we review empirical evidence to evaluate the importance of behavioral isolation in the early stages

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • The Ecology and Evolution of Alien Plants
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Mark van Kleunen, Oliver Bossdorf, Wayne Dawson

    We review the state of the art of alien plant research with emphasis on conceptual advances and knowledge gains on general patterns and drivers, biotic interactions, and evolution. Major advances include the identification of different invasion stages and invasiveness dimensions (geographic range, habitat specificity, local abundance) and the identification of appropriate comparators while accounting

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Biodiversity and Functional Ecology of Mesophotic Coral Reefs
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Michael P. Lesser, Marc Slattery, Curtis D. Mobley

    Mesophotic coral reefs, currently defined as deep reefs between 30 and 150 m, are linked physically and biologically to their shallow water counterparts, have the potential to be refuges for shallow coral reef taxa such as coral and sponges, and might be a source of larvae that could contribute to the resiliency of shallow water reefs. Mesophotic coral reefs are found worldwide, but most are undescribed

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Evolutionary Conflict
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann

    Evolutionary conflict occurs when two parties can each affect a joint phenotype, but they gain from pushing it in opposite directions. Conflicts occur across many biological levels and domains but share many features. They are a major source of biological maladaptation. They affect biological diversity, often increasing it, at almost every level. Because opponents create selection that can be strong

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Evaluating Model Performance in Evolutionary Biology
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Jeremy M. Brown, Robert C. Thomson

    Many fields of evolutionary biology now depend on stochastic mathematical models. These models are valuable for their ability to formalize predictions in the face of uncertainty and provide a quantitative framework for testing hypotheses. However, no mathematical model will fully capture biological complexity. Instead, these models attempt to capture the important features of biological systems using

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Plant Secondary Metabolite Diversity and Species Interactions
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    André Kessler, Aino Kalske

    Ever since the first plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) were isolated and identified, questions about their ecological functions and diversity have been raised. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and complex data computation, as well as progress in chemical ecology from mechanistic to functional and evolutionary questions, open a new box of hypotheses. Addressing these hypotheses includes the

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Variation and Evolution of Function-Valued Traits
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Richard Gomulkiewicz, Joel G. Kingsolver, Patrick A. Carter, Nancy Heckman

    Function-valued traits—phenotypes whose expression depends on a continuous index (such as age, temperature, or space)—occur throughout biology and, like any trait, it is important to understand how they vary and evolve. Although methods for analyzing variation and evolution of function-valued traits are well developed, they have been underutilized by evolutionists, especially those who study natural

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Climate Change and Phenological Mismatch in Trophic Interactions Among Plants, Insects, and Vertebrates
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Susanne S. Renner, Constantin M. Zohner

    Phenological mismatch results when interacting species change the timing of regularly repeated phases in their life cycles at different rates. We review whether this continuously ongoing phenomenon, also known as trophic asynchrony, is becoming more common under ongoing rapid climate change. In antagonistic trophic interactions, any mismatch will have negative impacts for only one of the species, whereas

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Bivalve Impacts in Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Caryn C. Vaughn, Timothy J. Hoellein

    Bivalve molluscs are abundant in marine and freshwater ecosystems and perform important ecological functions. Bivalves have epifaunal or infaunal lifestyles but are largely filter feeders that couple the water column and benthos. Bivalve ecology is a large field of study, but few comparisons among aquatic ecosystems or lifestyles have been conducted. Bivalves impact nutrient cycling, create and modify

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Uses and Misuses of Environmental DNA in Biodiversity Science and Conservation
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Melania E. Cristescu, Paul D.N. Hebert

    The study of environmental DNA (eDNA) has the potential to revolutionize biodiversity science and conservation action by enabling the census of species on a global scale in near real time. To achieve this promise, technical challenges must be resolved. In this review, we explore the main uses of eDNA as well as the complexities introduced by its misuse. Current eDNA methods require refinement and improved

    更新日期:2018-11-02
  • Frontiers in Metapopulation Biology: The Legacy of Ilkka Hanski
    Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. (IF 14.041) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Otso Ovaskainen, Marjo Saastamoinen

    This review of metapopulation biology has a special focus on Professor Ilkka Hanski's (1953–2016) research. Hanski made seminal contributions to both empirical and theoretical metapopulation biology throughout his scientific career. Hanski's early research focused on ecological aspects of metapopulation biology, in particular how the spatial structure of a landscape influences extinction thresholds

    更新日期:2018-11-02
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